gwhrentgse2_World History Worksheets

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Reading Essentials and
Note-Taking Guide
Student Workbook
To the Student
The Glenoce World History Reading Essentials and Note-Taking Guide
is designed to help you use recognized reading strategies to improve your readingfor-information skills. For each section of the student textbook, you are alerted to
key content. Then, you are asked to draw from prior knowledge, organize your
thoughts with a graphic organizer, and follow a process to read and understand
the text. The Reading Essentials and Note-Taking Guide was prepared to
help you get more from your textbook by reading with a purpose.
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 The First Humans, Prehistory–3500 B.C.
Section 1: Early Humans ...................................................................................1
Section 2: The Neolithic Revolution ................................................................4
Chapter 2 Western Asia and Egypt, 3500–500 B.C.
Section 1: Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia ................................................7
Section 2: Egyptian Civilization ......................................................................10
Section 3: New Centers of Civilization ...........................................................13
Section 4: The Rise of New Empires ..............................................................16
Chapter 3 India and China, 3000 B.C.–A.D. 500
Section 1: Early Civilizations in India .............................................................19
Section 2: New Empires in India ....................................................................22
Section 3: Early Chinese Civilizations .............................................................25
Section 4: Rise and Fall of Chinese Empires ..................................................28
Chapter 4 Ancient Greece, 1900–133 B.C.
Section 1: Early Civilizations in Greece ..........................................................31
Section 2: The Greek City-States .....................................................................34
Section 3: Classical Greece ..............................................................................37
Section 4: The Culture of Classical Greece.....................................................40
Section 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era .................................................43
Chapter 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity, 600 B.C.–A.D. 500
Section 1: The Rise of Rome ...........................................................................46
Section 2: From Republic to Empire ...............................................................49
Section 3: Roman Culture and Society ...........................................................52
Section 4: The Development of Christianity ...................................................55
Section 5: Decline and Fall .............................................................................58
Chapter 6 The World of Islam, 600–1500
Section 1: The Rise of Islam............................................................................61
Section 2: The Arab Empire and Its Successors .............................................64
Section 3: Islamic Civilization .........................................................................67
Section 4: The Culture of Islam ......................................................................70
Chapter 7 Early African Civilizations, 2000 B.C.–A.D. 1500
Section 1: Development of African Civilizations ............................................73
Section 2: Kingdoms and States of Africa ......................................................76
Section 3: African Society and Culture ...........................................................79
Chapter 8 The Asian World, 400–1500
Section 1: China Reunified ..............................................................................82
Section 2: The Mongols and China .................................................................85
Section 3: Early Japan and Korea ...................................................................88
Section 4: India after the Guptas ....................................................................91
Section 5: Civilization in Southeast Asia.........................................................94
iii
Chapter 9 Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire, 400–1300
Section 1: Transforming the Roman World.....................................................97
Section 2: Feudalism ...................................................................................... 100
Section 3: The Growth of European Kingdoms ........................................... 103
Section 4: Byzantine Empire and Crusades .................................................. 106
Chapter 10 Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500
Section 1: Peasants, Trade, and Cities ........................................................... 109
Section 2: Christianity and Medieval Civilization ......................................... 112
Section 3: The Culture of the High Middle Ages ......................................... 115
Section 4: The Late Middle Ages ................................................................... 118
Chapter 11 The Americas, 400–1500
Section 1: The Peoples of North America .................................................... 122
Section 2: Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica .............................................. 124
Section 3: Early Civilizations in South America ........................................... 127
Chapter 12 Renaissance and Reformation, 1350–1600
Section 1: The Renaissance ........................................................................... 130
Section 2: The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance .................................... 133
Section 3: The Protestant Reformation ......................................................... 136
Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response ........... 139
Chapter 13 The Age of Exploration, 1500–1800
Section 1: Exploration and Expansion.......................................................... 142
Section 2: Africa in an Age of Transition...................................................... 146
Section 3: Colonial Latin America ................................................................. 149
Chapter 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe, 1550–1715
Section 1: Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion ....................................... 151
Section 2: Social Crisis, War, and Revolution ............................................... 154
Section 3: Response to Crisis: Absolutism .................................................... 157
Section 4: The World of European Culture................................................... 160
Chapter 15 The Muslim Empires, 1450–1800
Section 1: The Ottoman Empire .................................................................... 163
Section 2: The Rule of the Safavids .............................................................. 166
Section 3: The Grandeur of the Moguls ....................................................... 169
Chapter 16 The East Asian World. 1400–1800
Section 1: China at its Height ....................................................................... 172
Section 2: Chinese Society and Culture ........................................................ 175
Section 3: Tokugawa Japan and Korea ......................................................... 178
Section 4: Spice Trade in Southeast Asia ...................................................... 181
Chapter 17 Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800
Section 1: The Scientific Revolution ............................................................. 184
Section 2: The Enlightenment ....................................................................... 187
Section 3: The Impact of the Enlightenment................................................ 190
Section 4: The American Revolution ............................................................. 193
iv
Chapter 18 The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815
Section 1: The French Revolution Begins ..................................................... 196
Section 2: Radical Revolution and Reaction ................................................. 199
Section 3: The Age of Napoleon ................................................................... 202
Chapter 19 Industrialization and Nationalism, 1800–1870
Section 1: The Industrial Revolution............................................................. 205
Section 2: Reaction and Revolution .............................................................. 208
Section 3: National Unification and the National State ................................ 211
Section 4: Culture: Romanticism and Realism .............................................. 214
Chapter 20 Mass Society and Democracy, 1870–1914
Section 1: The Growth of Industrial Prosperity ........................................... 217
Section 2: The Emergence of Mass Society .................................................. 220
Section 3: The National State and Democracy ............................................. 223
Section 4: Toward the Modern Consciousness ............................................. 226
Chapter 21 The Height of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Section 1: Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia ................................................... 229
Section 2: Empire Building in Africa ............................................................ 232
Section 3: British Rule in India ..................................................................... 235
Section 4: Nation Building in Latin America ................................................ 238
Chapter 22 East Asia Under Challenge, 1800–1914
Section 1: The Decline of the Qing Dynasty ................................................ 241
Section 2: Revolution in China...................................................................... 244
Section 3: Rise of Modern Japan................................................................... 247
Chapter 23 War and Revolution, 1914–1919
Section 1: The Road to World War I ............................................................. 250
Section 2: World War I................................................................................... 253
Section 3: The Russian Revolution ................................................................ 256
Section 4: End of World War I ...................................................................... 259
Chapter 24 The West Between the Wars, 1919–1939
Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability ..................................................... 262
Section 2: The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes .................................................. 265
Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany ............................................................. 268
Section 4: Cultural and Intellectual Trends .................................................. 271
Chapter 25 Nationalism Around the World, 1919–1939
Section 1: Nationalism in the Middle East .................................................... 274
Section 2: Nationalism in Africa and Asia .................................................... 277
Section 3: Revolutionary Chaos in China ..................................................... 280
Section 4: Nationalism in Latin America ....................................................... 283
Chapter 26 World War II, 1939–1945
Section 1: Paths to War.................................................................................. 286
Section 2: The Course of World War II ......................................................... 289
Section 3: The New Order and the Holocaust ............................................. 292
Section 4: Home Front and Aftermath of the War ....................................... 295
v
Chapter 27 Cold War and Postwar Changes, 1945–1970
Section 1: Development of the Cold War ..................................................... 298
Section 2: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe ........................................ 301
Section 3: Western Europe and North America ............................................ 304
Chapter 28 The Contemporary Western World, 1970–Present
Section 1: Decline of the Soviet Union......................................................... 307
Section 2: Eastern Europe ............................................................................. 310
Section 3: Europe and North America .......................................................... 313
Section 4: Western Society and Culture ........................................................ 316
Chapter 29 Latin America, 1945–Present
Section 1: General Trends in Latin America ................................................. 319
Section 2: Mexico, Cuba, and Central America ............................................ 322
Section 3: The Nations of South America ..................................................... 325
Chapter 30 Africa and the Middle East, 1945–Present
Section 1: Independence in Africa ................................................................ 328
Section 2: Conflict in the Middle East .......................................................... 331
Chapter 31 Asia and the Pacific, 1945–Present
Section 1: Communist China ......................................................................... 334
Section 2: South and Southeast Asia............................................................. 337
Section 3: Japan and the Pacific ................................................................... 340
Chapter 32 Changing Global Patterns
Section 1: Challenges of a New Century ...................................................... 343
Section 2: New Global Communities ............................................................ 346
vi
Chapter 1, Section 1
(Pages 4–11)
Early Humans
Human life developed in different stages over millions of years, and by
10,000 B.C., Homo sapiens sapiens had spread throughout the world. As
you read, create a chart showing the effects of tools on early humans.
Tool
Effect
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Before History
Why do archaeologists and anthropologists have to study
artifacts to get information about early
people?
Chapter 1, Section 1
(page 4)
Prehistory is the period of human history before writing was
developed. Because there are no writings to tell us what happened
during this time, scientists must study other things to learn about early
humans. Archaeology is the study of past societies through analysis
of what people left behind. Archaeologists dig up and study artifacts—the tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, buildings, and household items that people used. Anthropology is the study of human life
and culture. Anthropologists use artifacts and human fossils (the
remains of humans) to find out how early people lived.
Archaeologists and anthropologists use scientific methods to
help them with their work. One of their most important and difficult jobs is determining how old objects are. One method used is
radiocarbon dating. The method dates (determines the age of) an
object by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon (C-14) left in
it. This method can only be used for dating objects that are less
than 50,000 years old. Another method is thermoluminescence
dating. This method dates objects by measuring the light given off
by electrons in the soil around the objects. This method helps
scientists date objects as far back as 200,000 years ago. Scientists
have also begun to use biological methods, such as blood analysis
and DNA testing, to learn more about the lives of early people.
1
Early Development
What words in the
summary let the
reader know that
they are reading
opinions rather
than facts? Circle
these words in each
sentence.
2
(page 8)
During the Paleolithic Age, early humans used simple stone
tools. This period lasted from about 2,500,000 to 10,000 B.C. During
this period, humans used hunting and gathering to get their food.
They hunted and ate various animals such as buffalo, horses,
bison, reindeer, and fish. They were nomads (people who moved
from place to place), and they moved in order to find food.
Paleolithic people found shelter in caves. They also created
shelters made of wood poles or sticks covered with animal hides.
They used fire to stay warm and to protect themselves from wild
animals. They also used fire to cook food. Archaeologists believe
that friction (rubbing two pieces of wood together) was probably
the earliest method for starting fires. During the most recent Ice
Age, ice covered large parts of Europe, Asia, and North America.
Paleolithic people also created art. Cave paintings have been
found in various parts of the world, including Lascaux and
Chauvet in France and Altamira in Spain.
Chapter 1, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A hominid was a humanlike creature that walked upright. The
earliest hominids lived in Africa 4 million years ago. One type of
hominid is called Australopithecus. From 2.5 to 1.6 million years
ago, a more advanced hominid developed with a somewhat larger
brain. This hominid was named Homo habilis and may have used
stone tools. Homo erectus lived from 1.8 million to 100,000 years
ago. This hominid had arms and legs in modern human proportion
and was probably the first hominid to leave Africa. Around 200,000
years ago, Homo sapiens emerged. This hominid showed rapid brain
growth and mastered fire. Two kinds of early humans descended
from Homo sapiens: Neanderthals and Homo sapiens sapiens.
“The earliest remains of Neanderthals were found in the Neander
Valley in Germany. They probably lived between 100,000 B.C. and
30,000 B.C. Besides using many kinds of stone tools, European
Neanderthals made their clothes from animal skins and seem to be
the first early people to bury their dead. The second group
descended from Homo sapiens is Homo sapiens sapiens. These are
the first to have an anatomy similar to people today. Physical evidence suggests the Homo sapiens sapiens appeared in Africa
between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago. They probably spread out
of Africa to other parts of the world about 100,000 years ago, replacing populations of earlier hominids in Europe and Asia. This is
referred to as the “out-of-Africa” theory (or replacement theory).
Today all humans belong to the same subgroup of human beings.
The Paleolithic Age
Why did early peoples need fire?
(page 6)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What two subgroups developed from Homo sapiens?
2. What are two ways that archaeologists and anthropologists determine the age of the
objects they find?
Using information from the text and your imagination, describe a
day in the life of a Paleolithic boy or girl.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 1, Section 1
3
Chapter 1, Section 2
(Pages 14–19)
The Neolithic Revolution
Systematic agriculture brought huge economic, political, and social
changes for early humans. As you read, create a chart listing the six major
characteristics of a civilization.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The Neolithic Revolution
4
At the end of the last Ice Age, a major change took place.
People began to plant and grow food on a regular basis—what
is called systematic agriculture. They also began to tame and
keep animals as a source of meat, milk, and wool. This is called
domestication. These changes together are known as the
Neolithic Revolution, because it took place during the Neolithic
Age, 8000 to 4000 B.C. Some historians believe that this revolution was the single most important development in human history, giving humans greater control over their environment.
Systematic agriculture developed in different parts of the
world differently. People in Southwest Asia began to grow
wheat and barley, while in Africa, people grew root crops such
as yams. In Southeast Asia and southern China, rice was grown,
while Mesoamericans grew beans, squash, and corn.
People no longer had to move and could live in settlements.
Some surplus food was grown, freeing some people to become
artisans, making goods to trade with neighboring people.
Differences in gender roles also solidified, as men became
more active in farming, while women performed domestic tasks.
Further, between 4000 and 3000 B.C., people began to use metals, first copper and then bronze. The period from around 3000
to 1200 B.C. is called the Bronze Age. After around 1000 B.C.
iron began to be used, and the Iron Age began.
Chapter 1, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did people in
different areas start
growing different
crops?
(page 14)
Civilization Emerges
t
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did governments develop?
Chapter 1, Section 2
(page 18)
The culture of a people is the way of life that they follow.
Neolithic settlements developed from villages with simple cultures to large civilizations. A civilization is a complex culture in
which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements. Historians have identified the basic characteristics of civilizations. Six of these characteristics are cities,
government, religion, social structure, writing, and art.
Systematic agriculture enabled the feeding of large numbers
of people so that they could live in cities. Growing numbers of
people, the need to maintain the food supply, and the need for
defense led to the growth of governments. All of the new civilizations developed religions to explain their world. Priests performed rituals to please gods and goddesses. Rulers, also known
as monarchs, claimed that the gods granted them the power to
rule. Some rulers even claimed to be gods.
New social structures developed in the new civilizations.
Rulers and an upper class of priests, government officials, and
warriors were at the top. Below this upper class was a large
group of free people—farmers, artisans, and craftspeople. At the
bottom was a slave class.
Writing was important in these new civilizations. Rulers,
priests, and merchants used writing to keep accurate records.
Writing also became a means of creative expression, and the
first works of literature were written. People also created art
and built buildings, such as temples and pyramids.
5
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How are civilizations different from simpler cultures?
2. On what kind of power were the new social structures based?
Exposi tory
Use the six characteristics of civilization to describe the place where
you live. Give concrete examples of each. For example, mention the
type of art that people in your area enjoy and regularly see.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6
Chapter 1, Section 2
Chapter 2, Section 1
(Pages 26–33)
Civilization Begins
in Mesopotamia
Fertile soil between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers allowed an early civilization to flourish in Mesopotamia. As you read, create a chart to explain
the Sumerians’ contributions to civilization.
Political Life
Cultural Life
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Geography and Religion
What caused the
Mesopotamians to
believe that supernatural forces controlled their world?
Chapter 2, Section 1
Inventions
(page 26)
The valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers is called
Mesopotamia, the land “between the rivers.” Mesopotamia was
at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent. The Fertile Crescent is
an area from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Early
civilizations began in this area, because it had land with rich
soil and therefore abundant crops.
The soil in Mesopotamia was rich because of the two rivers.
Each spring, the rivers overflowed their banks. The floods left
layers of silt, the material deposited by the rivers. The people of
Mesopotamia learned how to control the flow of the rivers with
irrigation and drainage ditches. Therefore, they could grow
crops on a regular basis. This allowed people to live together in
cities.
The climate, however, was harsh and there were frequent
famines. This convinced the people that supernatural forces
controlled their world. The Mesopotamians believed that gods
and goddesses influenced all aspects of the universe, so their
religion was polytheistic—they believed in many gods. Humans
were supposed to obey and serve the gods. By nature, humans
were inferior to the gods, and humans could never be sure what
the gods might do to or for them.
7
City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia
Why were the temples
the most important
buildings in the
Sumerian city-states?
By 3000 B.C. the Sumerians had started several cities in southern Mesopotamia. These city-states were the basic units of
Sumerian civilization, and controlled the countryside around
them. The most important building was the temple, dedicated to
the chief god or goddess of the city. This temple was often built
on top of a massive stepped tower called a ziggurat.
The Sumerians believed that the gods ruled the cities. This
made their city-states theocracies: governments by divine
authority.
The Sumerian economy was based mostly on farming, but
the people also made woolen textiles and pottery, and were
well-known for using copper, gold, and silver in metalworking.
The Creativity of the Sumerians
Use one word
to describe the
Sumerian people.
(page 30)
8
(page 32)
The first empire in world history was set up by Sargon, the
leader of the Akkadians. They conquered the Sumerian citystates around 2340 B.C. Under attack, the Akkadian empire
ended about 2100 B.C., and the system of warring city-states
returned. In 1792 B.C. the Babylonian empire began to control
much of Mesopotamia, under the leadership of Hammurabi.
One of Hammurabi’s achievements was a collection of laws.
The collection was called the Code of Hammurabi. Penalties for
all offenses were severe, and varied according to the social class
of the victim. The code made public officials accountable for
their decisions and included provisions for consumer protection.
The largest category of laws focused on marriage and
the family. Society was patriarchal. Men ruled their wives
and children.
Chapter 2, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Around 3000 B.C. the Sumerians invented a system of writing called cuneiform (“wedge-shaped”). They made wedgeshaped marks on clay tablets, which were then baked in the
sun. By 2500 B.C. writing was taught in schools with harsh discipline. Boys from wealthy families began their careers as scribes
and went on to become leaders of cities, temples, and armies.
The Sumerians invented tools and devices that made daily life
more productive. They invented sundials and the arch, and were
the first to make bronze. They used geometry to measure fields
and charted the movement of star constellations.
Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia
How were the
Akkadian and
Babylonian Empires
alike and different?
(page 28)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why was writing important to the Sumerians?
2. Where was Mesopotamia located?
Using your imagination and information from the text, form a
mental picture of life in a Sumerian city after it was conquered by
Hammurabi. You can assume that physical details of life, such as what
the buildings were made of and what the economy was like, did not
change under Hammurabi. Write a description of a day in the life of
a Sumerian citizen, including activities, observations, and emotions.
Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 2, Section 1
9
Chapter 2, Section 2
(Pages 34–43)
Egyptian Civilization
Continuity and stability were characteristics of Egyptian civilization for
thousands of years. As you read, complete a chart listing characteristics of
three major periods in Egyptian history.
The Old Kingdom
The Middle Kingdom
What were all the
influences that
helped the Egyptians
feel stable and
secure?
10
(page 34)
The Nile, the longest river in the world, begins in Africa and
empties into the Mediterranean Sea. It splits, forming a delta
called Lower Egypt. This is where Egypt’s most important cities
developed. Upper Egypt, in the mountains, lies to the south of
Lower Egypt. The Nile floods regularly, creating an area of rich
soil on both sides of the river. Egyptians called the flooding the
“miracle” of the Nile. Farmers were able to grow a surplus of
food, making Egypt prosperous. The Nile also made travel easy.
Egyptians were isolated from invasions due to natural barriers: deserts, the Red Sea, cataracts, and the Mediterranean Sea.
This safety, and the regularity of the Nile floods, made the
Egyptians feel secure.
Religion also made them feel secure. Egyptians were polytheistic. They had sun gods and land gods. The Egyptian ruler
was called the Son of Re, because Re was one of the sun god’s
names. Two of the river and land gods were Osiris and Isis.
When Osiris’s evil brother Seth cut Osiris into pieces, Isis, with
help from other gods, put him back together. Osiris became a
symbol of resurrection, or rebirth. By identifying with Osiris,
Egyptians hoped to gain new life after death.
Chapter 2, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Geography and Religion
The New Kingdom
Egyptian Kingdoms
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did the
Egyptians first fall
to the Hyksos and
then drive them out?
(page 36)
Egyptian history is divided into three major periods: the Old
Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom. Egypt’s history began around 3100 B.C. King Menes brought Upper and Lower
Egypt together into the first royal dynasty. A dynasty is a family of
rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family. During the
Old Kingdom, the Egyptian kings came to be known as pharaohs.
They had unlimited power, but they developed a bureaucracy, run
by the vizier, to help them. During the Old Kingdom, the pyramids
were built. They were tombs for dead pharaohs, whose bodies were
preserved by mummification. The Old Kingdom eventually collapsed, and about 150 years of chaos followed.
During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia and sent
armies to Syria and Palestine. Hyksos invasions ended the Middle
Kingdom but once the Egyptians learned how to make bronze
weapons and how to use chariots, they drove out the Hyksos.
During the resulting New Kingdom, Egypt created an
empire that was the most powerful state in Southwest Asia. It
enjoyed massive wealth. In the 1200s B.C., there were new invasions by the “Sea Peoples,” as the Egyptians called them. For the
next thousand years, Egypt was dominated by a succession of
conquerors. In the first century B.C., under the pharaoh
Cleopatra VII, Egypt became a province of Rome.
Life in Ancient Egypt
How was Egyptian
society like a
pyramid?
Chapter 2, Section 2
(page 41)
Egyptian society was organized like a pyramid. The pharaoh
was at the top. Under him was a small upper class of nobles and
priests. Below the upper class were merchants, artisans, scribes,
and tax collectors. Most of the people in Egypt were in the lower
classes. They were mainly peasants who farmed the land. They
paid taxes from the crops they grew, and lived in small villages.
They also served in the military and provided forced labor on
building projects.
Ancient Egyptians had a positive attitude toward daily life.
Marriages were arranged by parents. Men were the masters in
the houses, but women were well respected. Wives were in
charge of the household and the education of children. They
kept control of their property and inheritance even after they
married. Some women operated businesses. Upper-class women
could become priestesses, and four queens became pharaohs.
11
Egyptian Accomplishments
Did the Egyptians
accomplish significant achievements in
writing, education,
art, science, and
math? Explain.
(page 42)
Writing in Egypt began around 3000 B.C. The Greeks called the
earliest Egyptian writing hieroglyphics. It used both pictures and
more abstract forms. It was complex and took a long time to learn.
It was used for writing on temple walls and in tombs. A simpler
version of hieroglyphics called hieratic script was used for business and in daily life. Egyptian scribes taught the art of writing in
schools that boys attended from the age of 10.
Pyramids, temples, and other monuments show the artistic
ability of the Egyptians. Egyptians also made advances in mathematics and science. They used geometry and learned how to
calculate area and volume. This helped them build the pyramids. They also developed a 365-day calendar and became
experts in human anatomy.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. How did the Nile affect life in ancient Egypt?
Exposi tory
12
Most historians believe that the long periods of stability and order
enjoyed by the Egyptians greatly influenced their civilization. Using
information from the section, discuss how stability and security
affected the accomplishments of the Egyptians.
Chapter 2, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Which gods were most important to the Egyptians?
Chapter 2, Section 3
(Pages 46–51)
New Centers of Civilization
The Israelites’ belief in one God resulted in a distinct society. As you read,
complete a diagram like the one below to show how the Phoenicians
affected development of civilizations in Southwest Asia.
Phoenicians
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Role of Nomadic Peoples
Why were the
Indo-Europeans
important?
Chapter 2, Section 3
(page 46)
On the fringes of the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt,
there were still nomads who survived by hunting, gathering, and
herding animals. Pastoral nomads domesticated animals for food
and clothing. They moved along regular routes to find food for
their animals. Nomads traded with settled peoples, carried products between civilized centers, and sometimes spread technology.
The Indo-Europeans were one of the most important nomadic
peoples. The term Indo-European refers to a group of people who
spoke a language derived from a single parent tongue. IndoEuropean languages include Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, and the
Germanic languages. Indo-Europeans probably originated somewhere in the steppe region north of the Black Sea, or in Southwest
Asia. One group of Indo-Europeans combined with the native peoples of Asia Minor and Anatolia to form the Hittite kingdom.
Between 1600 and 1200 B.C., the Hittites created their own
empire. They were the first to use iron. This allowed them to
have weapons that were stronger and cheaper to make. The
Hittites even threatened the power of the Egyptians. But around
1200 B.C., new invaders called “the Sea Peoples” destroyed the
Hittite empire. This and the weakening of the Egyptians left no
dominant powers in western Asia. However, small kingdoms
around Syria and Palestine, including the Phoenicians, emerged.
13
The Phoenicians
What was the basis
of the Phoenician
economy?
The Israelites
14
The Phoenicians lived in the area of Palestine along the
Mediterranean coast. Because of their location, trade was the
basis of their economy. After the fall of the Hittites and Egyptians,
political independence helped the Phoenicians expand their
trade. Their chief cities were ports, and they produced a number
of goods for foreign markets, including purple dye, glass, and
lumber from the cedar forests of Lebanon. They built ships,
became great international sea traders, and thus created a trade
empire. They charted new routes in the Mediterranean, and also
in the Atlantic to Britain and along the west coast of Africa.
The Phoenician culture is best known for its alphabet.
Phoenicians developed a system of writing that used 22 different
signs to represent the sounds of their language. These signs (letters) could be used to spell all of the words in their language. The
Roman alphabet that we use today is derived from this alphabet.
(page 49)
The Israelites lived to the south of the Phoenicians. They
were not powerful politically. However, their religion, known
today as Judaism, later influenced both Christianity and Islam.
An account of the Israelites’ history is written down in their
Bible, known to Christians as the Old Testament. Not all archaeological evidence agrees with the Bible, but historians believe
that between 1200 B.C. and 1000 B.C., the Israelites emerged as a
distinct group of people, organized in tribes, who established a
united kingdom known as Israel.
Israel’s most powerful king was Solomon, who made Jerusalem
the capital of Israel and built a temple there that came to be viewed
as the center of the Israelite’s religion. Solomon was also known for
his wisdom. After he died, the tribes split into two separate kingdoms—Israel and Judah. In 722 B.C. the Assyrians overran Israel and
scattered the Israelites. Judah maintained its independence until the
Chaldeans defeated Assyria and conquered Judah. The Chaldeans
destroyed Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and sent many captives to Babylonia.
The Persians eventually allowed the people of Judah to return to
Jerusalem and rebuild the temple. They became known as Jews.
According to Jewish beliefs, there is only one God, and all
people are his servants. God gave his rules to the people in the
Ten Commandments. Jews also believed that God sent prophets to
teach and warn the people. The religion was unique in that it was
monotheistic, and all people had access to God. Also, anyone
could know God’s will just by reading about it. Unlike many other
peoples, the Jews would not accept the gods of their conquerors.
Chapter 2, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why were the Jews
important when they
had so little political
power?
(page 48)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What are pastoral nomads? How did they affect settled peoples?
2. How did the Phoenicians influence Americans today?
Using information from this section and others, analyze in detail the
religions of the Sumerians, the Egyptians, and the Jews.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exposi tory
Chapter 2, Section 3
15
Chapter 2, Section 4
(Pages 54–57)
The Rise of New Empires
The Assyrians and the Persians aimed to control vast empires in the
ancient world. As you read, complete a Venn diagram identifying similarities and differences between the Assyrian Empire and Persian Empire.
Assyrian Empire
Persian Empire
The Assyrian Empire
16
Assyria is located on the upper Tigris River. The Assyrians, a
Semitic-speaking people, used iron weapons to conquer other
people and build an empire by 700 B.C. The Assyrian Empire
included Mesopotamia, parts of the Plateau of Iran, sections of
Asia Minor, Syria, Israel, and Egypt down to Thebes.
