Unit 1: Learning Objectives & Exam 1 Study Guide Note: When you are studying, remember to quiz yourself! Do not simply copy and paste answers. That will not be effective to help you remember or learn. I highly recommend putting away your notes and using this guide to quiz yourself, then checking your answers against your notes. Rinse and repeat! What is Abnormal? (8/31/16) Define abnormal psychology Describe the continuum model of abnormality Describe the “four Ds” of abnormality Apply the “four Ds” to determine whether a given situation is abnormal Discuss how social norms influence what is determined to be “abnormal” o Describe the advantages of disadvantages of relying on social norms in determining abnormality. Causes of Abnormality (9/2/16 & 9/5/16) What is a diathesis-stress model? Does it assume a single cause or multiple causes for abnormal behaviors? Biological theories for abnormality: Describe how structural abnormalities, biochemical imbalances, and genetic abnormalities may lead to abnormal behavior. o Understand basic examples of structural abnormalities and provide an example (e.g., Phineas Gage). o Describe the functions of neurons and neurotransmitters. Describe how family history studies, twin studies, and adoption studies may be used to examine the role of genetic and environmental influences on abnormal behavior (some information will come from class). Psychological theories for abnormality: Describe how behavioral approaches, cognitive approaches, psychodynamic approaches, and humanistic approaches attempt to explain the origins of abnormal behavior. o Describe classical conditioning and be able to identify unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, and conditioned response in a given example. o Provide examples of maladaptive cognitions and their attributes defined by the cognitive approach. o Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the psychodynamic approach. Interpersonal/social theories for abnormality: Describe how interpersonal approaches, family systems approaches, and social structural approaches attempt to explain the origins of abnormal behavior. Describe the biopsychosocial approach to abnormal behavior. o Define its advantages and disadvantages. Assessment & Diagnosis (9/9/16) What is assessment and why do we do it? What is a symptom, what is a syndrome, and how are they related? o Know what the advantages of studying symptoms and syndromes are. How can we tell whether our assessments of psychological symptoms are any good? How do the concepts of reliability and validity relate to this? What sorts of methods do we use to collect information about symptoms? What are advantages & disadvantages of different methods? o Compare and contrast structured and unstructured interviews. o Be able to list a couple of common assessment tools clinical psychologists use and what they measure (e.g., BDI-II, MMPI, WAIS, WISC). Clinical Research (9/12/16) • List the steps in the scientific method. • Define each step and be able to provide examples. • Describe what an operational definition or “operationalization” is. • Compare and contrast the methods used in case studies, correlational studies, and experimental studies. • Discuss what kind of information we can gain from case studies, correlational studies, and experimental studies. • Describe their advantages and disadvantages. When given an example, defend when you would want to use which type of study. • Describe the three steps for establishing causation.