Summative FossilsGeoTimeErosion

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Earth Systems 2 Summative
Fossils, Geologic Time, Erosion
6th Grade
Multiple Choice: Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Bubble this
answer on the sheet provided.
1. Which of the following animal remains will probably not be found fossilized in sedimentary rock?
a. Clam shell
b. Jellyfish imprint
c.
d.
Snail shell
Shark tooth
2. Which of the following best determines whether or not an organism will become a fossil or not?
a. How well the organism is protected from
scavengers and decomposers.
b. The chemical makeup of the organism.
c.
d.
Whether the organisms falls on land or sea when
it dies.
Organisms with soft tissues make better fossils.
3. An unusual type of index fossil clam is found in rock layers high in the Swiss Alps. The same type of fossil clam
is also found in the Rocky Mountains in North America. From this, scientists could conclude that
a. glaciers carried the fossils up the mountains
c.
clams once lived in mountains, but have since
evolved into sea-dwelling creatures.
b. the Rocky Mountains and the Swiss Alps are both
volcanic mountains.
d.
the layers of rocks the fossils were found in are
from about the same geologic age.
Figure 2
Diagram Information:
Scientists see three layers of rock exposed on the side
of a hill ( Figure 2). The bottom layer is sandstone with
fossils of a certain species reptile found only in this
geographic location. The middle layer is volcanic ash.
The top layer is mudstone (shale) with fossils of a
different type of reptile species.
4. The fossil evidence in Figure 2 above supports which of the following hypothesis about what could have caused
the oldest reptile to become extinct?
a. The older reptile species went extinct because sea c. The older reptile species went extinct because it
levels rose and flooded its habitat.
could not compete with the younger reptile
species.
b. The older reptile species went extinct because a
d. The older reptile species went extinct because a
predator was introduced into the environment.
volcanic eruptions caused the environment to
change.
5. Using Figure 3, how does the age of the intrusion
compare to the age of the fault line?
Figure 3
a.
b.
c.
d.
The intrusion is older
The intrusion is younger
The intrusion and fault are the same age.
There is not enough information to know.
Figure 4
Directions: Use Figure 4 (above) and the Law of Superposition to answer questions 8-12 below.
6. Which fossil is the oldest?
a. whale
b. dinosaur
c. trilobite
d. bird
7. Which fossil is the youngest?
a. whale
b. dinosaur
c. trilobite
d. bird
8. Which have been around longer?
a. birds
b. reptiles
c. dinosaur
d. whales
9. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Dinosaurs roamed the Earth before trilobites.
b. Birds lived in this environment before fish.
c. The intrusion occurred before the extrusion.
d. The extrusion occurred before the intrusion.
10. Fossil evidence can tell us a lot about environmental changes over time. Which of the following statements best
describes the type of environmental changes that occurred in the location shown in Figure 4 above?
a. An ocean or sea was present before volcanic
activity occurred.
c. Dinosaurs were present before the volcanic
activity occurred.
b. Volcanic activity occurred before the ocean or sea d. An earthquake occurred before the volcanic
was present.
activity occurred.
11. Scientists use many methods to determine the ages of rocks. Which of the following method would give the most
specific and accurate estimate of the intrusion found within rock layer D in Figure 4 above?
a. relative dating
b. intermittent dating
c. absolute dating
d. geological dating
12. Ice wedging causes the weathering of rock by
a. heating and cooling of the rock
c. plant roots freezing between the rocks
b. freezing and thawing of water in the rock
d. animal activity on the rock.
13. The most important factors which determine the rate of weathering are
a. carbon dioxide and acid rain.
b. Superman and Supergirl
c. animal actions and oxygen
d. rock type and climate
14. Which of the following is an example of a chemical weathering?
a. An iron nail rusting
b. A plant root wedging between rocks.
c. A large rock rolling down a hill breaking into
smaller pieces.
d. An animal burrowing.
15. Susie lives in Florida where the temperatures are warm and the air is moist because most of the state is
surrounded by water. Which type of weathering would people who live in these conditions see the most of?
a. mechanical weathering
b. chemical weathering
c. abraisional weathering
d. gravitational weathering
16. Earth’s surface can change abruptly through mass movements of materials such as landslides, mudflows, and
slumping. Which of the following is most responsible for these types of mass movement of materials?
a. wind
b. gravity
c. water
d. animals
TURN OVER---------->
17. The variable(s) that must stay the same throughout a scientific investigation is the ____.
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. constant
d. control
18. The variable that is measured is the _____.
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. constant
d. control
19. The old original or the variable that is left out is the _____.
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. constant
d. control
20. The variable that is purposely changed is the _____.
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. constant
d. control
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