APA Workshop

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APA Workshop
REGIS
UNIVERSITY
College for
Professional Studies
Introductions
2
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Name, Occupation
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CPS Program
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What do you want from this session?
What is APA?
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3
Created in 1928 by psychologists and
anthropologists to standardize articles sent to
journals.
Expanded to include term papers, theses and
dissertations.
6th Edition (2009).
Software templates
Book binding and tabs
Amazon Reviews:
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Unhelpful Guide about an Unenlightening Style,
doomsdayer520(State College, PA USA)
Boring but Required, A.Trendl
HungarianBookstore.com
Possibly Written by Beelzebub Himself, Robert I.
Hedges (Burnsville, MN USA)
It sucks...but you have no choice! Jen (NY, NY)
A great writing resource! Peggy W. (Baltimore, MD)
Why does Regis use APA?
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To standardize thesis and term paper format
within CPS, allowing students to know what is
required.
It is the easiest format for citing and
referencing.
Assists your reader to get to your sources
APA Seminar Topics
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6
Typing Format, Page Layout & Pages
Headings
Quotes, Cites and References
Tables and Figures
Odds and Ends (numbering, series,
abbreviations, etc.)
Anything else?
APA Workshop
Part One
Typing Format
Page Layout
Pages
7
General Format
Your paper should:
 be typed, double-spaced
 on standard-sized paper (8.5”x11”)
 with 1” margins on all sides
 in 12 pt. Times New Roman or a similar font
 include a page header (title) in the upper lefthand of every page and a page number in the
upper right-hand side of every page
8
Typing Format
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Paper – Chapter 2
12 point type
Recommended
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Unacceptable
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9
Times New Roman (preferred)
Courier
san serif types (Arial) except in figures
draft-quality dot matrix (9-pin)
Typing Format
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Double-Spaced
Left Justified
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right edge will be jagged
Indent 0.5 inch default
Do not hyphenate at the end of a line
General Format (cont’d)
References
Main Body
Abstract
Your paper
should
include four
major
sections:
11
Title page
Page 1 - Title Page (p. 23)
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Running head
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Title of Paper
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12
a title the journal will use at the top of journal pages.
Format: Running head: ABBREVIATED TITLE IN
CAPS
Recommended no more than 12 words (p. 23)
Title Page
Page header:
(use Insert Page Header)
title flush left + page
number flush right.
Title:
(in the upper half of the page,
centered)
name (no title or degree) +
affiliation (university, etc.)
13
Title Page - continued
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Title - 10-12 words (p. 23 & 41)
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14
Positioned in upper half of the page (p. 229)
Double-Spaced, Centered (L-R)
Typed in “Title Case”
Avoid: A Study, An Experiment, Abbreviations
Title Page - continued
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Byline and affiliation
Name with no titles (i.e. MSW, PhD.)
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University (no city or state)
No institutional affiliation
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15
City and state below author’s name
Abstract Page
Page header
Abstract (centered, at the
top of the page)
Write a brief (between 150 and 250
words) summary of your paper in an
accurate, concise, and specific
manner. Should contain: at research
topic, research questions, participants,
methods, results, data analysis, and
conclusions. May also include
possible implications of your research
and future work you see connected
with your findings. May also include
keywords.
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Abstract - Page 2
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Page Header and page number
Type: “Abstract” centered (p. 25)
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Block format - no indents or paragraphs
Length
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Typed on the first line of text
Recommended < 150 words
Abstract - continued
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Content
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Accurate, factual, self-contained
Concise and specific - give information
Report the facts, be non-evaluative
Avoid: “No information” statements
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“A model is explained;” “results are given”
“The conclusions are presented with recommendations for
future work.”
“The author;” “This paper”
Page 3 - The Paper begins
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Page Header and page 3
Title is typed, double-spaced as first line of
text, using Title Case.
No heading appears after title (DO NOT TYPE
“INTRODUCTION”)
Indent first line of a paragraph
Double-space text
APA Workshop
Part Two
Headings
20
Headings
APA p. 62-63
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Headings are used to organize the paper and
guide the reader.
Headings are formatted in a hierarchy
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The “level” used depends on how many levels are
needed for the entire paper.
Normally two or three levels are sufficient for papers
at Regis Univ.
Make an outline of the headings to determine what
you need.
APA Headings
APA uses a system of five heading levels
IMPORTANT:
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The title of the paper is not a heading!
APA Headings
APA uses a system of five heading levels
23
Any Questions
24
APA Workshop
Part Three
Citing
Quoting
Reference List
25
Citing and Quoting
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Thorough review of the literature is expected
from graduate students.
Documenting this information by citing or
quoting is required to protect intellectual
property rights (Chapter 6, p. 169).
The Reference list contains only those items
that have been cited and quoted.
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26
If you don’t cite or quote, you have no reference list.
Quotations (p. 172)
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The words should be unique and totally
relevant.
Overuse shows an inability to understand and
interpret the source.
The quote must be exact, changes noted .
Quotation gives Author(s), year, and page
number.
Quotations
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When citing quotations from online sources
that do not have page numbers, use paragraph
numbers rather than page numbers (Morgan,
2000, para. 2)
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In case of a long article with headings, use the first
couple words of the heading and the paragraph
number.
There are several exceptions – See pages 170
– 173.
In-text Citations
Format for a quotation
When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase.
Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication,
