Poster G-18306 S.T.E.M. Ksheikh

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G6
Code
18306
Ahmed Abd El baset
Mohamed Yasser
Amr Khater
S.T.E.M. Kafr El-Sheikh - Grade12 – semester 1 - 2017/2018
Keywords:
Abstract
Ambulance delay, GSM/GPRS/GPS Module, Crash sensor, Straight antenna, and Rabbit Ears antenna.
Material
Affordability:
Illustration
Some calculations have been made to
identify how much money our
prototype has saved to see how far it
has met the design requirement of
affordability (Table 3).
Others
Introduction
Victims of serious injury are obviously more likely
to die if their medical treatment is delayed. Taking
into consideration multiple dimensions, including
urban congestion, traffic jams, pollution,
unemployment, barrens, and poverty, is the perfect
way to the perfect solution. Egypt has a road traffic
fatality rate of 42 deaths per 100,000 population.
The number of Traffic accidents and thus, the
number of fatalities and injured people, has
increased dramatically through the last few years
(Graph 1). The problem becomes more obvious and
Graph 1
serious if you take the Ambulance delays into
account. For instance, In Cairo, half the ambulances called for an emergency arrive more than 30 minutes
later which raises the probabilities of death.
Solutions have arisen over time to minimize the Ambulance response time. These solutions include VTCenabled ambulance, Traffic Control Signals, and Emergency lanes. Of course, these solutions have
strengths as well as drawbacks. Strengths present themselves in assisting a quick response to the
emergency situations and increasing the survival rate. Drawbacks are mainly high cost of application.
Also, Traffic Control Signals only operate when there is an automated traffic light system.
Our solution provides more strengths and avoids the shortcomings by a reporting system triggered by a
crash sensor to send the GPS coordinates and the necessary information to the Emergency department
through a video streaming. Also, a voice recognition system will identify the seriousness of the situation in
cases other than crashes. Taking into consideration three design requirements; transmission efficiency,
affordability and being Eco-friendly. For the efficiency, the efficiency was enhanced by minimizing the
response time and thus rescuing more lives. The affordability was met by “alternatives” strategy which
decreased the cost of the solution by 49%. Our solution is Eco-friendly because the worldwide maximum

acceptable radiation level is 0.1 2and the radio waves used in our solution propagate with a much lower

intensity. Our prototype test results support these conclusions. The relation between the intensity and the
energy of electromagnetic radiation is given by (Equ. 1):
Energy
 =
Equ. 1
 × prependicular Area
The study of waves in physics helped us to use this relation to prove that our solution does not have
harmful effects on the environment.
Camera
TV Wire
First, The circuit was designed with the assistance of many
electronics experts and the final circuit schematic (Fig. 1) was
designed using Circuit Wizard software.
Second, the components and the materials, as well as the places
to buy/make these materials, were chosen. We followed the
“alternatives” strategy while choosing materials to purchase the
best and the most cost-effective.
Third, the proper materials, illustrated above, were bought and
we built the circuit in Fab Lab (Fig. 2). We made benefit from
Fab Lab devices like; Oscilloscope, Function generator, and
Power supply.
Finally, The prototype has been tested whether it works and transmits video
Fig. 1
streaming with high quality or not (Fig. 3). Then, it has been tested to ensure
that it has achieved the desired design requirements.
When it comes to Wide-Ranging Transmission requirement, two
different types of antennas, Straight antennas, and Rabbit Ears, have
been made and connected to both the transmitting and receiving
circuits. We have recorded the maximum distance, at which we can still
receive a signal, in each trial and decided which pair give the circuit the
widest range. In addition, a variable power supply has been used to test
how changing the voltage, and thus the power, affects the transmission
range.
Fig. 2
For affordability, a comparison has been made between
the cost of the original materials we had chosen at first
and the materials after nominating some alternatives,
which were efficient and cheap. Moreover, the percentage
of the money saved has been calculated using the
following equation (Equ. 2):
Fig. 3
(  ℎ   −   ℎ  )
  % =
× 100 Equ. 2
  ℎ  
Results
After testing the prototype, the following results were collected:
Wide-Ranging Transmission:
Results of the maximum distance, at which we
can still receive a signal, with 6 different
combinations of antennas are shown in the table
(Table 1) and the graph (Graph 2).
Material
Methods
20
16
14
12
6
0
Sending with Rabbit Sending with Straight
Ears Antenna
Antenna
Receiving with Straight Antenna
Receiving with Rabbit Ears Antenna
Voltage
1 nF
10-60 pF
12 V
15 V
Others
Inductor
Breadboard
RCA Pin
AV Caple
Transistor
Rabbit Ears Antenna
3.46±0.03 m
12.02±0.03 m
Straight Antenna
5.04±0.03 m
18.02±0.03 m
Transmission Range (Voltage dependent)
25
Distance
5.97±0.03 m
18.20±0.03 m
20.03±0.03 m
Table 2
DISTANCE (m)
Capacitors
27 pF
8.03±0.03 m
  
