Ch12 Understanding Sexuality

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Chapter 12 – Understanding Sexuality
Multiple Choice
1.
When did you become genetically male or female?
A)
at the moment of conception
B)
during the embryonic stage
C)
during the second trimester of development
D)
during the third trimester of development
Answer:
Page:
2.
For many young boys, fully mature sperm do not develop until age ______.
A)
13
B)
17
C)
14
D)
15
Answer:
Page:
3.
A
307, 312
One’s initial gender identity is based upon
A)
a preference for one gender role over another.
B)
a recognition of one’s biological gender.
C)
gender role instruction from parents.
D)
biological messages.
Answer:
Page:
6.
C
307
Why is it unusual for a typical woman in her fifties to become pregnant?
A)
Most women observe a decline in reproductive hormone production.
B)
Their husbands are often infertile by that age.
C)
Many couples no longer have regular sexual intercourse after age 50.
D)
Most American couples have undergone voluntary sterilization by that age.
Answer:
Pages:
5.
D
307
In girls, the onset of menstruation is called
A)
menses.
B)
primensis.
C)
menarche.
D)
menopause.
Answer:
Page:
4.
A
307
B
308
Parents most commonly introduce a gender preference to their children by
A)
punishing their children for behavior outside the norm.
B)
discussing with their children the roles they are expected to fill.
C)
controlling the experiences to which their children are exposed.
D)
giving them the broadest possible freedom to choose their interests.
Answer:
C
Page:
7.
The process of internalizing a mature gender image is called
A)
gender surveying.
B)
gender adoption.
C)
gender identity.
D)
genderization.
Answer:
Page:
8.
B
309
The function of ICSH (interstitial cell-stimulating hormone) is to
A)
control sexual responsiveness.
B)
control physical growth during puberty.
C)
trigger the onset of menarche in females.
D)
begin the process of sperm development in males.
Answer:
Page:
12.
D
313
Why do the male gonads hang in a sac outside the body cavity?
A)
There is no room for them in the body cavity.
B)
The body cavity is too warm for proper sperm development.
C)
This is the most efficient way for sperm to be ejaculated.
D)
This promotes a clear separation between the sexual and excretory functions of the penis.
Answer:
Page:
11.
C
308, 309
Which of the following does NOT have an effect on the length of a woman’s menstrual cycle?
A)
unresolved stress
B)
illnesses
C)
major life changes
D)
age of first sexual encounter
Answer:
Page:
10.
B
308
The achievement of a personally satisfying interpretation of one’s masculinity or femininity is
termed
A)
gender preference.
B)
gender adoption.
C)
gender identification.
D)
gender qualification.
Answer:
Pages:
9.
308
D
309
Which of the following serves primarily to lubricate the urethra with a clear, viscous mucus?
A)
Cowper’s glands
B)
seminal vesicles
C)
prostate gland
D)
epididymis
Answer:
Page:
A
310
13.
Sperm make up about ____ percent of the volume of semen.
A)
5
B)
10
C)
15
D)
20
Answer:
Page:
14.
The female analog to the male penis is the
A)
uterus.
B)
clitoris.
C)
vagina.
D)
mons pubis.
Answer:
Page:
15.
A
312
Conception usually occurs in the
A)
ovary.
B)
uterus.
C)
vagina.
D)
fallopian tube.
Answer:
Page:
19.
D
312
In addition to producing eggs, the ovaries also produce
A)
female sex hormones.
B)
antibacterial substances.
C)
nutrients for the endometrium.
D)
lubricant during sexual stimulation.
Answer:
Page:
18.
C
312
The endometrium is the
A)
layer of tissue that surrounds the uterus.
B)
innermost surface of the vagina.
C)
gland that lubricates the vagina.
D)
inner lining of the uterus.
Answer:
Page:
17.
B
311
The female’s vagina is sensitive to sexual stimulation for about the first ____ of its length.
A)
one-tenth
B)
one-quarter
C)
one-third
D)
one-half
Answer:
Page:
16.
A
310
D
312
The breakdown of a woman’s endometrial wall and resultant discharge of blood is known as
A)
B)
C)
D)
menses.
menarche.
oogenesis.
metriosis.
Answer:
Page:
20.
Endometriosis is
A)
an infection of the endometrium.
B)
a failure of the endometrium to detach during menstruation.
C)
an abnormal development of endometrial tissue outside the uterus.
