Life Span Development - 14th Edition

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www.mhhe.com
DEVELOPtv1 ENT
Fourteenth Edition
JOHN W. SANTROCK
University of Texas at Dallas
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LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT, FOURTEENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright© 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights
reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions© 2011, 2009, and 2008. No part of
this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or
retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not
limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the
United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Santrock, John W.
Life-span development I John W. Santrock, University of Texas at Dallas. - Fourteenth Edition.
pages cm
Includes index.
ISBN 978-0-07-803532-6 - ISBN 0-07-803532-5 (hbk. : alk. paper)
1. Developmental psychology-Textbooks. I. Title.
BF713.S257 2012
155-dc23
2012031411
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website
does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not guarantee the
accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
www.mhhe.com
With special appreciation to
my mother, Ruth Santrock, and
the memory of my father, John Santrock
about the author
John W. Santrock
John Santrock received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1973. He taught
at the University of Charleston and the University of Georgia before joining the Program in Psychology and Human Development at the University of Texas at Dallas,
where he currently teaches a number of undergraduate courses and was given the
University's Effective Teaching Award in 2006. In 2010, he created the UT-Dallas
Santrock undergraduate scholarship, an annual award that is
given to outstanding undergraduate students majoring in
developmental psychology to enable them to attend research
conventions.
John has been a member of the editorial boards of Child
Development and Developmental Psychology. His research on
father custody is widely cited and used in expert witness testimony to promote flexibility and alternative considerations
in custody disputes. John also has authored these exceptional
McGraw-Hill texts: Children (12th edition), Adolescence
(14th edition), A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development
(6th edition), and Educational Psychology (5th edition).
John Santrock, teaching in his undergraduate course in
life-span development.
For many years, John was involved in tennis as a player,
teaching professional, and coach of professional tennis players.
At the University of Miami (Fl), the tennis team on which he played still holds the
NCAA Division I record for most consecutive wins (137) in any sport. His wife, Mary
Jo, has a master's degree in special education and has worked as a teacher and a Realtor.
He has two daughters- Tracy, who also is a Realtor, and Jennifer, who is a medical sales
specialist. He has one granddaughter, Jordan, age 21, currently an undergraduate student
at Southern Methodist University, and two grandsons, Alex, age 8, and Luke, age 6. In
the last two decades, John also has spent time painting expressionist art.
iv
SECTION 1
THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE 2
1
SECTION 2
BEGINNINGS 48
2
3
SECTION 3
7
10
Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood 420
Socioemotional Development in Early Adulthood 450
Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood 482
Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood 508
LATE ADULTHOOD 532
17
18
19
SECTION 10
Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 354
Socioemotional Development in Adolescence 386
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD 480
15
16
SECTION 9
Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and
Late Childhood 280
Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood 316
EARLY ADULTHOOD 418
13
14
SECTION 8
Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood 208
Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood 243
ADOLESCENCE 352
11
12
SECTION 7
Physical Development in Infancy 108
Cognitive Development in Infancy 142
Socioemotional Development in Infancy 175
MIDDLE AND LATE CHILDHOOD 278
9
SECTION 6
Biological Beginnings 50
Prenatal Development and Birth 76
EARLY CHILDHOOD 206
8
SECTION 5
-·
INFANCY 106
4
5
6
SECTION 4
Introduction 4
Appendix: Careers in Life-Span Development 44
Physical Development in Late Adulthood 534
Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood 564
Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood 594
ENDINGS 620
20
Death, Dying, and Grieving 622
v
contents
SECTION 1
THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE
CHAPTER 1
Cognitive Theories
Introduction
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
4
6
Methods for Collecting Data
7
Some Contemporary Concerns
Research Designs
9
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Clinical Child Psychologist 1 O
Luis Vargas,
Conducting Ethical Research
Minimizing Bias
14
17
Psychoanalytic Theories
Careers in Life-Span
Development 44
21
21
48
CHAPTER 2
Biological Beginnings
The Evolutionary Perspective
Evolutionary Psychology
50
Genes and Chromosomes
52
The Nature-Nurture Debate
Behavior Genetics
56
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Genetic Counselor 62
Holly Ishmael,
3 Reproductive Challenges and Choices
vi
63
63
Infertility and Reproductive Technology
65
4 Heredity-Environment Interaction:
SS
55
Genetic Principles 58
Chromosomal and Gene- Linked Abnormalities
Prenatal Diagnostic Tests
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Parenting Adopted Children 67
53
2 Genetic Foundations of Development
The Collaborative Gene
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH Do
Children Conceived Through In Vitro Fertilization
Show Significant Differences in Developmental
Outcomes in Adolescence? 66
52
Natural Selection and Adaptive Behavior
Adoption
38
APPENDIX
19
3 Theories of Development
BEGINNINGS
37
37
15
The Significance of Age
Developmental Issues
Where Is
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Pam Reid,
Educational and Developmental Psychologist
� connect Connecting with Connect 43
15
Periods of Development
34
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH
Life-Span Research Published? 36
Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional
Processes
29
29
32
Time Span of Research
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Improving Family Policy 13
2 The Nature of Development
28
4 Research in Life-Span Development
Characteristics of the Life-Span
Perspective
27
An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
6
25
26
Ecological Theory
The Importance of Studying Life-Span
Development
23
Ethological Theory
The Life-Span Perspective
SECTION 2
2
65
59
68
68
Heredity-Environment Correlations 69
Shared and Nonshared Environmental
Experiences
70
The Epigenetic View and Gene X
Environment (G X E) Interaction
70
Conclusions About Heredity-Environment
Interaction
71
� connect Connecting with Connect
75
CHAPTER 3
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Waterbirth to Music Therapy 94
Prenatal Development
and Birth 76
Prenatal Development
Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants
78
3 The Postpartum Period
Teratology and Hazards to Prenatal
Prenatal Care
Emotional and Psychological Adjustments
89
Normal Prenatal Development
2 Birth
90
Bonding
91
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Perinatal Nurse 93
Assessing the Newborn
SECTION 3
INFANCY
101
;,:, connect Connecting with Connect
Linda Pugh,
104
93
106
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
Physical Development
in Infancy 108
Cognitive Development
in Infancy 142
Physical Growth and Development
in Infancy
Piaget's Theory of Infant Development
Cognitive Processes
110
110
The Sensorimotor Stage
Height and Weight
111
Evaluating Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage
The Brain
111
117
148
2 Learning, Remembering, and Conceptualizing
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Improving the Nutrition of Infants and Young
Children Living in Low-Income Families 121
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Pediatrician 121
2 Motor Development
Conditioning
Attention
T. Berry Brazelton,
122
153
Memory
155
Imitation
155
3 Individual Differences and Assessment
123
Measures of Infant Development
Gross Motor Skills
Fine Motor Skills
124
3 Sensory and Perceptual Development
What Are Sensation and Perception?
Visual Perception
128
Predicting Intelligence
128
158
158
159
4 Language Development
129
Defining Language
129
160
160
Language's Rule Systems
161
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Can
Newborns' Perception Be Studied? 130
How Language Develops
162
Other Senses
An lnteractionist View
134
Intermodal Perception 136
Nature, Nurture, and Perceptual Development
Perceptual-Motor Coupling
156
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Toosje Thyssen
Van Beveren, Infant Assessment Specialist 159
127
The Ecological View
152
153
Concept Formation and Categorization
122
The Dynamic Systems View
Reflexes
146
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Do
Researchers Study Infants' Understanding of Object
Permanence and Causality? 149
115
Nutrition
144
144
Patterns of Growth
Sleep
99
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Diane Sanford,
Clinical Psychologist and Postpartum Expert 100
91
The Birth Process
99
99
Physical Adjustments
82
Development
95
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Does
Massage Therapy Affect the Mood and Behavior of
Babies? 98
78
The Course of Prenatal Development
From
137
e connect Connecting with Connect
141
137
Biological and Environmental Influences
165
168
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE How
Parents Can Facilitate Infants' and Toddlers'
Language Development 169
� connect Connecting with Connect 173
Contents
vii
CHAPTER 6
Individual Differences in Attachment
Socioemotional Development
in Infancy 175
Caregiving Styles and Attachment
Emotional and Personality Development
Emotional Development
177
177
181
Temperament
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Parenting and the Child's Temperament
184
185
Personality Development
187
Social Orientation/Understanding
Attachment and Its Development
SECTION 4
187
Sleep
Illness and Death
211
The Self
214
Moral Development
216
219
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
theMind 222
Toolsof
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH HowDoes
TheoryofMind Differ in Children with Autism? 229
230
230
231
Advances in Pragmatics 232
Young Children's Literacy 232
Education for Young Children Who Are
viii
Contents
235
Parenting
255
255
Child Maltreatment
258
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Marriage and Family Therapist
Darla Botkin,
259
Sibling Relationships and Birth Order
261
262
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Communicating With Children About
Divorce 265
3 Peer Relations, Play, and Media/Screen Time
233
Variations in Early Childhood Education
Disadvantaged
247
248
The Changing Family in a Changing Society
Understanding Phonology and Morphology
245
251
2 Families
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Helen Hadani,
Developmental Psychologist, Toy Designer, and
LANGO Regional Director 227
Changes in Syntax and Semantics
237
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH Are
Specific Components of Parenting Linked to Specific
Emotions in Children? 249
Gender
223
4 Early Childhood Education
Wanda Mitchell,
245
Emotional Development
216
3 Language Development
197
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Child-Care Director 198
Emotional and Personality Development
212
Information Processing
Child Care
Socioemotional Development
in Early Childhood 243
210
Piaget's Preoperational Stage
Vygotsky's Theory
194
CHAPTER 8
212
2 Cognitive Changes
193
The Family
Controversies in Early Childhood Education
g connect Connecting with Connect 241
210
Nutrition and Exercise
3 Social Contexts
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Yolanda Garcia,
Director of Children's Services/Head Start 237
Physical and Cognitive
Development in Early
Childhood 208
Motor Development
193
206
CHAPTER 7
Body Growth and Change
Attachment
189
EARLY CHILDHOOD
Physical Changes
Developmental Social Neuroscience and
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH HowDoes
the Quality and Quantity of Child Care Affect
Children? 199
� connect Connecting with Connect 203
2 Social Orientation/Understanding and
Attachment
189
192
Peer Relations
234
Play
268
269
Media and Screen Time 271
g connect Connecting with Connect
275
267
SECTION 5
MIDDLE AND LATE CHILDHOOD
CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 10
Physical and Cognitive
Development in Middle and
Late Childhood 280
Socioemotional Development
in Middle and Late
Childhood 316
Physical Changes and Health
Body Growth and Change
The Brain
Exercise
282
Emotional and Personality Development
282
The Self
282
Motor Development
283
2 Children With Disabilities
Educational Issues
Emotional Development 321
Moral Development 323
284
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Child Life Specialist 286
The Scope of Disabilities
Sharon Mcleod,
287
292
292
293
308
309
334
335
Peer Status
How Much
304
307
336
337
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH What Are
the Perspective-Taking and Moral Motivation Skill
Levels of Bullies, Bully-Victims, Victims, and
Prosocia/ Children? 338
Friends
4 Schools
307
339
340
Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning 340
Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, and Culture 342
Bilingualism and Second-Language Learning
309
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Salvador Tamayo,
Bilingual Education Teacher 311
Connecting with Connect 315
� connect
ADOLESCENCE
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS James Comer,
Child Psychiatrist 344
� comecr Connecting with Connect 350
352
CHAPTER 11
The Brain
Physical and Cognitive
Development in
Adolescence 354
Adolescent Sexuality
1 The Nature of Adolescence
2 Physical Changes
Puberty
358
335
335
Social Cognition
Vocabulary, Grammar, and Metalinguistic
Reading
Stepfamilies
333
Developmental Changes
305
4 Language Development
Writing
333
Bullying
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH
Does Environment Affect Intelligence?
Awareness
Attachment
3 Peers
299
Extremes of Intelligence
332
Parents as Managers
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Strategies for Increasing Children's Creative
Thinking 297
Intelligence
328
Developmental Changes in Parent-Child
Relationships 332
287
Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory
Information Processing
Gender
2 Families
290
3 Cognitive Changes
318
318
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Increasing Children's Self-Esteem 320
283
Health, Illness, and Disease
SECTION 6
278
358
356
361
362
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Lynn Blankenship,
Family and Consumer Science Educator 365
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Reducing Adolescent Pregnancy 366
3 Issues in Adolescent Health
Adolescent Health
367
367
Contents
ix
Substance Use and Abuse
Eating Disorders
370
2 Families
371
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH What Can
Families Do to Reduce Drinking and Smoking in
Young Adolescents? 372
4 Adolescent Cognition
Adolescent Egocentrism
Information Processing
5 Schools
373
375
375
The Transition to Middle or Junior High School
Effective Schools for Young Adolescents
378
379
Service Learning
381
384
The Self, Identity, and Religious/Spiritual
392
Forcible Sexual Behavior and Sexual
Harassment
422
422
The Transition From High School to College
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Grace Leaf,
College/Career Counselor 425
Substance Abuse
429
Contents
Creativity
438
438
440
5 Careers and Work
441
442
442
Monitoring the Occupational Outlook
The Impact of Work
431
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Cognitive Stages
Finding a Path to Purpose
443
Diversity in the Workplace
Sexual Activity in Emerging Adulthood
Sexual Orientation and Behavior
4 Cognitive Development
Developmental Changes
427
428
3 Sexuality
x
425
426
Regular Exercise
424
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE Flow and
Other Strategies for Living a More Creative Life 440
425
Physical Performance and Development
Eating and Weight
436
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How
Prevalent Are Sexual Assaults on College
Campuses? 437
The Transition From Adolescence to
Health
410
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Pat Hawkins,
Community Psychologist and Director of an
HIV/AIDS Clinic 435
Physical and Cognitive
Development in Early
Adulthood 420
2 Physical Development
Depression and Suicide 408
The Interrelation of Problems and Successful
418
CHAPTER 13
Becoming an Adult
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Rodney
Hammond, Health Psychologist 407
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH Which
Children Are Most Likely to Benefit From Early
Intervention? 411
� connect· Connecting with Connect 415
388
389
EARLY ADULTHOOD
405
406
Prevention/Intervention Programs
388
401
401
403
Juvenile Delinquency
Religious and Spiritual Development
399
403
5 Adolescent Problems
Socioemotional Development
in Adolescence 386
Adulthood
Dating and Romantic Relationships
The Media
CHAPTER 12
SECTION 7
397
Ethnicity
381
� connect Connecting with Connect
Identity
397
Peer Groups
Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Extracurricular Activities
Self-Esteem
397
Friendships
4 Culture and Adolescent Development
379
Development
395
395
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE Effective
and Ineffective Strategies for Making Friends 398
378
High School
394
Management
Autonomy and Attachment
Parent-Adolescent Conflict
3 Peers
3 74
Piaget's Theory
394
Parental Monitoring and Information
432
434
432
445
� connect· Connecting with Connect
448
443
CHAPTER 14
Married Adults
Socioemotional Development
in Early Adulthood 450
Divorced Adults
Stability and Change From Childhood
to Adulthood
Attachment
452
Becoming a Parent
453
456
456
457
Falling Out of Love
461
SECTION 8
470
Janis Keyser,
471
5 Gender, Relationships, and Self-Development
Gender and Communication
473
473
Women's Development 473
Men's Development 474
� connect Connecting with Connect
461
Cohabiting Adults
467
467
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE Coping
and Adapting in the Aftermath of Divorce 472
459
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH What Are
the Positive Outcomes to a Romantic Relationship
Breakup? 460
3 Adult Lifestyles
466
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Parent Educator 471
Dealing With Divorce
The Faces of Love
Single Adults
466
Gay and Lesbian Adults
Making Marriage Work
2 Attraction, Love, and Close Relationships
Attraction
465
Remarried Adults
4 Marriage and the Family
452
Temperment
462
477
461
480
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
CHAPTER 15
CHAPTER 16
Physical and Cognitive
Development in Middle
Adulthood 482
Socioemotional Development
in Middle Adulthood 508
The Nature of Middle Adulthood
Changing Midlife
2 Physical Development
Stages of Adulthood
485
486
Contexts of Midlife Development
486
Conclusions
494
517
519
520
521
522
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Strategies for Parents and Their Young Adult
Children 523
497
Sibling Relationships and Friendships
499
Grandparenting
499
Career Challenges and Changes
514
515
517
Love and Marriage at Midlife
4 Careers, Work, and Leisure
5 Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life
501
Religion, Spirituality, and Adult Lives 501
Religion, Spirituality, and Health 502
502
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Spirituality, and Coping 503
Religion,
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Gabriel Dy-Liacco,
Pastoral Counselor 503
e connect Connecting with Connect 507
523
524
Intergenerational Relationships
500
500
Meaning in Life
Longitudinal Studies
3 Close Relationships
495
Information Processing
Work in Midlife
2 Stability and Change
The Empty Nest and Its Refilling
3 Cognitive Development
Leisure
489
491
491
Intelligence
513
Stress and Personal Control in Midlife
Health, Disease, Stress, and Control
Sexuality
510
The Life-Events Approach
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Does
Fitness in Young Adults Correlate with
Cardiovascular Health in Middle Age? 489
Mortality Rates
51 O
Development
484
484
Defining Middle Adulthood
Physical Changes
Personality Theories and Adult
525
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Do
Mothers' and Daughters' Descriptions of Enjoyable
Visits Differ at Different Points in Adult
Development? 527
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Lillian Troll,
Professor of Psychology and Life-Span
Development and Researcher on Families and
Aging Women 528
� connect Connecting with Connect 531
Contents
xi
SECTION 9
LATE ADULTHOOD
532
CHAPTER 17
4 Mental Health
Physical Development in Late
Adulthood 534
536
Longevity
Life Expectancy and Life Span
539
543
The Aging Brain
Sleep
543
5 Religion and Spirituality
Sensory Development
547
The Circulatory System and Lungs
3 Health
549
598
598
Selective Optimization with Compensation
551
Health Treatment
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH How Do
Emotions Change Across Adulthood? 600
554
557
Sarah Kagan,
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Care Providers and Older Adults 559
e connect Connecting with Connect 563
Health
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Strategies for Effectively Engaging in Selective
Optimization with Compensation 601
2 Personality, the Self, and Society
The Self and Society
603
Older Adults in Society
Cognitive Development in Late
Adulthood 564
Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults
566
Multidimensionality and Multidirectionality
566
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH Does the
Time of Day an Older Adult's or a Younger Adult's
Memory Is Tested Affect the Results? 572
Education, Work, and Health
576
Cognitive Neuroscience and Aging
2 Language Development
3 Work and Retirement
Lifestyle Diversity
577
579
580
580
Retirement in the United States and in Other
582
Adjustment to Retirement
583
608
608
Older Adult Parents and Their Adult Children
Great-Grandparenting
Friendship
610
610
610
Social Support and Social Integration
Altruism and Volunteerism
611
612
4 Ethnicity, Gender, and Culture
Gender
575
Training Cognitive Skills
605
3 Families and Social Relationships
Ethnicity
573
602
602
Personality
CHAPTER 18
Use It or Lose It
600
Theory
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Geriatric Nurse 558
Contents
596
596
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Substance Use and Abuse 553
Exercise, Nutrition, and Weight
xii
593
Theories of Socioemotional Development
Activity Theory
551
Countries
590
Socioemotional Development
in Late Adulthood 594
Erikson's Theory
550
Health Problems
Work
Meeting
589
CHAPTER 19
545
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH Does
Staying Intellectually Challenged Affect One's
Quality of Life and Longevity? 546
Sexuality
588
545
Physical Appearance and
Movement
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
the Mental Health Needs of Older Adults
� connect Connecting with Connect
545
The Immune System
587
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Jan Weaver,
Director of the Alzheimer's Association of Dallas
540
2 The Course of Physical Development in Late
Adulthood
Afflictions 585
Fear of Victimization, Crime, and Elder
Maltreatment
536
The Young-Old and the Oldest-Old
Biological Theories of Aging
584
Depression 584
Dementia, Alzheimer Disease, and Other
613
613
614
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Norma Thomas,
Social Work Professor and Administrator 614
Culture
614
5 Successful Aging
615
� connect Connecting with Connect
619
SECTION 10
ENDINGS
620
CHAPTER 20
Perceived Control and Denial
Death, Dying, and
Grieving 622
The Contexts in Which People Die
Communicating With a Dying Person
624
The Death System and Its Cultural
Changing Historical Circumstances
625
2 Defining Death and Life/Death Issues
626
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Kathy
McLaughlin, Home Hospice Nurse 629
Causes of Death
Forms of Mourning
629
630
Attitudes Toward Death at Different Points in the Life
Span
630
4 Facing One's Own Death
632
Kubler-Ross' Stages of Dying
Making Sense of the World
638
638
CONNECTING THROUGH RESEARCH What Are
Some Connections Between Marital Status and
Length of Widowhood and Health In Women? 639
626
3 A Developmental Perspective on Death
635
Losing a Life Partner
626
Decisions Regarding Life, Death, and Health
Care
Grieving
634
635
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Effective Strategies for Communicating With a
Dying Person 636
624
Issues in Determining Death
634
5 Coping With the Death of Someone Else
The Death System and Cultural Contexts
Variations
634
640
� connect' Connecting with Connect
644
Glossary G-7
References R- 7
Credits C-7
Name Index NI 7
Subject Index SI
632
Contents
xiii
expert
consultants
Life-span development has become an enormous, complex field, and no single author, or even several authors, can possibly keep up with all of
the rapidly changing content in the many periods and different areas of life-span development. To solve this problem, author John Santrock has
sought the input of leading experts about content in a number of areas of life-span development. These experts have provided detailed evaluations
and recommendations in their area(s) of expertise.
