Er.Ramesh Subedi Deputy Head/Civil Engg. To introduce the ethical and legal environment in which engineering is practiced. 1. Background Perspective 2. Ethics & Professionalism 3. Roles of Professional Associations 4. Legal Aspects of Professional Engineering in Nepal 5. The Roles and practice of Professional Engineering in other countries 6. Case Studies Involving Professional Ethical Issues Chosen from Wide Range of Topics Engineering??? Development??? Human??? Community??? Society??? An organized group of persons associated together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. Society is a web of social relationships. Society is a mental construct. Likeness, inter-dependence, co-operation and conflict are attribute of society "A community is that collectivity the members of which share a common territorial area as their base of operation for daily activities" (Talcott Parson) Community is a group living in a particular geographical area. Members of community have a strong sense of belongingness. Unlike society, community is a concrete entity. A system of social relationship According to Maclver Society is "a web of social relationship". Social relationship is the basis of Society. Likeness Likeness is an essential prerequisite of society. Maclver Says," Society means likeness". It exists among the like beings, like-bodied and likeminded". It is likeness or similarity, which provides for understanding each by the other. Contd… Differences Society also implies difference. If individuals are exactly alike, their social relationship would be very much limited. There would be little reciprocity, little give and take. Interdependence One depends upon the other for the satisfaction of one's needs. Today not only countries but also continents depend upon one another. Contd… Co-Operation and Conflict Society is based on co-operation. It is the very basis of social life. Unless people cooperate with each other they cannot lead a happy and comfortable life. Along with co-operation, there is conflict in society. It is the cause of evolution. It makes us think of the process of struggle through which all things have come into existence. Maclver says that "Society is co-operation crossed by conflict". Contd… Culture Every Society is unique because it has its own culture. Culture is a thing which only human beings possess. It refers to the social heritage of man. It includes our attitude, moral values beliefs, ideas, ideologies, our institutions, political, legal economic, our sciences and philosophies. The member of a society shares a common culture. Society is abstract Society consists of social relations, customs, laws and mores etc. These social relations are abstract and intangible. It cannot be seen or touched. It can only be realized. In this way, abstractness is an element of society. Tribal Societies Pastoral Societies Horticultural Agricultural Industrial Societies (Agrarian) Societies Societies social change is the change in society. Society changes with the changes in the social relationship. This includes social processes and interactions, mutual activities and relationship of various parts of society. This change brings change in social organization as well. Man is dynamic being. Therefore society remains static. It undergoes changes or variations. never There are numbers of factors causing changes in society. Following are some of pertinent factors causing social change: Cultural factors Technological factor Biological factor Demographic factor Environmental factor Psychological factor Others factor Ideas and opinions, Social conflict, Social movements ,etc. Technology Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. Technology and social changes are intimately connected particularly in the modern world where rapid technology and social change goes hand to hand. Many people in the modern society seem to implicitly assume that technology development and human progress is much the same thing. But some observers see advanced technology as the key to a brighter future. Others wonder if it may sometimes be more of curse than a blessing . Modern technology has certainly offered admirable achievements , but it has also created dismaying problems. Contd…. It implies modification, alternation and innovation in materials and it use. This is achieves from information technique and tool. Technique change influences all social institutions changing values norms and attitudes naturally bringing considerable impact on cast system and culture. A change in technology has tremendous impact in the society. Invention of machines has given birth factory system: this in turn has accelerated the process of urbanization by the concentration of population. With the development of machine, there was the evolution of new social classes. New social conceptions and movements were the result of this as well. Machine resulted mass production and this has improved the condition of life. Change in technology has resulted tremendous development in the means of communication. The work has become the global village due to the effect of mass communication. The information technology has created a new revolution fast change in the society. Development of means transport is yet another achievement of technology causing changes in the society. There is a great mobility of the people from one place to another air, water and land means of transport. The feudal society living under traditional agricultural production with primitive local means of production has changed tremendously with the changes in the agricultural technology. It is possible now to have huge agricultural production in the small piece of land with the application of modern technology Everything changes and change is reality. The process of change may be passive or quantitative and tremendous or active. When the change is passive, It is difficult to sense it. The manifestation of this change in the technology is more pronounced in following areas: Printing Gun power Communication satellite Organic chemistry Mechanizations (automation) Computers Do yourself.