The Assyrian Empire was well organized. The Assyrians
developed a system of communication throughout the empire.
Relays of horses carried messages along a network of posts. A
message could be sent to the king from anywhere in the empire
and receive an answer within a week. Ashurbanipal, one of the
last Assyrian kings, built one of the world’s first libraries at
Nineveh. The Assyrian army was large, well organized, and disciplined. It was the first large army to use iron weapons. It was
able to use different kinds of military tactics. The Assyrians
treated the people they conquered cruelly.
Internal strife and resentment of Assyrian rule helped tear
the Assyrian Empire apart. In 612 B.C. the empire fell to a coalition of Chaldeans and Medes (people who lived in the East),
and it was divided between those powers.
Chapter 2, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did the
Assyrians communicate throughout their
empire?
(page 54)
The Persian Empire
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What caused the
Persian Empire to
fall?
Chapter 2, Section 4
(page 56)
After the Assyrian Empire fell, the Chaldeans made
Babylonia the most important state in western Asia. In 539 B.C.
Babylon fell to the Persians, an Indo-European people from
southwestern Iran. They were nomads who were united by one
family. Cyrus, a king from that family, created a Persian Empire
that stretched from Asia Minor to western India. Cyrus “the
Great” was unusual, as he ruled with great wisdom and compassion. He respected other cultures. Darius, who ruled the empire
from 521 to 486 B.C., added territory in India and Thrace. He
divided the empire into 20 provinces ruled by governors known
as satraps. Relays of horses carried messages throughout the
empire on well-maintained roads. The king held the power of
life and death.
The Persians created a standing army of professional soldiers. Much of the empire’s power depended on this.
After Darius, the monarchy. rule by a king or queen,
became weakened by internal plots and struggles. This led to
conquest of the empire by Greek ruler Alexander the Great during the 330s B.C.
The Persians’ religion was called Zoroastrianism. According
to tradition, Zoroaster was born in 660 B.C. His teachings were
written down in the Zend Avesta. Zoroaster taught that humans
could choose between good and evil, and that eventually good
would triumph.
17
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why did conquered people resent Assyrian rule?
2. Why was Cyrus described as “Cyrus the Great”?
Exposi tory
By analyzing the Assyrian and Persian Empires, form a plan for
the best way to organize and rule an empire. Then write a letter to a
“king,” trying to persuade him of the best way to rule.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
18
Chapter 2, Section 4
Chapter 3, Section 1
(Pages 66–75)
Early Civilizations in India
Major changes in India’s culture began around 1800 B.C. As you read, use
a diagram like the one below to illustrate the process that led Siddhārtha
Gautama to enlightenment.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
enlightenment
The Impact of Geography
Why have Indian
farmers depended on
the monsoons?
Chapter 3, Section 1
(page 66)
The Indian people are diverse and so is India’s geography.
The Indian subcontinent is a triangle. In the far north are the
Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world. South of that
mountain range is the rich valley of the Ganges River. To the
west is the Indus River valley. In ancient times, the Indus Valley
had a moderate climate and became the cradle of Indian civilization. The most densely populated areas of India have historically
been the eastern and western coasts, which are lush plains.
The primary feature of India’s climate is the monsoon, a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia. The monsoons bring heavy
rains. Throughout history, Indian farmers have depended on
these heavy rains. If they come too early or too late, or if too
much or too little rain falls, crops are destroyed and thousands
starve.
19
Indus Valley Civilization
What facts support
the idea that the early
civilizations were
carefully planned?
(pages 68–69)
Early Indian civilization emerged in the valleys of the Indus
River. An advanced civilization flourished in the cities of Harappa
and Mohenjo Daro. Both cities were carefully planned, with broad
streets in a grid pattern. Public wells gave a regular supply of water,
and bathrooms had advanced drainage systems. The economy was
based on farming. The Indus River flooded every year, and wheat,
barley, and peas were grown. Copper, lumber, precious stones, cotton, and some luxury goods were traded to the Sumerians.
Migration and Interaction
What facts given in
the summary support the idea that
men were dominant
in ancient India?
20
(pages 72-75)
One religion of India, Hinduism, began in ancient times.
Early Hindus believed there was a single force, or ultimate reality, in the universe. To know this ultimate reality, Hindus developed a method of training called yoga. Through devotion at a
Hindu temple, people sought salvation but also ordinary things.
Hinduism teaches reincarnation, the rebirth of a human
soul in a different form after death. Important to this process is
the idea of karma, the force generated by a person’s actions
that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life.
Karma is ruled by the dharma, or the divine law. The law
requires that all people do their duty.
Chapter 3, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Archaeologists are not sure why the Indus Valley civilization
ended, but they think around 2000 B.C., an Indo-European people
known as the Aryans moved into northern India. They probably
conquered the Indus Valley people. Eventually they controlled most
of India.
Around 1000 B.C. people started writing in Sanskrit, an
Indo-European language. These early writings, known as the
Vedas, tell us that India had many small kingdoms, led by
princes called rajas. They were often at war with one another.
India had a caste system, a set of rigid social categories that
determined a person’s occupation, economic potential, and
place in society. Indian society was divided into four major
social classes called varnas. A person was born into a caste
and remained there for life.
Religions of India
Why might Buddhism
appeal to a member
of a lower caste or
an untouchable?
(pages 69–71)
In the sixth century B.C., Buddhism, a new doctrine, began
to rival Hinduism. It was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, who
came to be known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One.” In
meditation, he realized that the Middle Path, which involved
right speech, right action, and right effort, was the route to
enlightenment and wisdom. Wisdom led to nirvana, a reunion
with the Great World Soul. Buddhism rejected the caste system
and taught that all human beings could reach nirvana as a
result of their behavior in this life.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What is reincarnation?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Where did ancient Indian civilization develop?
Exposi tory
Chapter 3, Section 1
Using information from the text, compare and contrast Hinduism and
Buddhism.
21
Chapter 3, Section 2
(Pages 76–81)
New Empires in India
New Indian Empires grew rich through trade and left a lasting legacy of
accomplishments. As you read, complete a chart indentifying the indicated
characteristics of the Mauryan and Gupta Empires.
Mauryan Empire
Gupta Empire
Dates
Government
Economy
Three New Empires
22
In 324 B.C. the Mauryan Empire was founded in India by
Candragupta Maurya. The empire was highly centralized, but
divided into provinces ruled by governors who appointed by the
king. The Mauryan Empire flourished during the reign of Aśoka,
who used Buddhist ideals to guide his rule. Under Aśoka, who is
considered the greatest ruler in the history of India, the country
prospered. It became a major crossroads in a huge trade network.
The empire declined after Aśoka’s death, and in 183 B.C. the last
Mauryan ruler was killed.
In the first century A.D., nomadic warriors seized power and
established the new Kushan kingdom. It prospered from the
trade that passed through the empire’s borders. The trade was
shipped along the Silk Road, a route for luxury goods traded
between the Roman Empire and China. Persian invaders overran
the Kushan kingdom in the third century A.D.
In 320 a new state was created in the central Ganges Valley by
the Guptas. The Guptas went on to become the dominant political
force in northern India and created a golden age of Indian culture.
The Gupta Empire engaged in trade with China and the
Mediterranean, and also in local trade in cloth, salt, and iron. The
Gupta rulers managed the trade and owned silver and gold mines
and vast lands. They became very wealthy. Much of their wealth came
from religious trade as pilgrims (people who travel to religious
places) from across India and as far away as China came to visit the
major religious centers. But by the late fifth century A.D., invasions by
the nomadic Huns gradually reduced the power of the empire.
Chapter 3, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What made the
Gupta rulers
wealthy?
(page 76)
Indian Accomplishments
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In what areas
were the Indians
accomplished?
Chapter 3, Section 2
(pages 80–81)
India has a rich and varied culture. The earliest known
examples of Indian literature are the Vedas, which contain religious chants and stories, and had been passed down orally and
then written down in Sanskrit. India’s great epics, the
Mahabharata and the Ramayana, were also put into written
form about 100 B.C. These both told of the deeds of great warriors. The most famous section of the Mahabharata is called the
Bhagavad Gita. It is a sermon by the god Krishna. It teaches
that in taking action, one should not worry about success or
failure, but only about moral rightness. Both the Mahabharata
and the Ramayana inspire Indian people today with their religious and moral lessons.
Buddhism became the state religion under Aśoka, and early
examples of Indian architecture stem from that time. The three
main types of structures were the pillar, the stupa, and the rock
chamber. All served religious purposes. Stone pillars along roads
marked sites of events in the Buddha’s life. Stupas housed relics
of the Buddha and became places of devotion. They were built
in the form of burial mounds with a spire on top. Rock chambers were carved out of rock cliffs to house monks and provide
a place for religious ceremonies.
Ancient Indians excelled at science, especially astronomy.
They charted star movements and recognized that Earth was a
sphere that revolved around the sun. They used algebra and
introduced the concept of zero and used a symbol for it. Later
Arab scholars adopted the Indian system, and then it spread
through Europe. Today it is called the Indian-Arabic numeral
system.
23
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Who is considered to be the greatest ruler in Indian history? Why?
2. What was the Silk Road?
Using information from the summary, describe the three types of
structures found in early Indian architecture.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
24
Chapter 3, Section 2
Chapter 3, Section 3
(Pages 84–93)
Early Chinese Civilizations
China developed unique philosophies, political theories, and products. As you
read, create a diagram like the one below that illustrates the dynastic cycle.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A new dynasty establishes power
with a Mandate of Heaven
The Impact of Geography
What effect did
China’s mountains
and deserts have on
Chinese people?
Chapter 3, Section 3
(page 84)
China has one of the world’s oldest cultures. It dates back
more than 6,000 years. It also has the largest population of any
nation. It has a very diverse land and climate. The Yellow River
and the Yangtze River form densely cultivated valleys. These valleys emerged as one of the great food-producing areas of the
ancient world. But much of the rest of China is mountains and
deserts. These isolated the Chinese people from other Asian peoples. China’s climate varies based on elevation and the monsoons.
In winter, the monsoons are cold and dry. In summer, they bring
rain. The monsoons cause wide temperature variations.
25
The Shang Dynasty
Why is the Xia
dynasty important?
The beginning of Chinese civilization is dated over 4,000 years
ago, with the founding of the Xia dynasty. It was replaced by the
Shang dynasty. Under Shang rule, China was primarily a farming
society ruled by aristocrats whose main concern was war. The
Shang kingdom was divided into territories governed by warlords
chosen by the king. The majority of the people were peasants.
The Zhou Dynasty
What is a question
that might be asked
about the Zhou
dynasty?
(pages 87–90)
26
(pages 90–93)
Toward the end of the Zhou dynasty, three major schools of
thought emerged in China—Confuciansim, Daoism, and
Legalism. Chinese philosophers were concerned about creating
a stable society in the material world.
Confucius ilived in a chaotic time with unceasing warfare
and mass executions. He provided ideas for restoring order. He
taught that people had a duty to subordinate their own interests
to the broader needs of the family and community. He also
believed that government service should not be limited to those
of noble birth, but should be open to all men of superior talent.
Chapter 3, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The ruler of the state of Zhou revolted against the Shang and
established the Zhou dynasty. The Zhou dynasty claimed that it
ruled because it had a Mandate of Heaven—the king was the
link between Heaven and Earth. The king was chosen to rule
because of his talent and virtue, but was expected to rule according to the proper “Way,” or Dao. If the king failed to rule well, he
could be overthrown. This gives people a “right of revolution,”
and also makes clear that the king is not divine himself.
The Zhou dynasty collapsed after almost 800 years. The features of Chinese economic and social life were taking shape.
At the heart of the concept of family in China was the idea
of filial piety, the duty of members of the family to subordinate
their needs to the male head of the family.
Improved irrigation and using iron plows increased food
production. The Chinese developed a written language. At first
they used pictographs, picture symbols that represent an
object. Then they included ideographs, characters that combine
two or more pictographs to represent an idea.
Chinese Philosophy
How did the teachings of Confucius
and the Legalists on
government differ?
(pages 86–87)
Daoism is based on the teachings of Laozi. Daoists believe
that the best way to act in harmony with universal order is not
to interfere with the natural order and to act spontaneously.
Legalism argued for a system of harsh laws and stiff punishments, and believed that a strong ruler was necessary. They
taught that the ruler did not have to show compassion for the
needs of the people.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What right did the Mandate of Heaven confer on the people?
2. Which of the Chinese philosophies emphasized duty for all citizens?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Which Chinese philosophy are you most in agreement with? Choose one
of the philosophies and write an argument for why you think it is the
truest.
Chapter 3, Section 3
27
Chapter 3, Section 4
(Pages 94–99)
Rise and Fall of Chinese
Empires
The Qin and Han dynasties established strong central governments that
were the basis for future dynasties. As you read, compare and contrast the
Qin and and Han dynasties using a Venn diagram.
Qin dynasty
Han dynasty
Why did the Chinese
people want to
overthrow the Qin
dynasty?
28
(pages 94–97)
From about 400 B.C. to 200 B.C., China experienced bloody civil
war. Gradually one state, Qin, defeated its rivals. In 221 B.C. Qin
Shihuangdi declared himself emperor. He created a single monetary system and ordered the building of a system of roads throughout the entire empire.
The Qin emperor’s major foreign concern was in the north,
where a nomadic people known as the Xiongnu lived. Walls were
constructed to keep the nomads out. Qin Shuangdi strengthened
the existing system of walls and linked them together. This was the
beginning of the Great Wall of China.
The Qin dynasty adopted legalism as their official ideology. The
bureaucracy was divided into the civil division, the military division,
and the censorate. The censorate checked on government officials.
Below the central government were provinces and counties.
Shihuangdi was the dynasty’s only ruler. The people did not
like the censorship of speech, the harsh taxes, or the forced
labor projects that he instituted. Four years after he died, his
dynasty was overthrown.
Chapter 3, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Qin Dynasty
The Han Dynasty
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did the Han
dynasty improve
the government
bureaucracy?
Chapter 3, Section 4
(pages 98–99)
In 202 B.C. one of the greatest Chinese dynasties, the Han,
emerged. It was founded by Liu Pang, who was of peasant origin. He discarded the Qin dynasty’s harsh policies and Legalism.
Confucian principles became the new state philosophy. The Han
emperors kept some Qin practices, included dividing the central
government into military, civil service, and censorate. They also
kept the empire divided into provinces and counties, and continued choosing government officials on the basis of merit
rather than birth.
The population increased to more than 60 million, so the
need for a large and efficient bureaucracy increased. The Han
introduced a civil service examination and established a school
to train candidates. For the next 2,000 years, students were
expected to learn the teachings of Confucius, Chinese history,
and law.
The Han emperors expanded the Chinese Empire into what
is now northern Vietnam and drove back the Xiongnu nomads.
China experienced a long period of peace. However, free peasants began to suffer. Land taxes were fairly light, but they had
to do military service and forced labor. Also, the size of the
average farm plot dropped as population increased. Aristocrats
came to control thousands of acres of land.
Textile manufacturing, water mills, and iron casting
improved. Steel and paper were invented. Ships improved,
expanding trade. There were also art and cultural achievements.
Over time, the Han Empire decayed under weak rulers.
Noble families took on power, and there was corruption. By
A.D. 170 wars, problems at court, and peasant uprising brought
the collapse of the Han dynasty near. In 220 China again
plunged into civil war.
29
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Under what dynasty was the Great Wall of China begun?
2. What caused the Han empire to decay?
Descri pt
ptive
Using information from the summary and your imagination, describe
what it would be like to work on the construction of the Great Wall
of China.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
30
Chapter 3, Section 4
Chapter 4, Section 1
(Pages 106–111)
Early Civilizations
in Greece
The earliest Greek civilizations that appeared in the second millennium B.C.
were influenced by their physical environment. As you read, create a diagram
like the one below to help you study the Minoans and Mycenaean civilizations.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Minoan
Civilization
Mycenaean
Civilization
The Impact of Geography
How did the mountains and the sea
influence Greek
history?
Chapter 4, Section 1
(page 106)
Compared with Mesopotamia and Egypt, Greece is small. It
consists of a peninsula and many surrounding islands that total
an area about the size of Louisiana. It is made up of small
plains and river valleys surrounded by high mountains. About
80 percent of Greece is mountainous. The mountains influenced
Greek history, because they isolated Greeks from each other.
This caused different Greek communities to develop their own
ways of life and become fiercely independent. The small size of
these communities encouraged people to be involved in politics.
But the rivalry between the communities led to warfare. The sea
also influenced Greek history. The Aegean, Mediterranean, and
Ionian Seas make up the eastern, southern, and western borders
of Greece. No part of the Greek mainland is more than 60 miles
from a body of water. Greece has a long seacoast with many
harbors, so the Greeks became seafarers. Greeks also lived on
many islands off the Greek mainland. They sailed into the
Aegean, the Mediterranean, and the Black Seas. They later established colonies that spread Greek civilization throughout the
Mediterranean world.
31
The Minoans and the Mycenaeans
What were the similarities and differences between the
ends of the Minoan
and Mycenaean
civilizations?
The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age society established on
the large island of Crete by 2800 B.C. It flourished until 1450 B.C. It
was a rich culture, as demonstrated by an enormous palace complex
at Knossos, which was the center of a far-ranging sea empire based
on trade. The Minoans went to Egypt and to southern Greece. They
traded pottery and gold and silver jewelry for other goods. They
adopted techniques and designs from other lands, making decorated
vases and ivory figurines. The palace at Knossos even included bathrooms. There was a sudden and catastrophic collapse in 1450 B.C.
Some believe this was due to a tidal wave. Most believe the destruction was the result of invasion by the Mycenaeans.
Mycenaean Greeks were Indo-Europeans who entered Greece
around 1900 B.C. and gradually gained control of the Greek mainland. Mycenaean civilization reached its height between 1400 and
1200 B.C., and was made up of powerful monarchies who lived in
fortified palace centers built on hills and surrounded by stone walls.
The Mycenaeans were warriors who prided themselves on
heroic deeds that were often depicted in wall murals. However,
they also had an extensive commercial network that spread
throughout the Mediterranean area. They also spread militarily.
By the late thirteenth century B.C., Mycenaean Greece was troubled by internal wars, major earthquakes, and invasions. By
1100 B.C. Mycenaean civilization had collapsed.
32
(page 110)
After the collapse of Mycenaean civilization, Greece entered a
period when food production dropped and population declined.
There are few records of the time, and so it is called the Dark
Age, which lasted from about 1100 to 750 B.C. During this time,
many Greeks left the mainland and went abroad. During the
Dark Age, there was a revival of trade, and iron replaced bronze.
By the eighth century B.C., the Greeks adopted the
Phoenician alphabet, making all their words with a combination
of 24 letters. This made learning to read and write simpler. Near
the end of the Dark Age, the works of Homer, one of the truly
great poets of all time, appeared. He wrote the first epic poems
of early Greece, the Iliad and the Odyssey, using stories of the
Trojan War. Homer taught values such as courage and honor.
The heroes in Homer’s poems struggled for excellence, which
the Greeks called arete. By fighting, the hero protected his family and friends, preserved his honor, and earned his reputation.
Homer’s heroes became the ideal for Greek males.
Chapter 4, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Greeks in the Dark Age
Why are the poems
of Homer still read
today?
(page 108)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why was the period after the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization called the Dark Age?
2. What place did war hold in Mycenaean society?
Imagine that you are a tour guide for the palace at Knossos during
the height of the Minoan civilization. Write what you would say as
you showed an important dignitary around the palace.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 4, Section 1
33
Chapter 4, Section 2
(Pages 112-117)
The Greek City-States
Differences between Athenian and Spartan values led to different forms of
government. As you read, create a chart like the one below to help you study.
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of each type of government used
in Greek city-states.
Advantage
Disadvantage
Tyranny
Democracy
Oligarchy
Polis: The Center of Greek Life
34
By 750 B.C. the city-state, called a polis, became the central
focus of Greek life. Our word politics comes from the Greek
word polis. The polis was a town, a city, or even a village and
its surrounding countryside. People met in the center of the
polis for political, social, and religious activities. Usually the
gathering place was a hill topped by a fortified area called an
acropolis. People assembled in an open area called the agora
around the acropolis.
The polis was a community of people with a common identity and common goals. It consisted of three main groups: citizens
with political rights (males), citizens with no political rights
(women and children) and noncitizens (slaves and foreigners).
Citizens had responsibilities as well as rights, and were expected
to be loyal to the city-state. This loyalty became so fierce that it
eventually tore Greece apart. A new military system developed in
Greece. It was based on hoplites. These were heavily armed
infantry soldiers who each carried a shield, a sword, and a spear.
They marched into battle in a formation called a phalanx that
created walls of shields to protect the hoplites.
Chapter 4, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What was the center
of Greek life by
750 B.C.?
(page 112)
Greek Expansion
What could be
expected to happen
after the tyrants
broke the rule of the
aristocrats?
(page 114)
Between 750 and 550 B.C., many Greeks moved to distant
lands. The growth of trade and the need for good farmland
were two reasons that people moved. New Greek colonies were
formed in southern Italy, southern France, eastern Spain, and
northern Africa. Colonization spread Greek culture and political
ideas throughout the Mediterranean and increased trade. The
mainland Greeks exported pottery, wine, and olive oil. They
imported grains and metals from the west and fish, timber,
wheat, metals, and slaves from the Black Sea region.
The increase in trade and industry created a new group of
wealthy people. They wanted political power, but were blocked
by the aristocrats. This led to the rise of tyrants in the seventh
and sixth centuries B.C. Tyrants were not necessarily wicked;
they tried to help the poor and built public works. They were
supported by the newly wealthy and the peasants. However,
they fell out of favor because the Greeks believed in the rule of
law. Their rule played an important role in Greek history
because it ended the rule of aristocrats and opened the way for
the development of democracy.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Two Rival City-States
How did reaction to
oppressive rule lead
to pre-democracy in
Athens?
Chapter 4, Section 2
(page 115)
Like other Greek city-states, Sparta needed more land. To get
it, they conquered first the Laconians and then the Messenians.
The conquered people, known as helots, were forced to work
for the Spartans. Between 800 and 600 B.C., the lives of the
Spartans were rigidly organized and controlled. Males spent their
childhood learning military discipline, and entered the army at
age 20 and lived in barracks. At age 30, Spartan men could vote
and live at home, but stayed in the army until age 60. The separation from their husbands gave Spartan women more power in the
household than other Greek women had. The Spartan government was an oligarchy headed by two kings. A group of five
men known as ephors was responsible for the education of
youth and the conduct of citizens.
By the seventh century B.C., Athens was an oligarchy under the
control of aristocrats. Many Athenian farmers were sold into slavery
because they could not pay their debts. To avoid civil war, in 594 B.C.
the aristocrats gave power to Solon, who was reform-minded. He
cancelled all land debts and freed people who were slaves due to
debt. In 512 B.C. Cleisthenes, a reformer, gained control. He created a
new council of 500 to supervise foreign affairs, oversee the treasury,
and propose laws. This laid the foundation for Athenian democracy.
35
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What three groups made up a polis?
2. Why was the rule of the tyrants important in Greek history?
I nformative
Discuss Greek colonization and cover its causes, its extent, and its
results. For the latter, discuss not only the immediate impact, but the
impact of Greek culture on your life.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
36
Chapter 4, Section 2
Chapter 4, Section 3
(Pages 118–123)
Classical Greece
Athens’ growing power led to conflict with Sparta. As you read, create a
concept map like the one below to help you study. Identify the elements
that contributed to the classical age of Greece.
Classical Age of Greece
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Challenge of Persia
What caused the temporary alliance of
Athens, Sparta, and
other Greek cities?
Chapter 4, Section 3
(page 118)
As the Greeks spread throughout the Mediterranean, they
came into contact with the Persian Empire. By the mid-sixth
century B.C., the Ionian Greek cities had fallen to the Persians.
In 499 B.C. they tried to revolt, assisted by the Athenian navy.
The revolt failed, and Persian ruler Darius sought revenge. In
490 B.C. the Persians landed on the plain of Marathon, about
26 miles from Athens. Though outnumbered, the Athenians
defeated the Persians. A runner took the news of the victory to
Athens, which serves as the basis for today’s marathon races.
After Darius’s death, the new Persian monarch, Xerxes, led
a massive invasion of Greece with 180,000 troops and thousands
of warships. Athenians, Spartans, and other Greeks united to fight
the invaders. They held off the Persian army at Thermopylae for
two days. Then, near the island of Salamis, the Greek fleet
defeated the Persians. A few months later, the Greeks formed the
largest Greek army up to that time and defeated the Persians at
Plataea. However, the Greeks were unable to stop fighting one
another and undermining their civilization.
37
The Athenian Empire
What was Athenian
government like
during the Age of
Pericles?
(pages 121–122)
After the defeat of the Persians, Athens took over the leadership of the Greek world, forming the Delian League in 478 B.C. By
controlling the Delian League, Athens created an empire, which
expanded between 461 and 429 B.C. This period is called the Age
of Pericles. Pericles was a dominant figure in Athenian politics.
Democracy flourished and Athens was at the height of its power
and brilliance. During the Age of Pericles, every male citizen in
Athens played a role in government. Athens was a direct democracy, holding mass meetings of every male over 18 every 10 days
to decide issues. Poor citizens could take part in government
because all male citizens were eligible for office and officeholders
were paid. Elected officials ran the government on a daily basis.
The practice of ostracism was devised so Athenians could protect
themselves against overly ambitious politicians. Using this practice,
members of the assembly could write on a broken pottery fragment the name of a person they considered harmful to the city. A
person named by at least six thousand members was banned from
the city for 10 years. Under Pericles, Athens became the center of
Greek culture. Art, architecture, and philosophy flourished.
In the fifth century B.C., Athens was the largest of the Greek
city-states, with about 300,000 people. There were also about
10,000 adult male foreigners in the city, and about 100,000 slaves.
Slavery was common and was part of all sectors of the economy.
Why did Athens and
Sparta go to war?
38
(page 123)
After the defeat of the Persians, the Greek world became
divided into two main parts: the Athenian Empire and Sparta.
Athens and Sparta had built two very different societies, and neither state tolerated the other’s system. Further, Sparta and its allies
feared the Athenian Empire. A series of disputes between Athens
and Sparta led to the beginning of the Great Peloponnesian War in
431 B.C. The Athenians held out for 25 years. In 405 B.C. the
Athenian navy was destroyed at Aegospotami. Within the next year,
Athens surrendered. The great war was over, and the Athenian
Empire was destroyed.
The war weakened all of the Greek states and ruined the
possibility of cooperation among them. For the next 66 years,
Sparta, Athens, and Thebes, a new Greek power, struggled to
dominate Greek affairs.
Chapter 4, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Great Peloponnesian War
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. How was Athens a direct democracy?
2. What two Persian rulers invaded Greece?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Women held different places in the societies of Sparta and Athens,
and had different activities and purposes. Choose in which society
you think women had a better life, and write an essay defending your
position with reasons and concrete details.
Chapter 4, Section 3
39
Chapter 4, Section 4
(Pages 124–131)
The Culture of Classical
Greece
Ideas from the classical age of Greece helped to shape Western civilization. As you read, create a chart like the one below to help you study.
Identify the major Greek contributions to Western civilizations.
Major Greek
Contributions
Greek Religion
40
Religion was very important in Greek life. Temples were the
major buildings in Greek cities. The Greeks thought that 12 main
gods lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece.
One of these was Zeus, who was the chief god and father of the
gods. Greek religion did not focus on morality. The Greeks
believed that the spirits of most people went to an underworld
ruled by the god Hades, regardless of what the people had done
in life. Greeks performed rituals to please the gods. Rituals are
religious ceremonies or rites. The Greek rituals combined prayers
with gifts to the gods. The Greeks also held festivals to honor the
gods and goddesses. Athletic games often took place at the festivals. All Greeks were invited to these games. The first games of
this kind were held at the Olympic festival in 776 B.C.