D)
inflammation of the vaginal canal by endometrial tissue.
Answer:
Page:
21.
B
313-314
The postovulation phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by
A)
ovulation.
B)
development of the corpus luteum.
C)
the end of endometrial development.
D)
the beginning of the disintegration of the endometrium.
Answer:
Page:
25.
B
314
The best time in the menstrual cycle for Tom and Mary to try to conceive is at the
A)
end of the menstrual phase.
B)
end of the preovulation phase.
C)
beginning of the menstrual cycle.
D)
beginning of the preovulation phase.
Answer:
Pages:
24.
B
313
The event called ovulation occurs when a
A)
luteinizing hormone begins to act on a primary egg follicle.
B)
mature ovum is released into the fallopian tube.
C)
mature ovum reaches the uterus.
D)
sperm fertilizes an ovum.
Answer:
Page:
23.
C
313
The portion of the menstrual cycle during which the uterine lining is being sloughed off is called
the ________ phase.
A)
hormonal
B)
menstrual
C)
preovulation
D)
postovulation
Answer:
Page:
22.
A
312
B
314
The most likely cause of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is
A)
environmental and psychological factors.
B)
C)
D)
structural problems within the uterus.
changes in hormonal levels.
low blood sugar.
Answer:
Page:
26.
Which of the following is NOT a symptom of premenstrual syndrome?
A)
tender breasts
B)
headaches
C)
fatigue
D)
weight loss
Answer:
Page:
27.
B
314
Abdominal pain caused by muscular cramping during the menstrual cycle is called
A)
amenorrhea.
B)
dysmenorrhea.
C)
premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
D)
endometriosis.
Answer:
Page:
31.
C
315
Hot flashes during menopause are caused by
A)
contraction of the vaginal wall.
B)
blood vessel dilation.
C)
vaginal dryness.
D)
ovulation.
Answer:
Page:
30.
A
315
Which of the following is FALSE regarding menopause? It
A)
is a normal physiological process, not a disease.
B)
is a gradual decrease in reproductive system function.
C)
usually has no unpleasant side effects.
D)
usually occurs when women reach late forties through mid fifties.
Answer:
Page:
29.
D
314
Fibrocystic breast condition, in which breast tissue becomes firm and sore, is caused by
A)
hormone-stimulated secretions that accumulate in connective tissue.
B)
precancerous lesions in the fatty tissue of the breast.
C)
hormone-induced restrictions to blood circulation.
D)
mild infections of the mammary glands.
Answer:
Page:
28.
C
314
B
314
Masters and Johnson used the following terms to describe the stages of the typical sexual
response pattern in humans as
A)
arousal, orgasm, decline.
B)
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.
C)
D)
responsiveness, climax, orgasm, nonresponsiveness.
nonspecific stimulation, stimulation, orgasm, nonspecific decline.
Answer:
Page:
32.
Which of the following descriptions of sexual responsiveness is MOST accurate? Most
A)
men require visual stimuli.
B)
women require stimulation by touching.
C)
people need to follow a behavioral script.
D)
people can be aroused by a variety of stimuli.
Answer:
Page:
33.
D
317
Which of the following BEST summarizes the comparison between the sexual response patterns
of men and women?
A)
There are more similarities than differences between men’s and women’s responses.
B)
Men and women respond sexually in fundamentally different ways.
C)
Women are more responsive than men.
D)
Men are more responsive than women.
Answer:
Page:
37.
C
315-316
The stage of the human sexual response pattern in which the body returns to a pre-excitement
state is known as the ________________ stage.
A)
orgasmic
B)
plateau
C)
recovery
D)
resolution
Answer:
Page:
36.
A
315
The refractory phase is the
A)
period of time between initial stimulation and the beginning of physical arousal.
B)
time required for sexual organs to resume their normal size and position.
C)
period following orgasm during which arousal cannot occur again.
D)
moment at which orgasm becomes inevitable.
Answer:
Pages:
35.
D
315
Olivia is sexually stimulated by soft caresses and fragrant scents. Her partner needs the visual
stimulation of explicit sexual images. Masters and Johnson would conclude that
A)
the couple’s behavior is normal.
B)
neither will achieve optimal arousal.
C)
this couple is sexually incompatible.
D)
this is unusual, but not a major problem.
Answer:
Page:
34.
B
315
A
316
Vasocongestion is the
A)
retention of blood or fluid within a particular tissue.