The following individuals were among those who served as expert consultants for one or more of the previous editions of this text:
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Cornell University
Margie Lachman
Brandeis University
K. Warner Schaie
Pennsylvania State University
James Garbarino
Cornell University
Paul Baltes
Max Planck Institute, Berlin
Elena Grigorenko
Yale University
Tiffany Field
University of Miami
William Hoyer
Syracuse University
James Birren
University of Southern California
Ross Parke
University of California-Riverside
Jean Berko Gleason
Boston University
Ross Thompson
University of California-Davis
Gilbert Gottlieb
University of North Carolina
Phyllis Moen
University of Minnesota
Karen Adolph
New York University
Ravenna Helson
University of California-Berkeley
Joseph Campos
University of California-Berkeley
Toni Antonucci
University of Michigan
Jean Mandler
University of California-San Diego
Arthur Kramer
University of Illinois
James Marcia
Concordia University
Karen Fingerman
Purdue University
Andrew Meltzoff
University of Washington
Cigdem Kagitcibasi
Koc University
Elizabeth Susman
Pennsylvania State University
Robert Kastenbaum
Arizona State University
John Schulenberg
University of Michigan
Following are the biographies and photographs of the expert consultants for the fourteenth edition of this text, who (like the expert consultants for the previous seven editions) literally represent a Whos Who in the field of life-span development.
K. Warner Schaie is widely
recognized as one of the pioneers who created the field
of life-span development and continues to be one of its
leading experts. He is currently the Evan Pugh Professor Emeritus of Human Development and Psychology
at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Schaie also holds
an appointment as Affiliate Professor of Psychiatry and
Behavioral Sciences at the University of Washington.
He received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Washington,
an honorary Dr. Phil. from the Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena,
Germany, and an honorary Sc.D. degree from West Virginia University.
He received the Kleemeier Award for Distinguished Research Contributions and the Distinguished Career Contribution to Gerontology Award
from the Gerontological Society of America, the MENSA lifetime career
award, and the Distinguished Scientific Contributions award from the
American Psychological Association. He is author or editor of 62 books,
including the textbook Adult Development and Aging (5th edition, with
S. L. Willis) and the Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (6th edition,
with J.E. Birren). He has directed the Seattle Longitudinal Study of cognitive aging since 1956 and is the author of more than 300 journal articles and chapters on the psychology of aging. His current research
interests focus on the life course of adult intelligence, its antecedents and
modifiability, the impact of cognitive activity in midlife on the integrity
of brain structures in old age, the early detection of risk for dementia,
and methodological issues in the developmental sciences.
and scholarly sound and discusses .findings that have stood the test of time as
well as integrating the most recent advances in research methods and research
.findings. Each of the chapters is a comprehensive presentation of a particular
phase or aspect of development but is expertly linked to earlier phases to keep
the reader intrigued to follow the entire story from beginning to end. I believe
this text to be undoubtedly the classic presentation of the psychology of the
lifespan, easiest to teach, and most accessible for the average student."
-K. Warner Schaie University of Washington
'1 believe John Santrock has done a marvelous job of crafting a comprehensive
presentation ofpsychological development across the life span. It is factually
'.'.4.s with Dr. Santrock's other books, the research base for this updated
edition of Life-Span Development remains very timely and focused on the
K. Warner Schaie
xiv
Kirby Deater-Decka rd Dr. Deater-Deckard
is a leading expert on biological foundations of development, heredity-environment interaction, and parenting. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of
Virginia and currently is a professor and the director
of graduate programs in psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dr. DeaterDeckard's research focuses on the development of
individual differences in childhood and adolescence, with an emphasis
on gene-environment processes. He has written papers and book chapters in the areas of developmental psychology and psychopathology. His
current research on parenting and children's development is funded by
the NICHD. Dr. Deater-Deckard has been joint editor of the Journal of
Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and currently is on the editorial boards
of Infant and Child Development, Journal of Family Psychology, and Parenting: Science and Practice.
most important concepts and findings with respect to the biological
beginnings of humans. The chapter provides quite comprehensive coverage
of behavioral/molecular genetic and gene-environment transaction concepts
and findings .... Dr. Santrock's books are written at just the right level for a
wide variety of students. The prose is clear and concise, without sacrificing
content." -Dr. Kirby Deater-Deckard Virginia Tech University
Maria Hernandez-Reif Dr. Maria HernandezReif is a leading expert on prenatal development, birth,
and infant perception. She currently is a professor in the
Department of Human Development and Family Studies and the director of the Pediatric Development Research (PDR) laboratory at the University of Alabama.
Dr. Hernandez-Reif's research expertise and interests are
in infant perception and development, as well as massage
therapy. She has conducted numerous research studies with Dr. Tiffany Field
on the effects of massage therapy in improving various developmental outcomes for preterm and low birth weight babies. She recently established the
Pediatric Development Research Laboratory at the University of Alabama.
Her current research continues to focus on massage therapy and also on the
role that maternal depression plays in developmental outcomes for young
children.
''. .. the chapters were comprehensive and read seamlessly from section to
section. Moreover, the writing style is easy to follow and engages the reader. I
feel that the narrative and perspective reflect the most current scholarship in
the field.... The level of detail provided in Chapters 3 and 4 is impressive....
the chapters will be a great addition for students enrolled in a life-span
development course." -Maria Hernandez-Reif University ofAlabama
Ross Thompson Ross Thompson is one of the
world's leading experts on children's socioemotional development. He currently is Professor of Psychology at
the University of California-Davis, where he directs
the Social and Emotional Development Lab. A developmental psychologist, Dr. Thompson studies early
parent-child relationships, the development of emotion
understanding and emotion regulation, early moral development, and the growth of self-understanding in young children. He
also works on the applications of developmental research to public policy
concerns, including school readiness and its development, early childhood
investments, and early mental health. Dr. Thompson is a founding member
of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Dr. Thompson
has twice been Associate Editor of Child Development. He received the
Boyd McCandless Young Scientist Award for Early Distinguished Achievement from the American Psychological Association, the Scholarship in
Teaching Award, and the Outstanding Research and Creative Activity
Award from the University of Nebraska, where he was also a lifetime member of the Academy of Distinguished Teachers.
"The writing is clear and engaging, and students are moved in a logical and
effortless manner from topic to topic. John Santrock does a remarkable job
of maintaining currency with the field, such that students are given a brief
but state-of-the-art introduction to each of the relevant issues for each
chapter." -Ross Thompson University of California-Davis
Diane Hughes Diane Hughes is a leading expert
on diversity and children's development. Following her
doctoral work at the University of Michigan, she became a professor in the Department of Psychology at
New York University and currently is a faculty member
in the Steinhardt Department of Applied Psychology at
New York University. Dr. Hughes is a community and
developmental psychologist who examines ethnicity and race as contexts
for parenting and adolescent development. She seeks to discover how parents from a range of ethnic backgrounds communicate information about
ethnicity and race in the course of their everyday routines and practices.
Dr. Hughes and her colleagues have been awarded multi-million-dollar
grants from the National Science Foundation to establish and maintain the
Center for Research on Culture, Development, and Education at New York
University.
"It was a pleasure reading the manuscript of the new edition of John
Santrock's book, Life-Span Development. I imagine it will be very engaging
and informative for students and easy to plan with and lecture from for
professors .... thank you for the opportunity to read this." -Diane Hughes
New York University
William Hoyer William Hoyer is one of the
world's leading experts on cognitive aging. He currently
is professor of psychology and senior scientist at the
Center for Health and Behavior at Syracuse University,
where he teaches courses in adult development and aging. At Syracuse, he also is an associate of the Gerontology Center, director of the Graduate Training Program
in Experimental Psychology, and research professor of
ophthalmology at Upstate Medical University. Dr. Hoyer obtained an undergraduate degree in psychology from Rutgers College, and his M.S. and
Ph.D. in experimental psychology from West Virginia University. His research interests center on skill learning, memory, and cognitive expertise
from a developmental perspective. Dr. Hoyer is currently the principal
investigator on a five-year research grant titled "Aging of Cognitive Mechanisms" from the National Institute on Aging. His publications include
seven books and over 100 articles in such journals as Developmental Psychology, Psychology and Aging, and Journal of Gerontology: Psychological
Sciences. Dr. Hoyer is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association,
the American Psychological Society, and the Gerontological Society of
America. He serves or has served on a number of grant review panels and
on the editorial boards for journals, including Developmental Psychology;
Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences; Aging, Neuropsychology,
and Cognition; and Psychology and Aging.
"The distinctions that influence adoption I think have largely to do with the
match to students in terms of difficulty and breadth/depth of coverage,
author credibility, and currency.... John Santrock again is positioned to
stay ahead of the curve on these critical dimensions. He somehow manages
to know about the latest work in the field.... New materials for the
fourteenth edition look great!" -William Hoyer Syracuse University
John Schulenberg
Dr. John Schulenberg is a
leading expert on adolescent development and emerging adulthood. He currently is a professor of psychology
in the Institute of Social Research and the Center for
Human Growth and Development at the University of
Michigan. His research expertise focuses on developmental transitions in adolescence and emerging adulthood that involve health and well-being, substance use
and abuse, and conceptualization of developmental change. Dr. Schulenberg
is one of the key members of the research team that conducts the ongoing
Monitoring the Future study at the Institute of Social Research. He recently
became President of the Society for Research on Adolescent Development.
"Great chapter (Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence),
covering all major topics from my perspective, with many up-to-date
references.... From my view, this chapter (Socioemotional Development
in Adolescence) read well, covers the major topics, and has up-to-date
references included." - John Schulenberg University of Michigan
Expert Consultants
xv
Phyllis Moen
Dr. Moen is a leading expert on
adult socioemotional development. She currently holds
the McKnight Presidential Chair in Sociology at the
University of Minnesota. Across a number of decades,
she has been a leading researcher on career development, gender, families, and well-being. She considers
herself a life course scholar, which means that she is interested in time. A major current research project focuses on flexible work and well-being. In her own words, she describes her
research interests as follows:
Specifically, what are the patterned ways jobs, retirement, civic engagement, families, and lives play out over the life course? And what are the
impacts of these different pathways? Individuals and families make key
decisions-about jobs, about retirement, about community participation, about relationships, about health practices-at all life stages. But
their "choices" are shaped by the culture and structure of age, gender,
organizations, communities, and social policies in which they are embedded, as well as by their previous experiences, along with any broadscale social changes along the way. Diverse pathways over the life course,
in turn, result in disparities in health, stress, and life quality in the middle and later adult years. Improving life chances and life quality of individuals and families often means changing the multilayered contexts of
their lives.
Dr. Moen's books include Its About Time: Couples and Careers and The
Career Mystique: Cracks in the American Dream ( co-authored with Patricia
Roehling).
"Chapter 13 (Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood):
Good discussion of obesity ... great discussion of Csikszentmihalyi ...
good discussion of dual-earner families ... Chapter 16 (Socioemotional
Development in Middle Adulthood): Good discussion of theories ... Good
discussion ofAlmeidas work ... Good discussion ofgrandparent literature ...
Chapter 19 (Sociemotional Development in Late Adulthood): Good discussion
of Carstensen ... Good discussion of marriage and the family ... Nice to
end on successful aging." -Phyllis Moen University of Minnesota
David Almeida David Almeida is one of the
world's leading experts on stress and coping in the
field of life-span development. He obtained his Ph.D.
from the University of Victoria and currently is Professor of Human Development at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Almeida's research focuses on how daily
experiences in families and other social contexts, such
as work and leisure, influence health and well-being in
adulthood and aging. His research has been funded by grants from the
National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Aging, the
MacArthur Foundation, the Kellogg Foundation, and the Sloan Foundation. Dr. Almeida has published extensively in leading research journals in
adult development and aging and recently contributed a chapter titled
"The Speedometer of Life: Stress, Health, and Aging" to the Handbook of
the Psychology of Aging (Almeida, Piazza, Stawski, & Kline, 2011 ).
"The number of new citations is wonderful. Each page I read had findings
from new studies published after 2010. It really gave me the sense that I
xvi
Expert Consultants
was reading the most up-to-date work in human development. The
Topical Connection is not only a great learning device, it encourages
developmental thinking. This will help instructors to drive home important
developmental issues of looking backward and lookingforward as a way of
understanding individuals." -David Almeida Pennsylvania State
University
Crystal Park Crystal Park is a leading expert on
religious beliefs and religious coping, stress, and death
and dying. She currently is Professor of Psychology at
the University of Connecticut. Dr. Park has developed
a comprehensive model of meaning-making coping
that focuses on how people find meaning or create
meaning out of negative life events. Her research has
been funded by the Templeton Foundation, the Lance
Armstrong Foundation, and the National Center for Complementary and
Alternative Medicine. Dr. Park also is associate editor of Psychology of Religion; Psychology and Health; and the International Journal of the Psychology
ofReligion. She was a recipient of the Early Career Award from the Psychology of Religion division of the American Psychological Association.
"In reading through these chapters, I once again am amazed and inspired
by how much solid research is accurately and succinctly being presented.
These chapters cover so much material and yet are very specific and
grounded in empirical literature." -Crystal Park University of Connecticut
Arthur Kramer is the
Director of the Beckman
Institute for Advanced Science & Technology and the
Swanlund Chair and Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of Illinois. He received his
Ph.D. in Cognitive/Experimental Psychology from the
University of Illinois in 1984. He holds appointments in
the Department of Psychology, Neuroscience program,
and the Beckman Institute. Professor Kramer's research
projects include topics in Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience,
Aging, and Human Factors. A major focus of his recent research is the understanding and enhancement of cognitive and neural plasticity across the
life span. He is a former Associate Editor of Perception and Psychophysics
and is currently a member of six editorial boards. Professor Kramer is also
a fellow of the American Psychological Association, American Psychological Society, a former member of the executive committee of the International Society of Attention and Performance, and a recent recipient of a
NIH Ten Year MERIT Award. Professor Kramer's research has been featured in a long list of print, radio, and electronic media including the New
York Times, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, CBS
Evening News, Today Show, NPR, and Saturday Night Live.
" ... I very much enjoyed reading Chapters 17 (Physical Development and
Aging) and 18 (Cognitive Development and Aging) of the 13th edition of
Life-Span Development. The material is up-to-date and the different
connections that are integrated within the chapters render the material
quite accessible to todays students." -Arthur Kramer University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
McGraw-Hill Connect Lifespan
Development
adaptive learning system
McGraw-Hill Connect® Psychology is our response to today's student. The
&,,
groundbreaking adaptive learning system helps students "know what they know"
C01111ed®
Santrock
while helping them learn what they don't know through engaging interactive
Standlngsfo,yoursectlon �
exercises, click/drag activities, the Milestones program, and video clips. Instructors
using Connect are reporting that their students' performance is improving by a letter
grade or more. Through this unique tool, Life-Span Development gives instructors the
ability to identify struggling students quickly and easily, before the first exam.
Connect Psychology's adaptive diagnostic tool develops an individualized
learning plan for every student. Confidence levels tailor the next question to each
individual, helping students to identify what they don't know. If a student is doing
well, the adaptive diagnostic tool will challenge the student with more applied and
conceptual questions. If the student is struggling, the system identifies problem areas
and directs the student to the exact page they need to read. In doing so, it works like
a GPS, helping students master key concepts efficiently and effectively.
Regardless of individual study habits, preparation, and approaches to the course, students will
find that Life-Span Development connects with them on a personal, individual basis and provides a
road map for success in the course.
milestones
Experience life as it unfolds
Engage with real children developing over time.
Test your ability to apply course content to real children, adolescents, and adults.
McGraw Hill's Milestones is a powerful tool that allows students to experience life as it unfolds,
from infancy to late adulthood.
Milestones consists of two essential components that work together to capture key changes
throughout the lifespan-Milestones of Child Development and Milestones: Transitions.
In Milestones of Child Development, students
track the early stages of physical, social, and emotional
development. By watching one child over time or
comparing various children, Milestones provides a unique,
experiential learning environment that can only be achieved
by watching real human development as it happens-all in
Where else can you watch real children reaching developmental milestones over
time, from infancy through early childhood?
pre-, transitional, and post-milestone segments.
In Milestones: Transitions, students meet a series of
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people-from teenagers to individuals in late adulthoodto hear individual perspectives on changes that occur
throughout the the life span. Through a series of
interviews, students are given the opportunity to think
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critically while exploring the differences in attitudes on
everything from body image to changes in emotion,
sexuality, cognitive processes, and death and dying.
xviii
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assignable and assessable activities keyed to learning
objectives
Whether a class is face-to-face, hybrid, or entirely online, Life-Span Development provides the tools
needed to reduce the amount of time and energy that instructors must expend to administer their
course. At the end of each chapter, assignable and assessable activities are correlated with key topic
areas.
Chapter 12
SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
IN ADOLESCENCE
Connecting with
Learning Objectives
Application Activities
Discusschangesinselt-esteem
Girls'ViewsonSelf-Esteem
•connect
Activity Type
Page Reference
pp.388-389
atAge14
ldentlrythechangesinidentfty
during adolescence.
pp.389-392
Adolescent Perspectives on
Emotions
Marcia's Four Statuses or
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Denning Ethnic Identity
ComlngOut
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Girls and Body Image
Describe autonomy and
Vfdeo
Adolescent Loneliness
p.395
Relationships with Parents
at Age 14
pp.395-396
attachment during adolescence.
Summarizeparenh1dolescem
contllctdurlngadotescence.
Relationships with Parents at
Age15
RelationshlpswithParentsat
Age 16
Video
Characterize the changes in
friendships during adolescence.
Importance of Peers
p.397
Friendship In Adolescence
ViewsonFamilyandPeersat
Age15
Friendship in Adolescence at
Age15
MCGRAW-HILL/BB/DO MORE
Through McGraw-Hill's partnership with Blackboard®, Life-Span Development offers a
seamless integration of content and tools:
Seamless gradebook between Blackboard and Connect
Single sign-on providing seamless integration between McGraw-Hill content and
Blackboard
Simplicity in assigning and engaging your students with course materials
McGraw-Hill Connect Lifespan Development
xix
create
Craft your teaching resources to match the way you teach! With McGraw-Hill Create?' (www.mcgrawhillcreate.
com), you can easily rearrange chapters, combine material from other content sources, and quickly upload
content you have written, such as your course syllabus or teaching notes. Find the content you need in Create
by searching through thousands ofleading McGraw-Hill textbooks. Arrange your book to fit your teaching
style. Create even allows you to personalize your book's appearance by selecting the cover and adding your
name, school, and course information. Order a Create book and you'll receive a complimentary print review
copy in three to five business days or a complimentary electronic review copy (eComp) via e-mail in about an
hour. Go to www.mcgrawhillcreate.com today and register. Experience how McGraw-Hill Create empowers
you to teach your students your way.
acreate
tegrity
McGraw-Hill Tegrity® is a service that makes class time available all the time by automatically capturing
every lecture in a searchable format for students to review when they study and complete assignments. With a
simple, one-click start and stop process, users capture all computer screens and corresponding audio.
Students replay any part of any class with easy-to-use, browser-based viewing on a PC or Mac. Educators
know that the more students can see, hear, and experience class resources, the better they learn. With Tegrity,
students quickly recall key moments by using Tegrity's unique search feature. This search helps students
efficiently find what they need, when they need it, across an entire semester of class recordings. Help turn all
your students' study time into learning moments immediately supported by your lecture.
Oegrity.
CourseSmart
This text is available as an eTextbook at www.CourseSmart.com. At CourseSmart your students can take
advantage of significant savings off the cost of a print textbook, reduce their impact on the environment, and gain
access to powerful Web tools for learning. CourseSmart eTextbooks can be viewed online or downloaded to a
computer. The eTextbooks allow students to do full text searches, add highlighting and notes, and share notes
with classmates. CourseSmart has the largest selection of eTextbooks available anywhere. Visit www.CourseSmart.
com to learn more and to try a sample chapter.
xx
McGraw-Hill Connect Lifespan Development
Making Connections ... From My
Classroom to Life-Span Development
to You
Having taught life-span development every semester for 27 years now, I'm always looking for
ways to improve my course and Life-Span Development. Just as McGraw-Hill looks to those
who teach the life-span development course for input, each year I ask the almost 200 students
in my life-span development course to tell me what they like about the course and the text,
and what they think could be improved. What have my students told me lately about my
course and text? Students said that highlighting connections among the different aspects of
life-span development would help them to better understand the concepts. As I thought about
this, it became clear that a connections theme would provide a systematic, integrative approach
to the course material. I used this theme to shape my current goals for my life-span development course, which, in turn, I've incorporated into Life-Span Development:
1.