The Greeks used oracles to learn the will of the gods. An
oracle was a sacred shrine where a god or goddess revealed the
future through a priest or priestess. The most famous was the
oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi. A priestess at Delphi listened to questions. Her responses were thought to be inspired
by Apollo and were interpreted by priests. Many people traveled
to Delphi to consult the oracle of Apollo.
Chapter 4, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In contemporary life,
who plays the same
role as an oracle?
(page 124)
Classical Greek Arts and Literature
The author assigns
great importance to
Greek influence on
Western art, drama,
and history. Is this
importance borne
out by the facts?
Classical Greek art was concerned with expressing eternal
ideals. In architecture, the most important form was the temple.
The most famous temple was the Parthenon, built between 447
and 432 B.C. It shows the principles of classical architecture:
calmness, clarity, and freedom from unnecessary detail.
The Greeks created drama as we know it. The first Greek
dramas were tragedies, usually presented in a trilogy of plays
built around a common theme. The only complete trilogy we
have today is the Oresteia by Aeschylus. Other important playwrights include Sophocles and Euripides. Greek tragedies deal
with problems such as the nature of good and evil and the
rights of individuals. Greek comedy developed later than tragedies. It was used to criticize politicians and intellectuals.
The Greeks were the first in the Western world to present
history as a systematic analysis of events. Thucydides is considered the greatest historian of the ancient world. He saw war and
politics in purely human terms, and examined the causes and
the course of the Peloponnesian War clearly and fairly.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Greek Philosophy
How were Plato and
Aristotle alike and
different?
Chapter 4, Section 4
(page 126)
(page 129)
Philosophy is an organized system of thought. The term
comes from the Greek and means “love of wisdom.” Early Greek
philosophers tried to explain the universe on the basis of unifying principles. Pythagoras, for example, taught that the essence
of the universe was in music and numbers.
One famous philosopher, Socrates, believed the goal of education was to improve the individual. He used a question-andanswer format to teach, known as the Socratic method. His
belief in the individual’s ability to reason was an important contribution of the Greeks.
Plato was one of Socrates’s students. Many consider Plato to
be the greatest philosopher of Western civilization. Plato’s work,
The Republic, stated that the ideal state consisted of three groups
of people, philosopher-kings, warriors, and the masses.
One of Plato’s students was Aristotle. Until the seventeenth
century, science in the Western world was largely based on
Aristotle’s ideas. He also analyzed many existing governments and
believed there were only three forms: monarchy, aristocracy, and
constitutional government. He thought the last was the best form
for most people.
41
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Who was a great historian of ancient Greece?
2. What did Classical Greek sculptors try to achieve in their work?
Exposi tory
Greek art, drama, history, and philosophy have had a major impact
on Western thought. Summarize how each of these areas of study show
Greek influence.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
42
Chapter 4, Section 4
Chapter 4, Section 5
(Pages 134–139)
Alexander and the
Hellenistic Era
Greek culture spread to new lands. As you read, create a diagram like the
one below to help you study. Compare and contrast the characteristics of
the classical and Hellenistic periods.
Hellenistic Era
Classical Age of Greece
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Macedonians Invade Greece
What qualities
did Philip and
Alexander most
likely have in
common?
Chapter 4, Section 5
(page 134)
The Greeks thought their northern neighbors, the
Macedonians, were barbarians. But under Philip II, the
Macedonians defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea in
338 B.C. Philip gained control of all Greece, bringing an end to
the freedom of the city-states. But Philip was assassinated
before he could complete all his plans.
Philip’s son, Alexander the Great, was only 20 when he
became king of Macedonia. In 334 B.C. Alexander entered Asia
Minor with an army of Macedonians and Greeks. He quickly
freed the Ionian Greek cities from the Persians. Then he took
control of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. He built Alexandria as the
Greek capital of Egypt. After his victory at Gaugamela,
Alexander took control of the rest of the Persian Empire. He
then moved northeast, as far as modern Pakistan. In 326 B.C. he
entered India. However, his soldiers were weary and refused to
go farther. Alexander returned to Babylon, planning more campaigns, but died at the age of 32 in 323 B.C.
Alexander was a great leader, a master of strategy and tactics. He extended Greek and Macedonian rule over a vast area
and greatly enriched their treasuries. He sought to imitate
Achilles, the warrior-hero of Homer’s Iliad.
43
The Hellenistic Era
How were
Epicureanism and
Stoicism alike and
different?
Alexander’s empire fell apart soon after his death. Four
Hellenistic kingdoms emerged: Macedonia, Syria, Pergamum,
and Egypt. Alexander and his successors founded many cities.
Colonists were encouraged to spread themselves through
Southwest Asia. The resulting Greek cities, home to architects,
engineers, dramatists, and actors, helped spread Greek culture
as far as modern Afghanistan and India.
The Hellenistic Era was a period of much cultural accomplishment, especially in science and philosophy. Alexandria in
particular was home to scholars of all kinds, and had the largest
library in ancient times. Pergamum was also a leading cultural
center. Hellenistic kings spent much money using architects and
sculptors to beautify their cities. Sculptors moved away from
their earlier idealism toward more realism, as shown in the
numerous statues of old women and little children. Much literature was produced, as writing talent was widely subsidized.
Great progress was also made in the sciences. The circumference of the Earth was calculated quite closely. Euclid wrote a
textbook on plane geometry. Archimedes worked on the geometry of spheres and cylinders, and established the value of pi.
Athens remained the center of philosophy, with two new
schools of thought being established. Epicurianism stated that
happiness, meaning freedom from worry and emotional turmoil,
was the goal of life. Stoicism taught that happiness could only
be found when people gained inner peace by living in harmony
with the will of God.
Chapter 4, Section 5
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
44
(page 137)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why was the new age created by Alexander called the Hellenistic Era?
2. What four kingdoms emerged after Alexander died?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
By summarizing the legacies of the ancient Greeks, write an essay
that persuades others that of all the ancient empires, the Greeks had
the most influence on Western civilization.
Chapter 4, Section 5
45
Chapter 5, Section 1
(Pages 146–151)
The Rise of Rome
The Romans conquered and then controlled the Italian peninsula and then
the entire Mediterranean world. As you read this section, complete a chart
like the one shown below listing the government officials and the legislative bodies of the Roman Republic.
Officials
Legislative Bodies
The Land and Peoples of Italy
46
Italy is a peninsula about 750 miles long and 120 miles
wide. It is divided by a mountain range, the Apennines. Unlike
in Greece, the mountains were not rugged enough to isolate
communities. Italy also had more land for farming than Greece
had, so Italy could support a larger population.
Rome was located 18 miles inland on the Tiber River. This
gave it a way to the sea but kept it safe from pirates. Also,
Rome occupied hilltops, so it was easily defended. It also had a
good central location in Italy.
Indo-European peoples moved into Italy from about 1500 to
1000 B.C. Little is known about these peoples. One group lived in
the region of Latium and spoke Latin. About 800 B.C., other
groups such as the Greeks and the Etruscans moved into Italy.
The Greeks had a big influence on Rome. The Greeks introduced
cultivation of olives and grapes, passed on their alphabet, and
gave the Romans models of sculpture, architecture, and literature.
The Etruscans exerted even more influence. After 650 B.C. they
controlled Rome and most of Latium. They turned the village of
Rome into a city. The Romans adopted Etruscan clothing and borrowed the organization of their army from the Etruscans.
Chapter 5, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did the Greeks
and the Etruscans
influence Rome?
(page 146)
The Roman Republic
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why were the
Romans successful?
In 509 B.C. the Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king and
formed a republic. In a republic, the leader is not a monarch
and some citizens have the right to vote.
For the next 200 years, the city was often at war. By 264 B.C.,
the Romans had overcome the Greeks in southern Italy and
defeated the remaining Etruscan states to the north.
To rule Italy, the Romans devised the Roman Confederation.
Under it, some people were allowed to have full Roman citizenship.
Other communities were made allies, free to run their own local
affairs but required to provide soldiers for Rome.
Roman people believed in duty, courage, and discipline.
They were also good diplomats. They gained support by giving
other people Roman citizenship. When they conquered new
areas, Romans fortified towns and built roads.
Early Rome was divided into two groups—the patricians and
the plebeians. Patricians were wealthy landowners. Small farmers,
craftspeople, and merchants comprised the plebeians. The chief
executive officers of the Republic were the consuls and praetors.
Two consuls were chosen every year, and they ran the government and led the army. The praetor was in charge of the laws that
applied to Roman citizens. The Roman Senate began as a select
group of patricians whose only role was to advise government officials. Later, it gained the force of law. There were often conflicts
between the orders. Plebeians wanted social equality with patricians. In 287 B.C. the plebs gained the right to pass laws for all
Romans. The first code of laws was the Twelve Tables, adopted in
450 B.C. More sophisticated law was developed, and gradually the
Romans established standards of justice that applied to all people.
Roman Expansion
Why did Rome fear
Carthage?
Chapter 5, Section 1
(page 148)
(page 150)
After their conquest of Italy, Rome faced a strong rival in
the Mediterranean: Carthage. Rome’s first war with Carthage
began in 264 B.C. It was called the First Punic War. The Romans
sent a force to Sicily, and won. In 241 B.C. Carthage gave up all
rights to Sicily, which became the first Roman province.
The Second Punic War began in 218 B.C., when Carthage’s
greatest general, Hannibal, invaded Italy. Hannibal took control
of much of Italy, but did not have the resources to attack major
cities. The Romans invaded Carthage, which forced Carthage to
recall Hannibal from Italy.
The Third Punic War took place 50 years later, and the Romans
completely destroyed the city of Carthage. They sold all the inhabitants into slavery and made the territory a Roman province.
47
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why did the plebeians resent the patricians?
2. What started the Second Punic War?
Under which government do you think it was best for ordinary citizens to live: that of ancient Greece or ancient Rome? Back up your
position with specifics from the text.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
48
Chapter 5, Section 1
Chapter 5, Section 2
(Pages 152–159)
From Republic to Empire
The internal instability of the Roman Empire eventually led to civil wars and
increased power for the military. As you read, create a diagram like the one
below to identify factors that led to the end of the Roman Republic.
End of the
Roman Republic
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The End of the Roman Republic
How was army
recruitment changed
at the end of the
Roman Republic?
Chapter 5, Section 2
(page 152)
By the second century B.C., the Senate had become the real
governing body of the Roman state. Its members were drawn
mostly from the landed aristocracy, and increasingly, the Senate
and government offices became controlled by a small circle of
wealthy families.
In 107 B.C. recruiting for the army was changed. Instead of
small farmers becoming soldiers, volunteers were recruited from
the poor, and they were promised land in return. The new soldiers’ loyalty was to their generals, not to the government.
Generals became involved in the government to get laws passed
to give out the land they had promised their men. The Roman
general Sulla seized Rome in 82 B.C. and wiped out all opposition. For the next 50 years, there were civil wars.
Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar emerged as victors of the
civil wars. They formed the First Triumvirate, a government by three
people with equal power. When Crassus died, the Senate wanted
only Pompey to rule. Caesar marched on Rome and defeated
Pompey, becoming dictator, or absolute ruler, in 45 B.C. Caesar tripled the size of the Senate, filling it with his supporters. In 44 B.C. 60
senators assassinated him.
Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed the Second
Triumvirate. Within a few years, Octavian and Antony divided
the republic between them. However, they came into conflict
and Octavian won. At the age of 32, Octavian stood supreme
over the Roman world. The republic had ended.
49
The Beginning of the Roman Empire
What weaknesses did
the Roman Empire
have?
In 27 B.C. Octavian proclaimed the “restoration of the
Republic.” However, though he gave some power to the Senate,
Octavian in fact became the first Roman emperor. He was given
the title of Augustus, which means “revered one.” His chief source
of power was his continuing control of the army. The Senate gave
Augustus the title of imperator, or commander in chief.
Augustus began a new system for governing the provinces,
keeping control of some of them and appointing deputies to
govern them. He conquered many new areas, but failed when
he tried to conquer Germany. Augustus died in A.D. 14.
Augustus’s new system allowed the emperor to select his
successor from his natural or adopted family. The next four
emperors came from Augustus’s family and were Tiberius,
Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. They took more power from the
Senate and became more corrupt. After Nero’s death, civil war
broke out in A.D. 69. At the beginning of the second century,
five so-called good emperors came to power. They were Nerva,
Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. They created a period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax
Romana, which lasted almost 100 years. The powers of the
emperor continued to expand, but the five good emperors were
known for their tolerance. Some created social programs, and
all were praised for their building programs.
Trajan expanded into Mesopotamia, Romania, and the Sinai
Peninsula. Hadrian realized that the empire was too large to be
easily governed and pulled force back. Even so, the empire
became harder and harder to defend. It covered about 3.5 million
square miles and had an estimated population of 50 million.
The Early Empire was a period of prosperity, with high levels
of trade. Farming remained the chief occupation of the people.
But there was a large gap between rich and poor. Thousands of
unemployed people depended on the emperor’s handouts of
grain to survive.
Chapter 5, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
50
(page 156)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. How did recruiting change in the Roman army?
2. What leaders formed the First and Second Triumvirates?
Trace the fall of the Roman Republic. The Pax Romana occurred after
the Republic had fallen. Does this mean that the end of the Republic
was beneficial to Rome?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 5, Section 2
51
Chapter 5, Section 3
(Pages 160–165)
Culture and Society in the
Roman World
The Romans spread Greek and Roman art, architecture, and literature
throughout the empire. As you read, create a Venn diagram like the one
shown below comparing and contrasting the lifestyle of a wealthy Roman
with that of a poor citizen.
Poor Citizen
Wealthy Patrician
Roman Arts and Literature
52
During the second and third centuries B.C., Greek art influenced the Romans. They put Greek statues in their homes and
in public buildings. Roman sculptors not only imitated the
Greeks, but also added some realism to their work.
The Romans excelled in architecture and engineering. They
used Greek styles, such as colonnades and rectangular buildings.
However, they also used forms based on curved lines, such as
arches, vaults, and domes. They were the first people to use concrete on a large scale. Thus, they were able to make huge buildings. They also built roads, bridges, and aqueducts. They built
almost a dozen aqueducts in Rome to supply water. Over 50,000
miles of roads were built to connect different parts of the empire.
The Age of Augustus has been called the golden age of
Latin literature. The greatest poet of the Augustan Age was
Virgil. He wrote his greatest work, the Aeneid, in honor of
Rome. Another important Augustan poet was Horace. In his
Satires, he made fun of human weaknesses. The most famous
prose writer of the golden age was Livy. He was a historian
whose masterpiece was the History of Rome. He was a good
storyteller, but his stories were not always accurate. However,
his work became the standard history of Rome for a long time.
Chapter 5, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How was Roman
sculpture different from that of the
Greeks?
(page 160)
Life in Ancient Rome
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What would most
likely have happened to the Roman
economy if the slaves
were suddenly freed?
Chapter 5, Section 3
(page 162)
The family was the basic unit of Roman society. It was
headed by a dominant male, the paterfamilias. Children were
raised at home, and all upper-class children were expected to
learn to read. Greek slaves were often used as teachers. Fathers
arranged the marriages of their daughters, who usually married
at age 14. Boys tended to marry later. Divorce was introduced
in the third century B.C. By the second century A.D., the paterfamilias no longer had absolute authority over the children and
the wife. Women no longer were required to have male guardians. Women could own, inherit, and sell property, and could
socialize with men both in and outside the home.
The Romans had many slaves, many of whom had been
captured in war. Slaves served as tutors and doctors, household
workers, builders, and farmers. Conditions were often pitiful.
Some slaves revolted. In 73 B.C., the gladiator Spartacus led the
most famous slave revolt. It involved 70,000 slaves, but ended
in defeat.
Rome was the capital city of the Empire, and had close to
1 million people by the time of Augustus. The city had many
beautiful public buildings, but was also overcrowded, dirty,
and noisy. The rich lived in comfortable villas, while the poor
crowded into poorly built apartment blocks called insulae, that
often collapsed or caught fire. Emperors provided food to the
poor, but even so, they barely survived.
Much entertainment was provided, especially during religious festivals. There were chariot races, dramatic performances,
and gladiatorial shows. The latter were the most popular of all.
53
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. How did the role of Roman women change in the second century A.D.?
2. What kinds of work did slaves do in ancient Rome?
Descri pt
ptive
Imagine that you are a poor person living in ancient Rome. Describe
a typical day in your life, including observations, activities, and
sensory perceptions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
54
Chapter 5, Section 3
Chapter 5, Section 4
(Pages 168–173)
The Development of
Christianity
Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire and eventually became
the state religion of Rome. As you read, use the diagram below and identify the political views held by the three groups.
Sadducees
Essenes
Zealots
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Religion in the Roman Empire
Why did the Romans
believe the gods
favored them?
Chapter 5, Section 4
(page 168)
The official state religion of Rome focused on the worship
of several gods and goddesses, including Jupiter, Minerva, and
Mars. During the late Roman Republic, the state religion had
declined. Augustus brought back traditional festivals and ceremonies to revive the state religion. The Romans were also tolerant of other religions. They even adopted many of the gods of
the people they conquered. Starting with Augustus, the emperors were officially made gods by the Roman Senate.
By A.D. 6 the old Jewish kingdom of Judah was a Roman
province called Judaea. It was ruled by a Roman procurator. The
Jewish people were divided into different political groups. The
Sadducees wanted to cooperate with the Romans. The Pharisees
thought that closely following religious law would protect Jews
from Roman influences. The Essenes lived apart from society,
waiting for God to save Israel from oppression. The Zealots
called for violent overthrow of Roman rule. A Jewish revolt
began in A.D. 66, but the Romans crushed it four years later, and
then destroyed the temple in Jerusalem.
55
The Rise of Christianity
How was
Christianity different from the Roman
state religion?
A Jewish teacher named Jesus traveled and preached
throughout Judaea and Galilee. His teachings began as a movement within Judaism and eventually won followers across the
Roman Empire.
Despite his following the Jewish law, Jesus’ primary emphasis was on the transformation of the inner person. Loving God
and loving one’s neighbor were a person’s most important
duties. Other prominent Jewish teachers shared his ideas on
these duties, but Jesus expressed them in a very eloquent way.
The virtues he stressed—humility, charity and love toward
others—were important in shaping the values of Western civilization. Some saw Jesus as a rebel, and the Romans put him to
death. His followers claimed that he rose from the dead.
Prominent leaders arose to spread Jesus’ teachings. The teachings were at first oral, but then were written down as the
Gospels. The writings give a record of Jesus’ life and teachings,
and they form the core of the New Testament, the second part
of the Christian Bible. By A.D. 100 there were Christian churches
in most of the major cities of the eastern empire.
The basic values of Christianity were in conflict with the
Greco-Roman world. Christians refused to worship state gods, or
the emperor as a god. The Roman government began persecuting Christians during the reign of Nero. However, this forced the
church to become more organized and committed, and it continued to grow.
Christianity had much to offer. The Roman religion was
impersonal and existed for the good of Rome, where
Christianity was personal and promised salvation to individuals.
Its offering of immortality as the result of the sacrificial death of
a savior-god had some similarities to older religions. Also,
Christian communities formed to help and love one another,
which satisfied people’s need to belong. Christianity was especially attractive to the poor and powerless, because it stressed a
sense of spiritual equality of all people. Despite persecution at
the beginning of the fourth century, in 311 Christianity was
given official tolerance. Constantine became the first Christian
emperor in 312. Under Theodosius the Great (378–395), the
Romans adopted Christianity as the official religion of the
Roman Empire. The Christian church began creating a new
structure in which the clergy, or church leaders, had different
jobs separate from the laity, or the regular church members.
Chapter 5, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
56
(page 170)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What was the focus of the state religion of Rome?
2. Describe the four political groups in Judaea.
Tell the story of the rise of Christianity, from its inception to its adoption as the official state religion of the Roman Empire.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 5, Section 4
57
Chapter 5, Section 5
(Pages 174–177)
Decline and Fall
Although two strong emperors temporarily revived the Roman Empire,
invaders from Asia and Germany finally brought it to an end. As you read,
create a chart like the one below to help you study.
Decline
The Decline
58
(page 174)
The last of the five good emperors, Marcus Aurelius, died in
A.D. 180. Conflict and civil war followed. For about 50 years,
there were 22 emperors, most of whom died violently. At the
same time, there were invasions by Persians and Germanic
tribes. This, coupled with an outbreak of plague, almost caused
economic collapse. There was a shortage of labor and a decline
in trade, small industry, and farm production.
Around the beginning of the fourth century, two emperors—
Diocletian and Constantine—temporarily revived the empire.
Diocletian divided the empire into four units, each with its own
ruler, though he held ultimate authority. Constantine expanded
Diocletian’s policies. He also built the city of Constantinople (now
Istanbul, Turkey). Both emperors enlarged the army and the civil
service, despite the contraction of public funds resulting from the
lack of growth in the tax base. Diocletian tried to control inflation, a rapid increase in prices, with wage and price controls. His
efforts failed. Both emperors issued edicts forcing workers to stay
in the same job, so many jobs became hereditary.
The economic and social policies of both emperors were
based on control and coercion, and in the long run, stifled the
empire when it most needed vitality.
Chapter 5, Section 5
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did Diocletian’s
and Constantine’s
policies rob the
Roman Empire of
vitality?
Fall
The Fall
(page 176)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What is one question
that is not answered
in the section?
The empire continued to be divided into two parts. The
Western Roman Empire had problems with invaders. The
Visigoths, a Germanic people, crossed the Danube and settled in
Roman territory after being pushed out of eastern Europe by
the Huns. In 410 the Visigoths sacked Rome. Another group, the
Vandals, crossed into Italy from Northern Africa. In 455 they too
sacked Rome. In 476 the Germanic head of the army overthrew
the western emperor, Romulus Augustulus. This is usually considered the date of the fall of the Western Roman Empire. A
series of German kingdoms replaced it. The Eastern Roman
Empire, or Byzantine Empire, continued to thrive.
Theories to explain the decline and fall of the Roman
Empire include: 1) Christianity’s emphasis on a spiritual kingdom weakened Roman military virtues; 2) traditional Roman
values declined as non-Italians gained prominence; 3) lead poisoning from leaden water pipes and cups caused a mental
decline in the population; 4) plague wiped out one-tenth of the
population; 5) Rome failed to advance technologically because
of slavery; 6) Rome was unable to put together a workable
political system. However, no single explanation can sufficiently
explain so complex an event.
Chapter 5, Section 5
59
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What were some of the economic problems in the Roman Empire in the third century?
2. What event is normally used to mark the fall of the Western Roman Empire?
What theories about the decline and fall of the Roman Empire do you
think best explain what happened? Choose three of the theories and
write an argument supporting those three as the best explanation.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
60
Chapter 5, Section 5
Chapter 6, Section 1
(Pages 188–191)
The Rise of Islam
In the 600s the Arabian prophet Muhammad created the religion Islam,
which led to great changes in the social and political systems of the Arab
Empire. As you read, create a diagram like the one below to help you
study. List the main characteristics of the Islamic religion.
Characteristics of Islam
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Arabs
(page 188)
Why did the Arabian
Peninsula become
more important?
Chapter 6, Section 1
The Arabs were a Semitic-speaking people who moved nomadically to find water and food for their animals. The Arabs were
organized into tribes. The head of the tribe, the sheikh, was chosen by a council of elders.
Most Arabs lived as farmers and sheepherders until the
camel was domesticated. Then the Arabs populated more of
the Arabian Peninsula and expanded the caravan trade routes.
Towns developed along these routes, and the Arabs became
major carriers of goods between the Indian Ocean and the
Mediterranean Sea, where the Silk Road ended.
Most early Arabs were polytheistic. They recognized a
supreme god named Allah, but they also believed in other
tribal gods. Arabs trace their ancestors to Abraham and his son
Ishmael, who were believed to have built a house of worship
called the Kaaba in Makkah. A sacred stone, called the Black
Stone, is the cornerstone of the Kaaba.
The Arabian Peninsula became more important when political
disorder made the usual trade routes in Southwest Asia too dangerous. A safer route through Makkah became more popular.
61
The Life of Muhammad
Predict what
would happen
to Islam after
Muhammad died.
(page 189)
Muhammad was born in Makkah in 570 A.D. and grew up
to become a caravan manager. He became concerned about the
gap between the Makkans and the rich merchants in the city.
In 610, during a time of meditation, he had a vision that he
believed was inspired by Allah. These revelations were eventually written down in the Quran, the holy scriptures of Islam,
the religion that Muhammad founded. The Quran contains the
ethical guidelines and laws by which the followers of Allah live.
Those who practice Islam are called Muslims. Islam has only
one God, Allah, and Muhammad is God’s prophet.
Muhammad had little success in preaching to the people of
Makkah. He went to a town that came to be called Medina. This
journey, called the Hijrah, took place in 622, which became
year 1 in Islam’s official calendar. Muhammad began to gain
support in Medina and among the Bedouin tribes. Muhammad
became both a religious and a political leader. He formed a
military force to defend himself and his followers. In 630 he
returned to Makkah with 10,000 men. The city quickly surrendered, and most of the townspeople converted to Islam.
Muhammad died two years later, just as Islam was beginning to
spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula.
What is Shari’ah?
62
(page 191)
Islam is both a set of religious beliefs and a whole way of
life. It is monotheistic. To achieve salvation and life after death,
people must submit to the will of Allah. Muhammad is not considered to be divine.
Muslims are to practice acts of worship known as the Five
Pillars of Islam: belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage.
During Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink from dawn to
sunset. At least once in their lifetime, believers are expected to
make a pilgrimage to Makkah, known as the hajj, if possible.
Islam is a way of life as well. After Muhammad’s death,
Muslim scholars developed a law code known as shari’ah.
It provides believers with a set of practical laws to regulate
their daily lives. It is based on scholars’ interpretations of the
Quran and the example set by Muhammad in his life. Shari’ah
regulates family life, business practice, government, and moral
conduct. In addition to following the Five Pillars, Muslims are
supposed to practice honesty and justice in dealing with others.
They are forbidden to gamble, eat pork, or drink alcoholic beverages. Family life is based on marriage.
Chapter 6, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Teachings of Muhammad
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What event marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar?
2. How did the early Arabs make their living?
Using information from the text and your imagination, describe
a 24-hour day in the life of a Muslim during Ramadan. Include
activities, what is eaten and drunk, and a description of the
surrounding environment.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 6, Section 1
63
Chapter 6, Section 2
(Pages 192–199)
The Arab Empire and
Its Successors
After the death of Muhammad, there were struggles to find sound leadership for the vast Arab Empire. As you read, create a chart like the one
below to help you study. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the
early caliphs with the caliphs of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties.
Early Caliphs
Caliphs of the Umayyad
and Abbasid Dynasties
Creation of an Arab Empire
64
Muhammad was both the political and religious leader of
the Islamic community. Muhammad never named a successor,
and he left no sons. After his death, there was a question as to
who would lead. Some of Muhammad’s closest followers chose
ˉ Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law, to be their leader. In
Abu
ˉ Bakr was named caliph, or successor to Muhammad.
632 Abu
Under his leadership, the Islamic movement began to grow. It
expanded over Arabia and beyond. The Quran permitted fair,
defensive warfare as jihad, or “struggle in the way of God.” The
Arab army defeated the Byzantine army, and later took control
of the Byzantine province of Syria. By 642 Egypt and other areas
of northern Africa had been added to the new Arab Empire. The
Arabs had conquered the entire Persian Empire by 650.
ˉ Bakr’s death, a series of rulers took power only to
After Abu
be assassinated after a few years. In the conquered territories Arab
administrators were tolerant, sometimes even allowing local officials to continue to govern. Both Christians and Jews were allowed
to practice their religion. Christians and Jews had written scriptures
revealed to them by God before the time of Muhammad and were
called “People of the Book.” People who did not convert were
required only to be loyal to Muslim rule and to pay taxes.
