Org-Behavior-Report

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About Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow obtained a Bachelor’s degree in psychology
from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1930. After a lot
fuss, he obtained his Master’s degree (MSc.) in psychology in
1931.
ABRAHAM MASLOW
Theory of Hierarchy of Needs
1908 – 1970
After the Second World War, he developed a new scientific
discipline, ‘humanistic psychology’, which was based on his
own ideas and research. Together with two mentors, namely
Ruth Benedict and Max Wertheimer, he started developing
this discipline. The key areas were mental health and human
potential. This provided the basis of the theories: the hierarchy
of needs, meta needs, meta motivation, self-development and
peak experiences.
New York
Clinical Psychologist
Reference: Van Vliet, V. (2012). Abraham Maslow. Retrieved Nov 2018 from
ToolsHero: https://www.toolshero.com/toolsheroes/abraham-maslow/
About Clayton Alderfer
In 1962, Clayton Alderfer obtained his Bachelor’s degree with
high honours from the Yale University in the United States of
America. In 1966, he obtained his Ph.D. also from Yale
University.
CLAYTON ALDERFER
ERG Theory
1940
He joined Cornell University and Yale University where he was
a faculty member for 24 years. Here, he held appointments
such as lecturer, researcher and programme director.
During these years he carried out empirical research into three
human needs, namely: Existence Needs, Relatedness Needs
and Growth Needs. The ERG theory that Clayton Alderfer had
developed was ground-breaking and is still discussed today in
many management books.
USA
Psychologist, Professor,
Writer, and Entrepreneur
Reference: Van Vliet, V. (2013). Clayton Alderfer. Retrieved Nov 2018 from
ToolsHero: https://www.toolshero.com/toolsheroes/clayton-alderfer/
About David McClelland
David McClelland graduated in 1938 at the Wesleyan
University for his Bachelor of Arts. In 1939 he graduated for
his MA from the University of Missouri. Finally, he obtained a
PhD in experimental psychology from Yale University in 1941.
DAVID MCCLELLAND
Motivation Need Theory
1917 – 1998
After graduation he taught 25 years at Connecticut College
and the Wesleyan University. In 1956 he joined the faculty at
Harvard University. Besides tutoring, he served there as
chairman of the Department of Psychology and Social
Relations. His higher motivation and theme of his work and
research was personality and the application of that
knowledge to helping people make their lives better. One of
those developments was the expectancy-value theory of
human motivation.
USA
Psychologist, Scientist,
and Academician
Reference: Van Vliet, V. (2016). David McClelland. Retrieved Nov 2018 from
ToolsHero: https://www.toolshero.com/toolsheroes/david-mcclelland/
About Frederick Herzberg
Frederick Herzberg received his Ph.D. in psychology in 1950
and studied at the City College. He was offered a fellowship to
attend the Graduate School of Public health at the University
of Pittsburgh where he studied clinical and abnormal
psychology.
FREDERICK HERZBERG
Two Factor Theory
1923 – 2000
Pittsburgh
Psychologist, Consultant,
Professor and Writer
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg proposed his Two Factor theory. It
was derived from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and states that
human needs are arranged in a series of levels in a hierarchy
of importance which causes motivation. Frederick Herzberg’s
theory was first published in his book ‘The Motivation to
Work’ in 1959. Even though he focused on individuals at the
workplace, the theory has been popular with managers who
recognized the importance of management knowledge and
expertise.
Reference: Zeeman, A. (2017). Frederick Herzberg. Retrieved Nov 2018 from
ToolsHero: https://www.toolshero.com/toolsheroes/frederick-herzberg/
About Victor Vroom
Victor Vroom was born and raised in Montreal in Canada and
is the youngest of the two brothers he has. He was born
during the Great Depression. In that time, there was no
guarantee for keeping a job.
VICTOR VROOM
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
1932
In 1949, Victor Vroom’s father realized the lack of future
planning by his son. For this reason, his father found a job as
a teller at the Royal Bank of Canada for his son. Victor Vroom
soon identified that he has more potential than only work as a
teller in the bank. From this moment, Victor Vroom spent
more and more time into studying psychology. His interests in
learning were increasing.
