psyc 3502 exam 3 quizlet

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PSYC 3502 EXAM 3
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1.
Anil Seth "Your brain
hallucinates your
conscious reality"
•CSness & intelligence are different
(Csness is more about being alive
than intelligent)
2.
Discovering
Psychology Series
Video
•Patient depressed after doctors'
comment "might have cancer" stuck in
subconscious
•Under hypnosis patients can tell
what they heard during surgery but
CSly can't
•Freudian slips
3.
Discovered
memories
remembering repressive memories
after a traumatic experience.
4.
Unconscious
Processing, Multiple
Parallel Systems
•In early studies, CS perceptions was
defined in terms of what people SAID
(LANGUAGE!)- RH/LH
•Signal Detection Theory (d',beta);
subliminal vs. supraliminal
perception- is able to separate a
person from their response bias
•Semantic priming and implicit/explicit
memory
Implicit memory "unintentional"
memory
Explicit memory- "intentional"
memory, requires hippocampus
•Emotional content effects on
physiology, memory, perception,
reading speed (=increased)
•CONFIDENCE RATING MORE
RELATED TO explicit KNOWLEDGE
(Berry and Broadbent, 1984)
5.
Word Stem
Completion Task
test used to measure a patient's
implicit memory. An early way to
study consciousness.
6.
Lewicki Studies- SS
correctly predict
complex algorithm,
but cannot explain
how
•"as compared with CSly controlled
cognition, the nonCS informationacquisition processes are much faster
and structurally more sophisticated"
•Creativity and incubation; "eureka
moments", women's intuition
•Csikzentmihalyi and "Flow"; total
immersion time disappears
7.
Reality
•Reality monitoring (real vs imagined
- less vivid)
•Memory-source monitoring for
autobiographical memory
"remembering" photo of beach
experience rather than actual
experience
8.
Reality/
hallucinations
•Hallucination= false perception
•Illusion = misperception of real stimuli
•Pseudo-Hallucination = know its not real
•Schizophrenia, Epileptic aura
•Sensory deprivation can induce
hallucinations
9.
Sleep
helps us reduce stimuli, but the brain is very
active during sleep. Is a restorative process,
consolidation new and old material...
•Hypnagogic hallucinations- as falling
asleep
•Hypnopompic hallucinations- when waking
•Sleep paralysis- sleep onset REM or waking
10.
Sleep:
Paranormal
•Probably not real
•Coincidences- People better at making
probability judgements are less likely to
report psychic experiences (Blackmore)
11.
Altered
states of CS
(ASC)
•Hypnosis- you have to agree to be
•Drugs- alter brains activity, sometimes
permanent damage
•Drugs which impair memory (cannabis, etc)
distort time perception
•Richard Alperts and Timothy Leary-Harvard
Psychologist experimenting with drugs in
1960's
•Oliver sacks- Hallucinations due to tumor in
visual system
12.
Dunbar, 1905,
taking
cannabis:
"The most peculiar effect was a complete
loss of time relation; time seemed to have no
existence. I was continually taking out my
watch, thinking that hours must have passed,
whereas only a few minutes had elapsed.
This, I believe, was due to a complete loss of
memory for recent events."
13.
Altered
states of CS
(ASC): Lucid
dreaming
•Lucid Dreaming: know during the dream that
you are dreaming; studies show voluntary
breathing coincides with actual breathing,
when exercise reported, breathing and heart
rate increase (LaBerge)
•CONTENTS of dream related to eye
movements- left-right eye movements when
dream of watching tennis match
•Dreams occur in REAL TIME; the longer in
REM, the longer the dream; Lucid dreamers
count to 10 in the same amount of time as
awake
•DREAMS probably not concocted the
moment of waking
•"SELF"- who is having strange dream that
seems normal at time? •Are dreams real
experiences?
14.
BACKWAARD
WEAVING
theory of
dreaming
(blackmore)
•Some sound or event awakens you, and it
seems to fit the end or long dream storyhow can that be?
•Perhaps on waking, a story is concocted by
selecting one out of a vast number of
possible threads through scraps of memory
that remain from dream
15.
VideoLearner.org
-Dramatists- find coherent meaning in a
storyline so it makes sense to us.
-Routine skills which become routinized need
very little attention to complete.
-Noticed vs unnoticed.
-CSNESS allows us to realize our own
mortality
-Csness waxes and wanes
-Germ. Bill Vunce
-Structuralism
16.
Jame &
watson CS
James- csness is essential to adopt to your
environment.
-1. Personal and unique to each individual
-2. It is continuous
John B. Watson- declared csness is a
worthless study
17.
Attention
-Attention = focused awareness
-A selected filter which reduces the stimuli
which bombard us.
-Attention has a limited capacity
-We notice things of personal significance
18.
Mccarly/
hopsin
(Harvard)-
brain creates order out of chaos when we
dream, and tries to make meaning even if
meaning isn't there. Dreaming is present in
infants and fetuses so it is more than learning
and memories or even complex brain
functions which are not even developed in
that age.
19.
Steve
LaBerge
if your dream, to your brain it thinks it is real.
The parasympathetic nervous system has a
defense mech which prevents you from
acting out your dreams, but your legs may
twitch if you are dreaming and the brain will
be activated as if the person was actually
running.
20.
Zimbardo
Video
•Experiment with something in left vs right
ear
•Daydreams- inner private realities
unconnected to the world around us- it is
good for us it keeps our minds active
(stimulation)
•Sleep- reduces stimulation
•Brain creates order out of chaos
•Reorganize and make meaning if there is no
meaning there
•Lucid dreams (flashing light seen as sun in
dream)
21.
Exceptional
Experiences
•"popular
paranormal and
super natural
explanations
fare badly"Blackmore
•Out-of-Body Experience (OBE)
•SS more suggestible/ hypnotizable/
dissociative
•Neuroscience: temporal Lobe Epilepsy
(TLE) ppl report hallucinations just before
seizures
•Temporo-pariet-occipital junction (TPO)
•Virtual Reality Technology (Metzinger,
Leggenhagger) fake hand stroking etc.
22.
Near Death
Experiences
interpreted as "Dying brain hypothesis:"
dying brain cells cause hallucinations and
such- Blackmore
23.
Mystical
experiences
•James, 1902,
p339:
"... I saw that the universe is not
composed of dead matter, but is, on the
contrary, a living presence; I became
conscious in myself of eternal life. It was
not conviction that I would have eternal
life, but a consciousness that I possessed
eternal life then... That view, that
conviction, I may say that consciousness,
has never, even during periods of the
deepest depression, been lost."
•Bucke, 1902: "a sense of immortality in the
present moment"
24.
Introspection
means... looking into our own minds and
reporting what we discover" - James, 1980
25.
Phenomenology
"what it feels like"
26.
Specious
present
• E.R. CLAY (KELLY)- "the present to which
the datum refers is really a part of the
past- a recent past- delusively given as
being a time that intervenes between the
past and the future. Let it be named the
specious present..."
•Cited and elaborated by William James
•"...We participate in a reflexive process
whereby the universe experiences itself..."
Velmans, 2009, 298
27.
Meditation (chap
26)
•Basic principles: 1. Paying attention and
2. Not thinking
•Open meditation: being aware of
everything that is happening without
responding; letting thoughts pass through
without processing them; passive;
"Mindfulness"
•Concentrative Meditation: focused
attention to one thing without distractions
Ex. Focus on breathing
•RELAXATION/STRESS REDUCTION:
EEG: Alpha wave- relaxed wakefulness
28.
Julio Tononi •
Integrated
Information
Theory (IIT)
CS emerges when there is a certain
amount of information being integrated
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