Connecting with today's students To help students learn about life-span development
more effectively
2.
Connecting research to what we know about development To provide students with
the best and most recent theory and research in the world today about each of the
periods of the human life span
3.
Connecting developmental processes To guide students in making developmental connections across different points in the human life span
4.
Connecting development to the real world To help students understand ways to apply
content about the human life span to the real world and improve people's lives; and to
motivate them to think deeply about their own personal journey through life and better understand who they were, are, and will be
Connecting with Today's Students
In Life-Span Development, I recognize that today's students are as different in some ways from
the learners of the last generation as today's discipline of life-span development is different
from the field 30 years ago. Students now learn in multiple modalities; rather than sitting down
and reading traditional printed chapters in linear fashion from beginning to end, their work
preferences tend to be more visual and more interactive, and their reading and study often
occur in short bursts. For many students, a traditionally formatted printed textbook is no
longer enough when they have instant, 24/7 access to news and information from around the
globe. Two features that specifically support today's students are the adaptive diagnostic tool
and the learning goals system.
The Learning Goals System
My students often report the life-span development course to be challenging because of the
amount of material covered. To help today's students focus on the key ideas, the Learning
Goals System I developed for Life-Span Development provides extensive learning connections
throughout the chapters. The learning system connects the chapter opening outline, learning
goals for the chapter, mini-chapter maps that open each main section of the chapter, Review,
Connect, and Reflect at the end of each main section, and the chapter summary at the end of
each chapter.
The learning system keeps the key ideas
in front of the student from the beginning to
1 Emotional and Personality Development
Discuss the development of emotions and
the end of the chapter. The main headings of
personality in infancy.
each chapter correspond to the learning goals,
Emotional Development
Temperament
Personality Development
which are presented in the chapter-opening
spread. Mini-chapter maps that link up with
O
xxi
Prenatal Development and Birth
•
1 Prenatal Development
The Course of Prenatal
Development
Describe prenatal development.
Prenatal development is divided into three periods: germinal (conception until 10 to
14 days later), which ends when the zygote (a fertilized egg) attaches to the uterine wall;
embryon.ic (two to eight weeks after conception), during which the embryo differentiates
into three layers, life-support systems develop, and organ systems form (organogenesis);
and fetal (from two months after conception until about nine months, or when the infant
is born), a time when organ systems have matured to the point at which life can be sustained outside the womb. The growth of the brain during prenatal development is nothing
short of remarkable. By the time babies are born, they have approximately 100 billion neurons, or nerve cells. Neurogenesis is the term for the formation of new neurons. The nervous system begins with the formation of a neural tube at 18 to 24 days after conception.
Proliferation and migration are two processes that characterize brain development in the
prenatal period. The basic architecture of the brain is formed in the first two trimesters of
prenatal development.
the learning goals are presented at the beginning of each major section in the chapter.
Then, at the end of each main section of a
chapter, the learning goal is repeated in Review,
Connect, and Reflect, which prompts students to
review the key topics in the section, connect to
existing knowledge, and relate what they
learned to their own personal journey through
life. Reach Your Learning Goals, at the end of
the chapter, guides students through the bulleted chapter review, connecting with the chapter outline/learning goals at the beginning of
the chapter and the Review, Connect, and Reflect
questions at the end of major chapter sections.
Connecting Research to What We Know
about Development
connecting through research
Which Children Are Most Likely to Benefit From
Fast Track is an intervention that attempts to lower the risk of juvenile
delinquency and other problems (Conduct Problems Prevention Research
Group, 2010, 2011; Dodge & Mccourt, 2010; Jones & others, 2010;
Miller & others, 2011). Schools in four areas (Durham, North Carolina;
Nashville, Tennessee; Seattle, Washington; and rural central Pennsylvania)
were identified as high-risk based on neighborhood crime and poverty
data. Researchers screened more than 9,000 kindergarten children in the
four schools and randomly assigned 891 of the highest-risk and moderate-risk children to intervention or control groups. The average age of the
children when the intervention began was 6.5 years.
The 10-year intervention consisted of parent behavior management
training, child social cognitive skills training, reading tutoring, home
visitations, mentoring, and a revised classroom curriculum that was designed to increase socioemotional competence and decrease aggression. Outcomes were assessed in the third, sixth, and ninth grades for
conduct disorder (multiple instances of behaviors such as truancy, running away, fire setting, cruelty to animals, breaking and entering, and
excessive fighting across a six-month period), oppositional defiant disorder (an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior
toward authority figures). attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (as
Over the years, it has been important for me to include the most up-to-date research available.
I continue that tradition in this fourteenth edition by looking closely at specific areas of
research, involving experts in related fields, and updating research throughout. Connecting
through Research describes a study or program to illustrate how research in life-span development is conducted and how it influences our understanding of the discipline. Topics range
from Do Children Conceived through In Vitro Fertilization Show Significant Differences in Developmental Outcomes in Adolescence? (Chapter 2) to
How Much Does the Environment Affect Intelligence? (Chapter 9) to What Is the Relationship
Between Fitness in Young Adults and Cardiovascular Health in Middle Age? (Chapter 15).
Early Intervention?
The tradition of obtaining detailed, extensive
described in Chapter 9, being characterized by one or more of these
characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and iminput from a number of leading experts in differpulsivity), any externalizing disorder (presence of any of the three disorent areas of life-span development also continues
ders previously described), and self-reported antisocial behavior (a list
of 34 behaviors, such as skipping school, stealing, and attacking somein this edition. Biographies and photographs of the
one with an intent to hurt them).
The extensive intervention was successful only for children and
leading experts in the field of life-span developadolescents who were identified as having the highest risk in kindergarment appear on pages xiv to xvi, and the chapterten, lowering their incidence of conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, any externalized disorder, and antisocial behavior
by-chapter highlights of new research content are
(Dodge & Mccourt, 2010). Positive outcomes for the intervention occurred as early as the third grade and continued through the ninth
listed on pages xxv to xxxix. Finally, the research
grade. For example, in the ninth grade the intervention reduced the
discussions have been updated in every period and
likelihood that the highest-risk kindergarten children would develop
conduct disorder by 7 5 percent, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
topic. I expended every effort to make this edition
by 53 percent, and any externalized disorder by 43 percent. Recently,
data have been reported through age 19 (Miller & others, 2011).
of Life-Span Development as contemporary and
Findings indicate that the comprehensive Fast Track intervention was
successful in reducing youth arrest rates (Conduct Problems Prevention
up-to-date as possible. To that end, there are more
Research Group, 2011).
than 1,200 citations from 2011, 2012, and 2013 in
the text.
Connecting Developmental Processes
'
,---------.-
I
I
I
developmental connection
I
Two key points in development when
I
there is a strong push for independence
I
I
xxii
Personality
are the second year of life and early adolescenc� Chapter l�p.395
Preface
Development through the life span is a long journey, and too often we forget or fail to notice
the many connections from one point in development to another. I have substantially increased
these connections made in the text narrative. I also created two new features to help students
connect topics across the periods of development.
Developmental Connections, which appear multiple times in each chapter, points readers
to where the topic is discussed in a previous or subsequent chapter. Developmental Connections
highlight links across age periods of development and connections between biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes. These key developmental processes are typically discussed
in isolation from each other, and students often fail to see their connections. Included in the
Developmental Connections is a brief description of the backward or forward
connection. For example, consider the development of the brain. In recent
editions, I have significantly expanded content on the changes in the brain
through the life span, including new coverage of changes in the brain during
prenatal development and an expanded discussion of the aging brain in older
adults. The prenatal brain discussion appears in Chapter 3 and the aging brain
is described in Chapter 17. An important brain topic that we discuss in Chapters 3 and 17 is neurogenesis, the production of new neurons. In this new
edition, connections between these topics in Chapters 3 and 17 are highlighted
through Developmental Connections.
Topical Connections: Looking Back and Looking Forward begin and conclude each chapter by placing the chapter's coverage in the larger context of
development. The Looking Back section reminds the reader of what happened
developmentally in previous periods of development.
Looking Forward prepares the student for what is to happen in a future
period of development. Together, these new features help students construct a
topical understanding of development alongside a chronological one.
Finally, a Connect question appears in the section self-reviews-Review,
Connect, and Reflect-so students can practice making connections between topics. For example, in Chapter 9, students are asked to connect what they learned
in Chapter 7 about the genetic links of autism to what they have just read about
specific brain abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorders.
'
. . -topical connections -------------Genes form the biological basis of our development. They are passed on
through mitosis, meiosis, and, ultimately, fertilization. The impact of our
genes involves the genetic principles of dominate-recessive genes, sex-linked
genes, genetic imprinting, and polygenically determined characteristics.
Approximately 1 Oto 15 percent of U.S. couples have problems with fertility.
Some of these problems can be solved through surgery, drugs, or in vitro
fertilization. Whether a pregnancy occurs naturally or with assistance, the
resulting infant's development is shaped both by his or her genes (nature)
and environment (nurture).
... '
� - - - looking back .
--topical connections ------------- .. ,
This chapter marks the beginning of our chronological look at the journey of
life. In the next three chapters that comprise Section 3 of the book, we will
follow the physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development of infants,
including the theories, research, and milestones associated with the first 18
to 24 months of life. You will learn about the remarkable and complex physical development of infants' motor skills, such as learning to walk; trace the
early development of infants' cognitive skills, such as the ability to form concepts; and explore infants' surprisingly sophisticated socioemotional capabilities, as reflected in the development of their motivation to share and to
perceive others' actions as intentionally motivated.
.. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - looking forward - - - �
Connecting Development to the Real World
In addition to helping students make research and developmental connections, Life-Span
Development shows the important connections between the concepts discussed and the real
world. In recent years, students in my lifespan development course have increasingly told me
that they want more of this type of information. In this edition, real-life connections are
explicitly made through the chapter opening vignette, Connecting Development to Life, the new
Milestones program that helps students watch life as it unfolds, and Connecting with Careers.
Each chapter begins with a story designed to increase students' interest and motivation
to read the chapter.
Connecting Development to Life describes
the influence of development in a real-world
context on topics including From Waterbirth to
Music Therapy (Chapter 3 ), Increasing Chilconnecting development to life
dren's Self-Esteem (Chapter 10), and Health
Care Providers and Older Adults (Chapter 17).
Increasing Children's Self-Esteem
The Milestones program shows students
Ways to improve children's self-esteem include identifying the
another significant adult, or more formally, through programs
what developmental concepts look like by
causes of low self-esteem, providing emotional support
such as Big Brothers and Big Sisters.
and social approval, helping children achieve, and
Help children achieve. Achievement also can imwatching actual humans develop. Starting from
prove children's self-esteem. For example, the
helping children cope (Sednar, Wells. & Peterson,
1995; Harter, 2006, 2012).
straightforward teaching of real skills to chilinfancy, students track several individuals, seedren often results in increased achievement
Identify the causes of low self-esteem.
ing them achieve major developmental mileand, thus, in enhanced self-esteem. Children
Intervention should target the causes of
develop higher self-esteem because they
low self-esteem. Children have the
stones, both physically and cognitively. Clips
know the important tasks that will achieve
highest self-esteem when they perform
their goals, and they have performed them or
continue through adolescence and adulthood,
competently in domains that are imsimilar behaviors in the past.
portant to them. Therefore, children
capturing attitudes toward issues such as family,
• Help children cope. Self-esteem often inshould be encouraged to identify and
creases when children face a problem and try
value areas of competence. These areas
sexuality, and death and dying.
to cope with it, rather than avoid it. If coping
might include academic skills, athletic
Connecting with Careers profiles careers
rather
than avoidance prevails, children face probskills, physical attractiveness, and social
lems realistically, honestly, and nondefensively. This
acceptance.
ranging from an educational psychologist
produces favorable self-evaluative thoughts, which lead
Provide emotional support and social
to the self-generated approval that raises
( Chapter 1) to a toy designer ( Chapter 7) to a
approval. Some children with low selfHow can parents help children develop higher self-esteem?
self-esteem.
esteem come from conflicted families
marriage and family therapist ( Chapter 8) to the
or conditions in which they experienced
abuse or neglect-situations in which support was not available. In
As discussed in the "Emotional Development" section of
director of an organization that promotes posisome cases, alternative sources of support can be arranged either
Chapter B, which parenting approach might help accomplish
tive adolescent development ( Chapter 11) to a
informally through the encouragement of a teacher, a coach, or
the last goal mentioned here? How?
geriatric nurse (Chapter 17), each of which
requires knowledge about human development.
Preface
xxiii
The careers highlighted extend from the
Careers Appendix in Chapter 1 that provides
connecting with careers
a comprehensive overview of careers in lifespan development to show students where
of human development could lead
knowledge
Darla Botkin, Marriage and Family Therapist
them.
Darla Botkin is a marriage and family therapist who teaches, conducts
research, and engages in marriage and family therapy. She is on the facPart of applying development to the real
ulty of the University of Kentucky. Botkin obtained a bachelor's degree in
world
is understanding its impact on oneself.
education
with
a
concentration
in
education
and
then
elementary
special
went on to receive a master's degree in early childhood education. She
An
important
goal I have established for my
spent the next six years working with children and their families in a variety of settings, including child care, elementary school, and Head Start.
life-span development course and this text is to
These experiences led Botkin to recognize the interdependence of the
motivate students to think deeply about their
developmental settings that children and their parents experience (such
as home, school, and work). She returned to graduate school and obown journey of life. To further encourage stutained a Ph.D. in family studies from the University of Tennessee. She
dents to make personal connections to content
then became a faculty member in the Family Studies program at the
University of Kentucky. Completing further coursework and clinical trainin the text, Reflect: Your Own Personal Journey
ing in marriage and family therapy, she became certified as a marriage
and family therapist.
of Life appears in the end-of-section review in
Botkin's current interests include working with young children in
each
chapter. This feature involves a question
family therapy, addressing gender and ethnic issues in family therapy,
and exploring the role of spirituality in family wellness.
Darla Botkin (left) conducting a family therapy session.
that asks students to reflect on some aspect of
the discussion in the section they have just read
For more information about what marriage and family therapists do, see page 47 in the Careers in Life-Span Development
appendix.
and connect it to their own life. For example, in
Chapter l, students are asked:
Do you think there is, was/will be a best age
for you to be? If so, what is it? Why?
I always include this question in the first content lecture I give in life-span development
and it generates thoughtful and interesting class discussion. Earlier in that section of Chapter 1
is a research discussion on whether there is a best age to be, which includes recent research on
the topic and in this edition a new self-assessment that lets students evaluate their own life
satisfaction. In addition, students are asked a number of personal connections questions in the
photograph captions.
xxiv
Preface
Content Revisions
Following are the main chapter-by-chapter changes that were made in this new edition of Life-Span Development.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Extensive updating of research citations
Update on life expectancy in the United States (U.S. Census Bureau,
2011)
Expanded discussion of poverty and children, including updated statistics on the percentage of U.S. children under 18 years of age living in
poverty (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012)
Description of a recent study of more than 300,000 U.S. adults that
revealed an increase in psychological well-being after 50 years of age
(Stone & others, 2010)
New Figure 1.9, How Satisfied Am I with My Life? that gives students
an opportunity to evaluate their life satisfaction on the most widely
used measure in research on life satisfaction (Diener, 2012; Diener &
others, 1985)
Revised and updated commentary about social age and its links to
happiness and longevity (Carstensen & others, 2011)
New Figure 1.18 showing neuroimages of the brains of two adolescents
(one a non-drinker, the other a heavy drinker) while they are engaging
in a memory task
Inclusion of recent research and commentary on Millennials involving
ethnic diversity and technology based on a recent national survey by
the Pew Research Center (2010)
New Figure 1.19 comparing various generations, their historical periods, and their characteristics
Chapter 2: Biological Beginnings
Extensive editing and updating of chapter based on detailed reviews by
leading experts Kirby Deater-Deckard and David Moore
New discussion of the genome-wide association study that is increasingly used to identify genetic variations in individuals who have a
disease compared with those who don't (National Human Genome
Research Institute, 2012)
New coverage of some diseases for which genome-wide association
studies recently have been conducted: childhood obesity (Early Growth
Genetics Consortium & others, 2012), Alzheimer disease (Raj & others,
2012), and cardiovascular disease (Lusis, 2012)
Coverage of recent reviews regarding child and adolescent outcomes
for individuals conceived using new reproductive technologies
(Golombok, 20lla, b; Golombok & Tasker, 2010)
New material indicating that many U.S. adoptions now involve other
family members (aunts/uncles/grandparents): 30 percent of U.S. adoptions are made by relatives and slightly more than 50 percent of U.S.