Montreal, Canada
Psychologist and
Professor
Reference: Zeeman, A. (2018). Victor Vroom. Retrieved Nov 2018 from
ToolsHero: https://www.toolshero.com/toolsheroes/victor-vroom/
About Edwin Locke
He obtained his Bachelors in Psychology from Harvard in
1960. Two years later, at Cornell, he earned his master's
degree in Industrial Psychology and Experimental Psychology,
followed by his PhD in Industrial and Organizational
Psychology in 1964. Locke's dissertation was on the
relationship of intentions to motivation and affect.
EDWIN LOCKE
Goal Setting Theory
1938
Maryland
Psychologist, Dean, and
Research Scientist
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg proposed his Two Factor theory. It
was derived from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and states that
human needs are arranged in a series of levels in a hierarchy
of importance which causes motivation. Frederick Herzberg’s
theory was first published in his book ‘The Motivation to
Work’ in 1959. Even though he focused on individuals at the
workplace, the theory has been popular with managers who
recognized the importance of management knowledge and
expertise.
About Stacey Adams
Frederick Herzberg received his Ph.D. in psychology in 1950
and studied at the City College. He was offered a fellowship to
attend the Graduate School of Public health at the University
of Pittsburgh where he studied clinical and abnormal
psychology.
JOHN STACEY ADAMS
Equity Theory
1925
Brussels, Belgium
Assistant Professor,
Consultant and Author
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg proposed his Two Factor theory. It
was derived from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and states that
human needs are arranged in a series of levels in a hierarchy
of importance which causes motivation. Frederick Herzberg’s
theory was first published in his book ‘The Motivation to
Work’ in 1959. Even though he focused on individuals at the
workplace, the theory has been popular with managers who
recognized the importance of management knowledge and
expertise.
Maslow
Alderfer
McClelland
Herzberg
Vroom
Adams
Locke
Hierarchy
ERG
Motiv Needs
Two Factor
Valence
Equity
Goal Setting
1934
1961 to 1978
1995?
1959
1964
1963
1968
Introduction
According to Abraham Maslow people are always motivated
to satisfy their needs both at home and at work. He does not
make distinctions based on age. He categorized human needs
into five hierarchical levels (Hierarchy of Needs). He made the
assumption that an advanced level can only be reached when
the previous level of needs has been fulfilled.
ABRAHAM MASLOW
Theory of Hierarchy of Needs
1908 – 1970
New York
Clinical Psychologist
According to him it is not possible to skip a level of the
Hierarchy of Needs. That is why it is important to fulfil the
need that has been skipped or lost at a later date. The lowest
level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the foundation of the
pyramid. This is where the needs pattern begins. These basic
needs apply to everyone. The higher the level in Maslow's
Hierarchy of Need, the more difficult it becomes to satisfy the
needs.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs
These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for food, water and
sleep.
Safety Needs
Every person wants security, safety and stability. This can also be translated into peace, order and
health. This needs category also includes the security of a roof over one’s head.
Belonging
People are social beings and need social contacts. They wish to belong to a group. Friendship,
acceptance, caring for other people and intimacy are important needs.
Esteem
After investing in social contacts, people need esteem and recognition for what they do
(Recognition Needs). Self-respect is crucial in this.
Self-actualization
The desire for self-fulfillment, namely the tendency for him [the individual] to become actualized
in what he is potentially. The full realization of one's potential, and of one's true self.
Introduction
Contrary to Abraham Maslow’s reasoning, Clayton Alderfer
thinks that it is possible for people to regress down to a lower
level even though their needs in this level have been satisfied
before. From this level people can climb to a higher level
again.
CLAYTON ALDERFER
ERG Theory
1940
USA
Psychologist, Professor,
Writer, and Entrepreneur
The five human needs described in Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs, have been reduced to three levels by Clayton Alderfer:
Existence Needs, Relatedness Needs and Growth Needs.
When someone’s needs in a higher category cannot be
satisfied, Clayton Alderfer claims that they will focus on
related needs in a lower needs category. If they cannot realize
the Growth Needs by means of self-enrichment, this person
will do anything to satisfy their Relatedness Needs. They will
fully devote themselves to establishing their relationships with
people in their environment.
ERG Theory
Existence Needs
According to Clayton Alderfer, Existence Needs are survival needs that correspond with Abraham
Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. To exist, every individual needs extrinsic values such as
food, drink, warmth and love. Clayton Alderfer thinks these Existence Needs are obvious and that
they form the basis for human existence.
