ICRAMID 56

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International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Developments [ICRAMID - 2014]
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF METAL
MATRIX COMPOSITES AL6061/GRAPHENE
AND ANALYZE THE MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES
Barnabas Swithan. J#1, Saravanapandi Solairajan. A*2
#
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.
*
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering and Technology,
Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.
1
[email protected]
2
[email protected]
By the study of the aluminium 6061 based metal
matrix composites; a new emerging material graphene
has been founded in 2004. Here aluminium 6061 used
as a matrix and graphene used as a reinforcement
material. Nowadays, research has been done on
graphene reinforced metal matrix composites because
of low friction, low wear rate. The mechanical,
electrical and thermal properties of graphene are very
high compared with traditional metals, making them a
potentially promising reinforcement material in a
metal matrix composite [1]. Generally the stir casting
process for MMC’s involves preparing a melt in the
furnace of the selected matrix material. Then the
reinforcing material is poured into the melt matrix
material to get dispersion by stirring. The stir casting
process is widely used to fabricate metal matrix
composites [2,3].
Abstract— Our motivation was to analysis the
mechanical properties of metal matrix composite
of AL6061/Graphene. Composite materials are
stronger than conventional building materials,
Graphene is a latest two-dimensional (2D)
honeycomb lattice, and numerous engineering,
including commercial applications in the
transportation and construction widely uses
aluminium 6061. Graphene has demonstrated
exceptional electrical, mechanical and thermal
properties. The reinforcing graphene particulates
in the MMC are examined for aluminium 6061
and vary from 1% to 4% by weight. The ‘Stir
casting process’ was employed to make the
composites, in that the reinforcements is poured
into the stir casting and created by stirring the
molten metal by, with a mechanical agitator.
Keywords— Aluminium 6061, Graphene, Stir
II. MATRIALS AND METHODS
casting method, Scanning electron microscope,
mechanical properties.
Al6061 is used for the study of metal matrix
composite. It is studied for large production of
weightless metal castings. Al6061 alloy is widely
used because of its formability, connectivity,
corrosion resistance and low price. Table-1 shows the
chemical combination of Al6061 alloy.
Graphene nanopowders particles are very thin in
thickness measuring 5 to 10 nanometers with little
large in diameters. They are applicable in van der
waals attractive forces and have a tendency to
reaggregate in dry state because of their flat shape of
these particles. Alumina coated stainless steel stirrer
was used in the molten metal pool through stir casting
process and reinforcing materials were introduced.
I. INTRODUCTION
By the change in science and technology, there
are competitive both in liberalization and global
market [1]. Materials with high strength and low
density have been used in industries. Aluminium alloy
used as a matrix other material used as a fibre which
has been reinforced widely use in technical
applications because of their roughness and usability
when compared with conventional aluminium alloys
[2]. Many tests have been carried out on composite
materials based on aluminium 6061.
ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3
275
International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Developments [ICRAMID - 2014]
The migration of ferrous ions from the stair into
the molten metal was prevented by a coating of
alumina to the blades. The stirrer is coated at 550rpm
and the immersion of the stirrer was done about two –
thirds of the depth of the molten metal. The
reinforcing materials were added into the stir casting
process for about 3 – 4 minutes. The mixture was
poured into the preheated permanent metal molds.
every interval and the readings of the length are noted
until breaking takes place. Using the readings
compressive stress-strain curve is plotted.
The nature of the test specimen can be seen
under compression from this curve. Compressive
properties and strength of the specimen are being
calculated.
Table-I.
Chemical composition of element with Al6061 alloy by weight percentage.
Element
Weight%
Mg
(Magnesium)
1.08
Fe
(Ferrous)
0.17
Si
(Silicon)
0.63
Cu
(copper)
0.32
Mn
(Manganese)
0.52
V
(Vanadium)
0.01
Ti
(Titanium)
0.02
Al
(Aluminium)
Fig. 1 Tensile test specimen.
Balance
A. PREPARING AND TESTING A SPECIMEN
The specimens were prepared in the form of a
cylindrical bar castings. Each measure about 8mm in
diameter X 60 mm length measuring 20 X 20 mm
diameter is used for compression testing. Microscopic
examination was done with keller’s reagents as agent.
The specimens were cleaned with distilled water,
acetone and dried thoroughly.
B.TENSILE TEST
Each specimen measuring 8 mm in diameter and
60 mm gauge length as per ASTM E8 – 82 standards
as shown in the Fig. 1. The cross sectional area is
measured for conducting a standard tensile test.
Gauge length is placed in the machine and
extensometer is attached.
Readings of load and elongation are taken at
uniform intervals of load and the Fig. 2 shows the
specimen after tensile testing.
Fig. 2 Composite specimen after tensile test.
D. HARDNESS TEST
Hardness test is carried out in a cast and metal
matrix composites to know the participation of
reinforcement graphene in matrix material aluminium
6061. A Vickers micro hardness machine is used to
check the polished specimen. A load of 1N is given at
every interval of 10 seconds. The hardness was seen
by taking the diagonal length of the indentation. The
test is carried at three different levels and the average
value was taken as the hardness of the cast and
composite specimen.
