Factor affecting duty

The Factors Affecting Duty of Water in Irrigation are described below:
1. Soil Characteristics:
If the soil of the canal bed is porous and coarse grained, it leads to more seepage loss and
consequently low duty. If it consists of alluvial soil, the percolation loss will be less and the
soil retains the moisture for longer period and consequently the duty will be high.
2. Climatic Condition:
The water requirement of crops varies with the climatic condition (i.e. temperature, wind,
humidity, rainfall etc.) of the area and hence it also affects the duty.
When the temperature of the command area is high the evaporation loss is more and the duty
becomes low and vice versa.
Higher is the wind velocity lesser is duty of water.
Higher is the humidity higher will be the duty of water because loss of water due to
evapotranspiration will be less.
When rainfall occurs, the water requirement for the irrigation will be less, hence duty of
water will be more.
3. Base Period:
When the base period is longer, the water requirement will be more and the duty will be low
and vice versa.
4. Type of Crop:
The water requirement for various crops is different. So the duty varies from crop to crop.
The crops which require more quantity of water have lower duty of water.
5. Topography of Agricultural Land:
If the land is properly levelled then uniform application of water will be possible, hence the
duty will be high. If the land is not levelled then the lower portion receive more water than
the higher portion resulting in waste of water and hence duty of water is low.
6. Method of Cultivation:
Proper deep ploughing which is done by tractors requires overall less quantity of water and
hence the duty is high.
7. Methods of Irrigation:
The duty of water is high in case of perennial irrigation system as compared to that in
inundation irrigation system.
Perennial irrigation system – soil is continuously kept moist, and hence water required for
initial saturation is less.
Inundation irrigation- there is a wasteful use of water, Hence the perennial irrigation system
has more duty than the inundation irrigation
Flow irrigation system – lower duty – conveyance losses in the network of canals
Lift irrigation system –higher duty in irrigation.
8. Water Tax:
If some tax is imposed the farmer will use the water economically thus increasing the duty.
10. Quality of irrigation water
If irrigation water contains appreciable amount of harmful salt and alkalis dissolved in it then
it is required to be applied in large quantity of water so that the salts are leached off. This
result of lower duty of water due to wastage of considerable amount of water.
Various methods of improving duty are:
(1) Proper Ploughing:
Ploughing should be done properly and deeply so that the moisture retaining capacity of soil
is increased.
(2) Methods of supplying water:
The method of supplying water to the agriculture land should be decided according to the
field and soil conditions. For example,
 Furrow method For crops sown ion rows
 Contour method For hilly areas
 Basin For orchards
 Flooding For plain lands
(3) Canal Lining:
It is provided to reduce percolation loss and evaporation loss due to high velocity.
(4) Minimum idle length of irrigation Canals:
The canal should be nearest to the command area so that idle length of the canal is minimum
and hence reduced transmission losses.
(5) Quality of water:
Good quality of water should be used for irrigation. Pollution en route the canal should be
(6) Crop rotation:
The principle of crop rotation should be adopted to increase the moisture retaining capacity
and fertility of the soil.
(7) Method of Assessment of water:
Particularly, the volumetric assessment would encourage the farmer to use the water
(8) Implementation of Tax:
The water tax should be imposed on the basis of volume of water consumption.
Irrigation projects are undertaken by the government with the primary object of supplying
water to the cultivator for raising crops to give maximum yield. Charges are levied on the
cultivator for making use of irrigation water. The charges are not only cost of maintenance
and operation but also include some return on the capital investment on the project.
Irrigation charges are not uniform in all the states of India. Generally the water
charges comprises of one or more of the following elements.
• Water rate, depending on the kind and extent of crop.
• Increment in land revenue,
• base on increased benefit derived annually.
• Providing Irrigation facilities.
Assessment of irrigation water can be done in one of the following ways:
(i) Assessment on area basis: In the area basis method of assessment, water charges are
fixed per unit area of land irrigated for each of the crops grown. The rates of water charges
depend on the cash value of crop, water requirement of crop and the time of water demand
with respect to the available supplies in the source.
Since the water charges are not related to the actual quantity of water used, the
farmers (particularly those whose holdings are in the head reaches of the canal) tend to over
irrigate their land. This results in uneconomical use of available irrigation water beside
depriving the cultivators in the tail reaches of the canal of their due share of irrigation water.
However, this method of assessment, being simple and convenient, is generally used
for almost all irrigation projects in India.
(ii) Volumetric assessment: In the volumetric assessment, the charges are in proportion to
the actual amount of water received by the cultivator. This method, therefore, requires
installation of water meters at all the outlets of the irrigation system.
(iii) Assessment on seasonal basis: In this water charging are mainly based on crop season.
The rate depends on the type of crop grown in the season in that particular land.
(iv) Permanent assessment: In area where canals are provided as insurance against drought,
the farmers are levied at a fixed rate every year irrespective of the fact whether or not they
use the canal water. In drought year, the farmers are allowed to draw canal supplies without
paying charges extra to normal betterment levy.
(v) Consolidated assessment/Composite rate assessment: Sometimes land revenue and
irrigation revenue are combined. It is then called a composite rate. This method of assessment
is not very commonly used but still it is in practice in some states of India
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