Relatedness Needs
The Relatedness Needs focus on relatedness needs. Humans are social animals and need
appreciation from the people directly involved in their lives such as family, friends, colleagues and
employers. The Relatedness Needs relate with Abraham Maslow’s social needs and external selfesteem needs. Interpersonal relationships are important for a person’s social status and
interaction with other people.
Growth Needs
With Growth Needs, Clayton Alderfer focuses on the need of people to grown and develop
themselves. The Growth Needs correspond with the fifth level of Maslow ’s Hierarchy of Needs
that correspond with self-actualization needs. For the inner self-esteem it is important for people
to grow as a person.
Introduction
The American psychologist David McClelland studied the way
in which people satisfy their needs.
DAVID MCCLELLAND
Motivation Need Theory
1917 – 1998
USA
Psychologist, Scientist,
and Academician
According to David McClelland, people have motivating
drivers that are directly linked to need regardless of age,
gender, culture or race. As a result of the McClelland
Motivation Theory, David McClelland identified four types of
motivational need:
Need for achievement
Need for power
Need for affiliation
Need for avoidance (later added)
David McClelland developed the iceberg model using the
McClelland Motivation Theory. The Iceberg model looks at a
person’s visible behavior, knowledge and skills and the
underlying unexpressed and unconscious deeper layers.
The McClelland Motivation Theory
Need for Achievement
David McClelland studied what drives people to achieve something. Upon completing his study,
he distinguished four characteristics that are consistent with the need for achievement: striving for
an average task complexity, responsibility for own performance, the need for feedback and the
use of innovation/creativity.
Need for Power
People with a need for power, attach great value to status, reputation and recognition. When this
need is great, they will not be open to feedback. This need may consist of personal power and of
institutional power. Those who focus on personal power have the desire to have control over
others. Those who are focused on institutional power, like to organize the efforts of more people
to further the company’s goals.
Need for Affiliation
People are a very sociable and they want to belong to the group. When the need for affiliation is
high, they want to be liked and they will conform to the group’s behavior and wishes. In this case,
they will favor cooperation over competition. Therefore, the need for affiliation does not go well
with the need for power.
Introduction
This theory, also called the Motivation-Hygiene Theory or the
dual-factor theory, was penned by Frederick Herzberg in 1959.
This American psychologist, who was very interested in
people’s motivation and job satisfaction, came up with the
theory.
FREDERICK HERZBERG
Two Factor Theory
1923 – 2000
Pittsburgh
Psychologist, Consultant,
Professor and Writer
He conducted his research by asking a group of people about
their good and bad experiences at work. He was surprised
that the group answered questions about their good
experiences very differently from the ones about their bad
experiences.
Herzberg claims these factors exist side by side. Taking away
the dissatisfaction factors doesn’t necessarily mean employees
will be satisfied. To motivate a team using motivation factors,
the hygiene factors need to be taken care of first.
Two Factor Theory by Frederick Herzberg
High Hygiene and High Motivation
This is the ideal situation. Employees are very motivated and barely have any complaints.
High Hygiene and Low Motivation
Employees have few complaints, but they’re not really motivated, they see their work simply as a
pay check.
Low Hygiene and High Motivation
Employees are motivated, their job is challenging, but they have complaints about salary or work
conditions.
Low Hygiene and Low Motivation
This is the worst possible situation, employees are not motivated and have a lot of complaints.
Introduction
In 1964, Canadian professor of psychology Victor Vroom
developed the Expectancy Theory. In it, he studied people’s
motivation and concluded it depends on three factors:
Expectancy, instrumentality and valence.
VICTOR VROOM
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
1932
Montreal, Canada
Psychologist and
Professor
According to Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, you can expect
employees will increase their efforts at work when the reward
has more personal value to them. They’ll be more aware of
the fact that there is a link between their effort and the
results. It means that both the organization and the employee
have to be aware of the following three processes:
Increased efforts will improve work performance
Increased performance will lead to bigger rewards
The offered reward will be appreciated by the employee
If one of these conditions is not met, it’s hard to motivate the
employee.
Motivational Force
Expectancy
This is about what employees expect from their own efforts and the relation to good
performance. Part of this expectation is the level of difficulty he experiences. An organization can
respond to that by finding out which factors can motivate the employee to deliver his best
possible performance. Those factors can be facilities, training or support from a supervisor who
builds his employees’ confidence.
