Soaps

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Van Vesper J. Dulliyao
ChE 41
F
BRIEF HISTORY
• Around 2002 BC
– Babylonian Clay Tablet
– Water, alkali and cassia Oil
• Around 600 BC
– Phoenicians
– Goat tallow and wood ash
• Romans - used as medicine
• Rare until the 17th century
USES
•
•
•
•
Breaks dirt away from surfaces
Skin treatment
Perfume
Aid for preventing some
communicable diseases
RAW MATERIALS
1. Fats or Oils
2. Alkaline/Lye
3.
4.
5.
6.
Glycerine
Abrasive
Dyes
Fragrances
Main
Components
Additives
Main Components
FATS - produce hard soaps which resist dissolving in water
therefore stays longer
- coconut oil, palm oil, tallow, or lard
OILS - makes softer soaps which are mild and soft
ALKALINE/LYE
Sodium Hydroxide - produces softer soaps
- more commonly used
Potassium Hydroxide - produces harder soaps
Additives
Glycerine
- an emollient and texture enhancer
Abrasives
- used to enhance the texture of the saop
e.g. grains, seeds, etc
Fragrances - leaves fresh-smelling scent
Dye - Color Enhancers
KETTLE
METHOD
KETTLE METHOD
•
•
•
•
basically a batch operation
earlier methods for soap making
Takes 4-11 days to complete
Inconsistent due to the varieties of oil used
FLOWCHART
Boiling
• done by melting fats and alkali in a kettle
• heat is introduced by means of steel coils within
the kettle
• produces soap and glycerine
Salting
• facilitates separation of soap and glycerine
• soap rises which glycerine settles at the bottom
• glycerine is extracted and refined for other uses
Strong Change
• Addition of strong caustic solution to ensure
complete saponification
• the batch is then reheated and may also be
salted
Pitching
• done by boiling the batch with water
• results in the separation of the mass into “neat soap”
and “nigre”
– neat soap – 70% soap, 30% water
– nigre – impurities and most of the water used
Packaging and Quality Control
• The final product is packaged and is now
ready for consumption
• Quality control is done to ensure that the
products meet the company’s standards
PROS and CONS
Pros
Cons
Requires simpler
Takes 4-11 days for its
equipment
completion
Constant supervision is Inconsistencies arise
not necessarily required due to varying oils used
CONTINUOUS
PROCESS
CONTINUOUS PROCESS
• Developed in the 1940s
• More efficient and takes about 6 hours to
complete
FLOWCHART
Splitting
• involves the breakdown of fats into fatty acids
and glycerine
• done using a stream of water at high
temperature and pressure in a hydrolizer
• purification is done via distillation
Mixing
• Addition of sufficient amount of alkali to the
purified fatty acid
• other chemicals may also be added at this
point
Cooling and Finishing
• soap formed is poured into molds and is
allowed to cool
• depending on its intended use, the soap may
be formed into its final shape at this point
• after cooling, the soap may then be packaged
and stamped
Milling
• additional step done in commercial soap
manufacturing
• improves the quality and consistency of the
final product
Packaging and Quality Control
• The final product is packaged and is now
ready for consumption
• Quality is done to ensure that the products
meet the company’s standards
PROS and CONS
Pros
Only takes about 6 hours
for its completion
Quality per batch produced
is consistent
Cons
Requires more
equipment
SOAP QUALITY PARAMETERS
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cleansing
Conditioning
Bubbly Lather
Creamy Lather
Iodine
Ins
Cleansing
• Refers to the soaps ability to
grab on to oils
• A typical range for Cleansing
would be 12-22
Conditioning
• Refers to the soap’s emollient content
• Range: 44-69
Bubbly Lather
• Range value of 14-46
o Foamy, fluffy lather - higher Bubbly numbers
o Creamy lather
- little or no bubbles
Creamy Lather
• Indicates the stability and creaminess of the
lather
• Range of 16-48
Iodine
• Number of grams of iodine that will react with
the double bonds in 100g of fats or oils
• With iodine values higher than 70 will tend to
produce a somewhat soft bar
• The lower the number, the harder the bar and
the less the conditioning qualities
INS
• Measure of the physical qualities of the soap
based on the saponification value and iodine
value
• Used to predict the physical characteristics of
the soap bar
• A range of 136-170
REFERENCES
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•
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap
www.youtube.com/howitsmade/soap
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Soap.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/55075
1/soap-and-detergent/82273/Continuoussoapmaking-the-hydrolyzer-process
• http://www.skinandsoulcompany.com/saponification
.html
• http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/S/soaps_
and_detergents.html
Definition of some terms
• Emollient - having a softening or a soothing
effect on skin
• Lather - a frothy white mass of bubbles
produced by soap or a similar cleansing
substance when mixed with water.
• Saponification value - represents the number
of milligrams of potassium hydroxide
required to saponify 1g of fat under the
conditions specified.
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