the page number, but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the
information.
 Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response
frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive
appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive
phenomena” (p.11).
 A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed,
uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations
and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
29
Quotations
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Long quotations (example p. 171)
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use sparingly
over 40 words must be blocked (p.171)
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no quotation marks used in block quotes
indent entire section
double-space
pp# placed in ( ) after the period
In-text Citations
Format for a summary or paraphrase
There are several formats for a summary or paraphrase:
 provide the author’s last name and the year of
publication in parenthesis after a summary or
a paraphrase, e.g.
Though feminist studies focus solely on women's
experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the
masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).
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Citations (p. 169-192)
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Citing is the preferred method.
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Paraphrase the information.
Cite the author(s) and the year.
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It incorporates the information in the same “voice”
as the paper.
It is the easiest format to use.
In the text, 2 authors use Boll and Roll
2 authors inside parentheses use Boll & Roll instead
of “and”
Citations
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Examples:
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Golden retrievers make the best pets (Brown &
Smith, 1992).
Brown and Smith (1992), while observing various
breeds found that golden retrievers make the best
pets.
This citation is in the text. It refers to an item
included on the reference list.
Citations
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If there are two or more citations by an author
in a paragraph the year does not need to be
included after the first citation (p. 176).
There are different rules for multiple authors,
multiple works in the same year by an author,
and multiple authors with the same surname.
Personal Communications (memos) p. 179180.
APA
stylistics:
Point
of view and Basics
voice in an APA paper
Use:
 the third person point of view rather than
using the first person point of view or the passive
voice;
e.g., The study showed that…, NOT
I found out that….
 the active voice rather than passive voice;
e.g., The participants responded…, NOT
The participants have been asked….
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In-text Citations
Format for a summary or paraphrase
formats for a summary or paraphrase (cont’d):
 include the author’s name in a signal phrase
followed by the year of publication in
parenthesis, e.g.
Recently, the history of warfare has been
significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987),
Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include
women’s personal and cultural responses to
battle and its resultant traumatic effects.
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In-text Citations
Format for a summary or paraphrase
formats for a summary or paraphrase (cont’d):
 when including the quotation in a
summary/paraphrase, also provide a page
number in parenthesis after the quotation, e.g.
According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate
(1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's
responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).
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In-text Citations
Signal words
 Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.
According to X. (2008), “….” (p.3).
X. (2008) argues that “……” (p.3).
Use such signal verbs as:
acknowledge, contend, maintain,
respond, report, argue, conclude, etc..
Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of
verbs in signal phrases
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In-text Citations
Two or more works
 when the parenthetical citation includes two or
more works, order them in the same way they
appear in the reference list—the author’s name,
the year of publication—separated by a
semi-colon; e.g.
(Kachru, 2005; Smith, 2008)
39
In-text Citations
A work with two authors
 when citing a work with two authors, use “and”
in between authors’ name in the signal phrase
yet “&” between their names in parenthesis, e.g.
According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate
(1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's
responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).
40
Some feminists researchers question that “women's
responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt &
Tate, 1997, p. 2).
In-text Citations
A work with 3 to 5 authors
 when citing a work with three to five authors,
identify all authors in the signal phrase
or in parenthesis, e.g.
(Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999)
 In subsequent citations, only use the first
author's last name followed by "et al." in the
signal phrase or in parentheses, e.g.
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(Harklau et al., 1993)
In-text Citations
a work with 6 and more authors
 when citing a work with six and more authors,
identify the first author’s name followed
by “et al.”, e.g.
Smith et al. (2006) maintained that….
(Smith et al., 2006)
42
In-text Citations
A work of unknown author
 when citing a work of unknown author, use the
the source’s full title in the signal phrase and
cite the first word of the title followed by the
year of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of
articles and chapters in quotation marks;
italicize titles of books and reports; e.g.
According to “Indiana Joins Federal
Accountability System” (2008), …
Or,
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(“Indiana”, 2008)
In-text Citations
Organization
 when citing an organization, mention the
organization the first time when you cite the source in
the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation; e.g.,
The data collected by the Food and Drug
Administration (2008) confirmed that…
 If the organization has a well-known abbreviation,
include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the
source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in
later citations; e.g.,
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Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
confirmed … FDA’s experts tested…
In-text Citations
The same last name/the same author
 when citing authors with the same last names,
use first initials with the last names, e.g.
(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)
 when citing two or more works by the same
author published in the same year, use
lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year of
publication to order the references, e.g.
45
Smith’s (1998 a) study of adolescent immigrants…
In-text Citations
Personal communication
 when citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc.,
include the communicators name, the fact that it
was personal communication, and the date of the
communication. Do not include personal
communication in the reference list, e.g.