(521.00 . . −12.00 . . )
=
× 100
521.00 . .
= 97.7% of the original cost
Total Saved money = 509.00 L.E.
The Alternative
Materials
Price
Materials
Price
Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
18.00 L.E.
Breadboard
12.00 L.E.
Receiving Circuit
26.00 L.E.
TV
Camera Arduino module
Arduino Uno
250.00 L.E.
145.00 L.E.
Analog camera
2× Rabbit Ears antenna
51.00 L.E.
2× Straight antenna
11.00 L.E.
2× 9 V batteries
20.00 L.E.
Power supply
-
Total
521.00 L.E.
Total
12.00 L.E.
15
10
5
0
9V
12 V
VOLTAGE (V)
Graph 3
15 V
Rabbit Ears antenna
(homemade)
Straight antenna
(homemade)
Table 3
Analysis
The project was successful and able to meet the design requirement of low cost, transmission efficiency,
and being eco-friendly. Results acquired from the test plan showed that our prototype met the provided
design requirements which in turn prove the credibility and feasibility of our solution which will boost
Ambulance Response system. Boosting the Ambulance Response system will improve the medical and
public health. Our solution is summarized as following:
Mechanism:
The solution proposed by this study deals with
various possible cases of emergency that can
occur while driving. An illustration of the system
is shown in (Fig. 4). The cases can be divided into
two main categories; the first includes the
situations in which a crash has occurred and the
other includes the situations without a crash. For
a crash situation, the accelerometer (a
component of crash sensor circuit) will detect
and calculate the deceleration of the car. If it
exceeded a certain limit, it would send a pulse to
the microcontroller which would, in turn, trigger
Fig. 4
the Emergency Reporting System. An image will be shot and the GPS coordinates (obtained by the GPS
Receiver integrated into the GSM/GPRS/GPS Module) will be recorded, packaged, and sent by means of
a GSM/GPRS/GPS Module to a call tower then to the Emergency Department. An immediate contact
channel (video call) will be made between the car and the Emergency Department to identify the
consequences of the crash on the people in the car.
At the same time, an ambulance will be immediately sent to
the GPS Location received by the Emergency Department.
From the moment of the crash until the moment of Ambulance
being on scene, an Audio-Video record is made and stored on
an external storage to be used afterwards in investigations and
scientific studies.
The procedure is totally different in the situations that do not
involve crashes. If the driver has encountered a serious health
problem while driving, he should press the big red pushbutton. The Enhanced Emergency Reporting System (EERS)
will be activated by this push-button. An automated Voice
Response System (AVRS) will inquire about the driver’s
critical situation. The driver’s voice will be recognized and
converted to a text by a voice recognition system (Flowchart 1)
integrated with the microcontroller. The text will be, then, sent
to the Emergency Department. There, Depending on the
priority and seriousness of the case the procedures and the
reactions will differ in both type and response time. Note that
the Enhanced Emergency Reporting System depends on an
Flowchart 1
external battery so that if any fault has occurred in the main
vehicle battery due to a crash or anything else, the system will Priority
Type
Keywords
Crash, Shot, Bullet,
continue to function normally helping in rescuing people’s
Fatal situations that
Poisoning, Coma,
may occur while
1
lives. The Enhanced Emergency Reporting System depends on
Suffocation, and
driving.
Tongue swallowing.
the coverage of the local call services provider to function and
Situations that can
Bone fracture, Sting,
send the information to the Emergency Department.
bear
half
an
hour
2
One major part of any Emergency medical services system is
this part which classifies the emergency cases based on their
seriousness. Emergency cases are identified through keywords
in the text recognized from the driver’s voice by a voice
recognition system. In the solution proposed by this research,
the Emergency cases are divided into 5 categories illustrated in
the table (table 4):
We were aided in our research with the concepts of discipline learning outcomes in Earth Science,
physics, and Mechanics. In Earth Science, we studied the principles of Global Positioning System (GPS)
which is very important to know if you are designing an Emergency Response system. In Physics, we
studied the basics of modern communication and the concept of superposition of waves which helped us a
lot while building the prototype. Also, from our study of communication physics, we could use (Equ.1)
(explained in introduction section) to prove that the waves used in to communicate data in our system are
Eco-friendly.
Energy
 =
 × prependicular Area
Equ. 1
In Mechanics, we learned how to make inferences about acceleration from graphs using calculus. Also, we
learned how to calculate acceleration as a function of time, displacement, or velocity which gave us a hand
in dealing with accelerometer sensor.
Conclusion & Recommendation
Emergency situations Classification:
20
9V
100µF
1.75±0.03 m
Results of the maximum distance, at which we can
still receive a signal, at 3 different voltages fed into
the circuit are shown in the table (Table 2) and the
graph (Graph 3). This test was conducted using the
most efficient pair of antennas mentioned above.
Resistors
1µF
Without Antenna
8
2
10 Ω
Rabbit Ears Antenna
10
Sending without
Antenna
47 kΩ
Straight Antenna
Table 1
Graph 2
470 Ω
Receiving Antenna
From the results, the pair that give the widest range
are the Straight antenna for transmission and
Rabbit Ears antenna for receiving.
4
Illustration
Transmission Range
(Antenna dependent)
Transmission Range (Antenna dependent)
DISTANCE (m)
&
TV
The Total Cost = 33.75 L.E.
18
Materials
Copper wire
Transmission
Antenna
What is more valuable for a human than his own life?! Starting from the instinctive answer for such a
question that is “Nothing”, through history, humans sought ways to heal themselves. As a direct
consequence of the exponential growth of the number of Traffic accidents in Egypt, the need for a modern
efficient ambulance response system has arisen. In fact, according to World Health Organization (WHO),
“Egypt loses about 12 000 lives due to road traffic crashes every year.” Enhancing the Egyptian
Ambulance Response System is the concern of this study. In our pursuit of a long-term solution, we
headed toward an automated Emergency Reporting System. With the idea of increasing the transmission
efficiency and affordability together with being eco-friendly in mind, we utilized the crash sensor to
automatically trigger the Enhanced Emergency Reporting System. Once triggered, it sends the GPS
coordinates of the crash to the Emergency Department (ED) and starts a video streaming to identify the
consequences of the crash. By analyzing our prototype test results, we found that our Emergency
Reporting System is applicable and suitable for minimizing the ambulance response time. SAVE YOUR
LIFE FOR SOME POUNDS…WHAT A BARGAIN!
The Original
3
(12 ) without help.
Situations that can
coexist a whole hour
(1 ) with the
emergency situation.
and Scorch.
Hallucination, Allergy,
and High blood
pressure.
4
Those situations are
not fatal or having
long-term scars.
Headache,
Stomachache, Sore
Throat, Bruise, and
Spasm.
5
Situations involve
mental and
psychologic disorders.
Depression, Anxiety,
and Alzheimer
Table 4
From test results that positively supported our expectations, we conclude that by using Straight antenna
for transmission and Rabbit Ears antenna for receiving, we were able to boost the transmission range of
the circuit. Because we are broadcasting on VHF (Very High Frequency) band (30 MHz to 300 MHz),
Rabbit Ears antenna (dipole antenna) is the best for receiving. The prototype is a simulation for
transmitting video streaming, but in Analog means. Appling these ways analogously in digital data
transmission on a large scale will help in reaching the aims this study has been conducted to approach
including enhancing the efficiency of the Ambulance Response system. Immediate informing of the
accident GPS coordinates will much accelerate the response of the medical team, thus increasing the
chances of rescuing. Communicating data using radio waves will not cause any damage to the ecosystem
because it propagates with a much lower intensity than 0.1

