1.0 Epp

Er.Ramesh Subedi
Deputy Head/Civil Engg.
To introduce the ethical and legal environment
in which engineering is practiced.
1. Background Perspective
2. Ethics & Professionalism
3. Roles of Professional Associations
4. Legal Aspects of Professional Engineering in Nepal
5. The Roles and practice of Professional Engineering in
other countries
6. Case Studies Involving Professional Ethical Issues Chosen
from Wide Range of Topics
An organized group of persons associated
together for religious, benevolent, cultural,
scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes.
 Society is a web of social relationships.
 Society is a mental construct.
 Likeness, inter-dependence, co-operation and
conflict are attribute of society
"A community is that collectivity the members of
which share a common territorial area as their base of
operation for daily activities" (Talcott Parson)
 Community is a group living in a particular
geographical area.
 Members of community have a strong sense of
 Unlike society, community is a concrete entity.
 A system of social relationship
According to Maclver Society is "a web of social
relationship". Social relationship is the basis of
 Likeness
Likeness is an essential prerequisite of society.
Maclver Says," Society means likeness". It exists
among the like beings, like-bodied and likeminded". It is likeness or similarity, which provides
for understanding each by the other.
 Differences
Society also implies difference. If individuals are
exactly alike, their social relationship would be
very much limited. There would be little
reciprocity, little give and take.
 Interdependence
One depends upon the other for the satisfaction of
one's needs. Today not only countries but also
continents depend upon one another.
 Co-Operation and Conflict
Society is based on co-operation. It is the very
basis of social life. Unless people cooperate with
each other they cannot lead a happy and
comfortable life.
Along with co-operation, there is conflict in
society. It is the cause of evolution. It makes us
think of the process of struggle through which all
things have come into existence. Maclver says that
"Society is co-operation crossed by conflict".
 Culture
Every Society is unique because it has its own culture.
Culture is a thing which only human beings possess. It refers
to the social heritage of man. It includes our attitude, moral
values beliefs, ideas, ideologies, our institutions, political,
legal economic, our sciences and philosophies. The member
of a society shares a common culture.
 Society is abstract
Society consists of social relations, customs, laws and mores
etc. These social relations are abstract and intangible. It
cannot be seen or touched. It can only be realized. In this
way, abstractness is an element of society.
 Tribal
 Pastoral
 Horticultural
 Agricultural
 Industrial
(Agrarian) Societies
social change is the change in society. Society
changes with the changes in the social relationship.
This includes social processes and interactions, mutual
activities and relationship of various parts of society.
This change brings change in social organization as
Man is dynamic being. Therefore society
remains static. It undergoes changes or variations.
There are numbers of factors causing changes in society.
Following are some of pertinent factors causing social
 Cultural factors
 Technological factor
 Biological factor
 Demographic factor
 Environmental factor
 Psychological factor
 Others factor
Ideas and opinions, Social conflict, Social
movements ,etc.
 Technology
Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge
of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or
methods of organization in order to solve a problem
or perform a specific function.
It can also refer to the collection of such tools,
significantly affect human as well as other animal
species' ability to control and adapt to their natural
Technology and social changes are intimately
connected particularly in the modern world where
rapid technology and social change goes hand to
Many people in the modern society seem to implicitly
assume that technology development and human
progress is much the same thing.
But some observers see advanced technology as the
key to a brighter future. Others wonder if it may
sometimes be more of curse than a blessing .
Modern technology has certainly offered admirable
achievements , but it has also created dismaying
It implies modification, alternation and
innovation in materials and it use.
 This is achieves from information technique
and tool.
 Technique
change influences all social
institutions changing values norms and
attitudes naturally bringing considerable
impact on cast system and culture.
 A change in technology has tremendous impact
in the society.
Invention of machines has given birth
factory system: this in turn has accelerated
the process of urbanization by the
concentration of population.
 With the development of machine, there was
the evolution of new social classes. New
social conceptions and movements were the
result of this as well.
 Machine resulted mass production and this
has improved the condition of life.
Change in technology has resulted tremendous
development in the means of communication.
 The work has become the global village due to
the effect of mass communication.
 The information technology has created a new
revolution fast change in the society.
 Development of means transport is yet another
achievement of technology causing changes in
the society.
There is a great mobility of the people from
one place to another air, water and land means
of transport.
 The feudal society living under traditional
agricultural production with primitive local
tremendously with the changes in the
agricultural technology.
 It is possible now to have huge agricultural
production in the small piece of land with the
application of modern technology
 Everything
changes and change is reality. The process
of change may be passive or quantitative and
tremendous or active.
 When the change is passive, It is difficult to sense it.
The manifestation of this change in the technology is
more pronounced in following areas:
 Printing
 Gun power
 Communication satellite
 Organic chemistry
 Mechanizations (automation)
 Computers
Do yourself.
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