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties
with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Or,
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4,
2001).
46
In-text Citations
Electronic sources
 when citing an electronic document, whenever
possible, cite it in the author-date style.
If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate
and identify paragraph number/paragraph
heading; e.g.
According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter
section, para. 6).
47
References Page
 Center the title–
References-- at the top
of the page
 Double-space
reference entries
 Flush left the first line
of the entry and indent
subsequent lines
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 Order entries
alphabetically by the
author’s surnames
Making the references list
APA is a complex system of citation, which is difficult
to keep in mind. When compiling the reference list, the
strategy below might be useful:
 Identify a type source: Is it a book? A journal article?
A webpage?
 “Mirror” a good example.
 Make sure that the entries are listed in the alphabetical
order and the subsequent lines are indented
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References: Basics
 Invert authors’ names (last name first followed
by initials).
Alphabetize reference list entries the last
name of the first author of each work.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of
a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or
a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not
capitalize the first letter of the second word in a
hyphenated compound word.
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References: Basics (cont’d)
 Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
 Italicize titles of longer works such as books and
journals.
 Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around
the titles of shorter works such as journal
articles or essays in edited collections.
51
References (p. 180-192)
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Quotations and Citations create References.
These are typed double-spaced in alphabetical
order by author’s surname on a separate sheet
entitled “References”
The first line is flush left, the second and
subsequent lines are indented 0.5 default
(“hanging indent”).
Avoid the author’s first name (sexist)
References
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The formats for journals, books, magazines,
newspapers and electronic sources are slightly
different.
Refer to APA lists on pp. 193-224 for examples
and elements.
Follow the examples given.
You may need to combine examples to fit your
needs.
References
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Journals and Magazines include their volume
(issue) numbers.
Newspapers use p. or pp. to denote page
numbers, journals just use numbers
Books include City, ST: Publisher
Edited Books
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Edited books are referenced differently see pp.
184.
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The author of the chapter is given credit for the
work. This is the name cited or quoted and shown
on the reference list.
The editor is mentioned later in the reference: In J.
D. Adams (Ed.).
Secondary Sources (p. 178)
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It is unethical to list the references found in other
references as primary sources. If you did not examine
the work, it is not a primary reference.
Use as a secondary source - Beatty (as cited in
Homes, 1992)
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Homes is the reference you examined
Your reference list cites Homes
Beatty doesn’t appear on your reference list - only Homes.
Electronic Sources (p. 187-192)
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Follow two guidelines:
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Minimum requirements:
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direct readers as closely as possible to the
information being cited
provide addresses that work (active URL)
document title or description
date (of publication or retrieval)
address (URL)
author(s) when possible
Any Questions
58
APA Workshop
Part Four
Figures, Tables, Numbers,
Series, Abbreviations,
Writing Style
59
Tables and Figures
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Tables (pp. 125-150) and Figures (pp. 150167
Tables and figures are a wonderful way to
present data in a quick and effective way.
Student papers for the university should
present tables and figures in the text.
Don’t say “The table below…” Use the Table
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APA Tables
 Label a table with an Arabic numeral and provide a
title. The label and the title appear on separate
lines above the table, flush-left and single-spaced.
 Cite a source in a note below the table; e.g.,
Table 1
Internet users in Europe
Country
Regular users
France
9 ml
Note. The data are adapted from “The European Union
and Russia”(2007). Retrieved from
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
61
Tables
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Tables are used for reporting numbers or comments in
text
Tables allow researcher to present a large amount of
data in a small amount of space.
Tables supplement the text; it does not duplicate it.
For class papers, your instructors allow you to embed
tables in the text. If so, the whole table should be
indented 5 spaces (1/2 inch) double‐spaced, and use
horizontal bars.
Example
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Tables
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Checklist for tables – pp. 150
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Flush left heading denotes “Table #”
Flush left title italicized
All columns must be clearly labeled
Brief, clear wording
Notes to the table appear below the final line
Figures
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Used for drawings, diagrams, and
reproductions where relationships and scales
are important
Figures use graphics or photographs
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Graphs (line graphs, bar graphs, pie charts, scatter
graphs, pictorial graphs). These depict actual data
points.
Charts describe relationships between items and
include flow charts, organizational charts, variable
relationship charts, etc.
Drawing emphasize any aspect of an image or idea.
Figures
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Do not duplicate the text, should be easy to
read and understand, convey no trivial or
distracting details
Figures have a caption, which is below the
figure and explains with some detail what is
depicted.
APA Figures
 Label a figure with an Arabic numeral and provide a
title. The label and the title appear on the same line
below the figure, flush-left .
 Cite the source below the label and the title; e.g.
Figure 1. Internet users in Europe
Note: Eurostat Statistical books. (2007) The European Union and
Russia: Statistical comparison. 2007 edition. Retrieved from
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
 You might provide an additional title centered above
the figure.
67
Any Questions
Sample Handout
68
Series
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Series (complete sentences)
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Within a sentence, use lowercase letters in
parentheses.
Subjects slept (a) during class, (b) after class, and (c)
before class.
Bulleted Lists