Chapter 6, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did the
Arabs treat
conquered people?
(page 192)
The Umayyads; The Abbasid Dynasty
What happened
to the Arab
Empire under
the Umayyads?
(pages 194 and 196)
In 661 Mu’aˉwiyah established the Umayyad dynasty. During
the Umayyad dynasty, Arab control expanded through Spain and
into some of the Mediterranean lands of the old Roman Empire.
Islam split into two groups. The Shia Muslims accepted only
descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam. Angered by the
favorable treatment given to Muslims of Arab background, the
Sunni Muslims accepted the Umayyads. This split endures
today. The Sunnis are the majority worldwide, but most of the
people of Iraq and Iran are Shia.
The Abbasid dynasty was established in 750 and built a new
capital at Baghdad. They allowed all Muslims, regardless of ethnic background, to hold civil and military offices. As the empire
prospered, the caliph’s bureaucracy grew more complex, and
viziers were appointed to assist the caliph with administering
the empire. There was much fighting, however, over the succession to the caliphate and non-Arabs began to dominate the
army and the bureaucracy. Eventually, they broke away from
central authority to establish independent dynasties.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Seljuk Turks and the Crusades; The Mongols
Why did the
Byzantine Empire
ask for the Crusades
to begin?
Chapter 6, Section 2
(pages 197–199)
A dynasty in Egypt, the Fatimids, became the center of
Islamic civilization. They hired nonnative soldiers such as the
Seljuk Turks who moved gradually into Iran and Armenia. In
1055 they captured Baghdad and took command of the empire.
Their leader was called a sultan. The Seljuk Turks now held
the real military and political power of the state. The Byzantine
emperor asked the Christian states of Europe for help against
the Turks. A series of crusades began in 1096. In 1169 Saladin
took control of Egypt and ended the Fatimid dynasty. He also
took control of Syria and fought the Christians there. In 1187
Saladin’s army invaded Jerusalem and destroyed the Christian
forces there. The Crusades caused centuries of mistrust between
Muslims and Christians.
The Mongols were a pastoral, horse-riding people. They
swept out of the Gobi in the early thirteenth century and seized
control over much of the known world. By 1227 the Mongol
Empire covered land from the Caspian Sea to the Sea of Japan
(East Sea). Eventually, they became involved in trade, converted
to Islam, and began to intermarry with local peoples.
65
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Who was the first caliph, or successor to Muhammad?
2. How did the Mongols act when they conquered a place?
I nformative
Explain how there came to be a difference between the Sunni and
the Shia.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
66
Chapter 6, Section 2
Chapter 6, Section 3
(Pages 200–203)
Islamic Civilization
Though Islamic teaching says that all people are equal under Allah, this
was not strictly the case in the Arab Empire. As your read, create a chart
like the one below to help you study. Compare the urban areas of the
Arab Empire to the more rural areas of the empire.
Urban areas
Rural areas
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Prosperity in the Islamic World
Why did the
cities grow and
prosper under the
Arab Empire?
Chapter 6, Section 3
(page 200)
The Arab Empire was prosperous. The Arabs carried on
extensive trade within the Islamic world and also as far away
as China, India, and Southeast Asia. Trade was carried by both
ship and camel caravans. Goods that came into the empire
included gold, slaves, silk, porcelain, ivory, sandalwood, and
spices. Goods flowing out included grain from Egypt; linens,
dates, and precious stones from Iraq; and textiles from western
India. The development of banking and the use of coins made
it easier to exchange goods.
Trade made the cities grow and prosper. Baghdad, Cairo,
and Damascus were all great cities during the Arab Empire.
They were also centers of administrative, cultural, and economic
activity. Islamic cities had palaces and mosques, and also public
buildings and bazaars. The bazaar was a covered market with
shops and services such as laundries and bathhouses. High
standards of cleanliness and quality were enforced by inspectors.
Despite the increase of trade, the majority of Arabs still
lived by farming or herding animals. At first, most of the farmland was owned by independent peasants. Later, wealthy
landowners began to put together large estates.
67
Islamic Society
What facts show that
men were dominant
in Muslim society?
Muslims believe that they should live their lives according
to Allah’s teachings as revealed in the Quran. Islamic teachings
cover politics, economics, and social life. According to Islam, all
people are equal in the eyes of Allah. During the Arab Empire,
however, a class system existed, with ruling families, government officials, and the wealthiest merchants at the top. Even
ordinary Muslim merchants enjoyed a greater degree of respect
that merchants in other parts of the world. There were also
slaves, though none were Muslims. Islamic law said that slaves
should be treated fairly.
The Quran granted women spiritual and social equality with
men. Women had the right to the fruits of their work and to
own and inherit property, but men were still dominant. Every
woman had a male guardian. Parents or guardians arranged
marriages for their children. The Quran allowed Muslim men to
have as many as four wives. Since they had to pay a dowry (a
gift of money or property) to their brides, however, most men
were unable to afford more than one wife. Under some circumstances, women had the right of divorce.
After the spread of Islam, older customs eroded the rights
enjoyed by early Muslim women. Some women were secluded
in their homes. The custom of requiring women to cover almost
all parts of their bodies when appearing in public was common
in cities and is still practiced today in many Islamic societies.
Today the rights and customs related to Islamic women are still
under debate.
Chapter 6, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
68
(page 202)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What were the three main trading centers in the Arab Empire?
2. What did Islamic law say about slaves?
Using information in the summaries and your imagination, describe
a city of the Arab Empire.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 6, Section 3
69
Chapter 6, Section 4
(Pages 204–207)
The Culture of Islam
Islamic achievements in philosophy, science, history, and the arts had an
important influence on European civilization. As you read, create a chart
like the one below to help you study. Identify the achievements of Islamic
civilization.
Achievements of Islam
Philosophy, Science, and History
70
During the Arab Empire, Arabs translated the works of Plato
and Aristotle into Arabic. These were read and studied by Muslim
scholars. One philosopher, Ibn-Rushd, wrote a commentary on
nearly all of Aristotle’s works. Plato’s and Aristotle’s works were
almost lost to Europeans, but in the twelfth century, the Arabic
translations were translated into Latin, which made them available to Europeans.
Islamic scholars also made great contributions in mathematics and science. The Muslims adopted and passed on the numerical system of India. A ninth-century Iranian mathematician
developed algebra. Muslims set up an observatory to study the
stars. They knew that Earth was round, and they named many
stars. They also perfected an instrument called the astrolabe,
which sailors used to determine their location by observing the
positions of stars and planets. The astrolabe made it possible for
Europeans to sail to the Americas. Muslim scholars developed
medicine as a field of scientific study. One scientist, Ibn Sıˉnaˉ,
wrote a medical encyclopedia that became a basic textbook in
medieval Europe. His work stressed the contagious nature of
some diseases. Islamic scholars also wrote history. The historian
ˉn believed that civilizations go through regular cycles
Ibn-Khaldu
of birth, growth, and decay.
Chapter 6, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did Muslim
scholars make
it possible for
Europeans to sail to
the Americas?
(page 204)
Literature; Art and Architecture
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How were the
Ruba
ˉ iyaˉt and
The 1001 Nights
the same?
Chapter 6, Section 4
(pages 206 and 207)
Islam brought major changes to the culture of Southwest
Asia, including its literature. One of the most familiar works
of Middle Eastern literature is the Rubaˉiyaˉt of Omar Khayyám.
Omar Khayyám was a twelfth-century poet, mathematician, and
astronomer. He composed his poetry orally, and it was recorded
later by scribes. Another famous work is The Thousand and
One Nights, also called The Arabian Nights’ Entertainments.
This is a collection of folktales, fables, and romances that blend
the natural and the supernatural. The earliest stories were told
orally and recorded later. The famous story of Aladdin and the
magic lamp was added in the eighteenth century.
Islamic art is a blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian traditions. Its best expression is in the magnificent Muslim mosques.
The largest mosque of its time, the Great Mosque of Saˉmarraˉ
in present-day Iraq, was built from 848 to 852. Its minaret, or
tower, is nearly 90 feet tall. From the minaret, the muezzin, or
crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day. The ninth-century mosque at Córdoba in southern Spain had hundreds of columns supporting double-horsehoe arches.
Because the Muslim religion unites spiritual and political
power, palaces also reflect the glory of Islam. Islamic castles
have a central courtyard surrounded by two-story arcades and
massive gate-towers. The castles had a gallery over the entrance
gate with holes through which boiling oil could be poured
down onto attackers. The finest example of an Islamic palace
is the Alhambra in Granada, Spain. Every inch of the castle’s
surface is decorated in floral and abstract patterns. Most decorations on Islamic art consist of Arabic letters, natural plants, and
abstract figures. These are repeated in geometric patterns called
arabesques. An early collection of Muhammad’s sayings warns
against imitating God by creating pictures of living beings.
Therefore, no representations of living figures appear in Islamic
religious art.
71
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What product from China helped to preserve knowledge?
2. How did Muslims influence medicine?
Descri pt
ptive
Using information from the text, describe Islamic architecture,
including its decorations.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
72
Chapter 6, Section 4
Chapter 7, Section 1
(Pages 236–239)
Development of African
Civilizations
The widely varied geography of Africa influenced its culture and trade. As
you read, create a chart showing how trade affected Kush and Axum.
Effects of Trade
Kush
Axum
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Impact of Geography
Africa is 40 percent
desert, 10 percent
rain forest, and
40 percent savanna,
where the rainfall
is unreliable.
What effect would
this have on food
production?
Chapter 7, Section 1
(page 236)
Africa includes several distinct geographical zones. The
northern edge is mountainous. South of the mountains lies the
largest desert on Earth, the Sahara. South of the Sahara lie a
number of major regions. In the west, the hump of Africa juts
like a shoulder into the Atlantic Ocean. Here the Sahara gradually gives way to grasslands and then tropical jungles. Much
of eastern Africa is grassland and populated by wild animals.
Farther to the south lies the Congo basin, with dense vegetation watered by the Congo River. Here tropical rain forests fade
gradually into hills, plateaus (high, flat land areas), and deserts.
Africa includes four distinct climate zones. Across the northern coast and the southern tip, there is a mild climate with
moderate rainfall and warm temperatures. Abundant crops can
support large populations. Deserts are another climate zone that
covers about 40 percent of Africa. The Sahara is in the north, and
the Kalahari is in the south. A third climate zone, the rain forest,
makes up about 10 percent of the continent along the equator.
Here heavy rains and warm temperatures produce dense forests.
North and south of the rain forest lay savannas, broad grasslands
that cover about 40 percent of Africa’s land area.
73
Emerging Civilizations and Religions
What advantage did
the Assyrians have
over the Kushites?
About 7,000 or 8,000 years ago, hunters and gatherers in
Africa began to tame animals and grow crops. Farming gave rise
to Africa’s first civilizations, including Egypt, Kush, and Axum.
By 2000 B.C., trade had arisen between Egypt and Nubia, to the
south. Nubia was under Egyptian control for many centuries,
but freed itself around 1000 B.C. and became the independent
state of Kush. In 750 B.C., Kush conquered Egypt. However, the
Kushites were still using bronze and stone weapons. Soon, they
were overwhelmed by the Assyrians, who used iron spears and
swords. The Kushites returned to the original lands in the upper
Nile valley.
The economy of Kush was first based on farming. It soon
became a major trading state, providing iron products, ivory,
gold, ebony, and slaves. In return, it received luxury goods
including jewelry and silver lamps. It seems likely that Kushite
society was mostly urban, with material prosperity relatively
widespread.
Kush flourished from about 250 B.C. to about A.D. 150,
but declined because of the rise of Axum. Located in presentday Ethiopia, Axum was founded by Arabs from the Arabian
Peninsula. Axum combined Arab and African cultures. It was
located along the Red Sea, on the trade route between India
and the Mediterranean Sea. It exported ivory, frankincense,
myrrh, and slaves. It imported textiles, metal goods, wine, and
olive oil. Probably as part of competing for ivory, Axum conquered Kush in the fourth century A.D. In A.D. 330, King Ezana
converted to Christianity and made it Axum’s official religion.
Islam arose from the Arabian Peninsula. By the early 700s,
Arabs ruled North Africa’s coast, and there were Muslim states
along the Red Sea. Their relationship with Christian Axum was
relatively peaceful. However, the trade in slaves and ivory eventually brought conflict.
Chapter 7, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
74
(page 238)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Which climate zone covers almost 40 percent of the African continent?
2. What products did Axum trade?
Trace the development of the Kush and Axum civilizations from their
beginnings to the rise of conflict with the Muslim states.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 7, Section 1
75
Chapter 7, Section 2
(Pages 242–249)
Kingdoms and States of Africa
The power of trade enabled the kingdoms and states of Africa to protect
their people and to prosper. As you read, create a chart like the one below
describing the rulers, government, and economy of each kingdom.
Ghana
Mali
The Kingdom of Ghana
76
(page 242)
Ghana, the first great trading state in West Africa, emerged
as early as A.D. 500. It was located in the upper Niger River valley. This is not the same location as the present-day nation of
Ghana. The kings of Ghana were strong rulers who governed
without laws. Their wealth was vast. They had a well-trained
regular army of thousands of men. The people of Ghana lived
from farming and also possessed both iron and gold. The blacksmiths of Ghana were very skilled at turning iron into tools
and weapons. Ghana’s gold made it the center of an enormous
trade empire. Muslim merchants from North Africa exchanged
metal goods, textiles, horses, and salt for Ghanian gold. Salt
was highly prized because it was used to preserve food as well
as improve food’s taste. Also, it was needed by the body to
replace what was lost in the hot climate. Other Ghanian exports
included ivory, hides, and slaves. Much of the trade across the
desert was carried by the Berbers, nomadic peoples with camel
caravans. Camels were an important factor in trade across the
Sahara since they were well-adapted to desert conditions. The
trading merchants and kings of Ghana often became wealthy.
The kings imposed taxes on goods entering or leaving the kingdom. By the eighth and ninth centuries, however, much of this
trade was carried by Muslim merchants, who bought the goods
from local traders and then sold them to the Berbers.
Chapter 7, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why was salt
valued prized by
the Ghanians?
Songhai
The Kingdom of Mali; The Kingdom of Songhai
What opinion of
Mali did people
most likely get who
witnessed Mansa
Musa’s pilgrimage
to Makkah?
A number of new trading states arose in West Africa. Mali
was established in the mid-thirteenth by Sundiata Keita and
grew wealthy on the gold and salt trade. One of Mali’s richest and most powerful kings was Mansa Muˉsaˉ, who ruled from
1312 to 1337. He created a strong central government and
divided the kingdom into provinces ruled by governors he
appointed. Since he was a Muslim, he went on a pilgrimage to
Makkah. He took thousands of servants and soldiers with him
and spent and gave away much gold along the way. He was
inspired to make Timbuktu one of the intellectual capitals of
the Muslim world.
Songhai was situated along the Niger River which floods, providing rich soil for crops. Under the leadership of Sunni Ali, the
Songhai began to expand. Ali united rural and city dwellers under a
single government. Muhammad Ture expanded Songhai thousands
of miles along the Niger River.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Societies in East Africa; Societies in South Africa
What knowledge
did the Bantu
people spread
through Africa?
Chapter 7, Section 2
(pages 244 and 245)
(pages 247 and 249)
East Africa featured many states whose communities were
based on subsistence farming, which means growing crops
for personal use, not for sale. These Bantu-speaking peoples
spread iron-smelting techniques and knowledge of high-yield
crops such as yams and bananas across Africa. Following the
rise of Islam, the eastern coast of Africa became an important part of the trading network along the Indian Ocean. Arab
traders founded wealthy trading ports such as Mogadishu,
Mombasa, and Kilwa. As time passed, a mixed African-Arabian
culture known as Swahili emerged throughout the coastal area.
Intermarriage was common, and Muslim religion and Arabic
architectural styles became part of a largely African society.
In the southern half of the African continent most people in
the region lived in stateless societies—groups of independent
villages led by a local ruler. Beginning in the eleventh century,
some of the villages gradually united. From about 1300 to 1450,
Zimbabwe was the wealthiest and most powerful state in the
region. It prospered from the gold trade.
77
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What were the most important trade goods in early Africa?
2. What were three trading ports established by Arab traders?
Exposi tory
Summarize the influence of gold on the growth of African kingdoms.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
78
Chapter 7, Section 2
Chapter 7, Section 3
(Pages 250–255)
African Society and Culture
African society was centered on village and family life, with distinct religious beliefs and a rich culture. As you read this section, use the chart
below to compare and contrast the duties and rights of women and men
in African society.
Duties
Rights
Women
Men
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Aspects of African Society
Why was the lineage
group important?
Chapter 7, Section 3
(page 250)
In Africa the king had a closer relationship to his people than
Asian kings did. Frequently, rulers held audiences to let people
voice their complaints. Most people lived in small villages in the
countryside. Their sense of identity came from their community
of extended family units, or lineage group. Lineage groups were
the basic building blocks of African society. All members of a
lineage group could claim descent from a real or legendary common ancestor. Many African societies were matrilineal, where
family lineage, or descent, is traced through the mother, rather
than patrilineal, in which descent is traced through the father.
The elders of the group had much power over others, and the
group provided support for members. Women were usually subordinate to men. In some cases, they were valued for the work
they could do or for their role in having children. Women often
worked in the fields while the men tended the cattle or hunted.
In typical African villages, children were educated by their
mothers until the age of six. Then the boys’ education was taken
over by their fathers. Boys learned how to hunt and fish, how to
grow plants, and how to clear the fields. Girls learned how to care
for the home and work in the fields, and how to be good wives
and mothers. Both were taught how to take part in the community.
Slavery was practiced in Africa from ancient times. Slaves
included people captured in war, debtors, and some criminals. Some
were respected and trusted, but life for most slaves was difficult.
79
Religious Beliefs
What religious belief
did many African
slaves bring to the
Americas?
The Yoruba peoples in Nigeria believed that their chief god
was sent down from heaven to create the first humans. The
Yoruban religion was practiced by many of the slaves transported to the Americas. Sometimes the creator god was joined
by a whole group of lesser gods. The Ashanti people of Ghana
believed in a supreme being whose sons were lesser gods. One
way to communicate with the Ashanti gods was through rituals.
These were usually carried out by a special class of diviners,
people who believe that they have the power to foretell events.
African religion also emphasized the importance of ancestors.
Each lineage group could trace itself back to a founding ancestor
or group of ancestors. Ritual ceremonies were dedicated to ancestors, who were believed to be closer to the gods.
African religious beliefs were challenged by the arrival of
Islam. By the end of the fifteenth century, much of the population south of the Sahara had accepted Islam. The process
was even more gradual in East Africa, and Ethiopia remained
Christian. Islam rejected spirit worship, which ran counter to
the beliefs of many Africans. Islam also insisted on distinct roles
for men and women, while African relationships were more
informal. Imported ideas were combined with native beliefs to
create a unique Africanized Islam.
80
(page 255)
In early Africa, the arts were a means of serving religion.
Throughout Africa, wood-carvers made carvings that often represented gods, spirits, or ancestral figures. Terra-cotta and metal
figurines were also created.
African music and dance also served a religious purpose.
African dancing was a way to communicate with the spirits.
African dance had a strong rhythmic beat and influenced modern Western music. African music also was used to pass on history, folk legends, and religious traditions. The same was true of
storytelling, which was practiced by a special class of storytellers called griots.
Chapter 7, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
African Culture
What question might
be asked about the
influence of African
dance on modern
Western music?
(page 253)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What were the basic building blocks of African society?
2. Who carried out religious rituals in African culture?
Using information from the summaries, describe African religions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 7, Section 3
81
Chapter 8, Section 1
(Pages 264–269)
China Reunified
After centuries of chaos and civil war, three dynasties unified China, bringing peace, stability, and technological progress. As you read, create three
charts like the one shown below to help you study. Summarize the three
periods, the most important rulers, and the reasons for decline of the Sui,
Tang, and Song dynasties.
Sui dynasty
Three Dynasties
82
The Tang dynasty followed the Sui dynasty that reunified
China. The Tang lasted from 618 to 907. The early Tang rulers
restored the civil service examination from earlier times as the
chief method of recruiting members of the bureaucracy. The
exam covered Confucian principles and was very difficult. After
many years of study, only about one in five students passed
the exam and received a position in the civil service. Tang rulers brought peace to northwestern China and expanded their
control to the borders of Tibet. The imperial court also set up
trade and diplomatic relations with the states of Southeast Asia.
Eventually, internal plotting and government corruption weakened the Tang dynasty.
In 960 the Song dynasty rose to power. It ruled from 960 to
1279, a period of economic prosperity and cultural achievement.
The Song could never overcome the invaders from the north.
Within 70 years, the invading Mongols controlled all of China.
Chapter 8, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How difficult was
the Chinese civil
service examination
in comparison to
your yearly tests?
(page 264)
Government and Economy
Why had trade
declined prior to
the Tang dynasty?
It was 700 years from the beginning of the Sui dynasty to
the end of the Song dynasty. During this time, a mature political system emerged. It was based on principles first used during
the Qin and Han dynasties.
The Chinese economy grew in size and complexity. The
Song government weakened the power of the large landholders and helped poor peasants get their own land. These reforms
and improved farming techniques led to an abundance of food.
During the Tang dynasty, the Chinese began making steel,
introduced cotton, and invented gunpowder.
Under the Tang dynasty, with unification of much of
Southwest Asia under the Arabs, the Silk Road thrived again.
The Chinese exported tea, silk, and porcelain to the countries
beyond the South China Sea. In return, they received exotic
woods, precious stones, and various tropical goods.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chinese Society
Why was the Empress
Wu unusual?
Chapter 8, Section 1
(page 267)
(page 269)
For the rich city dwellers in China, life during the Tang and
Song dynasties was pleasant. Most people still lived in villages,
making their living by farming. However, where there had once
been a huge gap between wealthy landowners and poor peasants, a more complex mixture of landowners, free peasants,
sharecroppers, and landless laborers came to be. A new class,
the scholar-gentry, replaced the old landed aristocracy. They
controlled much of the land and also produced the most civil
servants. They became the political and economic elite in China.
Few Chinese women had any power. An exception was Wu
Zhao, known as the Empress Wu. She was the concubine of the
second Tang emperor and then became empress, ruling for half
a century.
Female children were considered less desirable than male
children, so female infants might be killed during times of famine. A girl’s parents were expected to provide a dowry—money,
goods, or property—to her husband when she married. Poor
families often sold their daughters to wealthy villagers.
83
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What reforms were instituted by the Tang rulers?
2. Why did the Song rulers move the capital south?
Exposi tory
Explain how women were treated in China during the Tang
and Song dynasties.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
84
Chapter 8, Section 1
Chapter 8, Section 2
(Pages 270–275)
The Mongols and China
Shifts in religious belief caused major changes in the organization of
Chinese society, which were intensified when the Mongol Empire conquered China. As you read, use a chart like the one below to help you
study how the Mongols acquired the world’s largest land empire.
Causes
Effect
World’s
Largest Land
Empire
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Mongols
Why did the Mongol
dynasty weaken?
Chapter 8, Section 2
(page 270)
The Mongols were a pastoral people from the region of
present-day Mongolia. They were gradually unified under
the man who became Genghis Khan. When he died, his large
empire was divided into separate territories called khanates,
each ruled by one of his sons. In 1231 the Mongols attacked
Persia. They defeated the Abbasids at Baghdad in 1258. Mongol
forces attacked the Song dynasty in China in the 1260s. Here
they encountered gunpowder and the fire-lance. By the end of
the thirteenth century, the Chinese fire-lance had evolved into the
gun and the cannon.
In 1279 one of Genghis Khan’s grandsons, Kublai Khan,
completed the conquest of the Song and established a new
dynasty, the Yuan. Kublai Khan ruled China until his death in
1294. He established his capital at Khanbalik, which later was
known as Beijing. Under Kublai Khan, the Mongols brought
stability and economic prosperity. The Mongols usually took
the highest positions in the bureaucracy and became a separate
class. The Mongol dynasty, however, had the common problems
of over spending on foreign conquests, corruption at court, and
growing internal instability. In 1368 Zhu Yuanzhang ended the
Mongol dynasty and set up a new dynasty—the Ming.
85
Religion and Government
How was
neo-Confucianism
different from
Buddhism?
(page 273)
Confucian principles became the basis for Chinese government during the Han dynasty (202 B.C.–A.D. 220). By the time of
the Sui and Tang dynasties, Buddhism and Daoism rivaled the
influence of Confucianism. During the Song dynasty, Confucian
ideas reemerged in a new form.
Buddhism was brought to China in the first century A.D. by
merchants and missionaries from India. As a result of the insecurity that existed after the collapse of the Han dynasty, both
Buddhism and Daoism became more attractive to many people.
Buddhism’s growing popularity continued into the early years
of the Tang dynasty.
From the Song dynasty to the end of the dynastic system
in the twentieth century, official support went to a revived
Confucianism. This new doctrine, called neo-Confucianism, was
a response to Buddhism and Daoism. It teaches that the world
is real, not an illusion and that fulfillment comes from participation in the world. Neo-Confucianists divide the world into a
material world and a spiritual world. To reach beyond the material world and unite with the Supreme Ultimate, humans must
make a careful examination of the moral principles that rule
the universe.
How did the
invention of
printing help make
the period from the
Tang dynasty to
the Ming dynasty
a great age in
Chinese literature?
86
(page 274)
The period from the Tang dynasty to the Ming dynasty was
a great age in Chinese literature. The invention of printing during the Tang dynasty made literature more available and popular. The Tang dynasty is viewed as the great age of poetry in
China. At least 48,000 poems were written by 2,200 authors.
During the Song and Mongol dynasties, landscape painting
reached its high point. Daoism influenced Chinese artists. They
went into the mountains to paint and find the Dao, or Way, in
nature. Rather than depicting a realistic mountain, for example,
they tried to portray the idea of “mountain.” Daoism also influenced how people were portrayed. Chinese artists painted people as tiny figures, because people were viewed as insignificant
in the midst of nature. Ceramics were also an important Chinese
art form. Tang artisans perfected the making of porcelain.
Porcelain is a ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high
temperatures. Porcelain-making techniques did not reach
Europe until the eighteenth century.
Chapter 8, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Golden Age in Literature and Art
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What inventions did the Mongols learn about from the Chinese?
2. How was Buddhism introduced to China?
Using information from the text and your imagination, describe your
vision of a Chinese painting done by a Daoist artist.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 8, Section 2
87
Chapter 8, Section 3
(Pages 278–283)
Early Japan and Korea
The geography of Japan, a string of islands, and of Korea, a peninsula bordering China, have had huge impacts on their respective histories. As you
read, create a chart like the one below to help you study which elements
of Chinese culture were adopted by Korea and Japan.
Chinese Culture in . . .
Japan
Korea
Early Japan
88
In the early 600s, a Yamato prince, Shoˉtoku Taishi, wanted
to resist invasion by the Chinese. He sent representatives to the
Tang capital in China to learn how the Chinese organized their
government. He then created a centralized system of government
in Japan, based on the Chinese model. After Shoˉtoku Taishi’s
death in 622, a new class of military servants called the samurai
(“those who served”) emerged. Samurai resembled the knights
of medieval Europe and lived by a strict warrior code known as
bushido (“the way of the warrior”). By the end of the 1100s, civil
war was constant. Finally, a powerful noble named Minamoto
Yoritomo defeated several rivals and set up a government near
modern-day Tokyo. The central government was under a military leader called a shogun (general). Under the shogunate, the
emperor ruled in name only, while the shogun had all the real
power. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the power
of local aristocrats grew. Heads of families were called daimyo
(“great names”). They controlled vast estates that owed no taxes
to the government. The daimyo relied on the samurai for protection. A disastrous civil war called the Onin War lasted from 1467
to 1477 and nearly destroyed the capital city of Kyo
ˉ to. Central
authority disappeared.