adoptions involve the foster care system (Ledesma, 2012)
New description of research on the age at which children are adopted
and whether they engage in juvenile delinquency (Laubjerg & Petersson, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study of improved cognitive development in
children who were adopted after they had lived in foster homes and
institutions (van den Dries & others, 2010)
Addition of information about epigenetic mechanisms involving the
actual molecular modification of the DNA strand as a result of environmental inputs in ways that alter gene functioning (Feil & Fraga,
2012; Meaney, 2010)
Updated coverage of the concept of G X E, which involves the interaction of a specific measured variation in the DNA sequence and a specific
measured aspect of the environment (Bihagi & others, 2012; Petersen &
others, 2012; Zannas & others, 2012)
Description of recent research indicating that variations in dopaminerelated genes interact with supportive or unsupportive environments to
influence children's development (Bakermans-Kranenburg & van
IJzendoorn, 2011)
Chapter 3: Prenatal Development and Birth
Description of a recent study that found cigarette smoke weakened
and increased oxidative stress in the fetal membranes from which the
placenta develops (Menon & others, 2011)
Inclusion of information from a recent research review indicating that
high amounts of caffeine consumption by pregnant women do not
increase the risk of miscarriage, congenital malformations, or growth
retardation (Brent, Christian, & Diener, 2011)
Coverage of recent research that found deficiencies in the brain
pathways involved in the working memory of children with F ASD
(Diwadkar & others, 2012)
Expanded and updated material on modifications in DNA expression
as a result of stress, radiation, and temperature (Georgakilas,
2011)
Discussion of a recent meta-analysis linking maternal smoking during
pregnancy to a modest increase in risk for childhood non-Hodgkin
lymphoma (Antonopoulos & others, 2011)
Description of a recent study that found exposure to radiation changes
the rate of DNA synthesis (Lee & others, 2011)
Information about a recent study that found environmental tobacco
smoke exposure during pregnancy was linked to diminished ovarian
functioning in female offspring (Kilic & others, 2012)
Updated and expanded coverage of gene-gene interaction to include
recent studies of immune system functioning (Reijmerink & others,
2011), asthma (Su & others, 2012), cancer (Bushel & others, 2012),
cardiovascular disease (Xiao & others, 2012), and arthritis (Ronninger
& others, 2012)
Updated material on noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) (Chiu &
Lo, 2012; Geaghan, 2012)
New information about being able to determine the sex of the fetus at
an earlier point in pregnancy through new noninvasive procedures
(Kolialexi, 2012)
Discussion of a recent meta-analysis indicating that a baby's sex can be
determined as early as 7 weeks into pregnancy (Devaney & others, 2011)
Update on the most consistent negative outcomes of cocaine use during pregnancy (Gouin & others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent research review that concluded cocaine quickly
crosses the placenta to reach the fetus (De Giovanni & Marchetti,
2012)
Description of recent research on the negative effects of cocaine exposure prenatally on children's attention and externalizing problems
(Minnes & others, 2010; Richardson & others, 2011)
New information from research on a link between prenatal cocaine
exposure and elevated blood pressure at 9 years of age (Shankaran &
others, 2010)
Preface
xxv
Coverage of a recent study that found prenatal meth exposure was
associated with smaller head circumference, neonatal intensive care
unit (NICU) admission, and referral to child protective services (Shah
& others, 2012}
Discussion of prenatal methamphetamine exposure and decreased
brain activation, especially in the frontal lobes, in 7- to 15-year-olds
(Roussotte, 2011)
Description of a recent research review that found positive outcomes
for midwife-led care compared with physician-led care in low-risk
women (Sutcliffe & others, 2012}
Discussion of a recent study that found waterbirth was linked with a
shorter second stage of labor (Cortes, Basra, & Kelleher, 2011}
Expanded description of the possible negative outcomes for the offspring of women with syphilis (Caddy & others, 2011; Ishaque &
others, 2011)
Updated coverage of the increased evidence that acupuncture can have
positive effects on labor and delivery (Citkovitz, Schnyer, & Hoskins,
2011}
Description of a recent large-scale study that found children whose
mothers had diabetes during pregnancy had lower expressive language
scores than mothers who did not have diabetes during pregnancy
(Krakowiak & others, 2012}
Discussion of the results of two recent research reviews that indicated
massage therapy reduces pain during labor (Jones & others, 2012;
Smith & others, 2012)
Update on guidelines for eating certain types of fish during pregnancy
(American Pregnancy Association, 2012; Mayo Clinic, 2012}
Description of recent research on more than 30,000 offspring regarding the time during prenatal development when maternal exposure to
stress was most likely to increase the risk of preterm birth ( Class &
others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent research review that linked maternal depression
to preterm birth (Dunkel Schetter, 2011}
Description of a recent study that revealed paternal smoking around
the time of the child's conception was linked to an increased risk of
the child developing leukemia (Milne & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent research review indicating an increased risk of
spontaneous abortion, autism, and schizophrenic disorders in offspring
for whom the father is 40 years of age and older (Reproductive
Endocrinology and Infertility Committee & others, 2012)
New discussion of how much weight gain during pregnancy is best for
obese women, as well as the importance of their losing weight and
increasing exercise prior to becoming pregnant (Simmons, 2011)
New discussion of the increasing inclusion of exercise in prenatal care
programs (Streuling & others, 2011)
Update on the dramatic increase in cesarean deliveries in the United
States (Solheim & others, 2011}
Discussion of a recent study indicating that low Apgar scores are
linked with developing ADHD in childhood (Li & others, 2011)
Updated coverage of the percentage of infants born preterm in the
United States, including the overall rate and ethnic variations in 2009
(National Center for Health Statistics, 2011)
Description of a recent research review that concluded kangaroo
care reduced the risk of mortality in low birth weight infants (CondeAgudelo, Belizan, & Diaz- Rossello, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study that revealed the mechanisms responsible
for weight gain in massaged preterm infants (Field, Diego, &
Hernandez-Reif, 2011}
New coverage of the incidence of fathers having elevated depressive
symptoms when their wives have postpartum depression (Letourneau &
others, 2012; Ramchandani & others, 2011)
Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy
Changes in coverage of the development of the brain based on comments from leading expert consultant Martha Ann Bell
Coverage of a recent study indicating that the risk of exercise-related
injury during pregnancy was low (Vladutiu, Evenson, & Marshall, 2010)
Addition of John Richards and his colleagues (2009, 2010; Mallin &
Richards, 2012; Richards, Reynolds, & Courage, 2010} for conducting
important research on the development of the brain in infancy
Description of a recent experimental study that found a 3-month aerobic exercise program improved pregnant women's health-related quality
of life (Montoya Arizabaleta & others, 2010}
Update on the role of myelination in providing energy for neurons
(Fancy & others, 2012; Harris & Attwell, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that exercise during pregnancy
improved mothers' perceptions of their health (Barakat & others,
2011}
Discussion of a recent study that revealed yoga and massage therapy
sessions resulted in decreased levels of depression, anxiety, and back
and leg pain (Field & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent research review that concluded practicing yoga
during pregnancy is associated with a number of positive outcomes for
mothers and a reduction in the incidence of low birth weight infants
(Babbar & others, 2012)
Description of a recent study that found group prenatal care provided
a broad network of social support for pregnant women (McNeil &
others, 2012}
Coverage of a recent experimental study of the effects of a CenteringPregnancy Plus program on high-stress pregnant women (Ickovics &
others, 2011}
Discussion of a recent research review of prenatal home visits and
their link to improved prenatal care use but less evidence for their
influence on newborns' birth weight (Issel & others, 2011}
xxvi
New material on the recent increase in home births to non-Latino White
women (Macdorman, Declercq, & Menacker, 2011)
Preface
New section, The Neuroconstructivist View, that describes an increasingly popular perspective on the brain's development (Diamond,
2013; Johnson, 2012; Westerman, Thomas, & Karmiloff-Smith, 2011;
Peltzer-Karpf, 2012)
Description of a recent research review of sleep patterns in infancy
(Galland & others, 2012)
Inclusion of information about a recent study that revealed by
6 months of age, a majority of infants slept through the night,
awakening their mothers only once or twice a week (Weinraub &
others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent study that revealed nighttime wakings at 12
months of age predicted a lower level of sleep efficiency at four years
of age (Tikotzky & Shaashua, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study linking maternal emotional availability to
fewer infant sleep problems (Teti & others, 2010}
Discussion of a recent study indicating that paternal involvement in
infant care was related to fewer infant sleep problems (Tikotzky,
Sadeh, & Glickman-Gavrieli, 2010}
Description of recent research on early life risk factors that are linked
to infant sleep duration (Nevarez & others, 2010}
Updated information about infant-parent bed sharing and an increasing trend of recommending that this not occur until the infant is at
least six months old (Mcintosh, Tonkin, & Gunn, 2010)
Revised information about the percentage of infants who do not crawl
in some cultures with information that about one-fourth of infants in
Jamaica don't crawl (Hopkins, 1991)
Discussion of a recent meta-analysis linking breastfeeding to a lower
incidence of SIDS (Hauck & others, 2011)
Revised and updated information about cultural variations in promoting or restricting motor development and outcomes of these practices
(Adolph, Karasik, & Tamis-LeMonda, 2010)
New material on recent research indicating that as many as 10 to
15 percent of SIDS cases are linked to heart arrhythmias, with gene
mutations being involved in the arrhythmias (Brion & others, 2012;
Van Norstrand & others, 2012)
Updated data on recent increases in the percentage of infants who are
overweight (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010)
Description of a recent study that found the introduction of solid
foods before 4 months of age was linked to an increased risk of
obesity at 3 years of age (Huh & others, 2011)
Description of recent research that found low maternal sensitivity when
infants were 15 and 24 months of age was linked to a higher risk of
obesity in adolescence (Anderson & others, 2012)
Inclusion of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding's (2012) reconfirmation of its recommendation of exclusive
breast feeding in the first six months, followed by continued breast
feeding as complementary foods are introduced, and further breast
feeding for one year or longer as mutually desired by the mother and
infant
Updated data on the percentage of U.S. mothers who breast feed their
infants in the hospital and for the first 6 months (Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study of infant feeding practices in 28 developing countries that found the practices were far from optimal (Arabi &
others, 2012)
Description of a longitudinal study that revealed malnourished Barbadian infants had persisting attentional deficits when they were 40 years
old (Galler & others, 2012)
Updated coverage of the WIC program, including recent research,
in the Connecting Development to Life interlude (WIC New York,
2011)
New discussion of a recent literacy intervention program with Spanishspeaking families in the Los Angeles WIC program that increased literacy resources and activities in homes, which in turn led to a higher
level of school readiness in children (Whaley & others, 2011)
A number of changes made in the material on motor development
based on leading expert Karen Adolph's feedback
Description of a recent study by Karen Adolph and her colleagues
(2012) that found 12- to 19-month-olds took 2,368 steps and fell 17
times an hour during free play, suggesting the extensiveness of locomotor experience
Inclusion of recent research indicating that training infants to use
sticky mittens resulted in advances in their reaching behavior (Libertus
& Needham, 2010)
New coverage of Rachel's Keen's (2011) research indicating that tool
use is an excellent context for studying problem solving in children
less than 3 years old because motor behavior can indicate how the
infant plans to reach a goal
Updated discussion of the new perspective on infant reflexes arguing
that reflexes are not exclusively inborn, genetic mechanisms but rather
that infants can deliberately control such movements (Adolph &
Berger, 2013; Adolph & Robinson, 2013)
New coverage of recent research indicating that alternating leg movements occur during the fetal period and at birth (Adolph & Robinson,
2013)
A number of changes in the discussion of perceptual development
based on feedback from leading experts Scott Johnson and Rachel
Keen
Much expanded and updated coverage of the dramatic increase in the
use of sophisticated eye-tracking equipment in the study of infant perception (Aslin, 2012; Oakes, 2012)
Description of a recent eye-tracking study in which I-year-old infants
were less efficient in looking at an educational video than their older
counterparts (Kirkorian, Anderson, & Keen, 2012)
Coverage of a recent fMRI study that confirmed the fetus can hear at
33 to 34 months into the prenatal period by assessing fetal brain
responses to auditory stimuli (Jardri & others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent study that found 7-month-old infants can process simultaneous pitches when they hear voices but they are more
likely to encode the higher-pitched voice (Marie & Trainor, 2012)
Updated information about learning tastes prenatally through the
amniotic fluid (Mennella, 2009)
Coverage of a recent study indicating that young infants looked longest
at reddish hues and shortest at greenish hues (Franklin & others, 2010)
Added commentary that most perception is intermodal (Bahrick, 2010)
Chapter 5: Cognitive Development in Infancy
Expanded conclusions about the themes of the current field of infant
cognitive development to emphasize the substantial increase in interest
in cognitive developmental neuroscience and links between brain processes and cognitive processes (Diamond, 2013; Morasch & others,
2013; Peltzer-Karpf, 2012)
Description of a recent study indicating that joint attention enhanced
the long-term memory of 9-month-old infants (Kopp & Lindenberger,
2011)
Discussion of a recent study that found responding to joint attention
at 1 month of age was linked to self-regulation skills at 3 years of age
(Van Hecke & others, 2012)
Updated coverage of concept formation, including a revised definition
of concepts
Addition of recent commentary about learning by infant researcher
Alison Gopnik (2010) on the importance of putting things into the
right categories
Coverage of a recent longitudinal study on the stability of intelligence
from 12 months to 4 years of age (Blaga & others, 2009)
Modifications and updates of the discussion of language development
based on comments by leading expert Catherine McBride-Chang
Updated information about developmental aspects of the pointing gesture
in the first two years of life (Colonessi & others, 2010)
Discussion of recent research on differences in early gesture as explanations for SES disparities in child vocabulary at school entry (Rowe &
Goldin-Meadow, 2009)
New material on cross-linguistic differences in early word learning
(Lieven & Stoll, 2010)
Description of a recent study that revealed 6-month-old infants comprehend names of parts of their body, such as "feet" and "hands"
(Tincoff & Jusczyk, 2012)
Preface
xxvii
Expanded material on why children in low-income families may have
difficulty in language development
Expanded and updated material on how parents can facilitate their
infants' and toddlers' language development based on recent recommendations by Ellen Galinsky (2010)
New discussion of cultural variations in language support (Ochs &
Schieffelin, 2008; Schieffelin, 2005)
Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Infancy
Revision and updating of the functions of emotion in infancy to
include its role in behavioral organization (social responding and adaptive behavior) (Easterbrooks & others, 2013; Thompson, 2013a)
Discussion of a recent study that revealed the newborns of depressed
mothers showed less vocal distress at the cries of another infant,
reflecting emotional and physiological dysregulation (Jones, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research studies on the transition to parenthood
that involve negative changes in relationships for both married and
cohabiting women with their partners, and violated expectations
(Biehle & Mickelson, 2012; Mortensen & others, 2012)
New section on Managing and Guiding Infants' Behavior (Holden,
Vittrup, & Rosen, 2011)
New material on the percentage of parents who use various management and corrective methods in dealing with infants' undesirable
behaviors, including new Figure 6.10 (Vittrup, Holden, & Buck,
2006)
Description of a recent study that found marital intimacy and partner
support during prenatal development were linked to father-infant
attachment following childbirth (Yu & others, 2012)
Description of a recent study that found mothers' emotional reactions
(anxiety and anger) increased the risk of subsequent attachment insecurity (Leerkes, Parade, & Gudmunson, 2011)
Discussion of recent research indicating that fathers with a
college-level education engaged in more stimulating physical activities
with their infants and that fathers in a conflicting couple relationship
participated in less caregiving and physical play with their infants
(Cabrera, Hofferth, & Chae, 2011)
Inclusion of recent research indicating a link between problems in infant
soothability at 6 months of age and insecure attachment at 12 months of
age (Mills-Koonce, Propper, & Barnett, 2012)
Coverage of recent research linking early higher quality of child care
with higher cognitive-academic achievement and lower externalizing
behavior at 15 years of age (Vandell & others, 2010)
Discussion of a recent study that revealed U.S. infants showed more
temperamental fearfulness while Finnish infants engaged in more
positive affect, especially effortful control (Gaias & others, 2012)
Inclusion of the following important point about the NICHD SECCYD
research: findings consistently show that family factors are considerably stronger and more consistent predictors of a wide variety of
child outcomes than are child care experiences (quality, quantity,
type)
Coverage of a recent study linking behavioral inhibition at 3 years of
age with shyness 4 years later (Volbrecht & Goldsmith, 2010)
Description of recent research that found being fearful in situations
that are relatively low in threat at 24 months of age was related to
higher levels of anxiety in kindergarten (Buss, 2012)
Discussion of a recent longitudinal study linking shyness/inhibition in
infancy/childhood to social anxiety at 21 years of age (Bohlin &
Hagekull, 2009)
New commentary suggesting that too often the biological foundations
of temperament are interpreted as meaning that temperament can
develop and change; however, key dimensions (such as adaptability and
soothability) of the self-regulatory aspect of temperament do develop
and change as neurobiological and experiential processes develop and
change (Easterbrooks & others, 2013)
Description of a recent study using the NICHD SECCYD data indicating that the worst socioemotional outcomes for children occurred
when both home and child care settings conferred risk (Watamura &
others, 2011)
Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development
in Early Childhood
New discussion of unusually short children, including causes (Wit,
Kiess, & Mullis, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study indicating that growth hormone treatment
of very short children was effective in partially reducing their height
deficit as adults (Deodati & Cianfarani, 2011)
Addition of information about research indicating that decreases in
infants' negative emotionality are related to higher levels of parents'
sensitivity, involvement, and responsivity (Bates, 2012a, b)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that growth hormone treatment
of very short children was linked with an increase in height as well as
improvements in self-esteem and mood (Chaplin & others, 2012)
Coverage of a longitudinal study that found changes in attachment
security/insecurity from infancy to adulthood were linked to stresses
and supports in socioemotional contexts (Van Ryzin, Carlson, &
Sroufe, 2011)
Description of a recent study linking sleep problems in early childhood with subsequent attention problems that in some cases persist
into early adolescence (O'Callaghan & others, 2010)
New description of the developmental cascade model that is increasingly being used to study connections across domains over time that
influence developmental pathways and outcomes (Cicchetti, 2013;
Masten, 2013)
New section on Developmental Social Neuroscience and Attachment
New coverage of the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin in attachment
and maternal behavior (Feldman, 2012; Strathearn & others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent meta-analysis that found strong links between
levels or patterns of oxytocin and mother-infant attachment (Galbally
& others, 2011)
New Figure 6.8, Regions of the Brain Proposed as Likely to Be Important in Infant-Mother Attachment
Inclusion of new information about the concept of transactions reflecting reciprocal socialization (Sameroff, 2009, 2012)
xxviii
Preface
Coverage of a recent study indicating that having trouble sleeping in
childhood was related to alcohol use problems in adolescence and
early adulthood (Wong & others, 2010)
Coverage of a recent analysis indicating that chronic child sleep disorders that deprive children of adequate sleep may lead to impaired
brain development (Jan & others, 2010)
Inclusion of information from a recent research review that concluded
a short sleep duration is linked to being overweight in childhood
(Hart, Cairns, & Jelalian, 2011)
Description of a recent study that found the most frequently consumed vegetable by 2- and 3-year-olds was French fries or other fried
potatoes (Fox & others, 2010)
Coverage of recent data on the increasing percentage of 2- to 5-yearold obese children in the United States, including trends from
1976-1980 through 2007-2010 (Ogden & others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent study indicating that preschool children who
were overweight had a significant risk of being overweight/obese at
11 years of age (Shankaran & others, 2011)
Expanded material on the importance of emotion regulation in children's social competence, self-regulation, and executive functioning
(Cole & Hall, 2012; Nelson & others, 2012; Thompson, 2013a, b)
Description of a recent study that found parental smoking was a risk
factor for higher blood pressure in children (Simonetti & others, 2011)
New description of recent research by Cybelle Raver and her colleagues (Raver & others, 2012; Zhai, Raver, & Jones, 2012) on links
between increased caregiver emotional expression, self-regulation, and
reduced behavior problems in Head Start families
Description of a recent fMRI study identifying brain locations that
were linked to 9- and IO-year-olds' conservation success in comparison with non-conserving 5- and 6-year-olds (Houde & others, 2011)
Coverage of recent research linking television watching and video
game playing to children's attention problems (Swing & others, 2010)
New material on using computer exercises to improve children's attention, including a website (www.teach-the-brain.org/learn/attention/
index.htm) about how to use the games with children) (Jaeggi,
Berman, & Jonides, 2009; Tang & Posner, 2009)
New discussion of the increasing interest in executive functioning,
including the importance of its early development in the preschool
years (Carlson & White, 2013; Zelazo & Muller, 2011)
Inclusion of recent research by Stephanie Carlson (2010, 2011) on
developmental changes in children's executive functioning, including a
description and a photograph of a task used in her research
Deletion of material on strategies and movement to their discussion to
Chapter 12, Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood
New commentary that whether infants have a theory of mind continues to be debated (Rakoczy, 2012)
New description of the poor performance in task sequencing of children with autism (Peterson, Wellman, & Slaughter, 2012)
Expanded coverage of cognitive factors other than theory of mind that
might be involved in autism, including eye gaze, face processing,
memory, and language impairment (Boucher, 2012; Boucher, Mayes, &
Bigham, 2012; Elsabbagh & others, 2012)
New material on Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Golinkoff, and Justin Harris'
(Harris, Golinkoff, & Hirsch-Pasek, 2011; Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff, 2013)
six principles for optimal word learning in young children
New material on strategies for using books with preschoolers
(Galinsky, 2010)
Description of a recent study indicating that Early Head Start had a
protective effect on the risks children might experience in parenting,
language development, and self-control (Ayoub, Vallotton, &
Mastergeorge, 2011)
Chapter 8: Socioemotional Development
in Early Childhood
Expanded and updated discussion of young children's optimistic selfconception to consider some young children's negative self-evaluations,
especially when they experience stress and adverse family conditions
(Goodvin & others, 2008; Thompson, 2011, 2013d)
Expanded and updated material on the increasing belief that young
children are more socially sensitive than was previously envisioned
and that this means parents and teachers can help young children to
better understand people's internal cognitive and emotional states
(Thompson, 2013c, d)
Description of the current debate about Ross Thompson's (2013c, d)
view that young children are more socially sensitive and Susan
Harter's (2012) view that they are more egocentric
Coverage of a recent study that found fathers' emotion coaching was
related to children's social competence (Baker, Penning, & Crnic, 2011)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that maternal emotional coping
was linked to less oppositional behavior in children (Dunsmore,
Booker, & Ollendick, 2012)
Discussion of research indicating that mothers' knowledge about what
distresses and comforts their children predicts children's coping,
empathy, and prosocial behavior (Vinik, Almas, & Grusec, 2011)
Updated and expanded coverage of criticisms of Piaget's view of young
children's moral development based on research indicating that young
children often show a non-egocentric awareness of others' intentions
and know when someone violates a moral prohibition (Thompson,
2012)
Inclusion of recent research showing that 3-year-olds were less likely
to offer assistance to an adult they previously had observed being
harmful to another person (Yaish, Carpenter, & Tomasello, 2010)
New description of research by Ross Thompson and his colleagues