2
(the worldwide maximum acceptable
radiation level). Our solution is much more affordable than other solution proposed for enhancing the
ambulance response system.
From the credence that Science is cumulative, here are our guidelines to anyone who will carry the
mission of elaborating on our work:
• Globalize the medical services industry and the Emergency response system.
• Pay attention to the significant importance of the field trips and the practical experience.
• Meet and discuss your solution and the problems facing it with communication and electronics
specialists.
• Research progresses every day. As a result, we recommend keeping tracking the daily progress in
communication and medical services industry.
• When you deal with electronic circuits, Always, test them on a breadboard at first.
Literature
cited
• Agarwal, T. (2014, October 15). What is GSM: Architecture and Working of GSM Module with Circuit.
Retrieved November 03, 2017, from https://www.elprocus.com/gsm-architecture-features-working/
• Cone, D. C., Middleton, P. M., & Pour, S. M. (2012). Analysis and impact of delays in ambulance to
emergency department handovers. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 24(5), 525-533.
doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2012.01589.x
• Golia, M. (2014, November 24). Traffic Accidents in Egypt: The Need for Reform. Retrieved October
15, 2017, from http://www.mei.edu/content/article/traffic-accidents-egypt-need-reform
• GPS. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2017, from http://www.physics.hmc.edu/research/geo/gps.html
• Serway, Raymond A. (2007). Essentials of college physics. Belmont, Calif. ; [Toronto] :ThomsonBrooks/Cole,
• T. (2016, April 29). AM and FM Radio As Fast As Possible [video file]. Retrieved November 21, 2017,
from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3M4cqAMWQs
After thanking Allah for giving us sagacity and power to accomplish
our project, we are grateful to those people who give us their hand
especially:
• Mr. Awad Labib.
• Eng. Sayed Rashwan.
• Eng. Galal Khater.
• Eng. Shoqry George.
• Mr. Ahmed Emara.
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
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