Chapter 8, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How much power
did the emperor
have under
the shogunate?
(page 278)
Life in Early Japan
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What did Japanese
women have to
do to avoid
being divorced?
(page 281)
Early Japan was mostly a farming society, growing rice in
flooded fields. Foreign trade, mainly with Korea and China,
began during the eleventh century. Japan shipped raw materials,
paintings, swords, and other manufactured items in exchange
for silk, porcelain, books, and copper coins.
In early Japan, women may have had a certain level of
equality with men. An eighth-century law guaranteed the inheritance rights of women, but later practices show women as
subordinate to men. A husband could divorce his wife if she
did not produce a son, or if she committed adultery, talked
too much, was jealous, or had a serious illness. Still, some aristocratic women were prominent at court, and some women
became known for their artistic and literary talents.
Early Japanese people worshipped spirits, called kami, whom
they believed lived in trees, rivers, streams, and mountains. The
Japanese also believed that the spirits of their ancestors were
present in the air around them. These beliefs evolved into a religion called Shinto (“the Sacred Way” or the Way of the God’s),
which is still practiced today. Some Japanese turned to Buddhism,
which was brought by Buddhist monks from China. One sect,
known as Zen, became the most popular. Zen Buddhism thought
that enlightenment comes through self-discipline and meditation.
The Emergence of Korea
Which Korean
dynasty lasted
the longest?
Chapter 8, Section 3
(page 283)
In 109 B.C. the northern part of Korea came under the control of the Chinese. The Koreans drove them out in the A.D.
200s. Three separate kingdoms emerged: Koguryo in the north,
Paekche in the southwest, and Silla in the southeast. These
kingdoms were governed by powerful aristocratic families and
a hereditary monarch. Silla eventually gained control, but after
the king of Silla was assassinated, there was civil war. In the
early 900s, a new dynasty called the Koryo arose in the north.
It adopted Chinese political institutions and kept power for 400
years.
In the thirteenth century, the Mongols seized the northern
part of Korea. By accepting Mongol authority, the Koryo dynasty
managed to remain in power. After the collapse of the Mongol
dynasty in China, the Koryo dynasty broke down. In 1392 Yi
Soˉng-gye, a military commander, founded the Yi dynasty. The Yi
ruled Korea for more than 500 years.
89
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What kept the Mongols from conquering Japan?
2. Why did the Japanese send representatives to the Tang court?
Exposi tory
Briefly summarize how China influenced Japan and Korea.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
90
Chapter 8, Section 3
Chapter 8, Section 4
(Pages 284–289)
India After the Guptas
When Islamic peoples conquered much of India, tension arose between
the Muslim rulers and the majority Hindu population. As you read, use a
chart like the one below to help you study the main differences between
Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.
Buddhism
Theravada
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Impact of Religion
Why were the
Rajputs unsuccessful
at resisting Mahmud
of Ghazna?
Chapter 8, Section 4
Mahayana
(page 284)
Buddhism was widely accepted in India for hundreds
of years. The school of Theravada Buddhism taught that
Buddhism was a way of life, not a religion aimed at individual
salvation. Mahayana Buddhism taught that Buddhism was a
religion, and that the Buddha was a divine figure. In the early
700s, Islam became popular in the northwestern corner of the
Indian subcontinent. Islam’s impact is still evident today in the
division of the subcontinent into mostly Hindu India and two
Islamic states—Pakistan and Bangladesh.
In the early 700s, Arab armies moved into the frontier regions. Then at the end of the 900s, rebellious Turkish
slaves founded a new Islamic state, Ghazna, in present-day
Afghanistan. The son of the founder, Mahmuˉd of Ghazna,
attacked neighboring Hindu kingdoms, extending his rule as
far south as the Indian Ocean. Hindu warriors called Rajputs
resisted these advances, but their military tactics, based on the
use of elephants, failed. By 1200, Muslims had created the sultanate of Delhi. When the sultanate of Delhi declined, Timur
Lenk, the Muslim ruler of a state based in Samarqand, attacked.
During the 1380s, Timur Lenk took over Mesopotamia and the
region east of the Caspian Sea.
91
Indian Society and Culture
Why did internal
trade decline at
this time?
The Muslim rulers in India maintained a strict separation
between themselves as the ruling class and the mass of the
Hindu population. There was tension, suspicion, and dislike, but
daily life went on. Between 500 and 1500, most Indians lived
on the land and farmed their own tiny plots. In theory, the king
owned all land in his state, and the peasants paid taxes through
the landlord. Many people also lived in cities. Some rulers were
fabulously wealthy.
Internal trade declined at this time because of fighting
between the states. Foreign trade remained high, especially on
the coasts.
Indian artists and writers made innovations in all fields of
creative endeavor. Religious architecture developed from caves
to new, magnificent structures. Monumental Hindu temples
were built. They consisted of a central shrine surrounded by a
tower, a hall for worshipers, an entryway, and a porch, all set
in a rectangular courtyard. Temples grew more ornate and complex, and towers grew higher. At Khajuraho, examples of temple
art are still found today.
The use of prose in fiction was established in India by the
sixth century, far earlier than in Japan or Europe. A great master
of Sanskrit prose was Dandin, who wrote in the seventh century. In The Adventures of the Ten Princes, he tells the story of
10 princes as they search for love and power. He combined a
realistic portrayal of human behavior with supernatural occurrences. His writing was full of observation, details of everyday
life, and humor.
Chapter 8, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
92
(page 287)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How is the impact of Islam still visible today?
2. Describe Dandin’s style of Sanskrit prose.
Using information from the summary and your imagination, describe
the relationship between the Muslims and the Hindus in India from
about 500 to 1500.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 8, Section 4
93
Chapter 8, Section 5
(Pages 290–295)
Civilization in Southeast Asia
The mountains, river valleys, and islands of Southeast Asia had a major
effect on its political, cultural, and economic development. As you read,
create a chart like the one below to help you study characteristics of the
states in Southeast Asia.
Government
Economy
Culture
Vietnam
Angkor
Thailand
Burma
Malay
The Formation of States
94
Between India and China lies the region known as
Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia contains a vast mixture of
races, cultures, and religions because it has several mountain
ranges that are densely forested, separating mountain people
from those in the river valleys. Geographical barriers also
explain why Southeast Asia was never unified under a single
government.
Vietnam was one of the first states to develop. It was conquered by China but clung to its own identity and finally drove
the Chinese out. In the ninth century, the kingdom of Angkor
arose in present-day Cambodia. When the Thai peoples arrived
in the 1300s, Angkor began to decline.
The Thai eventually destroying the Angkor capital, set up
their own capital on the Chao Phraya River and remained a
force in the region for the next 400 years.
Two organized states emerged on the Malay Peninsula and
Indonesian archipelago (chain of islands). The state of Srivijaya
depended on the trade route passing through the Strait of
Malacca. The kingdom of Sailendra was based on farming.
Around 1400, an Islamic state began to form in Melaka. It
soon became a major trading port.
Chapter 8, Section 5
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why was Southeast
Asia never unified
under a single
government?
(page 290)
Daily Life in Southeast Asia
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Who bought spices
from Southeast Asia?
Chapter 8, Section 5
(page 294)
In Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Angkor, Pagan, and Sailendra,
there were agricultural societies, drawing most of their wealth
from farming. Srivijaya and the Sultanate of Melaka were
trading societies, depending primarily on trade for income.
Trade grew with the emergence of states and grew further
after the Muslim conquest of northern India. Increase in the
demand for spices was part of the growing volume of trade.
Merchant fleets from India and the Arabian Peninsula sailed to
the Indonesian islands to buy cloves, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, and precious woods such as teak and sandalwood to sell
to the Chinese and the Europeans.
Society in Southeast Asia had an upper class of hereditary
aristocrats who held both political power and economic wealth.
Most of the aristocrats lived in the cities. Outside the cities lived
farmers, fishers, artisans, and merchants. The majority of people
were probably rice farmers who lived at a bare level of subsistence and paid heavy rents or taxes. Most societies of Southeast
Asia gave greater rights to women than did China and India.
Chinese culture made an impact on Vietnam. In many
other areas, Indian cultural influence prevailed. Architecture
shows this influence. The temple of Angkor Wat is a huge
structure that combines Indian architectural techniques with
native inspiration.
Hindu and Buddhist ideas moved into Southeast Asia and
blended with old beliefs. Theravada Buddhism eventually
became the religion of the masses. It was appealing because it
taught that people can seek nirvana through their own efforts
and without priests and rulers. Also, it tolerated local gods and
posed no threat to established faith.
95
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Which states in Southeast Asia were trading societies?
2. Which Southeast Asian state was influenced by Chinese culture?
I nformative
Choose one of the states and trace its rise.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
96
Chapter 8, Section 5
Chapter 9, Section 1
(Pages 302–307)
Transforming the
Roman World
The new European civilization combined Germanic, Roman, and Christian elements. Create a diagram like the one below to list the reasons why monasticism was an important factor in the development of European civilization.
The Importance
of Monasticism
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The New Germanic Kingdoms
Why could crimes
result in feuds among
Germanic peoples?
Chapter 9, Section 1
(page 302)
The Germanic peoples had begun to move into the lands
of the Roman Empire by the third century. Roman influence
was even weaker in Britain, where the Angles and the Saxons,
Germanic tribes from Denmark and northern Germany, moved in.
The only German state on the continent that lasted was the kingdom of the Franks in present-day France. It was established by
Clovis. Clovis’s conversion to Christianity won him the support of
the Roman Catholic Church, as the Christian church in Rome was
now called. After Clovis’s death, his sons divided the kingdom
among themselves.
Germans and Romans intermarried, and some German customs became important. The Romans had regarded crimes as
offenses against the state or society. Germanic peoples regarded
crimes as personal offenses against the family. This meant that
crimes could result in feuds. To avoid this, a system based on a
fine called wergild developed. Wergild (“money for a man’) was
the amount paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he
or she had hurt or killed and Wergild was the value of a person
in money. One way to determine guilt was the ordeal. It was
believed that divine forces would not allow an innocent person
to be harmed during physical trials.
97
The Role of the Church
How did the
monastic movement
contribute to the
power of the popes?
98
(page 306)
During the 600s and 700s, the Frankish kings gradually lost
their power to the chief officers of the king’s household. One of
them, Pepin, finally took the kingship for himself. Pepin’s son,
Charles, became king when Pepin died. He is known as Charles
the Great, or Charlemagne. Charlemagne ruled from 768 to 814,
during which time he greatly expanded the Frankish kingdom
and created the Carolingian Empire. In 800 Charlemagne was
crowned the emperor of the Romans.
Charlemagne supported an intellectual revival sometimes
called the Carolingian Renaissance. The monasteries played a
central role in this renewal. By the 800s, Benedictine monks
were copying Greek and Roman manuscripts as part of their
work. Their work was a crucial factor in the preservation of the
ancient legacy.
Chapter 9, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
By the end of the fourth century, Christianity was the
supreme religion of the Roman Empire. Priests led local communities, or parishes. These parishes were grouped into bishoprics,
headed by bishops. The bishoprics were joined together under
an archbishop. The bishop of Rome began to claim that he was
the leader of the entire Roman Catholic Church. The bishops of
Rome became known as popes, from the Latin word for “father.”
Gregory I, pope from 590 to 604, was also the leader of the city
of Rome and surrounding territories. This gave him a source of
political power. He increased his spiritual authority by converting non-Christian peoples of Germanic Europe to Christianity
through the monastic movement.
A monk is a man who separates himself from ordinary
human society to pursue a life of total dedication to God.
The practice of living as a monk is called monasticism. Saint
Benedict founded a community of monks who followed a set of
rules he wrote. Benedict’s rule divided each day into activities,
mainly prayer and manual labor. Benedictine monks led communal lives, eating, working, sleeping, and worshipping together.
Each monastery owned land that made it self-sustaining, and
each monk took a vow of poverty. Monks were also the social
workers of their communities, providing schools, hospitality for
travelers, and hospitals. Monasteries became centers of learning, and many monks served as missionaries, people sent out
to carry a religious message. Women also embraced monasticism
and were called nuns. They lived in convents led by abbesses.
The Carolingian Empire
What is a question
that could be
asked about the
Carolingian
Renaissance?
(page 304)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How was the Christian church organized?
2. What was wergild?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Do you think Charlemagne deserved the title of “the Great”?
Explain why or why not.
Chapter 9, Section 1
99
Chapter 9, Section 2
(Pages 308–313)
Feudalism
The collapse of central authority in Europe led to a new political system
known as feudalism. Use a diagram like the one below to show the system
of loyalties created under feudalism.
Rulers
Religious Realm
Political Realm
The End of the Carolingian Empire
100
The Carolingian Empire began to fall apart soon after
Charlemagne’s death in 814. It was divided into the west
Frankish lands, the eastern Frankish lands, and the Middle
Kingdom. Local nobles gained power while the rulers fought
one another.
In the ninth and tenth centuries, western Europe was
invaded. The Muslims attacked the southern coasts of Europe
and raided into southern France. The Magyars, from western
Asia, settled on the plains of Hungary and invaded western
Europe. The most far-reaching attacks came from the Northmen
or Norsemen of Scandinavia, called the Vikings. The Vikings
were fierce warriors who sacked villages and towns, destroyed
churches, and defeated small local armies. They built superb
ships that enabled them to sail up European rivers and attack
places far inland. By the mid-ninth century, the Vikings had
begun to build settlements. Beginning in 911, the ruler of the
west Frankish lands gave a band of Vikings land at the mouth
of the Seine River, forming a section of France known as
Normandy. The Frankish policy of settling the Vikings and converting them to Christianity was deliberately done to make the
Vikings part of European civilization.
Chapter 9, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Was the Frankish
policy of settling
the Vikings and
converting them to
Christianity useful?
Why or Why not?
(page 308)
The Development of Feudalism
How did larger
horses and the
use of stirrups
affect warfare?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Feudal Society
How did the fact
that noblemen were
frequently at war
affect the position
of women?
Chapter 9, Section 2
(page 310)
A new political and social system called feudalism developed to help rulers protect their lands from invasion. In
Germanic society, warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their
leaders and fought for them. The leaders, in turn, took care of
the warriors’ needs. This was known as vassalage, and a man
who served a lord in a military capacity was known as a vassal.
By the eighth century, larger horses and the stirrup were
being used by horsemen. The horsemen could now wear heavy
armor and use long lances. These horsemen were called knights,
and a group of them was called cavalry. When lords wanted
men to fight for them, they took the men as vassals. The lord
granted the vassal a piece of land, later known as a fief, to support the vassal and his family.
Feudalism became complicated. Great lords were vassals to
the king, and, in turn, had vassals of their own, who also had
vassal. Thus, both greater and lesser landowners were bound
together. There was a set of unwritten rules known as the feudal contract. The vassal had to perform military service for his
lord, had to appear at court when summoned, and had to make
payments at certain events.
(page 311)
Feudal society was built around a culture of warfare. Young
knights trained for war in tournaments. In the eleventh and
twelfth centuries, under the influence of the Catholic Church,
an ideal of civilized behavior developed called chivalry, a code
of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold. In addition to
their oath to defend the Church and defenseless people, knights
were expected to treat captives as honored guests. Chivalry
also implied that knights should fight only for glory and not for
material rewards, an ideal that was not always followed.
Because the lord was often away at war or at court, the
lady of the castle had to manage the estate. Households could
include large numbers of people who had to be fed and supplied, so this was no small task. Women were expected to be
subservient to their husbands, but there were many strong
women who advised their husbands.
101
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What peoples invaded Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries?
2. What kinds of behavior did the code of chivalry expect from knights?
I nformative
Using information from the text and your imagination, explain why
a man would choose to be a vassal.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
102
Chapter 9, Section 2
Chapter 9, Section 3
(Pages 316–321)
The Growth of
European Kingdoms
During the Middle Ages, monarchs began to extend their power and build
strong states. Use a chart like the one below to show the main reasons
why eastern Slavs developed from western Europe.
Causes
Effect
Cultural
Development of
Eastern Slavs
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
England in the Middle Ages
Why did the French
and Anglo-Saxon
languages merge?
Chapter 9, Section 3
(page 316)
King Alfred the Great had united various kingdoms in
England into one in the late ninth century, and thereafter,
England was ruled by Anglo-Saxon kings. In 1066 William of
Normandy defeated King Harold and his army and was crowned
king of England. The Norman ruling class spoke French but
intermarried with the Anglo-Saxon nobility. This merged the two
languages into a new English language. The Normans also used
some Anglo-Saxon institutions.
Henry II increased the number of cases tried in the king’s
court, thus expanding the king’s power. Since royal courts came
to be found throughout England, a body of common law—law
common to the whole kingdom—was developed. Many English
nobles resented the growth of the king’s power. In 1215,
John was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, or Great
Charter. This was a document of rights that gave written recognition to the idea that the relationship between king and vassals was based on mutual rights and obligations. The English
Parliament—an important institution in the development of
representative government—emerged in the thirteenth century
during the reign of Edward I.
103
France in the Middle Ages
Why did the early
Capetian kings have
so little real power?
(page 319)
In 843 the Carolingian Empire was divided into three major
sections. The west Frankish lands, formed the eventual kingdom
of France. After the death of the last Carolingian king, the west
Frankish nobles chose Hugh Capet as the new king. The early
Capetians had little real power. They only controlled the land
around Paris, known as the Île-de-France.
The reign of Philip II Augustus, from 1180 to 1223, was a
turning point. Philip waged war against the rulers of England,
who also ruled the French territories of Normandy, Maine,
Anjou, and Aquitaine. Philip won control of most of these territories, expanding both the income and the power of the French
monarchy. Later, Capetian rulers continued the expansion.
By 1300 France was the largest and best-governed kingdom
in Europe. Philip IV started the French parliament by meeting
with representatives of the three estates, or classes. These were
the first estate, made up of the clergy, the second estate, made
up of nobles, and the third estate, the peasants and townspeople. The first meeting in 1302 began the Estates-General.
The Holy Roman Empire;
Central and Eastern Europe
104
In the tenth century, the dukes of the Saxons became kings
of the eastern Frankish kingdom, which came to be known as
Germany. The pope crowned Otto I emperor of the Romans in
962. This was the creation of the new Roman Empire, in the
hands of the Germans. Frederick I and Frederick II tried to
conquer Italy. They were defeated by the pope and an alliance
of northern Italian cities. The struggle left the German monarchy weak, and the German Holy Roman Empire had no real
power in either Germany or Italy. Neither Germany nor Italy
created a unified state until the nineteenth century.
Gradually, the Slavic people divided into three major
groups. The western Slavs formed the Polish and Bohemian
kingdoms. The Czechs lived in Bohemia. The eastern Slavic
people lived in Moravia.
Vikings moved into the eastern Slavic lands of Ukraine and
Russia. The native peoples, called the Viking rulers the Rus, from
which the name Russia is derived. In the thirteenth century, the
Mongols conquered Russia. One Russian prince, Alexander Nevsky,
defeated a German invading army. Nevsky was rewarded with the
title of grand-prince. His descendants became princes of Moscow
and eventually leaders of all Russia.
Chapter 9, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did the actions
of Frederick I and
Frederick II keep
Germany from
forming a
unified state?
(pages 319 and 320)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What were the three estates in France?
2. What two religions did the Slavic peoples accept?
Using information from the text, trace the development of the state
of Russia.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 9, Section 3
105
Chapter 9, Section 4
(Pages 322–327)
Byzantine Empire and
the Crusades
The Byzantine Empire created a unique civilization that was eventually
weakened by the Crusades. As you read, use a diagram like the one below
to help you study why a powerful Byzantine Empire developed.
Causes
Effect
Powerful Byzantine Empire
Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire
106
Justinian became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in
527. Justinian’s most important contribution was his codification
of Roman law. It became the basis for much of the legal system
of Europe.
By the beginning of the eighth century, the Eastern Roman
Empire consisted only of the eastern Balkans and Asia Minor.
This was called the Byzantine Empire, and it lasted until 1453.
The church of the Byzantine Empire became known as the
Eastern Orthodox Church.
Constantinople, the capital, was dominated by an immense
palace complex, hundreds of churches, including the Hagia
Sophia, and a huge arena called the Hippodrome, where gladiator fights and chariot races were held. Until the twelfth century,
Constantinople was the chief center for the exchange of products between West and East.
Chapter 9, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What were two things
that the people of
Constantinople did
for entertainment?
(page 322)
New Heights and New Problems
Why did Emperor
Alexius I turn
to Europe for
military aid?
The Crusades
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did the crusader
states have a hard
time surviving?
Chapter 9, Section 4
(page 324)
The Macedonian emperors expanded the Byzantine Empire
to include Bulgaria, Crete, Cyprus, and Syria. Tension with the
Roman Catholic Church grew because the Eastern Orthodox
Church did not accept the pope as the sole head of Christianity.
In 1054 the pope and the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church,
known as the patriarch, formally excommunicated each other.
This means they each took away the other’s rights of church
membership. This began a schism, or separation, between the
two great branches of Christianity.
The Byzantine Empire’s greatest external threat came from
the Seljuk Turks. In 1071 a Turkish army defeated Byzantine
forces at Manzikert. As a result, Emperor Alexius I turned to
Europe for military aid to fight the Turks.
(page 325)
From the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, European
Christians carried out a series of military expeditions to regain
the Holy Land from the infidels or unbelievers—the Muslims.
These expeditions are known as the Crusades.
Pope Urban II responded to Emperor Alexius’ request
for help, calling on Christians to join in a holy war. Warriors
responded for religious reasons, but also to seek adventure and
possible wealth. The First Crusade resulted in the capture of
Jerusalem in 1099. The crusaders went on to organize four Latin
crusader states in the East. Surrounded by Muslims, these crusader kingdoms depended on Italian cities for supplies. The fall
of one of the Latin kingdoms led to calls for another crusade.
Monastic leader Saint Bernard of Clairvaux enlisted King Louis
VII of France and Emperor Conrad II of Germany in a Second
Crusade which failed.
In 1187 Jerusalem fell to Muslim forces under Saladin. A
Third Crusade faced many problems, and in the end, Richard
negotiated a settlement with Saladin that permitted Christian
pilgrims free access to Jerusalem.
The Fourth Crusade resulted in the sacking of Constantinople
in 1204 and its recapture in 1261, but the Byzantine Empire was
no longer a great power.
There were other crusades, but they all failed. Historians
disagree about the effect of the Crusades. An unfortunate effect
was the persecution of Jews in Europe that began with the
Crusades. The Crusades helped break down feudalism. This
paved the way for the development of true nation-states.
107
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What was Justinian’s most important contribution?
2. What event started the schism between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman
Catholic Church?
Exposi tory
Using information from the text, discuss the reasons why Europeans
took part in the Crusades.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
108
Chapter 9, Section 4
Chapter 10, Section 1
(Pages 334–341)
Europe in the Middle Ages
New farming practices supported population growth, and the revival of
trade led to a money-based economy and the rise of cities. As you read, use a
chart like the one below to show the effects of the growth of towns on medieval European society.
Cause
Effects
Growth of
Towns
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The New Agriculture
How was iron
used during the
Middle Ages?
Chapter 10, Section 1
(page 334)
Europe’s population doubled between 100 and 1300. This
came partly because conditions were more settled and peaceful.
Also, there was a large increase in food production, which grew
partly because the climate changed and growing conditions
improved.
Changes in technology aided the development of farming.
People of the Middle Ages harnessed the power of water and
wind to do jobs once done by human or animal power. Iron
was used to make scythes, axes, hoes, hammers, and nails. Iron
was crucial to making the carruca, a heavy wheeled plow
with an iron plowshare. This plow easily turned over heavy
clay soils. The invention of a new horse collar and the horseshoe made it possible for horses to pull the carruca, which was
faster. Use of the carruca led to the growth of farming villages,
because it took an entire community to buy one.
Shifting from a two-field crop rotation to a three-field one
increased food production. Formerly, peasants had divided their
land in half, leaving one-half idle at a time so it could regain its
fertility. Now, they divided their land into thirds, leaving only
one-third idle while they rotated crops on the other two-thirds.
This kept the soil fertile and allowed people to grow more crops.
109
The Manorial System
Did the peasants
of the Middle Ages
work hard?
(page 336)
Under feudalism, land was divided into agricultural estates
called manors. A lord owned and ran the estate, and peasants
worked it. By 800 probably about 60 percent of the peasants
of western Europe were serfs. Serfs were legally bound to the
land. Serfs usually worked about three days a week for the lords,
tending crops, building barns, or digging ditches. The rest of the
time they could work their own plots to grow food for themselves. Serfs could not leave the manor or marry someone from
outside it without the lord’s permission. Serfs had to pay for certain services, such as having their grain ground into flour. The
land assigned to serfs to support themselves usually could not
be taken away, and their duties were fairly fixed. It was also the
lord’s duty to protect his serfs.
Peasant activities were determined by the seasons of the
year. Harvest time was especially hectic.
The daily diet of peasants was adequate when food was
available. Bread was the staple. They also ate vegetables, cheese,
nuts, and fruit. They usually ate meat only on the great feast
days, such as Christmas and Easter.
The Revival of Trade; The Growth of Cities
110
During the chaos of the early Middle Ages, Europe was mostly
an agricultural society. Later, trade gradually revived. Italian cities led this trade revival by developing a fleet of trading ships. As
trade increased, demand for gold and silver coins arose. Slowly, a
money economy—an economic system based on money rather
than on barter—emerged. New trading companies and banking
firms were set up. This was part of the rise of commercial capitalism, in which people invested in trade and goods to make profits.
The revival of trade led to a revival of the old Roman cities.
The city dwellers were called burghers, or bourgeoisie. Because
they were surrounded by walls, medieval cities were very
crowded. More men than women lived in the cities, but women
had important tasks and sometimes helped their husbands in
their trades. Some women developed their own trades and sometimes even led independent lives.
In the eleventh century, craftspeople began to organize into
guilds. Guilds directed the production process of goods and fixed
prices. Guilds decided how many people could enter a trade. To
learn a trade, a person first served as an apprentice to a master
for five to seven years. Then the apprentice became a journeyman
and could earn wages. When he was able to produce a masterpiece, the journeyman was judged by the guild to be a master.
Chapter 10, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why were medieval
cities crowded?
(pages 338–339)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What areas of Europe were major trading centers during the Middle Ages?
2. What rights were townspeople willing to buy from lords and kings?
Using information from the text and your imagination,
describe daily life for a serf in the Middle Ages.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 10, Section 1
111
Chapter 10, Section 2
(Pages 342–347)
Christianity and
Medieval Civilization
With its strong leadership, the Catholic Church became a dominant and
forceful presence in medieval society. As you read, use a chart like the one
below to list characteristics of the Cistercian and Dominican religious orders.
Cistercians
The Papal Monarchy
112
(page 342)
The popes of the Catholic Church had claimed supremacy
over the affairs of the Church since the fifth century. Further,
chief officials of the Church, such as bishops and abbots
(heads of monasteries), came to hold their offices as grants
from nobles. As vassals, they had to carry out feudal services,
including military duties. Lords often chose their vassals for
political reasons, so the bishops and abbots they chose were
often worldly men who cared little about their spiritual duties.
Further, it was the lords who gave the church officials their
symbols of office, a practice known as lay investiture. Pope
Gregory VII decided to fight this practice. Gregory claimed that
he was God’s “vicar on earth,” and that the pope’s authority
extended over all the Christian world, including its rulers. Henry
IV, king of Germany, disagreed with this. The Concordat of
Worms resolved this by saying that a bishop was first elected by
Church officials. Then he paid homage to the king.
The Catholic Church reached the height of its political power
under Pope Innocent III who used the interdict, which forbids
priests from giving the sacraments (Christian rites) to an entire
group of people.