(2009) that linked young children's secure attachment with their mother
and aspects of the mother's conversational dialogue with the children
Inclusion of new information about the positive developmental outcomes for children when parents use behavioral and psychological
control, thus directing children without being coercive or punitive
(Baumrind, Larzelere, & Owens, 2010)
New commentary about recent research on Asian American parents
and Confucian goals (Russell, Crockett, & Chao, 2010)
Description of a recent study in six countries linking physical punishment to high rates of aggression in children (Gershoff & others, 2010)
Expanded and updated discussion of the effects of punishment on
children's development, including longitudinal studies that have linked
early physical punishment to later aggression (Lansford & others,
2011; Taylor & others, 2010), and cross-cultural studies indicating that
in countries where physical punishment is considered normal and necessary for handling children's transgressions, the effects of punishment
are less harmful (Lansford & others, 2005, 2012)
Description of a recent study of father involvement and coparenting
(Jia & Schoppe-Sullivan, 2011)
Updated statistics on child maltreatment (U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, 2010)
Expanded and updated coverage of family-related factors that can contribute to child maltreatment (Cicchetti, 2013; Laslett & others, 2012;
Turner & others, 2012)
Discussion of a study linking child maltreatment with financial and
employment-related difficulties in adulthood (Zielinski, 2009)
Coverage of a recent study that revealed a significant increase in suicide attempts before age 18 when repeated child maltreatment
occurred (Jonson-Reid, Kohl, & Drake, 2012)
Description of recent research studies that linked child maltreatment to
risk for various diseases and physical health problems, sexual problems,
and depression in adulthood (Lacelle & others, 2012; Nanni, Uher, &
Danese, 2012; Widom & others, 2012)
Added commentary about parental work's effect on children not being
only a maternal employment issue but often involving the father as
well (Parke & Clarke-Stewart, 2011)
New discussion of E. Mark Cummings and his colleagues' (Cummings
& Davies, 2010; Cummings, El-Sheikh, & Kouros, 2009) emotional
security theory and its focus on the type of marital conflict that is negative for children's development
Preface
xxix
Expanded and updated coverage of the relationship between divorced
parents and its link to visitations by the non-custodial parent
(Fabricius & others, 2010)
Updated statistics on the percentage of students with various disabilities who receive special education services in U.S. schools (Aud &
others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study indicating that an intervention aimed at
improving the mother-child relationship was linked to improvements in
the coping skills of children in divorced families (Velez & others, 2011)
Expanded discussion of possible misdiagnosis of ADHD, including
details of a recent experimental study that found clinicians overdiagnosed ADHD symptoms, especially in boys (Bruchmiller, Margraf, &
Schneider, 2012)
Added comment about father involvement dropping off more than
mother involvement following a divorce, especially for fathers of girls
Inclusion of information about joint custody working best for children
when the divorced parents can get along with each other (Parke &
Clarke-Stewart, 2011)
Coverage of recent information about child and adolescent outcomes
for individuals conceived by new reproductive technologies, which are
increasingly used by gay and lesbian adults (Golombok, 2011a, b;
Golombok & Tasker, 2010)
Discussion of a recent study linking early and persistent poverty to lower
cognitive functioning in 5-year-old children (Schoon & others, 2012)
Expanded and updated coverage of the stressful and difficult experiences that children in many immigrant families face, including children
in undocumented families (Yoshikawa, 2011)
Description of how many ethnic/immigrant families focus on issues
associated with promoting children's ethnic pride, knowledge of their
ethnic group, and discrimination (Rogers & others, 2012; Simpkins &
others, 2012)
New discussion of concerns expressed by Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta
Golinkoff, & Dorothy Singer (Hirsh-Pasek & others, 2009; Singer,
Golinkoff, & Hirsh-Pasek, 2006) about the decline of play in young
children's lives and inclusion of the many positive cognitive and
socioemotional outcomes that come from play
Coverage of a recent study linking 3- to 5-year-olds' sleep problems to
(1) watching TV after 7 p.m., and (2) watching violent TV shows
(Garrison & others, 2011)
Chapter 9: Physical and Cognitive Development
in Middle and Late Childhood
Inclusion of recent research on 9-year-olds focused on the connection
between physical activity level and risk for metabolic disease (Parrett &
others, 2011)
Description of recent research showing links between aerobic exercise
and children's and adolescents' cognitive skills (Best, 2010; Davis &
others, 2011; Monti, Hillman, & Cohen, 2012)
Coverage of a recent research review that found school-based programs for increasing children's physical activity are effective (Kriemler
& others, 2011)
Description of recent data on the percentage of U.S. 6- to 11-year-olds
that are overweight or obese, which in 2009-2010 was 50 percent
higher than the percentage of 2- to 5-year-olds who were overweight
(Ogden & others, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research that found both peers and family members teased overweight children more than normal-weight children
(McCormack & others, 2011)
Inclusion of information about a recent successful behavior modification program that increased overweight and obese children's exercise
and reduced their TV viewing time (Goldfield, 2012)
Coverage of recent intervention studies that indicate modifying parents' eating habits and increasing children's exercise can help overweight and obese children to lose weight (Collins & others, 2011)
Updated material on childhood cancer, including improving survival
rates for some childhood cancers (National Cancer Institute, 2012;
Wayne, 2011)
xxx
Preface
New description of some developmental outcomes of children with
ADHD, including increased risks for dropping out of school, adolescent pregnancy, substance abuse problems, and antisocial behavior
(Chang, Lichtenstein, & Larsson, 2012; Von Polier, Vioet, & HerpertzDahlmann, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study indicating delayed development in the
frontal lobes of children with ADHD, likely due to a delay or a
decrease in myelination (Nagel & others, 2011)
Description of a recent study that linked cigarette smoking during
pregnancy to ADHD in 6- to 7-year-old children (Sciberras,
Ukoumunne, & Efron, 2011)
New coverage of executive functioning deficits in children with ADHD
and their links to brain functioning (Supekar & Menon, 2012; Tomasi
& Volkow, 2012)
New material on deficits in theory of mind in children with ADHD
(Buhler & others, 2011; Shuai, Chan, & Wang, 2011)
Inclusion of recent estimates indicating that in 2008 1 in 88 children
had an autistic spectrum disorder, a dramatic increase since 2002
estimates (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2012)
New discussion of the role that connectivity between different brain
regions might play in the development of autism (Just & others, 2012;
Philip & others, 2012)
New Figure 9.10 that illustrates Baddeley's working memory model
New coverage of three recent studies of working memory that indicate
how important and wide-ranging working memory capacity is for children's cognitive development and achievement (Andersson, 2010;
Aslan, Zellner, & Bauml, 2010; Welsh & others, 2010)
Expanded discussion of children's creative thinking, including recent
research indicating a decline in creative thinking by U.S. schoolchildren and increased interest in teaching creative thinking in Chinese
schools (Kim, 2010; Plucker, 2010)
New section, Executive Functioning, that highlights the increased
interest in children's executive functioning, including Adele Diamond's
(2013; Diamond & Lee, 2011) view on the key dimensions of executive
functioning in 4- to 11-year-old children and interventions that have
been shown to improve executive functioning
Description of a recent research review that concluded more than 1,000
genes may influence an individual's intelligence (Davies & others, 2011)
New information about the environment's role in intelligence that is
reflected in the 12 to 18 point IQ gain children make when they are
adopted from lower SES to middle SES homes (Nisbett & others, 2012)
Coverage of recent research indicating that bilingual children have a
lower vocabulary in each language than monolingual children (Bialystok,
2011)
Chapter 10: Socioemotional Development in Middle
and Late Childhood
Updated and expanded discussion of children's socioemotional development based on leading expert Ross Thompson's feedback
New discussion of the role of executive functioning and children's perspective taking in socioemotional development (Galinsky, 2010)
Discussion of a recent study focused on the positive aspects of
perspective-taking skills in children who are emotionally reactive
(Bengtsson & Arvidsson, 2011)
New commentary about the diversity of Asian American students' academic outcomes, with students from some cultural backgrounds being
more successful than those from other backgrounds
New information indicating that the foundations of self-esteem in middle
and late childhood occur through the quality of relationships with parents in infancy and early childhood (Thompson, 2011, 2013a, b, c, d)
Updated coverage of Carol Dweck's (2013) concept of mindset, including new Figure 10.7 about her Brainology program
New material on dose/response effects in the study of how disasters
and traumatic events affect children's adjustment and adaptation
(Masten, 2013; Masten & Narayan, 2012)
Substantial updates on moral development based on feedback from
leading experts Darcia Narvaez and Daniel Lapsley
Coverage of a recent study that revealed links between a higher level
of multicultural experience and a lower level of closed mindedness, a
growth mindset, and higher moral judgment (Narvaez & Hill, 2010)
Expanded discussion of moral identity with an emphasis on Darcia
Narvaez' (2010) recent view that moral metacognition, especially
through self-monitoring and self-reflection, is linked to moral maturity
Much expanded, revised, and updated material on the domain theory
of moral development and social conventional reasoning (Helwig &
Turi el, 2011; Smetana, 2011 a, b)
Coverage of a recent gender stereotyping study of 6- to IO-year-olds
who reported that math is mainly for boys (Cvencek, Meltzoff, &
Greenwald, 2011)
Inclusion of information about a recent meta-analysis that revealed no
gender differences in math skills for adolescents (Lindberg & others, 2010)
Description of a recent research review focused on girls' negative attitudes about math and the negative expectations that parents and teachers have for girls' math competence (Gunderson & others, 2012)
New main section on attachment in middle and late childhood
New discussion of research by Kathryn Kerns and her colleagues
(Brumariu, Kerns, & Seibert, 2012; Kerns & Seibert, 2012; Kerns,
Siener, & Brumariu, 2011) that focuses on the role of secure attachment
in internalizing symptoms, anxiety, depression, and emotion regulation
Updated and expanded discussion of gender differences in emotion
(Leaper & Bigler, 2011; Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study that found having supportive friends
was linked to lower levels of bullying and victimization (Kendrick,
Jutengren, & Stattin, 2012)
New discussion of cyberbullying (Donnerstein, 2012; Kowalsky,
Limber, & Agatston, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research on links between children's cyber aggression and negative peer relations outcomes (Schoffstall & Cohen, 2012)
Discussion of recent research on a higher level of depression and suicide in children who are the victims of bullying (Fisher & others, 2012;
Lemstra & others, 2012)
Description of a recent longitudinal study of more than 6,000 children
that found a link between bullying/victimization and suicide ideation
(Winsper & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study found a link between victims of peer bullying and the development of borderline personality symptoms (Wolke &
others, 2012)
Description of a recent study linking bullying and moral disengagement ( Obermann, 2011)
New discussion of the importance of parental involvement in children's learning, including the research of Eva Pomerantz and her
colleagues (Cheung & Pomerantz, 2012; Pomerantz, Cheung, & Qin,
2012; Pomerantz, Kim, & Cheung, 2012) that especially focuses on
comparisons of U.S. and Chinese children and their parents
Chapter 11: Physical and Cognitive Development
in Adolescence
New discussion of changes needed in social policy regarding
adolescents
New material on the work of Peter Benson and his colleagues (2010;
Benson & Scales, 2011; Scales, Benson, & Roehlkepartain, 2011)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that college students from lowSES backgrounds were less likely to engage in healthy behavior patterns than their higher-SES counterparts (VanKim & Laska, 2012)
Description of a recent cross-cultural study in 29 countries that found
childhood obesity was linked to early puberty in girls (Currie & others,
2012)
Coverage of a recent study that found a linear increase in having a
positive body image for both boys and girls as they moved from the
beginning to the end of adolescence (Holsen & others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent study of gender differences in the aesthetic
aspects of adolescents' body image (Abbott & Barber, 2010)
Inclusion of information about a recent study of adolescents with the
most positive body images, which was linked to their health-enhancing
behaviors, especially regular exercise (Frisen & Holmqvist, 2010)
Updated material on the negative outcomes of early maturation in
girls (N egriff, Susman, & Trickett, 2011)
Revised and updated data (Figure 11.5) on the percentage of adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse, including a recent
gender reversal among twelfth-graders, with a higher percentage of
twelfth-grade girls reporting having had sex than twelfth-grade boys
(Eaton & others, 2010)
Updated information on the percentage of U.S. adolescents who report
that they are currently sexually active (Eaton & others, 2010)
Revised and updated data on the percentage of non-Latino White,
African American, and Latino adolescents who report having had
sexual intercourse (Eaton & others, 2010)
Discussion of a recent study that revealed a link between neighborhood poverty concentration and 15- to 17-year old boys' and girls'
sexual initiation (Cubbin & others, 2010)
Description of the results from a recent research review of a number of
aspects of connectedness, such as family connectedness and parentadolescent communication about sexuality, and links to adolescent
sexuality outcomes (Markham & others, 2010)
Coverage of a recent study that found students who engaged in
aggressive-disruptive classroom behavior were more likely to have
aggressive friends (Powers & Bierman, 2012)
Coverage of recent research in low-income neighborhoods that found
caregiver hostility was linked to early sexual activity and sex with multiple partners, while caregiver warmth was related to later sexual initiation and a lower incidence of sex with multiple partners (Gardner,
Martin, & Brooks-Gunn, 2012)
Discussion of recent research on outcomes of 9- to 19-year-old African
American boys after experiencing the New Hope antipoverty program
(McLoyd & others, 2011)
Description of recent research linking deviant peer relations in early
adolescence with an increase in multiple sexual partners at age
16 (Lansford & others, 2010)
Preface
xxxi
Coverage of a recent study that found a high level of impulsiveness
was linked to early adolescent sexual risk-taking (Khurana & others,
2012)
Updated research on a confluence of peer factors that are linked to
alcohol use in adolescence (Cruz, Emery, & Turkheimer, 2012; Patrick
& Schulenberg, 2010)
Updated information about trends in the percentage of sexually active
adolescents who used a condom the last time they had sexual intercourse (Eaton & others, 2010)
New commentary about links between anorexia nervosa, obsessive
thinking about weight, and compulsive exercise (Hildebrant & others,
2012)
Discussion of recent research on U.S. 15- to 19-year-olds with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births: 50 percent of these adolescent girls were not using any type of birth control when they got
pregnant and 34 percent believed they could not get pregnant at the
time (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)
New description of the perfectionistic tendencies of anorexics and
bulimics (Lampard & others, 2012)
Coverage of the recent decline in births to adolescent girls to a record
low in 2009, including new Figure 11.6 (Ventura & Hamilton,
2011)
Inclusion of information about some sex education programs that are
now abstinence-plus sexuality, promoting abstinence as well as contraceptive use (Realini & others, 2010)
Updated data on trends in adolescent obesity from 1999-2000 to
2009-2010 with an increase in obesity among boys but not in girls
during this time frame (Ogden & others, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research linking obesity in adolescence with the
development of severe obesity in emerging adulthood (The & others,
2010)
Discussion of a recent longitudinal study of overweight and obesity
involving individuals from 14 years of age to 24 years of age (Patton &
others, 2011)
New discussion of links between screen-based activity and physical
exercise in adolescents, including recent research indicating that adolescents who combine low physical activity and high screen-based
activity are nearly twice as likely to be overweight (Sisson & others,
2010)
Updated data on developmental changes in adolescent sleep patterns
(Eaton & others, 2010)
Coverage of a longitudinal study that found sleep problems in adolescence were linked to subsequent suicidal thoughts and attempts in
adolescence and early adulthood (Wong & Brower, 2012)
Description of a recent study on delaying school start time for ninthto twelfth-grade students and their improved sleep, alertness, mood,
and health (Owens, Belon, & Moss, 2010).
New content on a comparison of U.S. and Asian adolescents' sleep
patterns (Gradisar, Gardner, & Dohnt, 2011)
New coverage of sleep in emerging adulthood (Galambos, Howard, &
Maggs, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study of emerging adults' sleep patterns and
indications that first-year college students have bedtimes and rise times
that are later than seniors in high school but that bedtimes and rise
times decline by the third and fourth year of college (Lund & others,
2010)
Updated statistics on leading causes of death in adolescence (Eaton &
others, 2010)
New discussion of the likely brain changes in adolescents who are
anorexic (Lock, 2012b)
Coverage of recent research on a link between attachment insecurity
and eating disorders in adolescence (Abbate-Daga & others, 2010)
Extensively expanded and updated content on executive functioning in
adolescence
New section on the importance of controlling attention and reducing
interfering thoughts
New section on cognitive control, including new material on the roles
of controlling attention, inhibiting distracting thoughts, and being
cognitively flexible (Diamond, 2013; Galinsky, 2010)
New Figure 11.12, which lets students evaluate their cognitive flexibility (Galinsky, 2010)
New discussion of Robert Crosnoe's (2011) recent book, Fitting In,
Standing Out, suggesting that the conformity demands of complex
peer cultures in high school undermine students' academic
achievement
Updated coverage of school dropout rates, including new Figure 11.13
that shows dropout rates by gender and ethnicity, as well as the
significant decrease of Latino dropouts in the first decade of the
twenty-first century (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010)
New discussion of the controversy in determining accurate school
dropout rates
Chapter 12: Socioemotional Development
in Adolescence
Inclusion of recent research indicating that age differences are stronger
than generational differences in narcissism (Roberts, Edmonds, &
Grijalva, 2010)
Coverage of a recent study indicating that between 12 and 20 years of
age individuals explore their identity in greater depth (Klimstra &
others, 2010)
Revised and updated information about diversity, especially ethnic
identity and immigration, based on feedback from leading expert
Diane Hughes
Coverage of a recent study that found a positive ethnic identity helped
to buffer the negative effects of discrimination experienced by Mexican
American adolescents (Umana-Taylor & others, 2012)
Updated data on trends in the percentage of first-year college students
who attend religious services (Pryor & others, 2011)
Updated coverage of the Monitoring the Future study's assessment of
drug use by secondary school students (Johnston & others, 2011)
Description of a recent study of religious identity and religious participation of adolescents from different ethnic groups (Lopez, Huynh, &
Fuligni, 2011)
Description of research that found the onset of alcohol use before age
11 was linked to a higher risk of alcohol dependence in early adulthood (Guttmannova & others, 2012)
Inclusion of a recent study that found parents' own religiousness during youths' adolescence was positively linked to youths' own religiousness during adolescence (Spilman & others, 2012)
Discussion of recent research that linked authoritative parenting with
lower adolescent alcohol consumption (Piko & Balazs, 2012) and
parent-adolescent conflict with higher consumption (Chaplin & others,
2012)
Updated and expanded section, Parental Management and Monitoring,
that especially provides recent information about the increasing interest
in studying adolescents' management of their parents' access to information (Laird & Marrero, 2010; Smetana, 20lla, b)
xxxii
Preface
Description of a recent analysis that concluded the most consistent
outcomes of secure attachment in adolescence involve positive peer
relations and the development of emotion regulation capacities (Allen
& Miga, 2010)
Discussion of a recent study of young adolescents' friendships and
depression (Brendgen & others, 2010)
Updated and expanded coverage of the positive outcomes of positive
friendship relationships in adolescence (Kendrick, Jutengren, & Stattin,
2012; Tucker & others, 2012; Way & Silverman, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study that found romantic activity was associated
with depression in early adolescent girls (Starr & others, 2012)
Description of recent research on the negative outcomes of adolescent
girls having an older romantic partner (Haydon & Halpern, 2010)
Expanded and updated material on immigrant families and their
bicultural orientation, including recent research by Ross Parke and his
colleagues (2011)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that mother-daughter corumination was linked to increased anxiety and depression in adolescent daughters (Waller & Rose, 2010)
Coverage of research indicating that exposure to maternal depression
prior to age 12 predicted risk processes during development (difficulties in family relationships, for example), which set the course for the
development of the adolescent's depression (Garber & Cole, 2010)
Description of a recent study that found relational aggression was
linked to depression in girls (Spieker & others, 2012)
Discussion of recent research indicating that four types of bullying
were all linked to adolescents' depression (Wang, Nansel, & Ianotti,
2011)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that weight-related concerns
increase adolescent girls' depressive symptoms (Vaughan & Halpern,
2010)
New discussion of the role of immigrant adolescents as cultural brokers for their parents (Villanueva & Buriel, 2010)
Coverage of a recent research view that found the most effective treatment for adolescent depression was a combination of drug therapy and
cognitive behavior therapy (Maalouf & Brent, 2012)
Substantial updating of media use rates based on the 2009 national
survey of more than 2,000 U.S. adolescents, including comparisons
with earlier national surveys to show trends in media use by adolescents (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010)
Updated national data through 2011 on the percentage of adolescents
who seriously think about committing suicide, attempt suicide, and
require medical attention for suicide attempts (Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 2011)
Description of a recent study of 8- to 12-year-old girls that found a
higher level of media multitasking was linked to negative social wellbeing while a higher level of face-to-face communication was associated with a higher level of social well-being, such as social success,
feeling normal, and having fewer friends whom parents perceived as a
bad influence (Pea & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study that found increased family support, peer
support, and community connectedness was linked to a lower risk of
suicidal tendencies (Matlin, Molock, & Tebes, 2011)
Description of a recent study that found that the most common link
between adolescent suicide attempts and drug use was any lifetime use
of tranquilizers or sedatives (Kokkevi & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent national survey of trends in adolescents' use of
social media, including dramatic increases in social networking and
text messaging, and declines in tweeting and blogging (Lenhart &
others, 2010)
Inclusion of recent research on suicide attempts by young Latinas
(Zayas & others, 2010)
New commentary about text messaging now being the main way that
adolescents prefer to connect with their friends (Lenhart & others,
2010)
Updated coverage of outcomes for the Fast Track delinquency intervention study through age 19 that found the program was successful in
reducing juvenile arrest rates (Conduct Problems Prevention Research
Group, 2011; Miller & others, 2011)
Inclusion of information that Facebook replaced Google as the most
frequently visited Internet site in 2010
Description of a recent study of parenting predictors of adolescent
media use (Padilla-Walker & Coyne, 2011)
Inclusion of recent research linking problematic relationships between
mothers and early adolescents with negative peer relations on the
Internet during emerging adulthood (Szweda, Mikami, & Allen, 2011)
Discussion of recent research on the role of parental monitoring and
support during adolescence in reducing criminal behavior during
emerging adulthood (Johnson & others, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study linking sexual victimization to suicide
attempts in adolescence (Plener, Singer, & Goldbeck, 2011)
Chapter 13: Physical and Cognitive Development
in Early Adulthood
Expanded discussion of emerging adulthood, including material on
whether it is likely to be universal or not, and its occurrence in European countries and Australia, as well as the United States (Kins &
Beyers, 2010; Sirsch & others, 2009)
Description of a recent study that found repeated poverty was a high
risk factor for delinquency (Najman & others, 2010)
Coverage of a recent Belgian study indicating that continued co-residence with parents during emerging adulthood slows down the process
of becoming a self-sufficient and independent adult (Kins & Beyers,
2010)
Discussion of a recent meta-analysis of five programs for reducing the
recidivism of juvenile offenders, with family treatment being the only
one that was effective (Schwalbe & others, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that the majority of 18- to
26-year-olds in India felt that they had achieved adulthood (Seiter &
Nelson, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study that revealed male Chinese adolescents and
emerging adults experience more depression than their female counterparts (Sun & others, 2010)
