Chapter 3

Allophonic Variations
Phonological Rules
Phonological Rules
Phonological rules: they are rules that describe how a speaker goes
from the abstract representation stored in the brain to the actual sound they
articulate when they speak.
Two levels of representation:
a. the underlying phonemic mental.
Underlying = it is a hidden something in our mind.
b. Surface (phonetic).
*Why we need these rules?
To link the two levels.
(Phonetic form) by help of (Phonological Rules) change into (Phonetic form).
Characteristics or Conditions:
1. Language Specific (the opposite of Language Universal).
It means that a rule is to be presented in one language but not necessarily
presented in another language. (That means we can't omit the sound \r\ in
other languages, but in English we can).
2. Productivity.
3. Untaught and unconscious. (Something we used to pronounce it).
4. Intuitive. (That means something we can realize it with experience if it is
correct or not).
This rule can be read like this: ''A becomes B in the environment where it is
preceded by C and followed by D''.
The rule is made of three parts:
1- A: represents the input of the phoneme that will be changed and is
usually placed between slashed / /.
2- B: represents the output showing the change, which is usually an
allophone or distinctive feature placed between square brackets [ ].
3- C___D represents the environment where the rule applies. (the
underscore ___ is the position).
There are two types of phonological rules:
1- Allophonic variation rules that express the change from a phoneme into
2- Phonological processes rules that express how a certain phoneme/phone
changes into another phoneme /phone.
Keys used in phonological rules:
V: vowel
C: consonant
$: syllable boundary
+: morphemes boundary
#: word boundary
$__: syllable initially
__$: syllable finally
#___: word initially
___#: word finally
/ /: phoneme
[ ]: allophone
{ }: morphemes
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