 Freedom is part of humanity’s authenticity, of our very nature and of our transcendence.
a. Aristotle – reason can legislate but only through the will can its legislation be translated into action. It
should be noted though that without the intellect, there would be no will.
b. St. Thomas Aquinas – man, who is both body and spirit, is a moral agent wherein it is our spirituality that
separates us from animals through our conscience.
c. Jean Paul Sartre – the human person is the desire to be God: the desire to exist as a being which has its
sufficient ground in itself (en sui causa). There is no guidepost to a person’s life as the person builds/creates
his/her own destiny.
d. Theory of Social Contract
d.1. Thomas Hobbes – (Leviathan) law of nature is a precept or general rule established by reason, by
which a person is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life or takes away the means of preserving
it. Peace is the first law of nature, followed by the denial of our rights (except the right to self-defense/selfpreservation) so as to achieve peace. His views are more autocratic than Rousseau in that he believes that
the powerful should be the ones who should handle the state.
d.2. Jean Jacques Rousseau - (The Social Contract) also believed that human beings should form a
community that will protect themselves from one another. However, his views are more democratic in the
sense that he believes of the collective or common power conferred to one ruler that should govern the
Intersubjectivity – relatedness of humans towards others/being with others. One of its manifestations and the first
critical component of this is accepting others and their differences.
a. Martin Buber – (Ich and Du/I and Thou) conceives the human person in his/her totality, wholeness, concrete
experience and relatedness to the world. A human is a subject, who is a being different from things or from
objects. The human person experiences his wholeness not in virtues of his relation to one’s self, but in virtue
of his relation to another self through dialog.
b. Karol Jozef Wojtyla – (Fides et Ratio/Faith and Reason) action reveals the nature of the human agent.
Participation explains the essence of the human person as it is through this that we are oriented towards
being in relation and sharing in the communal life for the common good.
c. On PWDS, the Underprivileged and Women
Soren Kierkegaard – humans tend to conform to an image or idea associated with being a certain type of person
reducing ourselves to mediocrity.
Feudalism (Medieval) - it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in
exchange for service or labor.
Naturalism (Modern) - a theory that relates scientific method to philosophy by affirming that all beings and events
in the universe (whatever their inherent character may be) are natural. Consequently, all knowledge of the universe
falls within the pale of scientific investigation. Although naturalism denies the existence of truly supernatural
realities, it makes allowance for the supernatural, provided that knowledge of it can be had indirectly—that is, that
natural objects be influenced by the so-called supernatural entities in a detectable way.
a. Rene Descartes – “Cogito ergo sum.” Author of Discourse on Method (1637). First, Descartes thought that
the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge.
Second, he wanted to replace their final causal model of scientific explanation with the more modern,
mechanistic model.
Empiricism (Modern) - the philosophy of knowledge by observation. It holds that the best way to gain knowledge
is to see, hear, touch, or otherwise sense things directly. In stronger versions, it holds that this is the only kind of
knowledge that really counts. Empiricism has been extremely important to the history of science, as various
thinkers over the centuries have proposed that all knowledge should be tested empirically rather than just through
thought-experiments or rational calculation.
a. John Locke - Locke's approach to empiricism involves the claim that all knowledge comes from experience
and that there are no innate ideas that are with us when we are born. At birth we are a blank slate, or tabula
rasa in Latin. Experience includes both sensation and reflection.
b. David Hume - Hume believes that knowledge not gained through experience is false and we must ignore it.
Humans cannot know anything for certain except that which we prove empirically. Experience provides us with
both the ideas themselves and our awareness of their association. All human beliefs (including those we
regard as cases of knowledge) result from repeated applications of these simple associations.
c. George Berkeley - was both an empiricist and an idealist. Empiricism involves the belief that what we know
comes from sense experience, while idealism is the view that mind-independent things do not exist. ...
To Berkeley, 'To be is to be perceived', meaning that all that exists is our perception of things: mindindependent things do not exist.
Prepared by: TG CALZADO imbas
Critical Idealism (Modern) - Transcendental Idealism (or Critical Idealism) is the view that our experience of
things is about how they appear to us (representations), not about those things as they are in and of themselves.
a. Immanuel Kant – humanity’s nature is the real creator of humanity’s world. It is not the external world, as
such, that is the deepest truth for us at all; it is the inner structure of the human spirit that merely expresses
itself in the visible nature about us. Thought to be the Father of Contemporary Thinking, Kant greatly
influenced Western thought.
Globalization and Technological Innovations
Meaning of One’s Life
a. Socrates – believes that knowing thyself is a condition to solve the present problem. For him, a virtuous life
leads to happiness.
b. Plato – contemplation or the communion of the mind with the universal and eternal ideas is the only available
means for a mortal human being to free himself from his space-time confinement to ascend to the heaven of
ideas and there commune with the immortal, eternal, the infinite and the divine truths.
c. Aristotle – everything in nature seeks to realize itself – to develop its potentialities and finally realize its
actualities (entelechy: to become its essence). Nothing happens by chance. Striving to realize themselves,
objects and human beings move toward their origin and perfection. Our highest faculty is reason which finds
its perfection in contemplating the Unmoved Mover.
d. Friedrich Nietzsche – realizing one’s higher self means fulfilling one’s loftiest vision, noblest ideal. On his way
to the goal of self-fulfillment, man will encounter difficulties. The individual has to liberate himself from
environmental influences that are false to one’s essential beings, for the “unfree man” is “a disgrace to nature.”
e. Arthur Schopenhauer – utilized Kant’s ideas of the noumenon (the thing in itself) and phenomenon (the
experienced). Though unlike Kant, the phenomenal world for him is a world of illusion and that we can know
the noumenal through the Will.
f. Martin Heidegger – human existence is exhibited in care. Care is understood in terms of finite temporality,
which reaches with death. He claims that only by living through the nothingness of death in anticipation do one
attain authentic existence.
g. Jean-Paul Sartre – human person desires to be God.
h. Karl Jaspers – stressed the importance of the imminent (limited to what man actually does and knows) and
transcendent (the limitless). The imminent includes: Dasein (objects of ordinary experience); Consciousness in
general (manifested in scientific/objective knowledge) and Spirit (historic unities or as members of a totality).
The transcendent includes: Existenz (limitless possibility unique to individuals as primordial ground of the self)
and Transcendence (goes beyond the natural world; it is being itself and a ground for Existenz).
i. Gabriel Marcel – made distinction that applies to a number of areas in life, including the experience of human
embodiment, the nature of intersubjective relations, and the nature of the human person.
Stephen Cave: The 4 stories we tell ourselves about death
 The void.
 The stairs/elevator.
 Philosophy: Death is naught. How can someone prove that death is if he/she is not? Can naught speak
of something naught?
 Elixir: The quest for eternal youth
 Resurrection: The rise from death
 Soul: Eternal after death
 Legacy: Unforgotten (Plant a book, bear a tree, write a child)
Will it matter if you are remembered by many or not? Will it kill you twice if you don’t have a thousand friends,
a million likes, a billion followers or your name is whispered on all parts of the galaxy or the universe?
What really matters is that you matter to those who matter to you.
It is not too late to live a happy life.
It is not too late to cuddle your cat or dog.
It is not too late to embrace your mom/dad and tell them you love them.
It is not too late to forgive brother/sister/those that wronged you.
It is not too late to LIVE even if you only have an hour if that would be the case.
Seize your day! Own it! LIVE IT! CARPE DIEM.
Prepared by: TG CALZADO imbas
Prepared by: TG CALZADO imbas
Prepared by: TG CALZADO imbas
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