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Final Exam Chapters • The final exam will cover chapters: – 6 – 9 – 18 – 19 – 20 – 21 – 22 – 23 1 Final Exam Review • Chapter 6 – Equilibrium constant – Acid rain – Thermodynamics/Gibbs Free Energy – Solubility product – Bronsted-Lowry acids & bases – pH calculation – Strong & weak acids & bases • Chapter 9 – Strong & acids & bases – pH calculation – Weak acids & bases – pH calculations – Buffers • Henderson-Hasselbach equation 2 Final Exam Review con’t • Chapter 18 – Nature of light – Energy, frequency, wavelength equations – Beer’s law equations – Absorbance – Emission vs. Excitation – Fluorescence – Phosphorescence • Chapter 19 – Scatchard plots – Raman spectroscopy – LSPR & SERS 3 Final Exam Review con’t • Chapter 20 – Lamps, lasers (how they work) – How a grating works – Detectors: PMT, CCD – Optical fibers • Snell’s law equation – Dealing with noise • Chapter 21 – Atomic spectroscopy • Types • Flames, furnaces, plasma – Boltzmann distribution equation 4 Final Exam Review con’t • Chapter 22 – What is mass spectrometry and what can we learn from it? – Electron & chemical ionization – Resolution & resolving power – Types of mass spectrometers • Chapter 23 – Extractions à Effect of pH – Types of chromatography – Retention – Resolution – Plate height and number – Van Deemter equation 5