Use bulleted lists within a sentence to separate three or more
elements; punctuate and capitalize as a complex sentence.
“According to this theory, progressive relations are marked by
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equity, social justice, and equal opportunity;
sensitivity to individual characteristics and promotion of diversity of
talents, culture, and contexts;
affirmative actions to correct historical inequities and to address
current disparities.”
Note bulleted points are indented ½ in. and double-spaced.
Series
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Series (paragraph)
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In paragraphs, use numbers with a period.
1. The first recommendation was to get some
rest. The rested students performed.
2. The second recommendation included talking
with counselors about getting more rest.
Appointments were made for each student.
Numbers (pp. 122-130)
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Number 1-9 are written as words.
When grouped for comparison, all are
numbers: 3 of 21 tests
Numbers before unit of measure: 3 cm.
If beginning a sentence, use words.
Mathematical functions: use numbers
Plurals of numbers: add “s”: 1900s
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Correct:
– The first two items on the test
Incorrect:
– The 1st two items..
– The first 2 items…
Abbreviations (pp. 106-111)
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Lists of standard abbreviations are presented
on pages 106-111, 216-219
Minimize jargon, slang & abbreviations
Use only 2-3 abbreviations in any paper for
departments, organizations, area, or processes.
The goal is to write clearly.
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74
Examples: IRS, DOD
Abbreviations
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Publisher states: Two-character abbreviation
Latin abbreviations: only inside ( )
The first time used – write the words followed
by the abbreviation in parentheses.
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Example: American Psychological Association
(APA).
Hyphens (pp. 90)