Chapter 10, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did the lords
have influence on
the Church?
Dominicans
New Religious Orders
Why were convents
attractive to women?
(page 344)
In the second half of the eleventh century and the first
half of the twelfth century, a wave of religious enthusiasm
seized Europe. New monastic orders emerged. The Cistercian
monks helped develop a new, activist spiritual model. While
Benedictine monks spent hours inside the monastery in personal prayer, the Cistercians took their religion to the people
outside.
Women were also active in the spiritual movements. The
numbers of women joining religious orders grew dramatically.
Convents often provided a place for women who were unable or
unwilling to marry, who were widows, or who were intellectuals.
Most learned women of the Middle Ages were nuns.
In the thirteenth century, the Franciscans and the
Dominicans were founded. The Franciscans took vows of absolute poverty, rejecting all property and begging for their food.
The Dominicans were founded by Spanish priest Dominic de
Guzman. He wanted to defend the Church from heresy—the
denial of basic Church doctrines.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Religion in the High Middle Ages
Who was the most
highly regarded
saint? How was
this shown?
Chapter 10, Section 2
(page 347)
The Church was an important part of ordinary people’s lives
from birth to death. The sacraments, such as baptism, marriage,
and the Eucharist (Communion) were seen as means for receiving God’s grace, and were necessary for salvation. Since only the
clergy could administer these rites, people depended on them
to achieve salvation. Of all the saints, the Virgin Mary was the
most highly regarded, and many churches were dedicated to her.
People worshipped relics of saints, such as their bones, because
they provided a link between the earthly world and God.
113
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What was one weapon used by the popes against rulers?
2. Why was the clergy so important to ordinary people in the Middle Ages?
Using information from the text and your imagination, discuss
whether a convent was a good choice for a woman in the Middle Ages.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
114
Chapter 10, Section 2
Chapter 10, Section 3
(Pages 348–351)
Culture of the High Middle Ages
Technological innovation made Gothic cathedrals possible, while an intellectual revival led to the formation of universities. As you read, use a chart
to contrast the Romanesque style of architecture with the Gothic style of
architecture. How did the churches built in these two styles differ?
Romanesque
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Architecture
How did the Gothic
cathedral bear
witness to the beliefs
of the people?
Chapter 10, Section 3
Gothic
(page 348)
There was an explosion of building in the eleventh and
twelfth centuries, especially of churches. At first, churches were
built in the Romanesque style. Romanesque churches were
either rectangles or two intersecting rectangles that created a
cross shape. Roofs had stone arched vaults called barrel vaults.
Because stone roofs are very heavy, Romanesque churches
required massive pillars and wall to hold them up. This left little
space for windows, so the churches were dark inside.
The Gothic style appeared in the twelfth century and was
perfected in the thirteenth. Gothic cathedrals are one of the
greatest artistic triumphs of the High Middle Ages. Two basic
innovations made Gothic cathedrals possible. One was the
replacement of the barrel vault with a combination of ribbed
vaults and pointed arches. This enabled builders to make Gothic
churches higher than Romanesque churches. Another innovation
was the flying buttress—a heavy, arched support of stone built
onto the outside of the walls. This distributed the weight of the
ceiling out and down. Since Gothic cathedrals could be built
with relatively thin walls, stained-glass windows were added
to show religious scenes and scenes from daily life, and let in
natural light. The Gothic cathedral thus bore witness that most
people believed in a spiritual world.
115
Universities
How were
scholasticism and
Saint Thomas
Aquinas linked?
(page 350)
The first European university appeared in Bologna, Italy.
Students—men only—came from all over Europe to learn
law from the great teacher Irnerius. It was followed by the
University of Paris and the University of Oxford in England.
By 1500 there were about 80 universities.
Students studied the liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, logic,
arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Teachers lectured
by reading and then explaining. Students took oral examinations after studying four to six years. A student could earn a
bachelor of arts and later a master of arts. With 10 more years
of study, students could earn a doctor’s degree in law, medicine,
or theology. Theology, the study of religion and God, was the
most highly regarded subject. Its study was strongly influenced
by scholasticism, which tried to reconcile faith and reason. It
tried to harmonize Christian teachings with the works of the
Greek philosophers. The philosopher Aristotle reached his conclusions by rational thought, not by faith, and his ideas sometimes contradicted Church teachings. Saint Thomas Aquinas
made the most famous attempt to reconcile Aristotle with
Christianity, especially in his Summa Theologica.
Vernacular Literature
116
Latin was the universal language of medieval civilization.
However, much new literature came to be written in the
vernacular—the language of everyday speech in a particular
region, such as Spanish or French. In the twelfth century, educated laypeople wanted new sources of entertainment, and they
turned to vernacular literature. The most popular form was
troubadour poetry. This poetry told of the love of a knight for a
lady who inspires him to become a braver knight. Another form
was the chanson de geste, or heroic epic. The chief events in
these were battles and political contests. Women play only a
small role or no role at all. The earliest and finest example is
the Song of Roland.
Chapter 10, Section 3
1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What were two
popular types
of vernacular
literature in the
twelfth century?
(page 351)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What was the most highly regarded subject at medieval universities?
2. What were some examples of vernacular language?
Using information from the text, imagine that you are walking
through a Gothic cathedral. Describe what you see and how it
makes you feel.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 10, Section 3
117
Chapter 10, Section 4
(Pages 352–359)
The Late Middle Ages
Disastrous forces overwhelmed Europe in the fourteenth century with lasting consequences. As you read, use a diagram like the one below to identify three reasons for the decline of the papacy.
Decline of the Papacy
The Black Death
118
The Black Death, the most devastating natural disaster in
European history, struck in the fourteenth century. It was spread
by rats carrying a deadly bacterium and followed trade routes.
In 1348 and 1349, it spread through France, the Low Countries
(modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), and
Germany. It ravaged England and then expanded to northern
Europe and Scandinavia. By 1351 it had affected eastern Europe
and Russia. Out of a total European population of 75 million, as
many as 38 million people died. In Italy’s crowded cities, 50 to
60 percent of the people died. People did not know what caused
the plague. Some believed that God had sent it as punishment
for sins. Some reacted with anti-Semitism—hostility toward Jews.
Many Jews fled to Poland, where the king protected them.
The death of so many people had economic consequences.
Trade declined, and a shortage of workers led to a rise in the
price of labor. Fewer people meant lower demand for food,
which resulted in falling prices. Incomes from rents declined at
the same time that landlords had to pay more for labor. Some
peasants bargained with their lords to pay rent instead of owing
services. This change freed them from serfdom, which had
already been declining.
Chapter 10, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did a shortage
of workers lead to
a rise in the price
of labor?
(page 352)
Decline of Church Power; The Hundred Years’ War
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What weapons were
important during
the Hundred
Years’ War?
Chapter 10, Section 4
(pages 355 and 356)
European kings had begun to reject papal claims of supremacy by the end of the thirteenth century. In 1305 King Philip IV
of France engineered the election of a French pope, who went
to live in Avignon, in southern France. Many people thought the
pope should live in Rome, and they objected to the splendor
in which the pope lived in Avignon. Pope Gregory XI returned
to Rome in 1377 but soon died. The citizens of Rome threatened the lives of the cardinals if they did not replace Gregory
with an Italian pope, they elected Pope Urban VI, an Italian.
Months later, French cardinals declared the election invalid and
chose a Frenchman as pope. This pope returned to Avignon,
so now there were two popes. This began the Great Schism of
the Church. It divided Europe and damaged the Church. At one
time, there were actually three popes. They each denounced the
other as the Antichrist, which undermined people’s faith. The
schism was not ended until 1417. There were cries for reform,
but reformers such as John Hus were accused of heresy and
burned at the stake.
The Hundred Years’ War between England and France was
fought from 1337 to 1453. It started because England possessed the duchy of Gascony in France, and France wanted it.
Though both armies used heavily armed knights in cavalry,
English peasants armed with longbows won the Battle of Crécy.
The English under Henry V also won the Battle of Agincourt
in 1415. The French cause seemed hopeless, but a young peasant girl, Joan of Arc, convinced the French leader to allow
her to accompany the army. Joan was deeply religious and
had visions that saints were commanding her to free France.
Inspired by Joan, the French armies found new confidence and
seized Orléans. The English captured Joan and turned her over
to the Inquisition, which condemned her to death for heresy.
Nevertheless, she had turned the tide of the war. After 20 more
years of fighting, the French eventually won, helped by the use
of the cannon, a new weapon.
119
Political Recovery
Which states were
successful at
forming strong
monarchies?
In the fourteenth century, European rulers faced serious
problems. Many monarchies were unable to produce male heirs.
Rulers also had financial troubles. In the fifteenth century, a number of new rulers attempted to reestablish the centralized power
of their monarchies, often referred to as the new monarchies.
France was exhausted by the Hundred Years War, but the
war had also inspired a national feeling as France united against
a common enemy. King Louis XI greatly advanced the strength
of the French state. He instituted the taille, an annual direct
tax on land and property, which provided the monarchy with
a regular source of income. He added territory to the kingdom
and promoted industry and commerce.
The English economy was strained by the Hundred Years
War, and soon after it ended, the War of the Roses erupted in
England. Noble factions fought to control the monarchy until
1485, when Henry VII (Henry Tudor) created a new dynasty.
Henry abolished the nobles’ private armies, and won favor by
being thrifty and not taxing very much.
Although Muslims had conquered much of Spain by about
725, in the Middle Ages, Christian rulers had fought to regain
their lands. Several Christian kingdoms emerged, including
Aragon and Castile. When Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand
of Aragon married in 1469, Spain was on its way to unity.
Ferdinand and Isabella believed in religious unity. They expelled
all the professed Jews from Spain. They defeated the Muslims in
1492 and forced Muslims to convert or be exiled.
The Holy Roman Empire did not develop a strong monarchy. Germany was a land of hundreds of states. After 1438 the
Hapsburg dynasty held the position of Holy Roman emperor.
These rulers were extremely wealthy and began to play an
important role in European affairs.
In eastern Europe, rulers found it difficult to centralize states.
Roman Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Mongols, and Muslims all
confronted one another. Russia was dominated by the Mongols.
However, by using their close relationship to the Mongols, the
princes of Moscow rose to prominence. Prince Ivan III established a new Russian state and annexed other Russian territories.
By 1480 he had broken the control of the Mongols.
Chapter 10, Section 1
4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
120
(page 357)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How did the Hundred Years’ War affect France and England?
2. How many people were lost to the Black Death?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Using information from the text, trace the development and progress
of the Great Schism. What effects did it have?
Chapter 10, Section 4
121
Chapter 11, Section 1
(Pages 368–385)
The Peoples of North America
Hunters and gatherers spread into the North American continent and
established their unique ways of living. As you read, complete a separate
chart for each of the five major peoples discussed in this section. Identify
the characteristics listed below for each group.
People
Region
Types of Food
Shelter
The First North Americans
122
Various peoples created different ways of living in response
to the geographic and climate variations of North America.
The Inuit settled in the tundra region south of the Arctic.
They were skilled hunters of seal, caribou, and fish. They built
homes of stones and turf.
The Mound Builders lived in the valleys of the Ohio and
Mississippi Rivers. They built large, elaborate earth mounds used
for tombs or for ceremonies. They grew corn, squash, and beans.
The Iroquois lived in the area of present-day Pennsylvania,
New York, and southern Canada. They lived in longhouses that
housed about a dozen families. They hunted animals and grew
corn, beans, and squash. Five groups of Iroquois formed an alliance led by a Grand Council. Representatives to the council were
carefully chosen from Iroquois clans, or groups of related families, making the Grand Council an experiment in democracy.
West of the Mississippi, the Plains Indians grew corn, beans,
and squash. They hunted buffalo, which were important to their
culture and food supply. They lived in circular tents called tepees.
In the southwest lived the Anasazi. They used irrigation to turn
the desert into fertile land for farming. They lived in multi-storied,
stone and adobe (sun-dried brick) structures called pueblos.
Chapter 11, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How were the
Mound Builders,
the Iroquois,
and the Plains
Indians alike?
(page 368)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What is adobe?
2. Which native peoples formed cities?
Explain how the Iroquois contributed to the development
of democracy.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exposi tory
Chapter 11, Section 1
123
Chapter 11, Section 2
(Pages 372–379)
Early Civilizations in
Mesoamerica
Early Mesoamerican civilizations flourished with fully developed political,
religious, and social structures. As you read, create a separate chart, like
the one shown here, for each of the cultures discussed in this section.
People
Location
Religion
Architecture
Year/Reason Declined
(page 372)
What is a question
that could be asked
about the Olmec
or Teotihuacan?
124
The first known civilization in Mesoamerica was the Olmec
society. They appeared around 1200 B.C. along the coast of the
Gulf of Mexico south of Veracruz. They traded with other peoples of Mesoamerica for jade and obsidian to make tools, jewelry, and monuments. The Olmec had large cities as centers for
their religious rituals. These cities contained pyramids and huge
carved stone heads. The heads were as much as 10 feet high
and weighed 20 tons. The Olmec civilization declined around
400 B.C., though it is not known why.
The first major city in Mesoamerica was Teotihuacaˉn. It was
the capital of an early kingdom that arose around 250 B.C. and
collapsed about A.D. 800. Teotihuacaˉn occupied about 8 square
miles northeast of Mexico City. It had as many as 200,000
inhabitants. Its main thoroughfare, the Avenue of the Dead,
was lined with temples and palaces. All were dominated by the
Pyramid of the Sun, which was over 200 feet high. Most of the
people were farmers, but Teotihuacaˉn was also a busy center
for trade. Artisans made obsidian tools, weapons, potter, and
jewelry. It is not known why the city declined.
Chapter 11, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Olmec
The Maya and the Toltec
Between A.D. 300 and 900, the Maya civilization flourished.
Maya civilization included much of Central America and
southern Mexico.
Maya cities were built around a central pyramid topped by a
shrine to the gods. The Maya believed that all of life was in the
hands of divine powers. Some gods were good, others evil. Rulers
of Maya city-states claimed to be descended from the gods. Most
of the Maya people were farmers who lived on tiny plots. Houses
were built of adobe and thatch. The basic food was cornmeal, but
the Maya also raised cacao, for chocolate. The Maya created a
sophisticated writing system based on hieroglyphs, or pictures,
Written on bark. Unfortunately, when the Spaniards colonized
the New World, they destroyed much of the native civilization.
Nevertheless, enough remains to know that the Maya recorded
history and measured time in accurate calendars.
The Toltec Empire reached its high point between A.D. 950 and
1150. It included much of northern and central Mexico. The Toltecs
were successful at farming, and were fierce and warlike. They
constructed pyramids and palaces, and brought metal-working
to Mesoamerica. The Toltec Empire began to decline around
1125 as a result of fighting among different groups in Tula.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What was cacao
used for?
The Aztec
(page 374)
(page 377)
How can you tell
that warriors were
important?
Chapter 11, Section 2
Sometime during the twelfth century, the Aztec migrated to
the Valley of Mexico. They established a capital at Tenochtitlán,
now Mexico City. They ruled from there until the Spanish conquest. The Aztec eventually ruled over much of what is modern
Mexico. The kingdom was a collection of semi-independent territories governed by local lords. These lords paid tribute—goods
or money paid by conquered people to their conquerors—to the
Aztec ruler, in return for his support. The monarch claimed lineage with the gods and held all power. Noble males had careers
in the military, the government bureaucracy, or the priesthood.
Most people were commoners who were farmers or merchants,
but there were also slaves and indentured servants. Women were
not equal to men, but were allowed to own and inherit property
and to enter into contracts. They were also allowed to be priestesses. The Aztecs believed in many gods, and the Aztec religion
was based on a belief in an unending struggle between the
forces of good and evil in the universe. This struggle had created
and destroyed four worlds. To delay the final destruction of their
world, they practiced human sacrifice.
125
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What ancient city became modern-day Mexico City?
2. What was the first major city in Mesoamerica?
Exposi tory
Explain who Quetzalcoatl was and how he influenced the Aztec
reaction to the Spaniards.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
126
Chapter 11, Section 2
Chapter 11, Section 3
(Pages 382–385)
Early Civilizations in
South America
The Inca developed a well-organized and militaristic empire with a distinct
Incan culture. As you read, complete a pyramid diagram showing the hierarchy of the Inca’s political organization.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Early Civilizations
How does the pottery
of the Moche show
that their lives were
centered on war?
Chapter 11, Section 3
(page 382)
The oldest major city in the Americas is Caral, in Peru. It
has stone buildings, apartment buildings, and grand residences.
It also had a sophisticated system of irrigation. It was abandoned sometime between 2000 and 1500 B.C.
Around 900 B.C., the Chavin people built a stone temple and
surrounded it with stone figures depicting different gods. The
Chavin declined around 200 B.C., for unknown reasons.
From around 200 B.C. to A.D. 600, the Nazca culture prospered in Peru. The Nazca built no great temples and may have
practiced their religion out-of-doors. The Nazca Lines suggest
this. These are grooves etched into the soil in the image of
animals, humans, and geometric shapes. The images are so
large that their shapes can only be seen from the air.
Sometime about A.D. 300, the Moche civilization appeared
near the Pacific coast south of Ecuador. A major urban center
arose in the valley of the Moche River. Farmers grew maize
(corn), peanuts, potatoes, and cotton. The people of Moche had
no written language, but their pottery shows that their lives
were centered on warfare. Paintings and pottery frequently
portray warriors, prisoners, and sacrificial victims.
127
The Inca
(page 384)
Why were llamas
important to
the Inca?
Chapter 11, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
128
After the Moche civilization declined, the kingdom of
Chimor dominated the area for nearly four centuries. Then the
Inca destroyed it and created a spectacular empire.
In the late 1300s, the Inca were only a small community
in the area of Cuzco in the mountains of southern Peru. In the
1440s, under the leadership of Pachacuti, the Inca launched
a campaign of conquest and eventually controlled the entire
region. Pachacuti and his immediate successors extended the
boundaries of the Inca Empire as far as Ecuador, central Chile,
and the Amazon basin. It included perhaps 12 million people.
The state was built on war. All young men were required to
serve in the army. Supplies had to be carried on the backs of
llamas because the Inca did not make use of the wheel.
Control of new territories was carefully regulated.
Conquered people were instructed in the Quechua language.
A noble of high rank was sent out to govern. The empire was
divided into four quarters, each ruled by a governor. The quarters were divided into provinces, also ruled by governors, which
had about 10,000 residents each.
At the top of the system was the emperor, who was
believed to be descended from the sun god. All Inca subjects
had to give labor service, and laborers were moved from place
to place as needed. The Inca built thousands of miles of roads.
Inca society, marriage, and the lives of women were highly regimented. The Inca were great builders and architectural geniuses.
They had no writing system and kept records with a system of
knotted strings called quipu. Even so, they had a well-developed theater tradition, as well as poetry and music.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What foods did the Moche farmers grow?
2. How did the Inca keep records?
Explain what the Nazca Lines are and what they suggest about the
Nazca religion.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exposi tory
Chapter 11, Section 3
129
Chapter 12, Section 1
(Pages 398–403)
The Renaissance
Between 1350 and 1550, Italian intellectuals believed they had entered
a new age of human achievement. As you read, use a web diagram like
the one below to identify the major principles of Machiavelli’s work
The Prince.
The Prince
The Italian Renaissance
130
The Italian Renaissance lasted from about 1350 to 1550.
Renaissance means “rebirth.” It had three main characteristics.
First, Italy was largely an urban society. In this urban society,
a secular, or worldly, viewpoint grew. Second, the Renaissance
was an age of recovery from the disasters of the plague, political instability, and the decline of Church power. There was a
rebirth of interest in ancient Roman culture that affected both
politics and art. Third, people in the Renaissance emphasized
individual ability. The Renaissance affected the wealthy more
than ordinary people, but even they could see the art that decorated the churches and public buildings.
Italy had not developed a centralized monarchical state.
Instead, independent city-states played important roles in politics. Milan, Florence, and Venice had all prospered from trade.
The Visconti family and then Francesco Sforza ruled Milan.
Sforza conquered the city with mercenaries—soldiers who
sold their services. Venice was a republic, but in name only.
The Medici family ruled Florence except for a time when a
Dominican preacher named Girolamo Savonarola took power.
Both the French and the Spanish tried to conquer Italy, fighting each other in Italy for 30 years. The Spanish under Charles I
sacked Rome and left the Spanish a dominant force in Italy.
Chapter 12, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What was reborn
during the
Renaissance?
(page 398)
Machiavelli on Power
How were
Machiavelli’s
principles different
from those stressed
in the Middle Ages?
One of the most influential works on political power in the
Western world was The Prince, written by Niccolò Machiavelli.
Machiavelli’s work concerned how to get and keep political
power. During the Middle Ages, many writers had stressed how
a ruler should behave based on Christian principles. Machiavelli,
in contrast, believed that morality had little to do with politics.
He believed that human nature was basically self-centered and
that since a prince acted on behalf of the state, he should not
be restricted to moral principles.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Renaissance Society
What were the
differences in the
Renaissance classes?
Chapter 12, Section 1
(page 401)
(page 402)
Renaissance society was still divided into classes, or estates.
Nobles dominated society even though they made up only
2 to 3 percent of the population. The ideal noble was described
in The Book of the Courtier, written by Baldassare Castiglione.
The book said that nobles had to be born, not made. They were
to have a classical education and serve their prince effectively
and honestly. Castiglione’s principles guided European social
and political life for hundreds of years. Peasants still made up
85 to 90 percent of the total European population. Most peasants were no longer serfs. Townspeople during the Renaissance
included patricians, who had wealth. Beneath them were the
burghers—the shopkeepers, artisans, and guild members. Below
the burghers were the workers, who earned pitiful wages, and
the unemployed. Both groups lived miserable lives.
Family bonds were a source of security. Parents arranged
marriages for children, paying a dowry to the husbands of
daughters. The father-husband was the center of the family and
had absolute authority over his children until he died or formally freed them. Children became adults when their fathers
went before a judge to free them. This could happen when the
children were in their early teens to their late twenties.
131
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What does the word renaissance mean?
2. Which two European countries tried to conquer and dominate Italy?
Which principles do you think would lead to the best government—
Machiavelli’s or those of the Middle Ages? Explain why.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
132
Chapter 12, Section 1
Chapter 12, Section 2
(Pages 406–411)
Ideas and Art of the
Renaissance
Humanism was an important intellectual movement of the Renaissance and
was reflected in the works of Renaissance artists. As you read, use a chart
like the one below to describe the three pieces of literature written by
Dante, Chaucer, and de Pizan. What was the primary importance of each
of their works?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Divine Comedy
The Canterbury Tales
Italian Renaissance Humanism
How did the
humanists in
Florence differ
from Petrarch?
Chapter 12, Section 2
The Book of the
City of Ladies
(page 406)
Humanism was based on the study of the ancient Greek and
Roman classics. Humanists studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry,
moral philosophy, and history. Petrarch looked for forgotten
Latin manuscripts and started searches in monastic libraries
throughout Europe. In Florence, humanists took an interest in
civic life. They believed that intellectuals had a duty to live lives
of service to their state. Humanists emphasized the use of classical Latin, though some writers wrote in the vernacular—the
language spoken in their own regions. In the Italian vernacular,
the poet Dante wrote the Divine Comedy. It was a long poem
about an imaginary journey to Paradise, or Heaven. The English
writer Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales about a
group of pilgrims traveling to Canterbury. Each pilgrim represented part of English society. A Frenchwoman, Christine de
Pizan, wrote to defend women. The Book of the City of Ladies
denounced men who said that women were unable to learn.
133
Head (page 000) Education
Renaissance
What subjects do you
study that were not
part of the liberal
arts schools of the
humanists?
Renaissance humanists believed that education could
change human beings. They wrote books on education and
started schools. Liberal studies (liberal arts) were at the core of
the schools. To enable individuals to reach their full potential
for virtue and wisdom, humanists had students study history,
moral philosophy, poetry, mathematics, and other subjects. The
humanists wanted to create complete citizens, not necessarily
great scholars. They also wanted to prepare the sons of aristocrats for leadership roles. A few female students studied history,
poetry, and how to ride and dance. They were told not to learn
mathematics or rhetoric. Humanist schools were the model for
education of Europe’s ruling classes until the twentieth century.
Italian Renaissance Art
(page 409)
Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature. A fresco is a
painting done on fresh, wet plaster with water-based paints.
Masaccio, in Florence, made great strides in using perspective
in his frescoes. Painters explored perspective, the organization
of outdoor space, movement, and human anatomy. Leonardo
da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo worked during the High
Renaissance, a period between 1490 and 1520. Leonardo mastered realistic painting. Raphael created great beauty in his
madonnas. Michelangelo created such masterpieces as the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.
The Northern Artistic Renaissance
Why was the use
of detail important
to the artists of
northern Europe?
134
(page 411)
Like the artists of Italy, the artists of northern Europe wanted
to portray their world realistically. Because their churches were
smaller, they emphasized the use of detail. The most important
northern school of art was in Flanders, in the Low Countries. The
Flemish painter Jan van Eyck was among the first to use and perfect the technique of realistic oil painting.
By 1500 northern artists had begun to study in Italy. A
German artist, Albrecht Dürer, was greatly influenced by them.
Dürer tried to achieve a standard of ideal beauty that was based
on a careful examination of the human form.
Chapter 12, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did artists’
paintings change
during the
Renaissance?
(page 408)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What Renaissance work served as the ancestor of the modern English language?
2. Who are the three artists most associated with the High Renaissance?
Using information from the text, choose a scene in your mind, such
as your classroom or your bedroom, and imagine how a northern
European artist would have painted it. Describe this painting.
Remember that northern European artists used oil paints.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 12, Section 2
135
Chapter 12, Section 3
(Pages 412–417)
The Protestant Reformation
In northern Europe, Christian humanists sought to reform Christendom,
and Protestantism emerged. As you read, use a diagram like the one below
to identify steps that led to the Reformation.
Steps Leading to
the Reformation
Prelude to Reformation
136
During the second half of the fifteenth century, the new
classical learning of the Italian Renaissance spread to northern
Europe. From that came a movement called Christian humanism.
Its major goal was reform of the Catholic Church. The Christian
humanists believed in the ability of human beings to reason
and improve themselves. They thought that by reading the basic
works of Christianity and the classics, people could become
more pious, or inwardly religious. The best-known Christian
humanist, Desiderius Erasmus, thought that Christianity should
show people how to live good lives. He thought that external
forms of medieval religion, such as relics and fasts, were not all
that important.
Erasmus and others were calling for reform of the Church
for several reasons. One was corruption. Many popes acted as
political and military leaders rather than as spiritual leaders.
Many church officials used their church offices to gain wealth.
Also, many parish priests were ignorant of their spiritual duties.
Ordinary people wanted salvation, or acceptance into Heaven.
The Church made this process mechanical. People could collect
relics to gain salvation. Or, they could buy an indulgence, a
certificate of release from all or part of their punishment for sin.
A popular movement called Modern Devotion also contributed
to an environment where people would be receptive to ideas
that went against the Church.
Chapter 12, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What did the
Christian humanists
think that people
should do in order to
become more pious?
(page 412)
Martin Luther
What led to Luther’s
writing of the
Ninety-five Theses?
(page 415)
Martin Luther was a monk and a professor at the University
of Wittenberg, in Germany. Through his study of the Bible, he
came to believe that human beings could never do enough
good works to earn salvation. Instead, they could be saved if
they had faith in God, because God was merciful. This idea,
called justification (being made right before God) by faith alone,
became the chief teaching of the Protestant Reformation. In
1517 Luther sent an attack on the selling of indulgences, called
the Ninety-five Theses, to his church superiors. Thousands of
copies were printed and spread to all parts of Germany.
By 1520 Luther was calling on German princes to overthrow
the papacy in Germany and establish a reformed German church.