B)
C)
D)
abnormal retention of fluid leading to painful intercourse.
rise in blood pressure that accompanies the sexual response.
slowing of circulation that occurs in connection with the sexual response.
Answer:
Page:
38.
The buildup of neuromuscular tension that leads to orgasm is called
A)
vasocongestion.
B)
excitement.
C)
myotonia.
D)
erection.
Answer:
Page:
39.
C
321
The recognition of oneself as a male or female is referred to as gender
A)
concept.
B)
identity.
C)
recognition.
D)
pattern.
Answer:
Page:
43.
A
321
Which of the following is FALSE regarding bisexuals? They may
A)
be genuinely attracted to both genders.
B)
be gay, but feel the need to behave heterosexually.
C)
reject their biological sexuality.
D)
be aroused physically by the same gender, but attracted emotionally to the opposite
gender.
Answer:
Page:
42.
D
321
The proportion of homosexuals in the American population is estimated to be one in
A)
ten.
B)
fifteen.
C)
twenty.
D)
twenty-five.
Answer:
Page:
41.
C
318
The most commonly accepted view about the cause of homosexuality is that it is
A)
genetic.
B)
behavioral.
C)
environmental.
D)
still not known.
Answer:
Page:
40.
A
318
B
308
The self-imposed avoidance of all sexual intercourse is called
A)
celibacy.
B)
infertility.
C)
D)
impotence.
insufficiency.
Answer:
Page:
44.
What is the current position of researchers on masturbation? It
A)
usually has its roots in psychological discomfort with one’s sexuality.
B)
makes people more vulnerable to sexual dysfunctions.
C)
is a necessary part of sexual expression.
D)
is normal and not harmful.
Answer:
Page:
45.
B
320
Which of the following BEST describes findings about the effect of aging on sexual enjoyment?
A)
Enjoyment does not change with age.
B)
Most elderly people find sexuality distasteful.
C)
Most elderly people are physically unable to have intercourse.
D)
Sexual responsiveness diminishes 70-80 percent in your seventies.
Answer:
Pages:
49.
C
320
Which of the following is FALSE regarding anal intercourse?
A)
There is a greater danger of transmitting HIV during anal intercourse than during penisvaginal intercourse.
B)
The condom is more likely to tear during penis-vaginal intercourse than anal intercourse.
C)
Anal intercourse can be performed by both heterosexual couples and gay men.
D)
Even with a condom, disease transmission is possible during anal intercourse.
Answer:
Page:
48.
C
319
Cassandra and Ashton are college students who are choosing to refrain from sexual intercourse.
What percentage of college students represents the population that is refraining from intercourse?
A)
5-12 percent
B)
10-22 percent
C)
25-40 percent
D)
38-50 percent
Answer:
Page:
47.
D
318
Which of the following is TRUE of oral-genital stimulation? It
A)
has not been studied by researchers in human sexuality.
B)
usually indicates an abusive relationship.
C)
carries a risk of disease transmission.
D)
is not a common sexual practice.
Answer:
Page:
46.
A
318
A
320-321
The BEST description of intimacy is
A)
telling one’s closest secrets to another.
B)
any expression of sexuality with another.
C)
D)
any close mutual behavior within a relationship.
sharing a life-changing experience with another.
Answer:
Page:
50.
Which of the following BEST illustrates a couple experiencing infatuation?
A)
going steady
B)
becoming engaged
C)
planning their future together
D)
an intense attraction in another’s presence
Answer:
Pages:
51.
D
327
Which of the following is the BEST estimate of the number of college students who have
engaged in sexual intercourse?
A)
50-65 percent
B)
75-90 percent
C)
60-75 percent
D)
85-100 percent
Answer:
Page:
55.
C
327
Which of the following is FALSE regarding marriage?
A)
Men tend to be older than women at first marriage.
B)
Women are waiting longer to get married and tend to be career oriented.
C)
The decision not to marry by adults has doubled in the last decade.
D)
The demands of marriage will have little effect on a couple’s relationship.
Answer:
Page:
54.
B
323
Recent statistics indicate that the median age at first marriage for women is _______ years old.
A)
29
B)
22
C)
25
D)
21
Answer:
Page:
53.
D
322, 323
Companionate love most closely resembles
A)
a fairy tale romance.
B)
a close friendship.
C)
an agreement.