Instrumentality
It’s about the employee’s performance being good enough to achieve the desired result. An
organization can stimulate this by actually making good on promises of additional rewards such
as bonuses or promotion. The employee has to believe that if he performs well, appreciation will
be shown for the results. Transparency throughout the reward process is an important condition
for instrumentality.
Valence
The final result that employees achieve is valued differently by each individual. This value is based
on their own basic needs. As such, it’s a good idea for an organization to find out what an
individual employee values and what his personal needs are. One might value money, while
another values more days off.
Introduction
In the sixties, Edwin Locke and Gary Latham conducted
research into setting goals. This resulted in the goal-setting
theory, which shows how goals and feedback can be highly
motivating factors for employees. Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory
was created based on five principles.
EDWIN LOCKE
Goal Setting Theory
1938
Maryland
Psychologist, Dean, and
Research Scientist
The Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory emphasizes the important
relationship between goals and performance. It supports
predictions that seem to result in the most effective
performances, when the goals are specific and challenging,
when they are used to assess the performances and are linked
to feedback.
The Five Principles of Locke and Latham
Clarity
A clear goal can be measured. Comparable to the SMART principles that help to understand the
task, measuring the results and achieving success.
Challenge
Goals that are either too easy or too difficult negatively influence the motivation and decrease
performance. The highest level of motivation is reached when goals are somewhere between easy
and difficult.
Effort
People have the tendency to work harder for a goal when they were involved in setting it,
particularly in a team.
Feedback
This allows you to adjust the goal and your approach to achieve it. Feedback doesn’t necessarily
have to come from other people. Feedback can also come from within.
Task Complexity
Takes into account the complexity of the goals, given the fact that complexity can influence
morale, productivity and motivation.
Introduction
The Adams Equity Theory was developed by the American
psychologist John Stacey Adams in 1963. It’s about the
balance between the effort an employee puts into their work
(input), and the result they get in return (output).
JOHN STACEY ADAMS
Equity Theory
1925
Brussels, Belgium
Assistant Professor,
Consultant and Author
The core of the Adams Equity Theory is that there needs to be
a balance between employee input and output. What an
employee brings to an organization needs to be relatively
equal to what they get out of it. In return for a monthly salary,
employees bring knowledge, skills, effort, experience, loyalty,
and much more to the table.
When their input outweighs their output, there’s an
imbalance, and the employees will be unhappy. They’ll feel
that they’re not being treated fairly and will feel disillusioned
with the organization. That may lead to demotivated behavior,
recalcitrance, calling in sick, or finding other employment.
Every employee will attempt to maintain a balance between
their input and output.
Adam’s Equity Theory
Input
The input referred to in Adams Equity Theory includes both the quantity and the quality of the
contributions employees make to carrying out their work. They spend time, energy, and
engagement at work. They work hard, share ideas, trust their superiors and support their coworkers. It’s about the effort they put into the organization. The number of examples are endless,
but the most common forms of input are listed below:
• Effort
• Skills
• Knowledge
• Experience
• Loyalty
Output
Employees’ output can generally be divided into financial rewards, and immaterial rewards. The
most common forms of output are discussed based on this division.
• Financial Rewards (Salary, Bonus, Profit Sharing)
• Immaterial Rewards (Recognition, Challenge, Responsibility)
References
Kuijk, A. (2018). Two Factor Theory by Frederick Herzberg. Retrieved from ToolsHero:
https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/theories-of-motivation/two-factor-theory-herzberg/
Mulder, P. (2012). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from ToolsHero:
https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/theories-of-motivation/hierarchy-of-needs-maslow/
Mulder, P. (2013). ERG Theory. Retrieved from ToolsHero:
https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/theories-of-motivation/erg-theory/
Mulder, P. (2015). McClelland Motivation Theory. Retrieved from ToolsHero:
https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/theories-of-motivation/mcclelland-motivation-theory/
Mulder, P. (2018). Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. Retrieved from ToolsHero:
https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/theories-of-motivation/vrooms-expectancy-theory/
Mulder, P. (2018). Adams Equity Theory. Retrieved from ToolsHero:
https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/theories-of-motivation/adams-equity-theory/
Sari, J. (2018). Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory. Retrieved from ToolsHero:
https://www.toolshero.com/time-management/edwin-locke-goal-setting-theory/
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