Inclusion of criticism of the concept of emerging adulthood ( Cote &
Bynner, 2008)
New discussion of the role of genes in adolescent depression and
recent research that found the link between adolescent girls' perceived
stress and depression occurred only when the girls had the short version of the serotonin-related gene-SHTTLPR (Beaver & others,
2012)
Updated and expanded information about the increase in health problems in emerging adulthood compared with adolescence (Fatusi &
Hindin, 2010)
Updated statistics on the percentage of 20- to 39-year-olds who are
obese in the United States (National Center for Health Statistics,
2011)
Preface
xxxiii
Inclusion of a recent forecast that 42 percent of U.S. adults will be
obese (Finkelstein & others, 2012)
Updated statistics on the percentage of college students who work
while going to college (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010)
New coverage of the highest and lowest percentages of obese adults in
33 developed countries, including new Figure 13.3 (OECD, 2010)
Description of a recent study of unemployment and mortality risk at
different points in an individual's career (Roelfs & others, 2011)
Discussion of a recent meta-analysis linking obesity with depression in
women but not men (de Wit & others, 2010)
New material on the National Weight Control Registry, including
research indicating that individuals who have lost at least 30 pounds
and kept it off for one year engage in a high level of physical activity
(Catenacci & others, 2008; Ogden & others, 2012)
Description of a recent study of gender differences in college students'
motivation to exercise (Egli & others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study estimating the number of years lost in life
expectancy because of heavy TV viewing (Veerman & others, 2012)
Updated material on college students' drinking habits including new
data on extreme binge drinking and the recent decline in college
drinking (Johnston & others, 2011)
Updated statistics on the continuing decline in smoking by U.S. adults
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)
Inclusion of recent data from a study of sexual activity by 25- to
44-year-olds in the United States (Chandra, Mosher, Copen, & Sioneau,
2011)
Updated figures on the number of people in the United States who are
living with an HIV infection (National Center for Health Statistics,
2011)
Inclusion of information about the recent significant drop in the rate
of new HIV infections globally (UNAIDS, 2011)
Inclusion of a recent survey on knowledge regarding contraception and
HIV infection in low- and middle-income countries (UNAIDS, 2011)
New commentary about the increase in "hooking up" during college
(Holman & Sillars, 2012)
Description of a recent study on the significant underreporting of rape
in college women (Wolitzky-Taylor & others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study that indicated sexual assault was more likely
to occur if the offender was using substances, regardless of whether or
not the victim was using them (Brecklin & Ullman, 2010)
Chapter 14: Socioemotional Development
in Early Adulthood
New description of a longitudinal study that linked undercontrolled
temperament at age 3 with compulsive gambling in early adulthood
(Slutske & others, 2012)
Coverage of a longitudinal study that found individuals who were
securely attached to their caregivers during infancy were in more stable
romantic relationships in adulthood (Salvatore & others, 2011)
Inclusion of recent research on emerging adults' attachment security and
the quality of their romantic relationships (Holland & Roisman, 2010)
Discussion of a recent study that revealed attachment-anxious individuals show strong ambivalence toward a romantic partner (Mikulincer
& others, 2010)
Description of a recent study indicating that anxiously attached adults
were more ambivalent about relationship commitment than their
securely attached counterparts (Joel, MacDonald, & Shiomotomai, 2011)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that insecurely attached adults
had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms than securely
attached adults (Jinyao & others, 2012)
New research indicating that adults with an avoidant attachment style
are less resistant to the temptations of infidelity, which is linked to
their lower level of relationship commitment (De Wall & others, 2011)
Description of recent research that found insecurely attached adults
had a lower level of sexual satisfaction than securely attached adults
(Brassard & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent meta-analysis confirming that adults who are
securely attached have better close relationships than adults who are
characterized by avoidant or anxious attachment (Li & Chan, 2012)
Discussion of recent research on links between anxious and avoidant
attachment styles and various health problems (McWilliams & Bailey,
2010)
Description of recent research confirming Erikson's theory that identity
development in adolescence is a precursor of intimacy in romantic
relationships in emerging adulthood (Beyers & Seiffge-Krenke, 2010)
New discussion of the views of Labouvie-Vief and her colleagues
(2010) on the role of developmental changes in the integration and
complexity of cognition and emotion, as well as the presence of
increasing internal reflection and less context-dependent thinking in
middle-aged adults as compared with young adults
Coverage of a recent meta-analysis that found identity development
was linked to intimacy with the connection being stronger for men
than women (Arseth & others, 2009)
Revision of the definition of postformal thought to include the view of
Labouvie-Vief and her colleagues (2010) on the role of emotion in cognitive changes
Inclusion of information from a recent meta-analysis in which males
showed higher avoidance and lower anxiety about romantic love than
females (Del Giudice, 2011)
Inclusion of recent information about the assessment of postformal
thinking, including new Figure 13.9 that gives students an opportunity
to evaluate their postformal thinking (Cartwright & others, 2009)
Description of a recent study of relationship dissolution in 18- to
35-year-olds and its links to psychological stress and life satisfaction
(Rhoades & others, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study indicating that college students with a
higher number of cross-category friends have a higher level of postformal thinking than their counterparts with fewer cross-category friends
( Galupo, Cartwright, & Savage, 2010)
New coverage of Andrew Cherlins (2009) recent analysis of how
Americans move in and out of relationship styles more than is the case
than in other countries
Coverage of a recent study indicating that discussing purpose in life
benefitted college students' goal direction (Bundick, 2011)
New commentary about the increasing trend in the U.S. workforce of
the disappearing long-term career, with many young and older adults
working at a series of jobs and/or short-term jobs (Hollister, 2011)
Inclusion of recent information from the Occupational Outlook Handbook (2012) that includes job projections through 2020
xxxiv
Preface
Updated data on single adults in the United States-for the first time,
in 2009 the number of U.S. single adults from 25 to 34 years of age
surpassed the number of married adults (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010)
New coverage of Bella DePaulo's (2006, 2011) conclusion that there is
widespread bias against unmarried adults
Discussion of a recent large-scale study of U.S. singles that found
women are now more likely than men to want their independence in
relationships (Match.com, 2011)
Coverage of another large-scale survey that found many singles reported
that they were looking for love, but either were ambivalent about getting
married or did not want to get married (Match.com, 2012)
Updated data on the percentage of middle-aged adults in the United
States who are classified as obese (National Center for Health Statistics,
2011}
Updated data on the continuing increase in the number of U.S. adults
who are cohabiting (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010)
Description of a recent research review that concluded management of
weight and resistance training were the best strategies for slowing
down sarcopenia (Rolland & others, 2011)
Coverage of recent research indicating that the link between premarital
cohabitation and marital instability in first marriages has weakened in
recent cohorts (Manning & Cohen, 2012; Reinhold, 2010)
Description of a recent study that found cohabiting relationships were
characterized by more commitment, lower satisfaction, more negative
communication, and more physical aggression than dating (noncohabiting) relationships (Rhoades, Stanley, & Markman, 2012)
Inclusion of information from a recent study on the motivation for
cohabiting, including gender differences regarding drawbacks in
cohabiting (Huang & others, 2011)
Further clarification of factors involved in whether cohabiting results in
negative marital outcomes (Cherlin, 2009}
Updated coverage of the continuing decline in the rate of marriage in
the United States from 2007 to 2010 (Pew Research Center, 2010}
Updated information about the percentage of individuals in the United
States who have ever been married by age 40 (Pew Research Center,
2011)
Revised and updated analysis of marriage trends, including recent
research on the percentage of U.S. adults under age 30 who think marriage is headed for extinction and the percentage of those young adults
who still plan to get married (Pew Research Center, 2010}
Discussion of a recent study of premarital education in first and
second marriages (Doss & others, 2009}
Expanded and updated discussion on the benefits of a good marriage,
including a recent study indicating that a lower proportion of time spent
in marriage was linked to a likelihood of earlier death (Henretta, 2010)
Description of a recent large-scale analysis of a number of studies that
concluded married individuals have a survival advantage over unmarried individuals, and that marriage gives men a longevity boost more
than it does women (Rendall & others, 2011)
Updated coverage on the resumption of a decline in the rate of divorce
in the United States from 2007 to 2009 following an increase from
2005 to 2007 (National Center for Health Statistics, 2010)
New discussion of remarried families suggesting that some of these
families are more adult-focused and others more child-focused
(Anderson & Greene, 2011)
Description of a recent study of stigma and same-sex relationships
(Frost, 2011)
New Figure 14.10 that lets students evaluate how effective they are in
making bids for improving a relationship, and how they respond to
bids based on leading expert John Gottman's work
Updated statistic on the age at which U.S. women give birth to a child
for the first time (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011)
Chapter 15: Physical and Cognitive Development
in Middle Adulthood
Inclusion of recent ideas from Patricia Cohen's (2012) book, In Our
Prime: The Invention of Middle Age, that traces the emergence of the
concept of middle age in the nineteenth century
New commentary about taking a balanced approach to middle age,
acknowledging the physical declines that characterize middle age but
also recognizing that in recent decades an increasing number of middleaged adults have engaged in healthier lifestyles
Coverage of a recent study linking low cognitive development in early
adulthood to reduced lung functioning in middle age ( Carroll &
others, 2011)
Recent analysis that indicates the link between reduced lung functioning and a decline in cognitive ability is likely related to the influence
of lung functioning on brain structure and functioning (MacDonald,
DeCarlo, & Dixon, 2011}
Description of a recent research review indicating a link between
chronic stress exposure and metabolic syndrome (Tamashiro & others,
2011)
Inclusion of recent research results involving physical activity, metabolic
syndrome, and cardiovascular disease (Broekuizen & others, 2011}
Discussion of a recent study that found several factors in adolescence
were related to the development of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged
women and men (Gustaffson, Persson, & Hammerstrom, 2011)
Description of a recent study that found middle-aged adults who slept
less than six hours a night on average had an increased risk of developing stroke symptoms (Ruiter & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study that found links between changes in the
number of hours of sleep and cognitive functioning in middle-aged
adults (Ferrie & others, 2011)
New discussion of the increase in sleep-disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome in middle age (Polo-Kantola, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study that found social support had a positive
influence on reducing the link between cardiovascular disease and
depression in aging African Americans (Heard & others, 2011}
New description of the view of David Almeida and his colleagues
(2011) regarding chronic stress and its potential damage to physiological functioning and health
Discussion of a recent study indicating that aerobic exercise was related
to the presence of a lower level of senescent T cells (Spielmann &
others, 2011)
New section on having a sense of control, which peaks in middle age,
and its links to health and disease (Lachman, Neupert, & Agrigoroaei,
2011)
Expanded and updated coverage of lifestyle factors during perimenopause and whether these factors are linked to the development of
cardiovascular disease or chronic illnesses (ESHRE Capri Workshop
Group, 2011}
Updated statistics on mortality causes in middle age (Kochanek &
others, 2011}
Inclusion of information from a recent analysis indicating that diabetes
has a higher mortality risk in Latinos than non-Latino Whites (Hunt &
others, 2011)
Description of a recent study indicating that increased estradiol and
improved sleep but not hot flashes predicted enhanced mood during
the menopausal transition (Joffe & others, 2011}
Discussion of a recent research review indicating that there is no clear
evidence that depressive disorders occur more frequently during menopause than at other times in a woman's reproductive life (Judd, Hickey,
& Bryant, 2012}
Description of the recent conclusion that reduction of cardiovascular
disease occurs when HRT is initiated before 60 years of age and/or
Preface
xxxv
within 10 years of menopause and continued for six years or more
(Hodis & others, 2012)
Updated coverage of recent research studies in a number of countries
indicating that coinciding with the decreased use of HRT in recent
years, research is mixed regarding effects on the incidence of breast
cancer (Baber, 2011; Chlebowski & others, 2010: Gompel & Santen,
2012; Howell & Evans, 2011)
Update on the percentage of aging men who experience erectile dysfunction (Berookhim & Bar-Charma, 2011)
Description of recent research that found how often middle-aged
adults engaged in sexual intercourse, the quality of their sexual life,
and their interest in sex was linked to how healthy they were (Lindau
& Gavrilova, 2010)
of the five factors (such as emotional stability) peaked between 40 and
60 years of age, while being conscientious continued to increase from
early through late adulthood (Specht, Egloff, & Schukle, 2011)
New coverage of research on how the Big Five factors of personality
are linked to important aspects of a person's life, such as health
(Turiano & others, 2012), intelligence (Sharp & others, 2010), achievement and work (Zhao, Seibert, & Lumpkin, 2010), and relationships
(Donnellan, Larson-Rife, & Conger, 2005)
New discussion of research on how the Big Five factors are related to
historical changes (George, Helson, & John, 2011)
Updated research on the greatest change in personality occurring in
early adulthood (Lucas & Donnellan, 2011)
Expanded and updated coverage of the causes of increases in
intelligence during middle age in recent cohorts (Schaie, 2011)
Description of two recent studies that found middle-aged parents
provide more support for their children than for their aging parents
(Fingerman & others, 2011a, 2012)
Updated and expanded evaluation of the lack of age differences in
everyday cognition from 20 to 75 years of age, and why there is no
decline (Allaire, 2012; Salthouse, 2012)
Coverage of recent research that indicated affection and support,
reflecting solidarity, were more prevalent in intergenerational relationships than ambivalence was (Hogerbrugge & Komter, 2012)
New discussion of whether there are differences between the job performance of young adults and middle-aged adults (Salthouse, 2012)
New discussion of how more than 40 percent of middle-aged children
(mainly daughters) provide care for their aging parents or parents-inlaw (Blieszner & Roberto, 2012; National Alliance for Caregiving,
2009)
Description of a recent study in which task persistence in early adolescence predicted career success in middle age (Andersson & Bergman,
2011)
New commentary about the premature retirement of some middleaged adults because of the recent economic downturn and recession
(Lusardi, Mitchell, & Curto, 2012)
New discussion of an analysis of research studies indicating
a strong link between spirituality/religion and mortality (Lucchetti,
Lucchetti, & Koenig, 2011)
New coverage of the distinctions between religion, religiousness, and
spirituality based on a recent analysis by Pamela King and her colleagues (2011)
New discussion of links between having an increased sense of meaning
in life and clearer guidelines for living one's life, enhanced motivation
to take care of oneself and reach goals, a higher level of psychological
well-being, and better health (Park, 2012b)
Chapter 16: Socioemotional Development
in Middle Adulthood
New discussion of a recent study linking generativity with positive
social engagement in such contexts as family life and community
involvement (Cox & others, 2010)
Description of a recent study of older adult women's daily stressors and
negative affect (Charles & others, 2010)
New discussion of the manner in which different stressors-chronic
and daily-affect health events (Piazza & others, 2010)
New section on stress and gender that focuses on how women and
men differ in the way they experience and respond to stressors
(Almeida & others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study on gender differences in depressive symptoms and the social contexts linked to those symptoms in middle-aged
and older women (Lin & others, 2011)
New discussion of Shelley Taylor and her colleagues' (2011a, b, c;
Taylor & others, 2000) concept that women are more likely to respond
to stress with "tend and befriend" behavior than with the "fight or
flight" reaction that characterizes men
Inclusion of a recent research study on the stability and change in the
Big Five personality factors indicating that the positive aspects of four
xxxvi
Preface
New coverage of the concept of the middle generation more often
functioning as a "pivot" generation than a "sandwich" generation
(Fingerman & Birditt, 2011; Fingerman & others, 2011b)
Chapter 17: Physical Development in Late Adulthood
Added commentary about increased longevity being due not only to
improvements in the health and well-being of adults but also to the
substantial reduction in infant deaths in recent decades
Updated statistics on life expectancy around the world, with Monaco
having the highest estimated life expectancy at birth in 2011 (90 years
of age) (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012)
Updated statistics on life expectancy at birth and at 65 and 100 years
of age today (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011)
New commentary suggesting that the sex difference in longevity favoring women is still present but less pronounced in late adulthood and is
especially linked to the higher level of cardiovascular disease in men
than women (Yang & Kosloski, 2011)
Updated information about the number of centenarians in the United
States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study indicating that the older the age group of
centenarians (110 to 119 compared with 100 to 104, for example), the
later the onset of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, as
well as delayed functional decline (Andersen & others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent study that found telomere length was linked to
the quality of middle-aged and older adults' social relationships
(Uchino & others, 2012)
Updated and expanded material on telomeres and telomerase, including the increasing role they might play in stem cell regeneration (Piper
& others, 2012; Shay, Reddel, & Wright, 2012)
Inclusion of information about recent research interest in the role that
exercise might play in reducing oxidative damage in cells (Muthusamy
& others, 2012)
New material on the allostatic load view of stress in the coverage of
the hormonal stress theory of aging (Almeida & others, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study that found a decrease in total brain volume and volume in key brain structures, such as the frontal lobes and
hippocampus, from 22 to 88 years of age (Sherwood & others, 2011)
Recent analysis indicating that the decrease in brain volume in healthy
aging is likely due primarily to neuron shrinkage, lower numbers of
synapses, and reduced length of axons and only to a minor extent to
neuron loss (Fjell & Walhovd, 2010)
Updated coverage of neurogenesis and aging, including a recent study
in which coping with stress stimulated hippocampal neurogenesis in
adult monkeys (Lyons & others, 2010)
New commentary about the increased interest in the role that neurogenesis might play in neurogenerative diseases such as Alzheimer
disease, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease (Walton & others,
2012)
in older adults (Erickson & others, 2011; Head, Singh, & Bugg,
2012)
New data indicating that 28 percent of U.S. adults 60 years and age
older were obese in 2011 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
2012)
New section on overweight and obesity and the current controversy
regarding whether overweight adults live longer than normal-weight
adults (Chang & others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent study that found being overweight was consistently linked with the worst health profiles (Zajacova, Dowd, &
Burgard, 2011)
Discussion of recent research on variation in the link between cognitive processing and asymmetry in the prefrontal cortex in older adults
(Manenti, Cotelli, & Miniussi, 2011)
New coverage of the recent controversy about what the best measure
of overweight/obesity is to predict longevity (de Hollander & others,
2012; Staiano & others, 2012)
Updated information on links between unintended accidents and death
in the elderly
Description of recent research reviews indicating that taking antioxidant
vitamin supplements does not reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (Chen & others, 2012; Dolara, Bigagli, & Collins, 2012)
New main section on sleep in older adults
New information about the percentage of older adults who have difficulty in sleeping (Neikrug & Ancoli-Israel, 2010)
Discussion of recent research on sleep difficulties and lower cognitive
functioning in older adults (Aly & Moscovitch, 2010; Pace-Schott &
Spencer, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study that found regular exercise improves the
sleep profile of older adults (Lira & others, 2011)
New commentary about reductions in the number of older adults,
especially the young old, who have problems with erectile dysfunction
because of the recent development of drugs such as Viagra (Lowe &
Costabile, 2012; Rubio-Aurioles & others, 2012)
Coverage of recent research on obesity and mobility restrictions in
older adults, including the benefits of walking for obese older adults
(Mullen & others, 2012; Vincent, Raiser, & Vincent, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research indicating that a combined program of
physical activity and weight loss were linked to preserving mobility in
older, obese adults in poor cardiovascular health (Rejeski & others, 2011)
Expanded coverage of factors involved in declining vision in elderly
adults to include speed of visual processing and contrast sensitivity
(Owsley, 2011; van Rijn & others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent meta-analysis that found dietary intake (not
vitamin supplements) of antioxidants was associated with a reduced
risk of Alzheimer disease (Li, Shen, & Ji, 2012)
New Figure 17.16, Binge Drinking Through the Life Span, that provides recent data on developmental changes in binge drinking through
the adult years (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012)
Chapter 18: Cognitive Development
in Late Adulthood
Update on 92-year-old Helen Small's cognitive fitness, including publication of her first book, Why not? My seventy year plan for a college
degree (Small, 2011)
Coverage of recent research indicating that especially as attentional
demands increase, the greater distractibility of older adults is associated with less effective functioning in neural networks running through
the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain that are involved in cognitive
control (Campbell & others, 2012)
Description of a recent study of sustained attention from early adulthood through late adulthood (Carriere & others, 2010)
Description of recent research that found hearing decline was associated
with a reduction in cognitive functioning in older adults (Lin, 2011)
New discussion of a recent study of older adults that found the greater
their variability in sustained attention the more likely they were to
experience falls (O'Halloran & others, 2012)
Description of a study linking macular degeneration to an increased
risk of falls in older adults (Wood & others, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study showing a decline in executive attention
in older adults (Mahoney & others, 2010)
Coverage of a recent national survey of the percentage of adults
70 years and older with hearing loss (Lin & others, 2011)
Description of a recent study that found the most common memory
errors older adults reported having had in the last 24 hours were those
involving tip-of-the-tongue (Ossher, Flegal, & Lustig, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research that found the severity of age-related
hearing loss was linked to impaired activities in daily living (Gopinath
& others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent national study that found an increase in resistant
hypertension in the United States in recent years, likely because of
increases in obesity and the number of older adults (Roberie & Elliott,
2012)
Description of a recent study of older adults that found total daily
activity was linked to increased longevity across a four-year period
(Buchman & others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent study of postmenopausal women that found
exercise buffered the effect of chronic stress on telomere length
(Puterman & others, 2010)
Description of two recent studies that revealed exercise training was
linked to improvements in hippocampal functioning and memory
Coverage of a recent study indicating that working memory continued
to decline from 65 to 89 years of age (Elliott & others, 2011)
Discussion of research that found multitasking was especially disruptive to older adults' working memory, likely because of an interruption
in retrieving information (Clapp & others, 2011)
Description of a recent study that linked a reduction in decisionmaking quality in risky situations by older adults to declines in mem ory and processing speed (Henninger, Madden, & Huettel, 2010)
Coverage of a recent study that found older adults who had a higher
level of trans fat in their blood plasma showed a lower level of cognitive functioning (Bowman & others, 2012)
Discussion of recent research across a 12-year period that found older
adults who reduced their participation in lifestyle cognitive activities
(using a computer and playing bridge, for example) showed subsequent
Preface
xxxvii
poorer cognitive functioning (semantic memory for example) (Small &
others, 2012b). The poorer cognitive functioning was then linked to a
lower level of engaging in social activities.