D)
a blind date.
Answer:
Page:
52.
C
323
C
320
All of the following are warning signs of an unhealthy relationship EXCEPT
A)
limitations of creativity.
B)
drug abuse.
C)
lack of patience.
D)
expressing your feelings.
Answer:
Page:
56.
Although all women have the capability of being multiorgasmic, what percentage is anorgasmic?
A)
10
B)
20
C)
30
D)
40
Answer:
Page:
57.
C
327
Most divorces have their roots in
A)
broken promises.
B)
personality changes.
C)
abusive relationships.
D)
unfulfilled expectations.
Answer:
Pages:
59.
A
316
Of the following, which is NOT an effective method of conflict management?
A)
Set a time limit for discussing problems.
B)
Identify and resolve the real issue.
C)
When talking, use sentences that start with “You.”
D)
Mutually participate in decision making.
Answer:
Page:
58.
D
324
D
328
What percentage of men and women in the United States are single?
A)
25-30 percent
B)
30-35 percent
C)
40-45 percent
D)
50-55 percent
Answer:
Page:
C
325
True/False
60.
Male embryos develop testes about the fifteenth week after conception.
Answer:
Page:
61.
Early menstrual cycles tend to be anovulatory.
Answer:
Page:
62.
False
307
True
307
For women, menopause marks the end of fertility.
Answer:
Pages:
63.
Gender preference is typically taught to children during the preschool years.
Answer:
Page:
64.
False
313
There is no known medical cause for PMS.
Answer:
Page:
73.
False
313
Women are encouraged to cease normal activity during their menstrual cycle.
Answer:
Page:
72.
True
312
Endometriosis is a condition in which endometrial tissue fails to be discharged from the uterus
during menstruation.
Answer:
Page:
71.
True
312
Menarche refers to the onset of the first menstruation in girls.
Answer:
Page:
70.
True
311
The primary function of the uterus is to provide a stable environment for the possible
implantation of a fertilized egg.
Answer:
Page:
69.
True
309
The clitoris is the most sensitive part of the female genitals.
Answer:
Page:
68.
True
309
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is required for the initial development of ova and sperm.
Answer:
Page:
67.
True
314, 315
Sperm are produced in the male’s testes.
Answer:
Page:
66.
True
308
Hormone replacement therapy can help to reduce some of the symptoms of menopause.
Answer:
Pages:
65.
True
307, 315
False
314
Menopause marks the end of ova production and menstruation.
Answer:
Page:
74.
Hot flashes are caused by changing estrogen levels.
Answer:
Page:
75.
True
321
Sexual abstinence and celibacy are considered synonyms.
Answer:
Page:
84.
False
321-322
Current estimates place the proportion of homosexuals in the U.S. population at about 10 percent.
Answer:
Page:
83.
True
326
Genetic studies show that all homosexuals are born with their sexual preference.
Answer:
Pages:
82.
False
318
Legalizing same-sex marriage would give gay couples access to hospital visitation rights, family
leave, and other privileges currently inaccessible.
Answer:
Page:
81.
True
316
Vasocongestion is a withholding of oxygen to certain tissues.
Answer:
Page:
80.
False
316
Most women are capable of multiple orgasms, but few men are.
Answer:
Page:
79.
True
316
Women do not progress through the same sexual response pattern as men.
Answer:
Page:
78.
False
315
The sexual response patterns of men and women are very similar.
Answer:
Page:
77.
True
315
Many physicians agree that menopause is a treatable disease.
Answer:
Page:
76.
True
315
True
318
In women, erotic dreams can lead to orgasm.
Answer:
Page:
85.
Genital foreplay serves no useful purpose.
Answer:
Page:
86.
True
327
Homosexual partnerships have many of the same characteristics and problems as heterosexual
partnerships.
Answer:
Page:
94.
False
327
Over three-quarters of adults in the United States have been married.
Answer:
Page:
93.
True
322
The average age of first marriage in the United States is decreasing.
Answer:
Page:
92.
False
320
Passionate love is also called infatuation.
Answer:
Page:
91.
False
327
Sexual enjoyment diminishes with age.
Answer:
Page:
90.
True
320
When having a heated discussion with your partner, it is always helpful to bring up situations
from the past to make your point.
Answer:
Page:
89.
True
319
Research on the frequency of sexual intercourse among college students indicates that most have
engaged in sexual intercourse.