He also attacked the Church’s system of sacraments and called
for clergy to marry. The Church excommunicated Luther in 1521.
He was also required to appear before the emperor, Charles V.
Charles thought he could convince Luther to change his ideas,
but Luther refused. Luther was made an outlaw within the empire.
A revolution occurred, with German rulers taking power over
the Catholic churches. Luther set up a new service to replace
the mass, which became known as Lutheranism.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Politics in the German Reformation
After the Peace of
Augsburg, were the
German people able
to choose whether
to be Catholic
or Lutheran?
Chapter 12, Section 3
(page 417)
The fate of Luther’s movement was closely tied to political
affairs. The Holy Roman emperor was Charles V, who was also
Charles I of Spain. Charles wanted to keep his large empire
under the control of his dynasty, the Hapsburgs. He also wanted
to keep the empire united by keeping it Catholic. However, conflict with France over territory led to more than 20 years of wars.
The pope was on the side of the French king, which made
things harder for Charles. Further, Germany was a land of
several hundred territorial states. They all owed loyalty to the
emperor, but many had freed themselves from his authority.
By the time Charles V was able to bring military forces to
Germany, the German princes were well organized, and Charles
was unable to defeat them.
In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg ended religious warfare in
Germany. Under it, the German states were free to choose between
Catholicism and Lutheranism. Subjects did not have the right to
choose their own religion; instead, their ruler chose it for them.
137
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What was the major goal of Christian humanism?
2. What was the political structure of Germany during the Protestant Reformation?
Exposi tory
Using information from the text, explain how politics influenced
the fate of Lutheranism.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
138
Chapter 12, Section 3
Chapter 12, Section 4
(Pages 418–423)
The Spread of Protestantism
Different forms of Protestantism emerged in Europe as the Reformation spread,
and the Catholic Church underwent a religious rebirth. As you read, use a diagram
like the one below to list some of the reforms proposed by the Council of Trent.
Beside each, give the Protestant viewpoint to which it responded.
Council of Trent
Protestant Viewpoint
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Divisions in Protestantism
What made John
Calvin influential?
Chapter 12, Section 4
(page 418)
Divisions quickly appeared among Protestants. Relics and
images were abolished. All paintings and decorations were
removed from the churches. Ulrich Zwingli sought an alliance
with Luther and the German reformers, but they were unable to
agree on the meaning of the sacrament of Communion.
In 1531 there was a war between the Protestant and Catholic
states in Switzerland. Zwingli was killed and leadership passed
to John Calvin. His doctrine was very close to Luther’s, but
he put more emphasis on the power of God, which led him
to believe in predestination. Predestination meant that God
had already decided who would be saved and who would be
damned. This belief gave Calvinists great conviction and made
them determined to spread their faith.
Among other reforms, Calvin created a special court for
enforcing moral discipline. Citizens of Geneva were punished
for “crimes” such as dancing, drunkenness, or playing cards.
Calvinism became established in France, the Netherlands,
Scotland, and central and eastern Europe. Calvinism was now
the most important and dynamic form of Protestantism.
139
Reformation in England
How did the need
for a male heir
contribute to the
English Reformation?
Anabaptists
The English Reformation was rooted in politics, not religion. King Henry VIII needed a male heir and wanted to marry
a woman who might give him one. The pope was unwilling to
annul (declare invalid) his first marriage. Henry got England’s
own church courts to do so. Henry married again, but the child
was a girl, who later became Elizabeth I. In 1534, at Henry’s
request, Parliament finalized the break between the Catholic
Church in England and the pope.
The Act of Supremacy made the king the head of the Church
of England. Henry dissolved the monasteries and sold their land
and possessions to wealthy landowners and merchants for
money and support. He kept the doctrine of the church close to
Catholic teachings.
During Edward VI reign, church officials moved the
Church of England in a Protestant direction. When Edward
died his older sister, Mary, a Catholic, tried to restore Roman
Catholicism. She had some Protestants burned as heretics.
England became even more Protestant, however.
(page 421)
Radicals known as Anabaptists thought that the state should
have no power over the church. They believed in complete
separation of church and state. Anabaptists believed in adult
baptism, not the baptism of children. They considered all believers to be equal, and any member of the community was eligible
to be a minister. Anabaptists refused to hold political office or
bear arms. Other Protestants and Catholics regarded them as
dangerous radicals who should be persecuted.
Reformation and Society
Why did
Protestantism not
help women or Jews?
140
(page 422)
The Protestants developed a new view of the family. Both
monasticism and the requirement for celibacy for the clergy had
been abolished. The love between man and wife was praised.
However, women were supposed to obey and bear children.
Jews fared little better. Luther expected Jews to convert to
Lutheranism. When they did not, he wrote that their synagogues
and homes should be destroyed. In papal states, Jews who
would not convert to Christianity were segregated into ghettos.
Chapter 12, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What did Anabaptists
believe?
(page 420)
Catholic Reformation
How did the Catholic
Reformation affect
Catholics?
(page 423)
The Catholic Church also underwent a reformation. The
Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits were very successful in
restoring Catholicism to parts of Germany and eastern Europe.
Pope Paul III appointed a Reform Commission in 1537,
which blamed the Church’s problems on the corrupt policies of
the popes. Paul III also started the Council of Trent. This group
of church officials met on and off for 18 years. They reaffirmed
traditional Catholic teachings that both faith and good works
were needed for salvation. They upheld the seven sacraments and
celibacy of the clergy. They forbade the selling of indulgences.
The Roman Catholic Church was again unified and strong.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What religious doctrine is associated with John Calvin?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. How did the Protestant view of marriage and family affect the clergy?
Exposi tory
Chapter 12, Section 4
Compare and contrast the beliefs of the Anabaptists with other
Protestants of their time.
141
Chapter 13, Section 1
(Pages 430–437)
Exploration and Expansion
Europeans began exploring the world in the fifteenth century, and several nations experienced economic heights through worldwide trade. As
you read, use a chart like the one below to list the explorers and lands
explored by each European nation.
Explorers
Lands Explored
Portugal
Spain
England
France
Netherlands
Knowing what
Christopher Columbus
went on to do, how
do you think he felt
about the writings of
Marco Polo?
142
(page 430)
Between 1500 and 1800, Portugal, Spain, the Dutch
Republic (the Netherlands), England, and France expanded into
the rest of the world.
Europeans had long been attracted to Asia. Marco Polo had
visited the Chinese court of Kublai Khan, and many, including
Christopher Columbus, read his written accounts of the journey.
In the fourteenth century, conquests by the Ottoman Turks
made it difficult to travel by land to the East. People then began
to think about going to Asia by sea. People wanted to expand
trade, especially for spices, which were needed to preserve and
flavor food. They were quite expensive when they came over
land through Arab middlemen. Europeans also wanted to find
precious metals. Further, many Europeans wanted to spread
their religion to native peoples. They also wanted adventure.
By the second half of the fifteenth century, European monarchs
had the power and resources to expand, while technology had
developed that would enable long sea voyages.
Chapter 13, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Motives and Means
A Race for Riches
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did more
voyages follow da
Gama’s route?
Chapter 13, Section 1
(page 432)
Beginning in 1520, Portuguese fleets began probing southward along the western coast of Africa. They discovered a new
source of gold. Vasco da Gama went around the Cape of Good
Hope (the southern tip of Africa) and cut across the Indian
Ocean to India. He took on a cargo of spices, took it home,
and made a profit of several thousand percent. Of course, many
more voyages followed this route.
Portuguese fleets took control of the spice trade from the
Muslims. They defeated a combined fleet of Turkish and Indian
ships off the coast of India. Admiral Alfonso d’Albuquerque
set up a port at Goa. Then he sailed into Melaka, on the Malay
Peninsula. From Melaka, the Portuguese launched expeditions
to China and the Spice Islands. Although they got control of
the spice trade, the Portuguese had neither the people nor the
desire to colonize Asian regions.
Europeans knew the world was round, so Christopher
Columbus persuaded Queen Isabella of Spain to finance an
expedition west to find Asia. In 1492 Columbus reached the
Americas, believing he had reached Asia. In 1519 Ferdinand
Magellan sailed around South America into the Pacific Ocean
and on to the Philippines. Magellan was killed, but is still
remembered as the first person to circumnavigate the world.
Both Spain and Portugal feared that the other might claim
territories. They signed the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. It gave
Portugal the unexplored territories east of a line through the
Atlantic Ocean and gave Spain the territories to the west of the
line. This gave Spain rights to almost all of the Americas.
John Cabot explored the New England coastline for
England. Portuguese sea captain Pedro Cabral landed in South
America in 1500. Amerigo Vespucci described voyages to the
Americas, whose name came from Vespucci’s first name. The
new territories already had flourishing civilizations of millions
of people, but Europeans saw them as opportunities for
conquest and exploitation.
143
The Spanish empire
How did the
advanced technology
of the Spanish affect
their conquests
of the Aztec and
the Inca?
The Spanish conquerors of the Americas were called
conquistadors. They had advanced firearms, skills, and determination. In central Mexico, the Aztec had ruled for a century. In 1519 a Spanish force under Hernán Cortés marched
to the magnificent Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán. The Aztec were
astounded to see men on horseback with firearms, cannons,
and steel swords. Eventually, the Spanish took the Aztec king,
Montezuma, hostage and began to pillage the city. Although at
first the citizens drove the Spanish out, they suffered a smallpox
epidemic because they had no immunity to European diseases.
Other Aztec city-states helped the Spanish reconquer the city.
The Spanish then destroyed it.
The Inca Empire was flourishing in 1530, when Francisco
Pizarro landed on the Pacific coast. He had only a few men, but
like the Aztec, the Inca were awed by his weapons and horses.
The Inca also experienced a smallpox epidemic, and their
emperor died. Pizarro captured the emperor’s son, Atahuallpa,
and executed him. He then captured the Inca capital at Cuzco.
Pizarro established a new capital at Lima for a new colony of
the Spanish empire.
By 1550 much territory in Mexico, Central America, and
South America had been brought under Spanish control. Queen
Isabella declared Native Americans to be her subjects. She
granted to Spanish settlers in the Americas the encomienda,
the right of landowners to use Native Americans as laborers.
Spanish settlers used Native Americans for forced labor.
This, combined with European diseases, took a fearful toll on
Native American lives. In Mexico, for example, the population
dropped from 25 million in 1500 to 1 million in 1630.
Spaniards and Native Americans intermarried and created a new people. Traces of the original culture remain today.
Colonists raised sugar, cotton, vanilla, and livestock to send
to Europe. Europeans brought horses, cattle, and wheat to
the Americas. Potatoes, cocoa, corn, tomatoes, and tobacco
were shipped to Europe. The exchange of plants and animals
between the Old and New Worlds, known as the Columbian
Exchange, transformed economic activity in both worlds.
Chapter 13, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
144
(page 434)
European Rivals
How did the Spanish
empire in Latin
America differ from
the English economy
in North American
colonies?
(page 437)
New European rivals began to challenge the Portuguese
and the Spaniards by the beginning of the seventeenth century. The English established trade relations with India, as did
the Dutch. The Dutch also traded in the Caribbean and settled
on the North American continent in the Hudson River valley.
After 1660, however, the English seized this colony of New
Netherlands and renamed it New York. Canada became a French
colony in 1663, but by the early eighteenth century, France
had ceded some of its American possessions to the English. By
this time, the English had control over most of the eastern seaboard of North America. Compared to the enormous empire of
the Spanish in Latin America, the North American colonies still
remained of little importance to the English economy.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Why were Europeans willing to make dangerous voyages of exploration?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Describe the details of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Using information from the text, explain how Spanish colonization
affected the Native American peoples.
Chapter 13, Section 1
145
Chapter 13, Section 2
(Pages 440–443)
The Atlantic Slave Trade
European expansion affected Africa with the dramatic increase of the slave
trade. As you read, use a table like the one below to identify economic
and political factors that caused the slave trade to be profitable. List the
economic and political effects of the trade.
Economic/Political Factors
Economic/Political Effects
Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism
146
European nations established many trading posts and colonies in the Americas and in the East. A colony is a settlement of
people living in a new territory, linked by trade and government
control with the parent country. Mercantilism was a set of economic principles. Mercantilists thought that the prosperity of a
nation depended on having a large amount of gold or silver. To
achieve this, countries tried to have a favorable balance of trade.
This is the difference between what a nation imports and what
it exports. Exports brought in gold or silver, so to encourage
them, governments stimulated new industries with subsidies,
or payments.
Sugarcane plantations, or large agricultural estates, were
set up in Brazil and the Caribbean islands. Slaves were taken
from Africa, becoming part of the triangular trade. European
merchant ships carried European manufactured goods to Africa,
where they were traded for slaves. The slaves were shipped to
the Americas and sold. This part was called the Middle Passage.
The Europeans then bought tobacco, molasses, sugar, and raw
cotton in the Americas and shipped them back to Europe.
In the eighteenth century, 6 million slaves were exported.
There was a very high death rate. Many died on the journey,
and many more died of diseases to which they had no immunity when they arrived.
Chapter 13, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What were two
reasons for the high
demand for slaves?
(page 440)
Effects of the Slave Trade
The slave trade was a tragedy for its victims. In addition,
it led to the depopulation of some areas, and it deprived many
African communities of their youngest and strongest men and
women. It led to increased warfare in Africa. Coastal or nearcoastal African chiefs, armed with guns acquired from the slave
trade, increased their raids and wars on neighboring peoples.
Very few Europeans cared.
The slave trade had a devastating effect on some African
states. Benin in West Africa, for example, was a brilliant and
creative society until it was pulled into the slave trade. As population declined and warfare increased, the people of Benin lost
faith in their gods, their art deteriorated, and human sacrifice
became more common. It became a corrupt and brutal place.
It took years to discover the brilliance of the earlier culture.
The use of black slaves remained largely acceptable to
European society. Europeans continued to view blacks as inferior beings fit chiefly for slave labor. Not until the Society of
Friends, or Quakers, began to condemn slavery in the 1770s
did European feeling against it begin to build. The French did
not abolish slavery until the French Revolution in the 1790s.
The British did the same in 1807. But slavery continued in the
United States until the Civil War of the 1860s.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What group of
Europeans began
the condemnation
of slavery?
(page 443)
Chapter 13, Section 2
147
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How did the discovery of the Americas change the demand for slaves?
2. On what kind of power were the new social structures based?
Exposi tory
Describe the effects of the slave trade on Benin.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
148
Chapter 13, Section 2
Chapter 13, Section 3
(Pages 444–447)
Colonial Latin America
Portugal and Spain reaped profits from the natural resources and products
of their Latin American colonies. As you read, create a diagram like the
one below to summarize the political, social, and economic characteristics
of Colonial Latin America.
Colonial Latin
America
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Colonial Empires in Latin America
How much respect
did the Spanish and
the Portuguese have
for their conquered
peoples?
Chapter 13, Section 3
(page 444)
In the sixteenth century, Portugal dominated Brazil, and
Spain established a huge colonial empire that included parts
of North America, Central America, and most of South America.
A new civilization called Latin America arose. At the top of
the social scale were peninsulares, officials who had been
born in Europe and who held all important government positions. Below them were the creoles, who were descendants of
Europeans born in Latin America. Below them were mestizos,
the offspring of marriages between Europeans and Native
Americans. The offspring of Europeans and Africans were called
mulattoes. The multiracial groups were considered inferior to
peninsulares and creoles. At the very bottom of the scale were
Native Americans and imported slaves.
The colonies provided wealth to Spain and Portugal by
sending them gold, silver, sugar, tobacco, diamonds, and animal
hides. Farming was done on large estates owned by Spanish
and Portuguese landowners and worked by Native Americans.
Native Americans were forced to pay tribute and provide labor.
In Peru, the Spanish used the mita, a system that allowed
authorities to draft native labor for the silver mines.
The kings, being far away, appointed officials called viceroys
to oversee the colonies. The Catholic Church played a powerful
role, as Catholic missionaries established many missions and villages where they both converted and controlled Native Americans.
149
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What goods did the colonies send to Europe?
2. What effect did Catholic missionaries have on Native Americans?
Exposi tory
Describe the social scale in Latin America.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
150
Chapter 13, Section 3
Chapter 14, Section 1
(Pages 454–457)
Europe in Crisis:
The Wars of Religion
Religious and political conflicts erupted between Protestants and Catholics
in many European nations. As you read, complete a chart like the one
below comparing the characteristics of Spain, England, and France.
Spain
England
France
Government
Religion
Conflicts
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Spain’s Conflicts
Why did
Protestantism
as practiced by
Elizabeth Tudor
satisfy most people?
Chapter 14, Section 1
(page 454)
By 1560 Calvinism and Catholicism were highly militant, or
combative, religions. The greatest supporter of Catholicism was
King Philip II of Spain. Philip inherited Spain, the Netherlands,
and parts of Italy and the Americas. To control them, he insisted
on strict conformity to Catholicism. Spain led an alliance against
the Turks and defeated them at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
But his attempts to control the Netherlands caused opposition
from the nobles. Philip sent many troops, but the struggle
continued until 1609.
Elizabeth Tudor took the English throne in 1558. She was
a Protestant and was named as head of both church and state.
Her religion was moderate enough to satisfy most people.
Elizabeth tried to keep the powers of Spain and France balanced by always supporting the weaker one in any conflict.
Finally, in 1588, Philip sent an armada, a fleet of ships, to
invade England. The English ships were faster and better and
defeated the armada. It limped home, battered by storms. Spain
was weaker by the end of Philip’s reign in 1598. War had bankrupted it, its armed forces were out of date, and the government
was inefficient.
151
The French Wars of Religion
Why did Henry IV
convert to
Catholicism?
(page 457)
French kings were Catholic, and they persecuted
Protestants. Between 1562 and 1598, the French fought a civil
war known as the Wars of Religion. Huguenots were French
Protestants influenced by John Calvin. They made up only about
7 percent of the population, but of the nobility, 40 to 50 percent
were Huguenots. They fought with an extreme Catholic party
known as the ultra-Catholics. Battles raged for 30 years. Finally,
in 1589, Henry of Navarre succeeded to the throne of France.
He became King Henry IV. He was also the Huguenot political
leader and believed he would never be accepted by Catholic
France. So he converted to Catholicism. When he was crowned
king in 1594, the fighting came to an end.
Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598. The edict said
that Catholicism was the official religion of France. However,
it also gave Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all
political privileges such as holding public offices.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
152
Chapter 14, Section 1
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Who were Huguenots?
2. Who was the greatest supporter of Catholicism?
Explain what the Edict of Nantes said and accomplished.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exposi tory
Chapter 14, Section 1
153
Chapter 14, Section 2
(Pages 458–463)
Social Crises, War, and
Revolution
Social, economic, and religious conflicts challenged the established political order throughout Europe. As you read, use a chart like the one below
to identify which conflicts were prompted by religious concerns.
Religious Conflicts
Crises in Europe
154
From 1560 to 1650, Europe had severe economic and social
crises. One major economic problem was inflation, or rising
prices. By 1600 there was an economic slowdown. Less silver
was coming from the silver mines, so Spain’s economy, which
depended on silver, declined. Also, ships were being attacked
by pirates, and Spain had lost many artisans and merchants
when it expelled the Jews and Muslims. Italy was also declining
economically. Population grew in the sixteenth century, but it
began to decline by 1650 due to wars, famine, and plague.
A belief in witchcraft, or magic, disturbed society.
Traditional village culture had included a belief in witches for
centuries. However, the religious zeal of the Inquisition and the
hunt for heretics extended to witchcraft. Possibly more than a
hundred thousand people were charged with witchcraft. More
than 75 percent of these were women, and most were single or
widowed and over 50 years old. Accused witches were tortured
severely. Therefore, they usually confessed to allegiance to the
devil and practices such as casting evil spells. The witchcraft
hysteria began to lessen by 1650 because fewer people believed
in evil spirits.
Chapter 14, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did witchcraft
hysteria begin to
decline by 1650?
(page 458)
The Thirty Years’ War
Why did religious
disputes continue
even after the Peace
of Augsburg?
(page 460)
The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 allowed religious disputes
to continue in Germany. This was because the peace settlement
did not recognize Calvinism. The Thirty Years’ War, which began
in 1618, concerned religion, but it was also a struggle for territory. It began with Catholic forces led by the Hapsburg Holy
Roman emperors fighting with Protestant nobles in Bohemia.
The nobles were primarily Calvinist. Denmark, Sweden, France,
and Spain entered the war, and it became more political. Finally,
it was a struggle between France and Spain and the Holy
Roman Empire for European leadership.
The war officially ended with the Peace of Westphalia in
1648. The Peace divided the more than 300 states of the Holy
Roman Empire into independent states and gave them power to
determine their own religion and foreign policy. This brought
an end to the Holy Roman Empire as a political entity.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Revolutions in England
How did religious
issues in England
affect American
history?
Chapter 14, Section 2
(page 461)
When Queen Elizabeth I of England died in 1603, the
throne passed to her cousin, James I. James believed that he
was king by divine right. This meant that his power came
from God. Parliament thought that it and the king should rule
England together. The conflict came to a head after James’ son,
Charles I, was king. Charles also believed in the divine right of
kings. He tried to curb the power of Parliament and also to add
more ritual to the Church of England.
The struggle grew until England slipped into civil war in
1642. Royalists, called Cavaliers, fought parliamentary forces,
called Roundheads. Parliament won, led by Oliver Cromwell.
Cromwell led Parliament to execute Charles I in 1649. Then
Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords
and established a commonwealth, or republic. However, after
Cromwell died in 1658, Charles I’s son, Charles II, was restored
to the throne.
Charles was Protestant, but sympathetic to Catholics. When
he died, his brother James became king. James II tried to make
England more Catholic. Parliament waited for James’s Protestant
daughters to succeed him, but when James had a son English
nobles invited William of Orange (husband to James’ daughter
Mary) to invade England. England had undergone the “Glorious
Revolution.” William and Mary accepted the throne, along with a
Bill of Rights. The Bill laid the foundation for a limited, or constitutional, monarchy. The divine right of kings had been destroyed.
155
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Which people were most likely to be accused of witchcraft?
2. What happened to Germany as a result of the Thirty Years’ War?
I nformative
Trace England’s movement from kings who thought they ruled by
divine right to constitutional monarchy.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
156
Chapter 14, Section 2
Chapter 14, Section 3
(Pages 464–469)
Response to Crisis:
Absolutism
France became the greatest power of the seventeenth century. Prussia,
Austria, and Russia also emerged as great European powers. As you read,
complete a chart like the one below summarizing the accomplishments of
Peter the Great.
Reforms
Government
Wars
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
France under Louis XIV
On what did
Louis XIV spend
so much money?
Chapter 14, Section 3
(page 464)
Absolutism is a system in which a ruler holds total power.
In seventeenth-century Europe, absolutism was tied to the
divine right of kings. It was believed that a king’s power came
from God and that he was accountable only to God.
Louis XIV was only four when he came to the throne. Until
he was 23, France was run by Cardinal Mazarin. When Mazarin
died, Louis XIV took complete control. He called himself the
Sun King. Louis undermined the power of nobles to make
national policy. He bribed important people in the provinces
to make sure his policies were carried out at the local level. He
tried to convert the Huguenots to Catholicism by destroying
their churches and closing their schools. Many Huguenots fled.
Louis spent much money building palaces, maintaining the royal
court at Versailles, and fighting wars. He created a huge army
that fought four wars. France followed a policy of mercantilism to finance Louis’s expenditures. But when he died in 1715,
France had many debts and many enemies.
157
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
Why did Frederick
William, the Great
Elector create such a
large army?
After the Thirty Years’ War, there were over 300 independent German states. The state of Prussia was ruled by Frederick
William. He realized that Prussia was small and had no natural
barriers to enemies. He created an army that was the fourthlargest in Europe. To pay for it, he set up the General War
Commissariat to levy taxes. The Commissariat bureaucracy
became the elector’s instrument for governing the state. Many of
its officials also served in the army. In 1701 Frederick William’s
son Frederick gained the title of King. Elector Frederick III
became King Frederick I.
The Austrian Hapsburg’s had long served as emperors in
the Holy Roman Empire. The Thirty Years’ War dashed their
hopes of creating an empire in Germany. So they created a
new empire in eastern and southeastern Europe. The core of
the new Austrian Empire was present-day Austria, the Czech
Republic, and Hungary. But the Austrian monarchy never
became a highly centralized, absolutist state. It was made up
of too many national groups. No common feeling tied all the
groups together except for service to the Hapsburgs.
Peter the Great
158
(page 468)
A new Russian state emerged in the fifteenth century,
around the principality of Muscovy. In the sixteenth century,
Ivan IV was the first to take the title of czar, the Russian word
for caesar. Ivan expanded the territories of Russia eastward and
crushed the power of the Russian nobility, known as boyars. He
was known as Ivan the Terrible because of his ruthless deeds.
In 1598 Ivan’s dynasty came to an end, and a period of
anarchy began. It ended in 1613 when the national assembly chose Michael Romanov as the new czar. Peter the Great
became czar in 1689. Peter visited the West and determined to
Europeanize Russia. He was eager to borrow European technology to improve his army. Peter created the first Russian navy.
When he died in 1725, Russia was a great military power and
an important European state.
Culturally, Peter emphasized Western manners taught in
Russia. He insisted that Russian men shave off their beards and
shorten their coats. Upper-class women could remove their facecovering veils and enter society. The sexes could now mix for
conversation and dancing.
Chapter 14, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did Ivan the
Terrible get his name?
(page 467)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What is absolutism?
2. What state had the fourth-largest army in Europe during the 1600s?
Using information from the text and your imagination, describe how
life for an upper-class man or woman would have changed under
Peter the Great.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 14, Section 3
159
Chapter 14, Section 4
(Pages 472–477)
The World of
European Culture
Art and literature reflect people’s spiritual perceptions and the human condition. As you read, complete a chart like the one below summarizing the
political thoughts of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.
Thomas Hobbes
John Locke
Art after the Renaissance
160
The artistic Renaissance came to an end when a new
movement, Mannerism, emerged in Italy. Mannerism rejected
Renaissance principles of balance, harmony, and moderation. The
rules of proportion were ignored, and elongated figures were used
to show suffering, heightened emotion, and religious ecstasy.
The baroque movement replaced Mannerism. Baroque artists
tried to combine classical ideals with spiritual feelings. Their work
also reflected a search for power. Baroque churches and palaces
were magnificent and richly detailed. Kings wanted people to feel
awe when they looked at them. Baroque painting was known
for its use of dramatic effects. Perhaps the greatest figure of the
baroque period was the Italian architect and sculptor Bernini.
Bernini completed St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Caravaggio, from
Italy, and Peter Paul Rubens, from the Spanish Netherlands,
were noted Baroque painters. Artemisia Gentileschi was prominent, though less well-known than male artists. She was the
first woman to be elected to the Florentine Academy of Design.
Chapter 14, Section 4
1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did baroque
churches and
palaces reflect a
search for power?
(page 472)
Golden Age of Literature
Why did Elizabethan
playwrights write to
please everyone?
In England, a cultural flowering took place in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The period is often
called the Elizabethan Era, as much of it took place during the
reign of Elizabeth I.
Drama expressed the energy of the time. The most famous
dramatist of all was William Shakespeare. Because Elizabethan
audiences included all the classes, playwrights wrote to please
everyone. In his comedies and tragedies, he showed keen
insight into human psychology and a remarkable understanding
of the human condition.
In Spain, Miguel Cervantes wrote the novel Don Quixote.
By using two main characters, a knight and his earthy squire,
Cervantes showed the duality of human character. The knight is
a lofty idealist. The squire is a realist. They come to appreciate
each other’s point of view.
Spanish plays were so popular that every large town had
a public playhouse, including Mexico City in the New World.
Playwright Lope de Vega wrote perhaps 1,500 plays that set the
standard for others. Lope de Vega wrote to please people, but
his writing was of very high quality.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Political Thought
What was the
difference between
how Hobbes and
Locke viewed life
before society was
organized?