living alone, in a nursing home, or in an institutionalized setting
(Xiu-Ying & others, 2012)
New Figure 18.5 that shows an image of the prefrontal cortex
Expanded material on links between the ApoE4 gene and Alzheimer
disease (Caselli, 2012; Ward & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study of older adults who engaged in a memory
training program and how it affected their source memory and brain
(Engvig & others, 2010)
New discussion of K. Warner Schaie's (2012) recent research that found
individuals who had the ApoE4 allele showed more cognitive decline
beginning in middle age
Discussion of two recent neuroimaging studies that found older adults'
memory was better the less lateralized their brain activity was (Angel
& others, 2011; Manenti, Cotelli, & Miniussi, 2011)
Coverage of a recent research study that found the ApoE4 gene creates
a cascade of molecular signaling that causes blood vessels to become
more porous and leak toxins into the brain and damage neurons (Bell
& others, 2012)
New section on executive functioning in late adulthood and connections with discussions of executive functioning in earlier periods of
development
New coverage of Schaie's (2012) recent research regarding links
between hippocampal and cognitive functioning from middle age to
late adulthood
Description of a recent study that found a higher level of cognitive
stimulation at work and outside work was linked with improved cognitive functioning over a 10-year period for both young and older adults
(Marquie & others, 2010)
Coverage of a recent study that concluded cognitive change before
death is more accurately described as terminal decline than as terminal
drop (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2011)
Description of a recent study of older adults that linked cardiorespiratory fitness to better performance on a cognitive task through recruitment of neural circuits in the prefrontal cortex and parietal regions of
the brain that are involved in attentional control (Prakash & others,
2011)
Expanded, updated, and revised content on interventions in cognitive
aging to include the views of a consensus of leading experts at the
Stanford Center for Longevity (2011)
Discussion of a recent research review of dietary supplements and cognitive aging (Gorby, Brownawell, & Falk, 2010)
Description of a recent study that found that when retelling a story
older adults were less likely than younger adults to compress discourse
and less likely to improve the cohesiveness of their narratives (Saling,
Laroo, & Saling, 2012)
New Figure 18.6: Percentage of 65- to 69-Year-Old Men and Women
Working or Looking for Work in 1998 and 2008
New Figure 18.7: Percentage of U.S. Adults 65 Years and Older in the
Labor Force Who Are Working Full-Time or Part-Time
Expanded commentary about older adults increasingly seeking a type of
bridge employment that permits a gradual rather than a sudden movement out of the work context (Bowen, Noack, & Staudinger, 2011)
New data on the average age of retirement for men (64 years) and
women (62 years) in 2011 in the United States (Munnell, 2011)
Discussion of a 2012 survey that indicated confidence regarding
having enough money to live comfortably in retirement had dropped
to 14 percent (Helman, Copeland, & VanDerhei, 2012)
New commentary suggesting that the two main income concerns as
individuals approach retirement are (1) drawing retirement income
from savings, and (2) paying for health care expenses (Yakoboski,
2011)
Coverage of a recent study that revealed different predictors for men's
and women's psychological well-being after retirement (Kubicek &
others, 2010)
Description of a recent meta-analysis that found the following living
conditions were associated with risk for depression in older adults:
xxxviii
Preface
Description of recent research indicating that the presence of amyloid
protein in the spinal fluid of individuals with mild cognitive impairment predicted whether they would develop Alzheimer disease within
the next five years (De Meyer & others, 2010)
New material indicating that one of the best strategies for preventing/
intervening in the lives of people who are at risk for Alzheimer disease
is to improve their cardiac functioning (Gelber, Launer, & White, 2012;
Wagner & others, 2012)
Coverage of a recent study that compared the family caregivers' perceptions of caring for someone with Alzheimer disease, cancer, or
schizophrenia; the highest perceived burden was for Alzheimer disease
(Papastavrou & others, 2012)
Description of a Pew poll that found belief in God was higher in older
adults than in any other age group (Pew Forum on Religion and Public
Life, 2008)
Inclusion of recent research that found a higher level of spirituality was
linked to resilience in older women (Vahia & others, 201 la)
Discussion of the religious interest of older African American adults
(Williams, Keigher, & Williams, 2012)
Chapter 19: Socioemotional Development
in Late Adulthood
Expanded coverage of regrets in older adults, indicating that it is
important not to dwell on them, especially since opportunities to undo
earlier actions decline with age (Suri & Gross, 2012)
Inclusion of recent research that revealed an important factor in older
adults who showed a higher level of emotion regulation and successful
aging was reduced responsiveness to regrets (Brassen & others, 2012)
Discussion of a recent meta-analysis of 128 studies of reminiscence
interventions in older adults with positive effects on a number of
dimensions (Pinquart & Frostmeier, 2012)
Description of a recent study that found older adults were happiest
when they combined effortful social, physical, cognitive and, household
activities with restful activities (Oerlemans, Bakker, & Veenhoven, 2011)
Coverage of research by Laura Carstensen and her colleagues (2011)
on links between aging and emotional well-being, emotional stability,
and longevity
Expanded discussion of emotion and aging indicating that compared
to younger adults, older adults react less to negative circumstances, are
better at ignoring irrelevant negative information, and remember more
positive than negative information (Mather, 2012)
Description of a recent study that found positive emotion increased
from 50 years of age through the mid-eighties while anger was highest
in the early twenties (Stone & others, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study of younger and older adults' informationfocus and emotion-focus in health-care decision making (Mikels &
others, 2010)
New coverage of the newly emerging field of developmental social
neuroscience that involves connecting changes in the aging brain and
older adults' emotion (Kaszniak & Menchola, 2012; Samanez-Larkin &
Carstensen, 2011)
Inclusion of information about a recent study that found conscientiousness predicted greater longevity in older adults (Hill & others, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study that revealed higher neuroticism was
linked to older adults' medication non-adherence across a six-year time
frame (Jerant & others, 2011)
Description of a recent study indicating that elevated neuroticism,
lower conscientiousness, and lower openness were related to increased
risk of developing Alzheimer disease across a six-year period in older
adults (Duberstein & others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study that found older adults had higher selfesteem when they had a youthful identity and more positive personal
experiences (Westerhof, Whitbourne, & Freeman, 2012)
Updated information about the percent of older adults living in poverty
(Administration on Aging, 2011)
Discussion of recent research on links between frequency of computer
use among older adults and their levels of cognitive functioning (Tun
& Lachman, 2010)
Description of a study in which a 40-hour video game training program
improved older adults' attention and memory (Smith & others, 2009)
Coverage of a recent study that revealed when older adults played a
brain training game about 15 minutes a day for 4 weeks, the experience improved their executive functioning and speed of processing
information (Nouchi & others, 2012)
Updated data on the percentage of older adults living in poverty (U.S.
Census Bureau, 2010)
Updated statistics on the percentage of older adults who are married
and divorced (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study that found cohabiting older adults were less
likely to receive partner care than married older adults were (Noel-Miller,
2011)
Inclusion of information from a recent study that found older
adults who volunteered for other-oriented reasons had a lower mortality risk but those who volunteered for self-oriented reasons had a
mortality risk similar to that of nonvolunteers (Konrath & others,
2012)
Discussion of a recent study that found the more older adults engaged
in volunteering the happier they were (Dulin & others, 2012)
New description of a research study that revealed maximizing
one's psychological resources (self-efficacy and optimism) was
linked to a higher quality of life in late adulthood (Bowling & Iliffe,
2011)
Expanded discussion of successful aging, including information about
the important agenda of continuing to improve our understanding of
how people can live longer, healthier, more productive and satisfying
lives (Beard & others, 2012)
Chapter 20: Death, Dying, and Grieving
New discussion of Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment
(POLST), a document that is more specific than other advanced directives in translating treatment preferences into medical orders (Fromme
& others, 2012; Hammes & others, 2012)
Inclusion of a recent Dutch study of passive and active euthanasia,
including the percentage of dying persons who requested them and the
percentage whose request was granted (Onwuteaka-Philipsen & others,
2010)
Discussion of a recent Belgian sutdy that found approximately
50 percent of the requests for euthanasia were granted (Van Wesemael
& others, 2011)
Description of a recent study in the Netherlands indicating that
approximately 75 percent of the euthanasia requests came from cancer
patients and the main reason for the requests was pain (van Alphen,
Donker, & Marquet, 2010)
Expanded and updated coverage of complicated grief or prolonged
grief disorder, including its recent proposal for inclusion in DSM-V
(Shear, 2012a, b)
Description of research on marital satisfaction in octogenarians and its
ability to protect their happiness from the effects of daily fluctuations
in perceived health (Waldinger & Schulz, 2010)
Description of recent research on aspects of death most likely to be
linked to prolonged grief (Fujisawa & others, 2010)
New material on how in late adulthood married individuals are more
likely to find themselves having to care for a sick spouse with a limiting health condition (Blieszner & Roberto, 2012)
Discussion of a recent study that found individuals who were
depressed were more likely to have complicated grief (Sung & others,
2011)
Updated and expanded discussion of social support and aging, including recent research linking a higher level of social support with
reduced cognitive decline (Dickinson & others, 2011)
Inclusion of research that found complicated grief was more likely to
be present in older adults when the grief occurred in response to the
death of a child or spouse (Newsom & others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent study in which loneliness predicted increased
blood pressure four years later in middle-aged and older adults
(Hawkley & others, 2010)
New information about the percentage of women and men 65 years of
age and older who are widowed in the United States (U.S. Census
Bureau, 2011)
Discussion of a recent study that linked social isolation in late adulthood to a greater risk of being inactive, smoking, and engaging in
other health-risk behaviors (Shankar & others, 2011)
Coverage of a recent large-scale study that found a link between loss of
a spouse and risk of psychiatric visits as well as earlier death in individuals 75 years of age and older (Moller & others, 2011)
Description of three recent longitudinal studies that found feelings of
loneliness were linked with an earlier death (Luo & others, 2012;
Perissinotto, Stijacic Cenzer, & Covinsky, 2012)
Updated statistics and projections on the percentage of corpses being
cremated in the United States (Cremation Association of North
America, 2011)
Preface
xxxix
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I very much appreciate the support and guidance provided to me by many people at McGrawHill. Mike Sugarman, Publisher, has brought a wealth of publishing knowledge and vision to
bear on improving my texts. Allison McNamara, Senior Editor, deserves mention for the work
she has done as the editor for this book. Sarah Kiefer, Editorial Coordinator, has done a very
competent job of obtaining reviewers and handling many editorial chores. Janet Tilden did a
superb job as the book's copy editor. Sheila Frank did a terrific job in coordinating the book's
production. And Jennifer Blankenship provided me with excellent choices of new photographs
for this edition of the book.
I also want to thank my parents, John and Ruth Santrock, my wife, Mary Jo, our children,
Tracy and Jennifer, and our grandchildren, Jordan, Alex, and Luke, for their wonderful contributions to my life and for helping me to better understand the marvels and mysteries of
life-span development.
REVIEWERS
I owe a special debt of gratitude to the reviewers who provided detailed feedback on Life-Span
Development.
Expert Consultants
Life-span development has become an enormous, complex field, and no single author can
possibly be an expert in all areas of the field. To solve this problem, beginning with the sixth
edition, I have sought the input of leading experts in many different areas of life-span development. This tradition continues in the fourteenth edition. These experts have provided me with
detailed recommendations of new research to include in every period of the life span. The panel
of experts is literally a Whos Who in the field of life-span development. The names of the expert
consultants, their photographs, and biographies are on pages xiv-xvi.
Connect Life-Span Board of Advisors
Shirley Bass- Wright, St. Phillips College
Brent Costleigh, Brookdale Community College
Andrea Garvey, American River College
Lisa Hagan, Metropolitan State College of Denver
Ericka Hamilton, Moraine Valley Community College
Alycia Hund, Illinois State University
Joan Brandt Jensen, Central Piedmont Community College
Amy Reesing, Arizona State University
Angela Tiru, Naugatuck Valley Community College
Martin Wolfger, Ivy Tech Community College
Expert Consultants for Previous Editions
Karen Adolph, New York University
Toni C. Antonucci, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Pamela Balls Organista, University of California-San Francisco
Paul Baltes, Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Diana Baumrind, University of California-Berkeley
Carol Beal, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Jean Berko Gleason, Boston University
James Birren, University of California-Los Angeles
Marc H. Bornstein, National Institute of Child Health and Development
Sue Bredekamp, National Association for the Education of Young Children
xi
Preface
Urie Bronfenbrenner, Cornell University
Joseph Campos, University of California-Berkeley
Deborah Carr, Rutgers University
Rosalind Charlesworth, Weber State University
Florence Denmark, Pace University
Joseph Durlack, Loyola University
Glen Elder, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Tiffany Field, University of Miami
Karen Fingerman, Purdue University
Alan Fogel, University of Utah
James Garbarino, Loyola University, Chicago
Jean Berko Gleason, Boston University
Gilbert Gottlieb, University of North Carolina
Julia Graber, Columbia University
Sandra Graham, University of California-Los Angeles
Elena Grigorenko, Yale University
Jane Halonen, Alverno College
Yvette R. Harris, Miami University, Ohio
Algea 0. Harrison-Hale, Oakland University
Craig Hart, Brigham Young University
Bert Hayslip, University of North Texas
Ravenna Helson, University of California-Berkeley
Maria Hernandez-Reif, University of Alabama
William Hoyer, Syracuse University
Diane Hughes, New York University
Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Koc University (Turkey)
Robert Kastenbaum, Arizona State University
Arthur Kramer, University of Illinois
Gisela Labouvie-Vief, Wayne State University
Margie Lachman, Brandeis University
Barry M. Lester, Women and Infants' Hospital
Jean M. Mandler, University of California-San Diego
James Marcia, Simon Fraser University
Linda Mayes, Yale University
Andrew Meltzoff, University of Washington
Phyllis Moen, University of Minnesota
Scott Miller, University of Florida
Candice Mills, University of Texas at Dallas
David Moore, Pitzer College and Claremont Graduate University
Phyllis Moen, Cornell University
David Moore, Pitzer College and Claremont Graduate University
Ross D. Parke, University of California-Riverside
James Reid, Washington University
Carolyn Saarni, Sonoma State University
Barba Patton, University of Houston, Victoria
K. Warner Schaie, Pennsylvania State University
John Schulenberg, University of Michigan
Jan Sinnott, Towson State University
Margaret Beale Spencer, University of Pennsylvania
Preface
xii
Wolfgang Stroebe, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands
Elizabeth Susman, Pennsylvania State University
Ross A. Thompson, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Marian Underwood, University of Texas at Dallas
Elisa Velasquez-Andrade, Sonoma State University
Elizabeth Vera, Loyola University, Chicago
L. Monique Ward, University of Michigan
Camille Wortman, University of Michigan
Susan Whitbourne, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
General Text Reviewers for Previous Editions
Patrick K. Ackles, Michigan State University; Berkeley Adams, Jamestown Community College;
Jackie Adamson, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology; Pamela Adelmann, Saint Paul
Technical College; Joanne M. Alegre, Yavapai College; Gary L. Allen, University of South Carolina; Kristy Allen, Ozark Technical College; Lilia Allen, Charles County Community College;
Ryan Allen, The Citadel; Susan E. Allen, Baylor University; Paul Anderer Castillo, SUNY
Canton; Doreen Arcus, University of Massachusetts-Lowell; Frank R. Ashbur, Valdosta State
College; Leslie Ault, Hostos Community College-CUNY; Renee L. Babcock, Central Michigan University; John Bauer, University of Dayton; Diana Baumrind, University of California-Berkeley;
Daniel R. Bellack, Trident Technical College; Helen E. Benedict, Baylor University; Alice
D. Beyrent, Hesser College; John Biondo, Community College of Allegheny County-Boyce Campus; James A. Blackburn, University of Wisconsin at Madison; William Blackston, Baltimore
City Community College; Stephanie Blecharczyk, Keene State College; Belinda Blevins-Knabe,
University of Arkansas-Little Rock; Marc H. Bornstein, National Institute of Child Health &
Development; Karyn Mitchell Boudin, Massasoit Community College; Donald Bowers, Community College of Philadelphia; Saundra Y. Boyd, Houston Community College; Michelle
Boyer-Pennington, Middle Tennessee State University; Ann Brandt-Williams, Glendale Community College; Julia Braungart-Rieke, University of Notre Dame; Gregory Braswell, Illinois
State University; Kathy Brown, California State University at Fullerton; Jack Busky, Harrisburg
Area Community College; Marion Cahill, Our Lady of the Lake College; Joan B. Cannon,
University of Lowell; Jeri Carter, Glendale Community College; Vincent Castranovo, Community College of Philadelphia; Ginny Chappeleau, Muskingum Area Technical College; Dominique Charlotteaux, Broward Community College; Rosalind Charlesworth, Weber State
University; Yiwei Chen, Bowling Green State University; Bill Cheney, Crichton College; M. A.
Christenberry, Augusta College; Saundra Ciccarelli, Florida Gulf University; Kevin Clark,
Indiana University at Kokomo; Andrea Clements, East Tennessee State University; Meredith
Cohen, University of Pittsburgh; Diane Cook, Gainesville College; Pamela Costa, Tacoma Community College; Ava Craig, Sacramento City College; Kathleen Crowley-Long, College of Saint
Rose; Cynthia Crown, Xavier University; Jennifer Dale, Community College of Aurora; Dana
Davidson, University of Hawaii at Manoa; Diane Davis, Bowie State University; Karen Davis,
Chippewa Valley Technical College; Tom L. Day, Weber State University; Mehgen Delaney,
College of the Canyons; Doreen DeSantio, West Chester University; Jill De Villiers, Smith College; Darryl M. Dietrich, College of St. Scholastica; Alisa Diop, The Community College of
Baltimore County; Bailey Drechsler, Cuesta College; Joseph Durlack, Loyola University; Mary
B. Eberly, Oakland University; Margaret Sutton Edmonds, University of MassachusettsBoston; Glen Elder, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Martha M. Ellis, Collin County
Community College; Lena Eriksen, Western Washington University; Richard Ewy, Pennsylvania
State University; Dan Fawaz, Georgia Perimeter College; Shirley Feldman, Stanford University;
Roberta Ferra, University of Kentucky; Tiffany Field, University of Miami; Alan Fogel, University of Utah; Linda E. Flickinger, St. Claire Community College; Lynne Andreozzi Fontaine,
Community College of Rhode Island; Tom Frangicetto, Northampton Community College;
Kathleen Corrigan Fuhs, J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College; J. Steven Fulks, Utah
State University; Cathy Furlong, Tulsa Junior College; Duwayne Furman, Western Illinois
University; John Gat, Humboldt State University; Marvin Gelman, Montgomery County
College; G.R. Germo, University of California-Irvine; Rebecca J. Glare, Weber State College;
xiii
Preface
David Goldstein, Temple University; Arthur Gonchar, University of La Verne; Judy Goodell,
National University; Mary Ann Goodwyn, Northeast Louisiana University; Caroline Gould,
Eastern Michigan University; Julia Graber, Columbia University; Peter C. Gram, Pensacola
Junior College; Dan Grangaard, Austin Community College; Tom Gray, Laredo Community
College; Michele Gregoire, University of Florida at Gainesville; Michael Green, University of
North Carolina; Rea Gubler, Southern Utah University; Gary Gute, University of Northern
Iowa; Laura Hanish, Arizona State University; Ester Hanson, Prince George's Community College; Marian S. Harris, University of Illinois at Chicago; Yvette R. Harris, Miami University of
Ohio; Amanda W. Harrist, Oklahoma State University; Robert Heavilin, Greater Hartford
Community College; Donna Henderson, Wake Forest University; Debra Hollister, Valencia
Community College; Heather Holmes-Lonergan, Metropolitan State College of Denver; Ramona
0. Hopkins, Brigham Young University; Donna Horbury, Appalachian State University; Susan
Horton, Mesa Community College; Sharon C. Hott, Allegany College of Maryland; John Hotz,
Saint Cloud State University; Tasha Howe, Humboldt State University; Kimberley HoweNorris, Cape Fear Community College; Stephen Hoyer, Pittsburgh State University; Charles H.
