Van Vesper J. Dulliyao ChE 41 F BRIEF HISTORY • Around 2002 BC – Babylonian Clay Tablet – Water, alkali and cassia Oil • Around 600 BC – Phoenicians – Goat tallow and wood ash • Romans - used as medicine • Rare until the 17th century USES • • • • Breaks dirt away from surfaces Skin treatment Perfume Aid for preventing some communicable diseases RAW MATERIALS 1. Fats or Oils 2. Alkaline/Lye 3. 4. 5. 6. Glycerine Abrasive Dyes Fragrances Main Components Additives Main Components FATS - produce hard soaps which resist dissolving in water therefore stays longer - coconut oil, palm oil, tallow, or lard OILS - makes softer soaps which are mild and soft ALKALINE/LYE Sodium Hydroxide - produces softer soaps - more commonly used Potassium Hydroxide - produces harder soaps Additives Glycerine - an emollient and texture enhancer Abrasives - used to enhance the texture of the saop e.g. grains, seeds, etc Fragrances - leaves fresh-smelling scent Dye - Color Enhancers KETTLE METHOD KETTLE METHOD • • • • basically a batch operation earlier methods for soap making Takes 4-11 days to complete Inconsistent due to the varieties of oil used FLOWCHART Boiling • done by melting fats and alkali in a kettle • heat is introduced by means of steel coils within the kettle • produces soap and glycerine Salting • facilitates separation of soap and glycerine • soap rises which glycerine settles at the bottom • glycerine is extracted and refined for other uses Strong Change • Addition of strong caustic solution to ensure complete saponification • the batch is then reheated and may also be salted Pitching • done by boiling the batch with water • results in the separation of the mass into “neat soap” and “nigre” – neat soap – 70% soap, 30% water – nigre – impurities and most of the water used Packaging and Quality Control • The final product is packaged and is now ready for consumption • Quality control is done to ensure that the products meet the company’s standards PROS and CONS Pros Cons Requires simpler Takes 4-11 days for its equipment completion Constant supervision is Inconsistencies arise not necessarily required due to varying oils used CONTINUOUS PROCESS CONTINUOUS PROCESS • Developed in the 1940s • More efficient and takes about 6 hours to complete FLOWCHART Splitting • involves the breakdown of fats into fatty acids and glycerine • done using a stream of water at high temperature and pressure in a hydrolizer • purification is done via distillation Mixing • Addition of sufficient amount of alkali to the purified fatty acid • other chemicals may also be added at this point Cooling and Finishing • soap formed is poured into molds and is allowed to cool • depending on its intended use, the soap may be formed into its final shape at this point • after cooling, the soap may then be packaged and stamped Milling • additional step done in commercial soap manufacturing • improves the quality and consistency of the final product Packaging and Quality Control • The final product is packaged and is now ready for consumption • Quality is done to ensure that the products meet the company’s standards PROS and CONS Pros Only takes about 6 hours for its completion Quality per batch produced is consistent Cons Requires more equipment SOAP QUALITY PARAMETERS • • • • • • Cleansing Conditioning Bubbly Lather Creamy Lather Iodine Ins Cleansing • Refers to the soaps ability to grab on to oils • A typical range for Cleansing would be 12-22 Conditioning • Refers to the soap’s emollient content • Range: 44-69 Bubbly Lather • Range value of 14-46 o Foamy, fluffy lather - higher Bubbly numbers o Creamy lather - little or no bubbles Creamy Lather • Indicates the stability and creaminess of the lather • Range of 16-48 Iodine • Number of grams of iodine that will react with the double bonds in 100g of fats or oils • With iodine values higher than 70 will tend to produce a somewhat soft bar • The lower the number, the harder the bar and the less the conditioning qualities INS • Measure of the physical qualities of the soap based on the saponification value and iodine value • Used to predict the physical characteristics of the soap bar • A range of 136-170 REFERENCES • • • • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap www.youtube.com/howitsmade/soap http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Soap.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/55075 1/soap-and-detergent/82273/Continuoussoapmaking-the-hydrolyzer-process • http://www.skinandsoulcompany.com/saponification .html • http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/S/soaps_ and_detergents.html Definition of some terms • Emollient - having a softening or a soothing effect on skin • Lather - a frothy white mass of bubbles produced by soap or a similar cleansing substance when mixed with water. • Saponification value - represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify 1g of fat under the conditions specified.