All self-compound words are hyphenated.
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
Phrase used as an adjective when it precedes
its noun.
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
day-to-day duties, trial-by-trial test
Compound with number as adjective
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76
self-esteem, self-control, self-paced
four-page paper, 10-day test
Slashes (pp. 95)

Do not use a slash when a phrase would be clearer
–
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for simple comparisons. Use a hyphen or short dash
(en dash) instead.
–

test–retest reliability
not
test/retest reliability
more than once to express compound units. Use
centered dots and parentheses as needed to prevent
ambiguity.
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77
Each child handed the ball to her mother or guardian.
not
Each child handed the ball to her mother/guardian.
nmol • hrnmol/hr/mg
Reducing Bias (pp. 71-77)

Recommendations for reducing bias in
language have been modified for
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Gender
Sexual orientation
Racial and ethnic identity
Disabilities
Age
Writing Style (pp. 61-76)

Economy of expression (scientific writing)
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Precision and clarity
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79
Cut to the chase, eliminate extra words
Attribute action appropriately: avoid referring to
oneself in third person (pp. 69)
Use “we” to refer only to self and co-authors (p. 69)
Grammar (pp. 76-86)

Watch out for common grammatical mistakes,
such as:
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Lack of subject & verb agreement
Use of the passive rather than active voice (p. 77)
Lack of agreement between a pronoun and the
noun it replaces (p. 78)
Failure to use parallel form (pp. 78)
Verbs

Verbs are vigorous, direct communicators. Use the
active rather than the passive voice, and select
tense or mood carefully.
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–
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Preferred:
We conducted the survey in a controlled setting.
Not preferred:
The survey was conducted in a controlled setting.
Preferred:
Simpson (2001) designed the experiment.
Not preferred:
The experiment was designed by Simpson (2001).
APA stylistics: Language
Language in an APA paper is:
 clear: be specific in descriptions and
explanations
 concise: condense information when you can
 plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and
minimize the figurative language
82
Don’t Be Repetitively Redundant
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already existing
alternative choices
at the present time
basic fundamentals
completely eliminate
very important
had done previously
–
–
–
–
–
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currently underway
never before
period of time
none at all
still persists
completely unique
past experience
If you need help with APA
OWL website: http://owl.english.purdue.edu
composition textbooks
 Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association, 6th ed.
 http://www.apastyle.org
84
Any Questions
85
Other Resources

http://www.lib.vt.edu/find/citation/apa.html

http://prtl.uhcl.edu/portal/page/portal/WC/Files/TIPSHE
ET_APASTYLE

http://www.ccbc.edu/lib1/index.jsp?pageId=216
1392240601226066499661
http://www.docstyles.com/apaguide.htm
http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/in
dex.aspx?doc_id=796
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86
And more resources…

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87
http://libguides.unco.edu/content.php?pid=933
&sid=3164
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csQ1XFrOu
YM
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