C. COMPRESSION TEST
Compression test is being done same as the
tensile test. Specimen measures about 20 mm
diameter and 20 mm length. Testing is done on the
universal testing machine. A load of 2 tons is given at
ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3
276
International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Developments [ICRAMID - 2014]
variation strength in the aluminium 6061 metal matrix
composite material is shown in Fig. 6. Graphene
reinforcement particulates increase the tensile
strength of the metal matrix composite materials.
Yielding point of metal matrix composite samples
increases rapidly with increase in reinforcements.
Al6061 alloy matrix increases the strength because of
the increase of weight percentage of graphene.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
A. ANALYSISING MICROSTRUCTURE
We can see a sample of microstructure of
aluminium 6061 as a cast in Fig. 3. Precipitations are
seen in both the grains.
Fig. 5 Ultimate tensile strength and effect of graphene wt % of MMC’s.
Fig. 3 Microstructure for aluminium 6061 as cast.
Fig. 6 Graphene and yield variation strength in Al6061 matrix.
C. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Fig. 4 Microstructure of 4 wt% Graphene Al6061 composite specimen.
Fig. 4 shows the microstructure of aluminium
6061 along with graphene at 4 % weight. The grain
size is little larger than the composites. Minimum
micro porosities are seen in the micrograph. In the
matrix there is no clustering of reinforcement and
dispersion of graphene particle is uniform. There is
no gap is found between the aluminium 6061 matrix
and the reinforcing material graphene are seen well
bonded.
Fig. 7 Compression strength as a function of graphene content in wt %.
B. TENSILE STRENGTH
Ultimate tensile strength and effect of graphene is
shown in Fig. 5. Increase of graphene and yield
The uniaxial compression as a function of
graphene content is shown in Fig. 7. An increase in
ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3
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International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Developments [ICRAMID - 2014]
the compressive strength is due to the increase of
graphene content. Addition of graphene reinforcement
to a soft matrix increases its density and compressive
strength [11]. The results were studied on the
compressive strength of metal matrix composite
materials [12-16].
Saravanapandi Solairajan. A M. Tech Assistant
Professor. Words are not enough to express my
special thanks for his enhancing and encouraging
ideas that sound in each and every process.
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Study on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Al
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& Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 9, No.1, pp.5765.
D. MICRO HARDNESS RESULTS
Fig. 8 Hardness number Al6061 alloy and different wt % of graphene
[5]
The results of aluminium 6061 and metal matrix
composite of different weight percentage of graphene
are predicted using the Vickers micro hardness test as
shown in Fig. 8. Hardness of the composite material
is higher when compared with that of the parent
metal. The weight percentage of graphene content
increases the hardness of MMC’s and splitting of
graphene particles also increases the hardness.
DiWei, Hongwei Li, Dongxue Han, Qixian Zhang, Li Niu,
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IV. CONCLUSIONS
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[10]
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[11]
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[12]
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G Mohammad A. Rafiee, Javad Rafiee, Iti Srivastava, Zhou
Wang, Huaihe Song, Zhong-Zhen Yu, and Nikhil Koratkar (2010)
The following conclusions are made by analyzing
the mechanical properties of metal matrix composite
Al6061/ Graphene.
a) Graphene was reinforced in the Al6061 alloy to
fabricate metal matrix composite using stir
casting method.
b) The MMC’s which are fabricated have uniformly
distributed of reinforcements and matrix in the
microstructure analysis.
c) The ultimate tensile strength of metal matrix
composite Al6061 / graphene is significantly
increased.
d) Increase in weight percentage of graphene
content increases the hardness of MMC’s. This
because of graphene particles which strengthen
the Al6061 alloy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I greatly acknowledge my project guide, who
shared his valuable ideas in making my project Mr.
ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3
278
International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Developments [ICRAMID - 2014]
‘Fracture and Fatigue in Graphene Nanocomposites’. small 2010,
6, No. 2, 179–183
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MAmAZZI
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[15]
A. Ramesh, J. N. Prakash, A. S. Shiva Shankare Gowda and
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[16]
T.Sasimurugan and K.Palanikumar (2011) ‘Analysis of the
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[17]
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[19]
Sudindra S & C Anil Kumar (2013) ‘STUDIES ON
Al6061/Al2O3 AND GRAPHITE HYBRID METAL MATRIX
COMPOSITES’ International Journal of Metallurgical &
Materials Science and Engineering (IJMMSE) ISSN 2278-2516
Vol. 3, Issue 3, 35-42
[20]
Wang, J., Li, Z., Fan, G., Pang, H., Chen, Z. & Zhang, D. (2012).
‘Reinforcement with graphene nanosheets in aluminum matrix
composites’. Scripta Materialia, 66 (8), 594-597.
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and failure of graphene sheet and graphene-polymer interface’. In
13th International Conference on Fracture, 16-21 June, Beijing,
China.
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