Answer:
Page:
88.
False
319
Oral-genital sex can result in an exchange of sexually transmitted diseases.
Answer:
Page:
87.
True
318
True
325
Most states recognize same-sex marriages formed in different jurisdictions.
Answer:
Page:
False
326
95.
Most experts believe that divorce is largely a product of unfulfilled expectations.
Answer:
Page:
96.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of unmarried, opposite-gender couples
living together totals over 5.2 million couples.
Answer:
Page:
97.
True
328
True
325
Approximately one-half of cohabitation arrangements dissolve.
Answer:
Page:
True
325
Essay
98.
Explain what it means to acquire a gender preference, and explain current recommendations
about the process.
Answer:
Acquiring a gender preference usually occurs during childhood and, to some
extent, it involves parental pressure to adopt the activities associated with one or the other gender.
Attitudes about which activities are for boys and which are for girls are relaxing. It is normal for
children to experiment with their gender identity, so parents should not become unduly alarmed
about the activities children engage in during this period.
Page:
99.
308
List the accessory glands of the male reproductive system, and briefly describe their functions.
Answer:
Seminal vesicles manufacture fluid that nourishes sperm cells and provides a
medium for their transport. The prostate gland secretes a mixture of substances that nourishes
sperm cells and makes the semen alkaline to resist the acidic environment of the vagina. The
Cowper’s gland secretes a substance that lubricates the urethra prior to ejaculation.
Pages:
100.
309-310
Briefly describe the three phases of the menstrual cycle, including their approximate duration.
Answer:
1)
Menstrual phase: five to seven days--the endometrial lining of the uterus is gradually
sloughed off.
2)
Preovulation phase: about seven days--the release of FSH begins the process of maturing
ovarian follicles. As the follicles develop, they release estrogen, which begins the
process of building a new endometrial layer in the uterus. This phase culminates in
ovulation.
3)
Postovulation phase: the corpus luteum continues to secrete hormones to support the
endometrium. If there is no fertilization, the corpus luteum disintegrates, and the uterus
prepares to discharge the endometrium.
Pages:
101.
313-314
Discuss both the advantages and the disadvantages of using hormone replacement therapy.
Answer:
Hormone replacement therapy is useful in treating the symptoms of menopause
and also helps to reduce the likelihood of developing osteoporosis. Recently it has been found
that HRT increases the risk of both breast cancer and cardiovascular problems.
Page:
102.
315
Explain the differences between the sexual responses of men and women.
Answer:
Men experience a refractory period after orgasm, while women tend to be
capable of multiple orgasms; men typically achieve orgasm during sexual intercourse far more
quickly than women do; men nearly always achieve orgasm during intercourse, while a
significant percentage of women do not.
Pages:
103.
315-318
Describe how aging affects both men’s and women’s sexuality.
Answer:
Aging generally does not diminish the capacity for sexual excitement, but other
factors among older people, including physical health problems and a feeling of unattractiveness,
tend to lead to lower interest in sexual intercourse. Postmenopausal women experience less rapid
vaginal lubrication, but other sensitivities remain nearly the same. Older men take longer to
achieve erection and orgasm.
Pages:
104.
320-321
Summarize the ways in which a couple can successfully communicate with one another and also
manage conflict.
Answer:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
Page:
105.
Show mutual respect. Remain calm.
Identify and resolve the real issue.
Be a good listener.
Seek areas of agreement.
Do not interrupt.
Mutually participate in decision making.
Be cooperative and specific.
Focus on the present and future-not the past.
Don’t try to assign blame.
Say what you are thinking and feeling.
When talking, use sentences that begin with “I.”
Avoid using sentences that start with “You” or “Why.”
Set a time limit for discussing problems.
Accept responsibility.
Do something fun together.
327
Briefly summarize what marital experts believe regarding the high percentage of divorces.
Answer:
Although marriage experts cannot provide one clear answer to the question of
why half of the marriages end in divorce, they do suggest that divorce is a reflection of unfulfilled
expectations by one or both partners. Some of those expectations include:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Page:
the belief that marriage will ease the need to deal with their own faults and that their
failures can be shared with their partner;
the belief that marriage will change faults that they know exist in their partner;
the belief that the high level of romance experienced during courtship will continued
through marriage;
the belief that marriage can provide them with an area for the development of personal
power; and
the belief that their marital partner will be successful in meeting all their needs.
328
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