Blood Disorders

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Neutrophils
Neutrophilia (Neutrophilic Leukocytosis)
Neutrophilia refers to a higher than normal number of neutrophils. The adequate
production and distribution of normally functioning neutrophils is vital to host defense.
Causes: Acute infections, Noninfectious inflammation, Metabolic, Poisoning, Acute hemorrhage,
Neoplasms and blood malignancies, Physiologic neutrophilia, hereditary, or along with anemia.
Neutropenia
Neutropenia is a decrease in circulating neutrophils in the nonmarginal pool, which
constitutes 4-5% of total body neutrophil stores.
Causes: Insufficient or injured bone marrow stem cells, shifts in neutrophils from the circulating
pool to the marginal blood or tissue pools, increased destruction in the circulation. These can be
alone or in combination in causing Neutropenia.
Eosinophils
Eosinophilia
Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. This condition most often
indicates a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer.
Causes: Infections (especially helminthic parasites), allergic responses, neoplasms, connective
tissue disorders, medications, and endocrinopathies
Eosinopenia
A form of agranulocytosis where the number of eosinophil granulocytes is lower than
expected.
Causes: Associated with immune deficiencies, especially thymoma, the combination of
eosinophil and basophil deficiency, and in the setting of common allergic diseases, especially
urticaria and asthma.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
An uncommon disorder in which the number of eosinophils increases to more than
1,500 cells per microliter of blood for more than 6 months without an obvious cause.
Causes: Myeloproliferative disorders, Increased production of interleukin-5 (a protein produced
by certain types of white blood cell), A change (mutation) in an unknown gene.
Basophils
Basophilia
It can be a sign of chronic inflammation in your body. Or it can mean that a condition is
causing too many white blood cells to be produced in your bone marrow.
Causes: Myeloproliferative disorders (conditions that cause the bone marrow to make too many
white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets), inflammation, allergies, infections.
Basopenia
It is a form of agranulocytosis associated with a deficiency of basophils and it has been
proposed as an indicator of ovulation. Though, it is difficult to detect without flow cytometry,
because normal levels are so low.
Causes: infections, severe allergies, or an overactive thyroid gland.
Monocytes
Monocytosis
An increased number of monocytes in the blood.
Causes: Chronic infections, in autoimmune disorders, in blood disorders, and in certain cancers.
An increase in the number of macrophages in parts of the body other than in the blood (such as
the lungs, skin, and other organs) can occur in response to infections, sarcoidosis, and
Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Monocytopenia
A low number of monocytes in the blood.
Causes: Anything that decreases the overall white blood cell count (such as Neutropenia and
also Lymphocytopenia), bloodstream infection, chemotherapy, or a bone marrow disorder.
MonoMAC syndrome
A rare genetic disorder that affects the bone marrow has recently been recognized. It
causes a very low monocyte count and also decreases the number of certain kinds of
lymphocytes.
Causes: Risk of infection with certain organisms, including a group of bacteria known as
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) that are related to tuberculosis, human papillomavirus
(HPV), and certain fungi.
Lymphocytes
Lymphocytic Leukocytosis
It is an abnormally high number of lymphocytes in the blood.
Causes: Viral infection, bacterial infections, cancer, Graves disease and Crohn disease.
Lymphocytopenia
It is an abnormally low number of lymphocytes in the blood.
Causes: Viral infections (including AIDS) and undernutrition; fasting, times of severe physical
stress, use of corticosteroids, chemotherapy, autoimmune disorders, chronic infections, and
cancer.
References:
Blood
Disorders
MSD
Manual
Consumer
Version.
https://www.msdmanuals.com/home/blood-disorders
(n.d.).
Retrieved
from
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