Huber, New Mexico State University; Kathleen Day Hulbert, University of MassachusettsLowell; Derek Isaacowitz, Brandeis University; Kathryn French Iroz, Utah Valley State College;
Terry Isbell, Northwestern State University of Louisiana; Erwin Janek, Henderson State University; James Jasper-Jacobsen, Indiana University at Purdue; Christina Jose-Kampfner, Eastern Michigan University; Ursula Joyce, St. Thomas Aquinas College; Barbara Kane, Indiana
State University; Ulas Kaplan, Harvard University; Kevin Keating, Broward Community College; James L. Keeney, Middle Georgia College; Elinor Kinarthy, Rio Hondo College; Karen
Kirkendall, Sangamon State University; A. Klingner, Northwest Community College; Steven J.
Kohn, Nazareth College; Amanda Kowal, University of Missouri; Jane Krump, North Dakota
State College of Science; Nadene LAmoreaux, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Gisela
Labouvie-Vief, Wayne State University; Joseph C. LaVoie, University of Nebraska at Omaha;
Kathy Lein, Community College of Denver; Jean Hill Macht, Montgomery County Community
College; James Marcia, Simon Fraser University; Salvador Macias, University of South Carolina
at Sumter; Karen Macrae, University of South Carolina; Christine Malecki, Northern Illinois
University; Kathy Manuel, Bossier Parish Community College; Myra Marcus, Florida Gulf
Coast University; Carrie Margolin, The Evergreen State College; Allan Mayotte, Riverland
Community College; Susan McClure, Westmoreland Community College; Dorothy H. McDonald,
Sandhills Community College; Robert C. McGinnis, Ancilla College; Clara McKinney, Barstow
College; Robert McLaren, California State University at Fullerton; Deborah H. McMurtrie,
University of South Carolina, Aiken; Sharon McNeeley, Northeastern Illinois University; Daysi
Mejia, Florida Gulf Coast University; Kathleen Mentink, Chippewa Valley Technical College;
James Messina, University of Phoenix; Heather E. Metcalfe, University of Windsor; Karla
Miley, Black Hawk College; Jessica Miller, Mesa State College; Scott Miller, University of Florida; Teri M. Miller-Schwartz, Milwaukee Area Technical College; David B. Mitchell, Loyola
University; Joann Montepare, Emerson College; Gary T. Montgomery, University of TexasPan American; Martin D. Murphy, University of Akron; Malinda Muzi, Community College of
Philadelphia; Gordon K. Nelson, Pennsylvania State University; Michael Newton, Sam Houston State University; Charisse Nixon, Pennsylvania State University at Erie; Beatrice Norrie,
Mount Royal College; Jean O'Neil, Boston College; Laura Overstreet, Tarrant County College-Northeast; Karla Parise, The Community College of Baltimore County at Essex; Jennifer
Parker, University of South Carolina; Barba Patton, University of Houston- Victoria; Susan
Perez, University of North Florida; Pete Peterson, Johnson County Community College;
Richard Pierce, Pennsylvania State University-Altoona; David Pipes, Caldwell Community
College; Leslee Pollina, Southeast Missouri State University; Robert Poresky, Kansas State
University; Christopher Quarto, Middle Tennessee State University; Bob Rainey, Florida Community College; Nancy Rankin, University of New England; H. Ratner, Wayne State University;
Cynthia Reed, Tarrant County College-Northeast; James Reid, Washington University; Amy
Reesing, Arizona University; Russell Riley, Lord Fairfax Community College; Mark P.
Rittman, Cuyahoga Community College; Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College; Clarence
Romeno, Riverside Community College; Paul Roodin, SUNY-Oswego; Ron Rossac, University
of North Florida; Julia Rux, Georgia Perimeter College; Carolyn Saarni, Sonoma State
University; Karen Salekin, University of Alabama; Gayla Sanders, Community College of
Preface
xi iii
Baltimore County-Essex; Toru Sato, Shippensburg University; Nancy Sauerman, Kirkwood
Community College; Cynthia Scheibe, Ithaca College; Robert Schell, SUNY-Oswego; Rachel
Schremp, Santa Fe Community College; Pamela Schuetze, Buffalo State College; Edythe
Schwartz, California State University at Sacramento; Lisa Scott, University of Minnesota-Twin
Cities; Owen Sharkey, University of Prince Edward Island; Elisabeth Shaw, Texarkana College;
Susan Nakayama Siaw, California State Polytechnical University; Vicki Simmons, University of
Victoria; Jessica Siebenbruner, Winona State College; Gregory Smith, University of Maryland;
Jon Snodgrass, California State University-Los Angeles; Donald Stanley, North Dallas Community College; Jean A. Steitz, University of Memphis; Terre Sullivan, Chippewa Valley Technical College; Collier Summers, Florida Community College at Jacksonville; Barbara Thomas,
National University; Stacy D. Thompson, Oklahoma State University; Debbie Tindell, Wilkes
University; Stephen Truhon, Winston-Salem State University; James Turcott, Kalamazoo Valley Community College; Marian Underwood, University of Texas at Dallas; Dennis Valone,
Pennsylvania State University at Erie; Gaby Vandergiessen, Fairmount State College; Elisa Velasquez, Sonoma State University; Stephen Werba, Community College of Baltimore County at
Catonsville; B. D. Whetstone, Birmingham Southern College; Susan Whitbourne, University of
Massachusetts at Amherst. Nancy C. White, Reynolds Community College; Lyn W. Wickelgren,
Metropolitan State College; Ann M. Williams, Luzerne County Community College; Myron D.
Williams, Great Lakes Bible College; Linda B. Wilson, Quincy College; Mark Winkel, University of Texas-Pan American; Mary Ann Wisniewski, Carroll College;
Instructor Resources
The resources listed here may accompany Life-Span Development, 14th edition. Please contact
your McGraw-Hill representative for details concerning policies, prices, and availability.
Online Resources The instructor's side of the Online Learning Center at http://www.
mhhe.com/santrockldl4e contains the Instructor's Manual, Test Bank files, PowerPoint slides,
Image Gallery, and other valuable material to help you design and enhance your course. Ask
your local McGraw-Hill representative for your password.
Instructor's Manual Each chapter of the Instructor's Manual is introduced by a Total
Teaching Package Outline. This fully integrated tool helps instructors more easily locate and
choose among the many resources available for the course by linking each element of the
Instructor's Manual to a particular teaching topic within the chapter. These elements include
chapter outlines, suggested lecture topics, classroom activities and demonstrations, suggested
student research projects, essay questions, critical thinking questions, and implications for
guidance.
Test Bank and Computerized Test Bank This comprehensive Test Bank includes
more than 1,500 multiple-choice and approximately 75 essay questions. Organized by chapter,
the questions are designed to test factual, applied, and conceptual understanding. All test
questions are compatible with EZ Test, McGraw-Hill's Computerized Test Bank program.
PowerPoint Slides These presentations cover the key points of each chapter and include
charts and graphs from the text. They can be used as is, or you may modify them to meet
your specific needs.
McGraw-Hill's Visual Assets Database for Lifespan Development ("VAD")
McGraw-Hill's Visual Assets Database for Lifespan Development (VAD 2.0) at www.mhhe.
com/vad is an online database of videos for use in the developmental psychology classroom,
created specifically for instructors. You can customize classroom presentations by downloading the videos to your computer and showing the videos on their own or inserting them into
your course cartridge or PowerPoint presentations. All of the videos are available with or
without captions. Ask your McGraw-Hill representative for access information.
xliv
Preface
DEVELOPtv1 ENT
section one
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players.
They have their exits and their entrances,
and one man in his time plays many parts.
- WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
English Playwright, 17th Century
The Life-Span
Perspective
This book is about human development-its universal features, its individual
variations, its nature. Every life is distinct, a new biography in the world. Examining
the shape of life-span development allows us to understand it better. Life-Span
Development is about the rhythm and meaning of people's lives, about turning
mystery into understanding, and about weaving a portrait of who each of us was,
is, and will be. In Section 1, you will read "Introduction" (Chapter 1).
2
INTRODUCTION
chapter outline
1 The Life-Span Perspective
3 Theories of Development
Learning Goal 1 Discuss the distinctive features
of a life-span perspective on development.
Learning Goal 3 Describe the main theories of
human development.
The Importance of Studying Life-Span Development
Psychoanalytic Theories
Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective
Cognitive Theories
Some Contemporary Concerns
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
Ethological Theory
2 The Nature of Development
Learning Goal 2 Identify the most important
processes, periods, and issues in development.
Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
Periods of Development
The Significance of Age
Developmental Issues
Ecological Theory
An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
4 Research in Life-Span
Development
Learning Goal 4 Explain how research on
life-span development is conducted.
Methods for Collecting Data
Research Designs
Time Span of Research
Conducting Ethical Research
Minimizing Bias
ed Kaczynski sprinted through high school, not
bothering with his junior year and making only
passing efforts at social contact. Off to Harvard at
age 16, Kaczynski was a loner during his college years.
T
Ted Kaczynski, the convicted Unabomber, traced his
difficulties to growing up as a genius in a kid's body
and not fitting in when he was a child.
One of his roommates at Harvard said that he avoided people by quickly shuffling by
them and slamming the door behind him. After obtaining his Ph.D. in mathematics
at the University of Michigan, Kaczynski became a professor at the University of
California at Berkeley. His colleagues there remember him as hiding from social
circumstances-no friends, no allies, no networking.
After several years at Berkeley, Kaczynski resigned and moved to a rural
area of Montana where he lived as a hermit in a crude shack for 25 years.
Town residents described him as a bearded eccentric. Kaczynski traced
his own difficulties to growing up as a genius in a kid's body and
sticking out like a sore thumb in his surroundings as a child. In 1996,
he was arrested and charged as the notorious Unabomber, America's
most wanted killer. Over the course of 17 years, Kaczynski had sent
16 mail bombs that left 23 people wounded or maimed and 3 people
dead. In 1998, he pleaded guilty to the offenses and was sentenced to life
Ted Kaczynski, about age 15-16.
in prison.
A decade before Kaczynski mailed his first bomb, Alice Walker spent her days battling racism in Mississippi. She had recently won her first writing fellowship, but
rather than use the money to follow her dream of moving to Senegal, Africa, she
put herself into the heart and heat of the civil rights movement. Walker had
Alice Walker won the Pulitzer Prize for her book The
Color Purple. Like the characters in her book, Walker
overcame pain and anger to triumph and celebrate
the human spirit.
grown up knowing the brutal effects of poverty and racism. Born in 1944, she
was the eighth child of Georgia sharecroppers who earned $300 a year. When
Walker was 8, her brother accidentally shot her in the left eye with a BB gun. By
the time her parents got her to the hospital a week later (they had no car), she
was blind in that eye, and it had developed a disfiguring layer of scar tissue.
Despite the counts against her, Walker overcame pain and anger and went on to
win a Pulitzer Prize for her book The Color Purple. She became not only a novelist but also an essayist, a poet, a short-story writer, and a social activist.
Alice Walker, about age 8.
SECTION 1
The Life-Span Perspective
5
preview
What leads one individual, so full of promise, to commit brutal acts of violence and another to
turn poverty and trauma into a rich literary harvest? If you have ever wondered why people turn
out the way they do, you have asked yourself the central question we will explore in this book.
This book is a window into the journey of human development-your own and that of every
other member of the human species. In this first chapter, we will explore what it means to take
a life-span perspective on development, examine the nature of development, and outline how
science helps us to understand it.
1 The Life-Span Perspective
•
Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on
development.
T
I
The Importance of Studying
Life-Span Development
Characteristics of the
Life-Span Perspective
Some Contemporary Concerns
Each of us develops partly like all other individuals, partly like some other individuals, and
partly like no other individual. Most of the time our attention is directed to an individual's
uniqueness. But as humans, we have all traveled some common paths. Each of us-Leonardo
da Vinci, Joan of Arc, George Washington, Martin Luther King, Jr., and you-walked at about
1 year, engaged in fantasy play as a young child, and became more independent as a youth.
Each of us, if we live long enough, will experience hearing problems and the death of family
members and friends. This is the general course of our development, the pattern of movement
or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.
In this section, we will explore what is meant by the concept of development and why
the study of life-span development is important. We will outline the main characteristics of
the life-span perspective and discuss various sources of contextual influences. In addition, we
will examine some contemporary concerns in life-span development.
We reach backward to our
parents and forward to our
children, and through their
children to a future we will
never see, but about which we
need to care.
THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING
LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT
How might people benefit from examining life-span development? Perhaps you are, or will
be, a parent or teacher. If so, responsibility for children is, or will be, a part of your everyday
life. The more you learn about them, the better you can deal with them. Perhaps you hope to
gain some insight about your own history-as an infant, a child, an adolescent, or a young
adult. Perhaps you want to know more about what your life will be like as you grow through
-CARL JUNG
Swiss Psychiatrist, 20th Century
development The pattern of change that begins at
conception and continues through the life span.
Most development involves growth, although it also
includes decline brought on by aging and dying.
life-span perspective The perspective that
development is lifelong, multidimensional,
multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and
contextual; involves growth, maintenance, and
regulation; and is constructed through biological,
sociocultural, and individual factors working
together.
6
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Peanuts:© United Features Syndicate, Inc.
the adult years-as a middle-aged adult, or as an adult in old age, for example. Or perhaps
you just stumbled onto this course, thinking that it sounded intriguing and that the study
of the human life span might raise some provocative issues. Whatever your reasons for
taking this course, you will discover that the study of life-span development is intriguing and filled with information about who we are, how we came to be this way, and
where our future will take us.
Most development involves growth, but it also includes decline (as in dying). In
exploring development, we will examine the life span from the point of conception
until the time when life (or at least life as we know it) ends. You will see yourself as
an infant, as a child, and as an adolescent, and be stimulated to think about how
those years influenced the kind of individual you are today. And you will see yourself as a
young adult, as a middle-aged adult, and as an adult in old age, and be motivated to think
about how your experiences today will influence your development through the remainder of
your adult years.
Human
122
Galapagos turtle
100+
Indian elephant
70
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE
Although growth and development are dramatic during the first two decades of life, development is not something that happens only to children and adolescents. The traditional approach
to the study of development emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence (especially during infancy), little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age. But a great
deal of change does occur in the five or six decades after adolescence. The life-span approach
emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood (Lerner,
Easterbrooks & Mistry, 2013; Schaie, 2012; Whitbourne & Sliwinski, 2012).
Recent increases in human life expectancy contributed to the popularity of the lifespan approach to development. The upper boundary of the human life span (based on the
oldest age documented) is 122 years, as indicated in Figure 1.1; this maximum life span of
humans has not changed since the beginning of recorded history. What has changed is life
expectancy-the average number of years that a person born in a particular year can
expect to live. In the twentieth century alone, life expectancy in the United States
increased by 30 years, thanks to improvements in sanitation, nutrition, and medicine
(see Figure 1.2). In the first half of the second decade of the twenty-first century,
the life expectancy in the United States is 78 years of age (U.S. Census Bureau,
2011 ). Today, for most individuals in developed countries, childhood and adolescence represent only about one-fourth of their lives.
The belief that development occurs throughout life is central to the life-span perspective
on human development, but this perspective has other characteristics as well. According to
life-span development expert Paul Baltes (1939-2006), the life-span perspective
views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and as a process that involves growth, maintenance,
and regulation of loss (Baltes, 1987, 2003; Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger,
2006). In Baltes' view, it is important to understand that development is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together.
Let's look at each of these components of the life-span perspective.
Chinese alligator
52
Golden eagle
46
Gorilla
Common toad
39
36
Domestic cat
27
Domestic dog
:====:;;;;;;;;;=:;;=20========�
Vampire bat
:========--13""""=======�
House mouse
3
FIGURE 1.1
MAXIMUM RECORDED LIFE SPAN FOR
DIFFERENT SPECIES. Our only competitor for the
maximum recorded life span is the Galapagos turtle.
Development Is Lifelong In the life-span perspective, early adulthood is
not the endpoint of development; rather, no age period dominates development.
Researchers increasingly study the experiences and psychological orientations of
adults at different points in their lives. Later in this chapter, we will describe the
age periods of development and their characteristics.
Development Is Multidimensional
No matter what your age might
be, your body, mind, emotions, and relationships are changing and affecting
each other. Consider the development of Ted Kaczynski, the Unabomber discussed at the beginning of this chapter. When he was 6 months old, he was
Paul Baltes, a leading architect of the life-span perspective of
development, conversing with one of the long-time research
participants in the Berlin Aging Study that he directs. She joined the
study in the early 1990s and has participated six times in extensive
physical, medical, psychological, and social assessments. In her
professional life, she was a practicing medical doctor.
SECTION 1
The Life-Span Perspective
7
Time Period
Average Life
Expectancy (years)
2011, USA
78
1954,USA
70
1915, USA
54
1900, USA
==
19th century,
England
1620, Massachusetts
Bay Colony
Middle Ages,
England
Ancient Greece
Prehistoric times
47'
4�
�r
:s
"""'
-
FIGURE 1.2
HUMAN LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH FROM
PREHISTORIC TO CONTEMPORARY TIMES. It
took 5,000 years to extend human life expectancy
from 18 to 41 years of age.
I
I
,.---------�
developmental connection
Exercise
What effect might exercise have on older
adults' ability to process information?
Chapter 17, p. 555
hospitalized with a severe allergic reaction and his parents were rarely allowed to
visit the baby. According to his mother, the previously happy baby was never the
same after his hospitalization. The infant became withdrawn and unresponsive.
As Ted grew up, he had periodic "shutdowns" accompanied by rage. In his
mother's view, a biological event in infancy warped the development of her
son's mind and emotions.
Development has biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions.
Even within a dimension, there are many components. For example, attention, memory, abstract thinking, speed of processing information, and social
intelligence are just a few of the components of the cognitive dimension.
Development Is Multidirectional
Throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink. For example, when one language (such as English) is acquired early in development,
the capacity for acquiring second and third languages (such as Spanish
and Chinese) decreases later in development, especially after early childhood (Levelt, 1989). During adolescence, as individuals establish romantic relationships, their time spent with friends may decrease. During late
adulthood, older adults might become wiser because they have more
experience than younger adults to draw upon to guide their decision making, but they perform more poorly on tasks that require speed in processing information (Ardelt, 2011; Bassett, 2012; Dirk & Schmiedek, 2012;
Salthouse, 2012).
Development Is Plastic Even at 10 years old, Ted Kaczynski was extraordinarily shy.
Was he destined to remain forever uncomfortable with people? Developmentalists debate how
much plasticity people have in various dimensions at different points in their development.
Plasticity means the capacity for change. For example, can you still improve your intellectual
skills when you are in your seventies or eighties? Or might these intellectual skills be fixed by
the time you are in your thirties so that further improvement is impossible? Researchers have
found that the cognitive skills of older adults can be improved through training and developing better strategies (Katzel & Steinbrenner, 2012; Schaie, 2012). However, possibly we possess
less capacity for change as we grow older (Salthouse, 2010, 2012, 2013). The search for plasticity and its constraints is a key element on the contemporary agenda for developmental research
(Depp,Vahia, & Jeste, 2012; Freund, Nikitin, & Riediger, 2013; Park & Bischof, 2011).
Developmental Science Is Multidisciplinary Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all share an interest in unlocking the mysteries of development through the life span. How do your heredity and health limit your
intelligence? Do intelligence and social relationships change with age in the same way around
the world? How do families and schools influence intellectual development? These are examples of research questions that cut across disciplines.
What characterizes the life-span perspective of
development?
normative age-graded influences Influences that
are similar for individuals in a particular age group.
8
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Development Is Contextual All development occurs within a context, or setting. Contexts include families, schools, peer groups, churches, cities, neighborhoods,
university laboratories, countries, and so on. Each of these settings is influenced by
historical, economic, social, and cultural factors (Gollnick & Chinn, 2013; Kitayama &
Uskul, 2011).
Contexts, like individuals, change (Gauvain, 2013; Gerstorff & Ram, 2012). Thus, individuals are changing beings in a changing world. As a result of these changes, contexts exert three
types of influences (Baltes, 2003): (1) normative age-graded influences, (2) normative historygraded influences, and (3) nonnormative or highly individualized life events. Each of these types
can have a biological or environmental impact on development. Normative age-graded influences are similar for individuals in a particular age group. These influences include biological
processes such as puberty and menopause. They also include sociocultural, environmental
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