Chapter 14, Section 4
(page 474)
(page 476)
Thinkers in the seventeenth century were concerned
with order and power. Thomas Hobbes wrote a work called
Leviathan. Hobbes claimed that before society was organized,
life was brutal, nasty, and short. He thought that humans were
guided by a ruthless struggle for self-preservation, not moral
ideals or reason. People formed states to keep themselves from
destroying one another. The ruler should have absolute power,
and rebellion should be suppressed.
John Locke wrote Two Treatises of Government in 1679 and
1680. Locke believed that before society was organized, humans
lived in a state of equality and freedom. All humans had certain
natural rights, rights with which they were born. These included
rights to life, liberty, and property. People established a government to protect their rights and judge those that violated them.
If the government failed to protect citizens’ natural rights, the
people had the right to remove or alter the government.
Locke was not an advocate of democracy, but his ideas were
used by the Americans and the French to support demands for constitutional government, the rule of law, and the protection of rights.
161
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What form of literature particularly flourished in England and Spain in the late sixteenth
and early seventeenth centuries?
2. What are natural rights?
Exposi tory
Explain why the artistic Renaissance came to an end and was
replaced by Mannerism.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
162
Chapter 14, Section 4
Chapter 15, Section 1
(Pages 484–489)
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire grew strong as it expanded its
borders. As you read, create a chart to show the
structure of the Ottoman society. List groups in order
of importance.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Rise of the Ottoman Turks
Selim I conquered
Arabia. What cities
did he then control
that helped him
in his claim to
be caliph?
Chapter 15, Section 1
Sultan
(page 484)
In the early fourteenth century, the Osman Turks began
to expand and build the Ottoman dynasty. First, the Ottomans
expanded westward to control two straits, the Bosporus and the
Dardanelles. These straits connect the Black Sea and the Aegean
Sea, which leads to the Mediterranean. Then the Ottomans
expanded into the Balkans. The Ottoman rulers, called sultans,
created a strong military led by janissaries. The latter were
recruited from the local Christian population and converted to
Islam.
Under the leadership of Mehmet II, the Ottomans bombarded Constantinople with massive cannons. The Ottomans
took the city and made Constantinople their new capital. They
renamed it Istanbul.
By 1517 Sultan Selim I had taken control of Mesopotamia,
Egypt, and Arabia. He declared himself the new caliph—the
successor to Muhammad. Where possible, the Ottomans administered their conquests through local rulers. They appointed officials called pashas to collect taxes and maintain law and order.
The Turks eventually moved into Austria and the western Mediterranean until 1571. They retained the core of their
empire, but would never again threaten central Europe.
163
The Ottoman World
How did the
conversion of many
Bosnians affect the
twentieth century?
(page 482)
Problems in the Ottoman Empire
What drink that
Americans use
heavily today was
introduced through
the Ottoman Empire?
164
(page 489)
The Ottoman Empire reached its height under Suleyman I,
called Suleyman the Magnificent. After Suleyman’s death change
in the empire was brought about by the exchange of Western
and Ottoman ideas and customs. Officials and merchants
began to imitate Europeans in their clothes, furniture, and art.
Europeans borrowed Ottoman military technology and used
Ottoman tiles, pottery, and rugs to decorate their homes.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, coffee was
introduced to Ottoman society and spread to Europe. One sultan issued a decree outlawing coffee and tobacco. If he caught
any of his subjects in immoral or illegal acts, he had them
immediately executed.
Chapter 15, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Ottoman Empire was one of the empires often called
a “gunpowder empire.” Gunpowder empires were formed by
outside conquerors who unified the regions they conquered.
A gunpowder empire’s success was largely based on its mastery
of firearm technology. At the head of the Ottoman system was
the sultan, who was the supreme authority both politically
and militarily.
The private domain of the sultan was the harem, where he
and his wives resided. When a son became sultan, his mother
became queen mother and often had power as an adviser. An
imperial council helped govern. It was led by the grand vizier.
The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims. Ottoman sultans began
claiming the title of caliph in the sixteenth century. They gave
part of their religious duties to a group of religious advisers
called the ulema. This group administered the legal system
and the schools. The Ottomans were generally tolerant of nonMuslims, who made up a significant minority. Non-Muslims paid
a tax, but were allowed to practice their religion or convert to
Islam. In some areas, such as present-day Bosnia, many converted.
In addition to the ruling class, there were four main occupational groups: peasants, artisans, merchants, and pastoral
peoples. Merchants were the most privileged class. All land was
ultimately owned by the sultan.
Under the Ottomans, women had a somewhat better position than other Muslim women. Women were allowed to own
and inherit property. They could not be forced into marriage
and were sometimes allowed to divorce.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What steps did the Ottomans take to build a strong military?
2. How did the Ottomans treat non-Muslims in their empire?
What problems caused the weakening of the Ottoman Empire?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exposi tory
Chapter 15, Section 1
165
Chapter 15, Section 2
(Pages 492–495)
The Rule of the Safavids
The Safavids used their faith as a unifying force. As you read this section, use
a Venn diagram like the one below to compare and contrast the Ottoman and
Safavid Empires.
Ottoman
Empire
The Safavid Empire
166
(page 492)
After the empire of Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) collapsed, the
area extending from Persia into central Asia fell into anarchy
(lawlessness and disorder). At the beginning of the sixteenth
century, a new dynasty—the Safavids—took control. This
dynasty was founded by Shah Ismail. A shah was a king.
In 1501 Ismail seized much of Iran and Iraq. He was a Shia
Muslim, and sent Shia preachers to try to convert the Sunni
Turkish tribes. The Ottomans and the Safavids fought several times. As the Safavids tried to consolidate their rule, they
required conversion to the Shia faith from the largely Sunni
population. Many Sunnis were either killed or exiled.
From 1588 to 1629, the Safavids reached their heights. Shah
Abbas strengthened the army, which he armed with the latest
weapons. He fought with the Ottomans and regained Azerbaijan.
However, after his death, the Safavid dynasty began to decline.
Shia religious elements gained power at court and in society.
Intellectual freedom declined as people were forced to conform
to traditional religious beliefs, called religious orthodoxy.
During the early empire, Persian women had considerable
freedom. Now they were forced to wear veils and live in
seclusion.
Chapter 15, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What was the
religious reason that
the Ottoman Turks
fought the Safavids?
Safavid
Empire
Life under the Safavids
Under the Safavids, Persia was a mixed society with a combination of Persian and Turkish elements. The Shia eagerly supported the Safavid rulers. The shahs declared Shia Islam to be
the state religion. Shahs were more available to their people
than rulers elsewhere. They firmly controlled the power of
the landed aristocracy. Appointment to senior positions in the
bureaucracy was based on merit rather than birth. The shahs
supported trade and manufacturing. They kept the roads fairly
clear of thieves and bandits. This was important because most
goods moved by horse or camel caravans.
Safavid Persia was probably not as prosperous as its neighbors, the Moguls and the Ottomans. Hemmed in by European
sea power to the south and the land power of the Ottomans to
the west, Safavids found trade with Europe difficult.
Knowledge of science, medicine, and mathematics under
the Safavids was equal to that of other societies in the region.
Silk weaving and carpet weaving flourished. There was a
great demand for Persian carpets in the West. Persian painting
showed soft colors and flowing movement. Persian painter
Riza-i-Abbasi created exquisite works.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did the shahs
need to keep the
roads fairly clear of
thieves and bandits?
(page 495)
Chapter 15, Section 2
167
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. In what way was Persia under the Safavids a mixed society?
2. What art forms flourished under the Safavids?
Exposi tory
Explain the causes and effects of the decline of the Safavid Empire.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
168
Chapter 15, Section 2
Chapter 15, Section 3
(Pages 498–503)
The Grandeur of the Moguls
A country’s society and its culture reflect the shared heritage of its people.
As you read, create a chart listing the accomplishments and weaknesses of
the Mogul rulers.
Ruler
Accomplishments
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Mogul Dynasty
Was India a strongly
centralized state
under the Moguls?
Chapter 15, Section 3
Weaknesses
(page 498)
Babur, the founder of the Mogul dynasty, came to India from
present-day Afghanistan. Babur captured Delhi and established
power in the plains of North India. By 1605 Babur’s grandson,
Akbar, had brought Mogul rule to most of India. The empire was
actually a collection of semi-independent states held together by
the power of the emperor. Akbar was humane. He was a Muslim,
but had a policy of religious tolerance.
Many lower-ranking officials were Hindus. These local officials, called zamindars, sometimes came to have considerable
power in their local districts. Indian peasants had to pay about
one-third of their harvest in taxes, but the taxes were reduced in
hard times.
Akbar was succeeded by his son, Jahangir, who gradually lost interest in government. His successor, Shah Jahan,
expanded his territory. However, his treasury was nearly empty,
and he had to raise taxes to pay for his military campaigns and
extensive building projects. Most of his subjects lived in poverty.
Shah Jahan’s son tried to eliminate evils such as the practice
of suttee, where a widow was required to burn herself to death.
However, he ended the practice of religious tolerance, causing
many protests from Hindus. There were revolts, and after he
died India became increasingly divided and vulnerable to attack.
169
Life in Mogul India
What words tell you
that the beauty of
the Taj Mahal in
comparison to other
buildings is the
author’s opinion?
(page 501)
The Moguls were foreigners in India. They were also Muslims
ruling a mostly Hindu population. The blend of influences on
ordinary Indians was complicated. For example, women had
played an active role in Mogul society. But the Moguls also
placed restrictions on women according to their interpretation
of Islamic law. Hindus adopted some of these practices, such
as isolating women. Some Hindu practices, such as suttee and
child marriage, remained unchanged. In the Mogul era, a wealthy
nobility and a prosperous merchant class emerged.
Under the Moguls, Persian and Indian influences came
together in a new and beautiful architectural style. This style is
best symbolized by the Taj Mahal, which Shah Jahan built in the
mid-seventeenth century. It took more than 20 years to build
and caused taxes to rise enough to drive many Indian peasants
into complete poverty. The Taj Mahal may be the most beautiful
building in India and possibly the entire world. It has monumental size and brilliance and also delicate lightness.
Europeans Come to India
170
The arrival of the British hastened the decline of the Mogul
Empire. British ships carried Indian-made cotton goods to the
East Indies, where they were traded for spices. The British success attracted the French, who established their own forts.
Sir Robert Clive, an aggressive empire builder, served as the
chief representative in India of the East India Company, a private company that acted on behalf of the crown. Clive fought
any force that threatened the Company’s power and ultimately
restricted the French to the fort at Pondicherry and a few territories on the southeastern coast.
In 1757 Clive led a small British force to victory over a
Mogul-led army in the Battle of Plassey in Bengal. Victory gave
the East India Company the power to collect taxes from lands in
the area around Calcutta.
Many East India Company officials offended both their
Indian allies and the local population, who were taxed heavily
to meet the Company’s growing expenses.
Chapter 15, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What was the
British attitude
toward India?
(page 503)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Who founded the Mogul dynasty?
2. In what ways was Akbar a humane ruler?
Using information from the text and your imagination, describe what
you imagine the Taj Mahal to look like.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 15, Section 3
171
Chapter 16, Section 1
(Pages 510–515)
China at Its Height
China preferred to keep its culture free of European influences. As you
read, complete a diagram like the one below to compare and contrast the
achievements of the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Ming
The Ming Dynasty
172
(page 510)
The Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368, and
the Ming dynasty began. The Chinese strengthened the Great
Wall and renovated the Grand Canal. Ming rulers ran an effective government using a centralized bureaucracy staffed with
officials chosen by the civil service examination system. They
set up a nationwide school system. Manufactured goods were
produced in workshops, and new crops were introduced. It was
an era of greatness for China.
In 1406 construction of the Imperial City in Beijing was
begun, and soon the capital was moved there from Nanjing.
Zheng He led naval voyages into the Indian Ocean and to the
eastern coast of Africa. The voyages were profitable and informative but were halted as an unworthy activity.
In 1514 a Portuguese fleet arrived. The Chinese looked down
on the Europeans as just a new kind of barbarian, who sometimes behaved outrageously. But some cultural exchange took
place. Jesuit missionaries had brought instruments such as clocks
that impressed the Chinese. The Europeans were impressed
with Chinese civilization, including the teachings of Confucius,
the printing and availability of books, and Chinese architecture.
Internal power struggles, government corruption, high taxes,
and a major epidemic brought decline to the Ming dynasty.
Then the Manchus, who lived northeast of the Great Wall, conquered Beijing and began the Qing dynasty.
Chapter 16, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What factors caused
the decline of the
Ming dynasty?
Qing
The Qing Dynasty
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did the
Manchus change
the appearance
of the Chinese?
Chapter 16, Section 1
(page 513)
To identify rebels, the Manchu (Qing) government ordered
all males to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles. Men had to
shave their foreheads and braid their hair into a pigtail called a
queue. The Manchus were gradually accepted as legitimate rulers, even though they were ethnically and culturally different
from the Chinese. The Manchus made up only 2 percent of the
population, and they kept their distinction legally. The Manchu
nobility had large landholdings and received revenues from the
state treasury.
Other Qing were organized into separate military units,
called banners. These were the chief fighting force of the
empire. Chinese were allowed into the imperial administration,
but mostly in the lower posts. However, the sharing of power
won Chinese support for the Qing.
Perhaps the greatest emperor of the Ming and Qing dynasties
was Kangxi, who ruled from 1661 to 1722. He was very hardworking and calmed unrest along the frontiers by force. He was
devoted to justice and a patron of the arts and letters. Christian
missionaries worked hard during his reign, converting several
hundred officials and an estimated 300,000 ordinary Chinese.
Kangxi’s successor began to suppress Christian activities.
Another ruler, Qianlong (1746–1795), expanded China to
its greatest physical size. Under his reign, China was prosperous, but decay was beginning. Corruption, high taxes, and the
pressure of population growth led to unrest. The White Lotus
Rebellion took place and was expensive to put down.
China was restricting trade with Europeans at this time.
The British wanted more trade and access to more of China.
Chinese exports to Britain were greater than Chinese imports
from Britain, which Britain did not like. However, the Chinese
refused to expand trade.
173
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Who was perhaps the greatest ruler of the Ming and Qing dynasties?
2. How did the Chinese regard the Europeans?
Descri pt
ptive
Describe the voyages of Zheng He in a journal entry as if you were a
passenger on one of the ships. Use all five senses in your description.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
174
Chapter 16, Section 1
Chapter 16, Section 2
(Pages 516–519)
Chinese Society and Culture
Chinese society was organized around the family. As you read, show the
organization of the Chinese family by using a concentric circle diagram like
the one below.
Husband, Wife,
and Family
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Economy and Daily Life
Why didn’t China
develop commercial
capitalism?
Chapter 16, Section 2
(page 516)
Between 1500 and 1800, nearly 85 percent of the Chinese
people were small farmers. Population grew sharply between
1390 and the 1700s. This was because the Qing dynasty provided peace and stability, and the Chinese had acquired a
faster-growing species of rice. More people meant less land
available, which led to unrest and revolts. There was some
growth in manufacturing, and trade in silk, porcelain, and
cotton goods expanded. However, China did not develop
commercial capitalism, where private business is based on
profit, as did Europe. The government firmly controlled trade
and manufacturing, and put higher taxes on them than on
farming. This was because they were considered to be inferior
occupations to farming.
Chinese society was organized around the family. Often,
three or four generations lived under the same roof. Beyond
the extended family was the clan, which consisted of dozens,
or even hundreds, of related families. Clans were linked by a
clan council of elders and common social and religious activities. Women were considered inferior to men. Only males could
have a formal education or inherit property. Women could not
get divorces, but men could if the wife did not produce sons.
The mobility of women was restricted by footbinding. Bound feet
were a status symbol. The process, begun in childhood, made the
feet appear smaller and was very painful. Women with bound
feet could not walk, yet were more marriageable. Perhaps onehalf to two-thirds of the women in China had their feet bound.
175
Chinese Art and Literature
What literary form
began to develop
during the Ming
dynasty?
(page 519)
The economic expansion that took place under the Ming
dynasty enabled more people to buy books. Also, advances
in paper manufacturing encouraged the growth of printing.
The beginnings of the modern Chinese novel lie in the Ming
era. One novel, The Golden Lotus, is considered by many to
be the first realistic social novel. It depicts the corrupt life of
a wealthy landlord who cruelly manipulates those around him
for sex, money, and power. The Dream of the Red Chamber by
Cao Xuein is still generally considered to be China’s most distinguished popular novel. It tells of the tragic love between two
young people caught in the financial and moral collapse of a
powerful Chinese clan.
There was an outpouring of artistic brilliance during the
Ming and Qing dynasties. In architecture, this is demonstrated in
the Imperial City, home of the emperors in Beijing. The Imperial
City is an immense compound surrounded by six and one-half
miles (10.5 kilometers) of walls. It is a maze of apartments,
offices, banquet halls, and spacious gardens. Commoners were
not allowed there, so it came to be called the Forbidden City.
The decorative arts also flourished. Possibly the most
famous of all the arts of the Ming Era was blue-and-white
porcelain. Europeans admired and collected it. Different styles
were produced under the reigns of different emperors.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
176
Chapter 16, Section 2
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What caused the shortage of land under the Qing dynasty?
2. What Chinese item did Europeans admire and collect?
Using information from the text and your imagination, describe a
morning in the life of a Chinese girl living in the Forbidden City.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 16, Section 2
177
Chapter 16, Section 3
(Pages 520–525)
Tokugawa Japan and Korea
Political unification often results in warfare and difficult economic and
social changes. As you read, categorize the different elements of Japanese
culture using a diagram like the one below.
Culture
Political Changes in Japan
178
By the end of the fifteenth century, Japan was in chaos.
Daimyo, heads of noble families, controlled their own lands
and warred with their neighbors. By 1590 Toyotomi Hideyoshi
had persuaded most of the daimyo to accept his authority. After
Hideyoshi’s death, Tokugawa Ieyasu, the daimyo of Edo (modern-day Tokyo) took control. Later, he took the title of shogun.
Tokugawa shoguns remained in power at their capital of Edo
until 1868. This long period was called the “Great Peace.”
Portuguese traders arrived in Japan in 1543. At first, the visitors were welcomed. The Japanese liked European goods such
as tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses, and firearms. Jesuit missionaries converted thousands of Japanese to Christianity. However,
when the Jesuits destroyed local shrines, Hideyoshi prohibited
Christian activities. Under Ieyasu, missionaries were expelled
and Christians were persecuted. Of the merchants, only a small
Dutch community was allowed to remain in Japan, and Dutch
ships could only dock in one port once a year.
During the Great Peace, the state was divided into about
250 territories called hans, each ruled by a daimyo. The shogun controlled the daimyo with the hostage system. When
the daimyo was away at home, his family had to stay in Edo to
insure the daimyo’s loyalty to the shogun.
Chapter 16, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How might the
Tokugawa have
used firearms?
(page 520)
The Tokugawa Era
How were the
Chinese and the
Japanese similar in
regard to the rights
of women?
(page 523)
By 1750 Edo was one of the largest cities in the world.
Banking flourished, and paper money became the normal
medium of exchange for business transactions. Most peasants,
however, were experiencing rising costs and taxes and many
peasant revolts against high taxes occurred.
Under the Tokugawa, Japan’s class system became rigid.
Rulers established strict legal distinctions between the four main
classes: warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants. Below these
classes were Japan’s outcasts, the eta. Intermarriage between
classes was forbidden.
The rights of women were restricted. Male heads of households had broad authority over property, marriage, and divorce.
Parents arranged marriages. However, women were generally
valued for their roles as childbearers and homemakers among
the common people.
New cultural values began to appear. The greatest Japanese
poet, Matsuo Basho, wrote in the seventeenth century. In theater, Kabuki, which emphasized action, music, and dramatic
gestures, emerged. Women were forbidden to appear on stage,
so women’s roles were acted by men.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Korea: The Hermit Kingdom
How are the Korean
and English
alphabets alike?
Chapter 16, Section 3
(page 525)
The Yi dynasty in Korea began in 1392 when Yi Song-gye,
a great military strategist, overthrew the Koryo dynasty. The
Yi patterned their society after the Chinese to the north but
kept their own identity. One significant characteristic of Korean
culture was their development of a unique alphabet, Hangul.
Japanese and Chinese use thousands of characters, or symbols.
Hangul, however, is a phonetically based writing system, using
one letter for each sound, as English does. Hangul is still largely
the standard writing system in Korea.
A Japanese force invaded Korea as a first step to invading
China, killing skilled workers and devastating farms. In response,
Korean rulers sought to limit contact with foreign countries.
Korea was largely untouched by European merchants or Christian
missionaries. It earned the name “the Hermit Kingdom.”
Korea was still recovering from the Japanese invasions
when the Manchus attacked in the early seventeenth century.
Korea surrendered, and the Yi dynasty became subject to China.
179
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How did the role of the samurai change under the Tokugawa?
2. What influence did Europeans have on Korea under the Yi dynasty?
Exposi tory
Explain the advantages and disadvantages that the Japanese felt they
encountered with the Europeans.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
180
Chapter 16, Section 3
Chapter 16, Section 4
(Pages 526–529)
Spice Trade in
Southeast Asia
Europeans struggled to control the profitable spice trade in Southeast Asia.
As you read, use a chart like the one below to list reasons why the destructive effects of European contact in Southeast Asia were only gradually felt.
European Contact in Southeast Asia
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Emerging Mainland States
Which style of king
ruled by Confucian
teachings?
Chapter 16, Section 4
(page 526)
In 1500 mainland Southeast Asia was a relatively stable
region. However, conflict between the Thai and the Burmese
resulted in the Thai having to move their capital south to
Bangkok in 1767. The Vietnamese spread to the coast and then
took control of the Mekong delta. By 1800 the Khmer monarchy
had virtually disappeared.
Four styles of monarchy emerged. In Burma, Thailand,
Laos, and Cambodia, Buddhist kings were considered superior
to other human beings and served as the link between human
society and the universe. Javanese kings maintained the balance between the sacred and material worlds. Islamic sultans
were found on the Malay Peninsula and the small coastal states
of the Indonesian Archipelago. A sultan was head of state and
defender of the faith. He staffed his bureaucracy (nonelected
government officials) mainly with aristocrats. The Vietnamese
emperor followed the Chinese model and ruled by Confucian
teaching, which said the ruler was to treat subjects with love
and respect.
181
The Arrival of Europeans
Why were mainland
states in Southeast
Asia better able to
resist European
influence?
(page 528)
Since ancient times, spices had been highly valued. They
were used as medicines and to preserve foods, as well as to
flavor them. Sometimes only meat preserved with salt and
pepper kept people from starving. Ginger, cloves, cinnamon,
and nutmeg were also highly prized. European countries,
therefore, competed to find a sea route to the Indies in order
to get spices. Portugal first found the gateway when Vasco da
Gama sailed to India. Then Portugal seized Melaka and occupied the Moluccas, known to Europeans as the Spice Islands.
However, the Portuguese had only enough military and financial
resources to establish small settlements as trading posts.
In the early 1600s, the Dutch began seizing Portuguese forts
along the trade routes. They gradually pushed the Portuguese
out of the spice trade. Then they drove out the English traders until England was left with a single port on the coast of
Sumatra. The Dutch brought the entire island of Java under its
control and closed access to the Spice Islands.
The arrival of the Europeans had less impact on the
mainland states of Southeast Asia. These were part of the continent, not peninsulas or off-shore islands. Mainland states were
better able to resist because they had strong monarchies and
more political unity. Also, Europeans were more determined to
control the non-mainland states, because these had the spices.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
182
Chapter 16, Section 4
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Which islands did Europeans call the Spice Islands?
2. Which Europeans eventually gained control of the spice trade?
Describe a meal of meat and bread without the use of spices.
Then describe the same meal if the cook used the spices mentioned
in the summary.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 16, Section 4
183
Chapter 17, Section 1
(Pages 538–545)
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution gave Europeans a new way to view humankind’s
place in the universe. As you read, use a table like the one below to chart
the contributions of scientists to a new concept of the universe.
Copernicus
Kepler
Causes of the Scientific Revolution
184
In the Middle Ages, educated Europeans relied on a few
ancient authorities, especially Aristotle, for their scientific
knowledge. During the Renaissance, humanists studied Greek as
well as Latin. This gave them access to other ancient authorities,
such as Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Plato. This in turn let them
know that some ancient thinkers had disagreed with Aristotle.
This and other developments encouraged new ways of thinking.
Technical problems that required careful observation and accurate measurements, such as calculating the weight that ships
could hold, stimulated scientific activity. The invention of new
instruments, such as the telescope and the microscope, made
fresh discoveries possible. Above all, the printing press helped
spread new ideas quickly and easily.
Mathematics played a key role in the scientific achievements
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The foundation
for trigonometry was laid. The decimal system was introduced
and a table of logarithms was invented. This made calculation
easier. Many great thinkers were also great mathematicians who
believed that the secrets of nature were written in the language
of mathematics.
Chapter 17, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did the study
of Greek influence
the way Europeans
viewed Aristotle?
(page 538)
Scientific Breakthroughs
How did the Catholic
Church try to block
progress in scientific
thought?
The ancient astronomer Ptolemy had constructed a geocentric model of the universe that placed Earth at the center. All
the heavenly bodies but Earth were made of light.
In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus published his theories, which said
that the Sun was the center of the universe (it was heliocentric) and
that the planets revolved around it. Johannes Kepler supported this
model when he used detailed astronomical data to confirm it.
Galileo Galilei was the first European to make regular
observations of the heavens by using a telescope. He discovered
that the heavenly bodies were not made of light, but composed
of material substance, as Earth was.
The Church ordered Galileo to abandon the Copernican
idea his research supported. However, most astronomers had
accepted the heliocentric conception of the universe by the
1640s. Then Isaac Newton defined three laws of motion. Part of
his argument was the universal law of gravitation. This law
stated that every object in the universe was attracted to every
other object by a force called gravity.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Women’s Contributions
How did keeping
scholarship as the
domain of men help
to restrict the rights
of women?
Chapter 17, Section 1
(page 540)
(page 543)
Many women contributed to the Scientific Revolution, even
though scholarship was the domain of men. Margaret Cavendish,
had no formal education in the sciences, but she wrote a number
of works on scientific matters, some of which criticized the idea
that humans were masters of nature. Between 1650 and 1710,
women made up 14 percent of all German astronomers.
185
Philosophy and Reason
How did the
Scientific Revolution
influence the
Western view of
humankind?
(page 544)
The Scientific Revolution influenced the Western view of
humankind. French philosopher René Descartes developed
a system of thought called rationalism. He believed that the
mind and the body, indeed all matter, were separate. Matter
could therefore be viewed as dead, or inert, and could be investigated by the mind.
Francis Bacon created the scientific method for learning
about nature. He taught that scientists should use inductive
reasoning—starting with detailed facts and then proceeding
toward general principles. Scientists were to observe natural
events, propose explanations, and use systematic observations
and organized experiments to test the explanations.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What is the main difference between the geocentric and heliocentric models of
the universe?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. What force did Newton identify?
Exposi tory
186
Explain Francis Bacon’s scientific method.
Chapter 17, Section 1
Chapter 17, Section 2
(Pages 546–553)
The Enlightenment
Enlightenment thinkers, or philosophers, believed all institutions should
follow natural laws to produce the ideal society. As you read, use a diagram like the one below to list some of the main ideas introduced during
the Enlightenment.
Major Ideas
of the Enlightenment
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Path to the Enlightenment
Why did Locke think
that giving people
the right influences
could make a
difference in society?
Chapter 17, Section 2
(page 546)
The Enlightenment was an eighteenth-century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with
the achievements of the Scientific Revolution. They thought they
could apply reason and the scientific method to gain an understanding of all life. Two men from the seventeenth century—
John Locke and Isaac Newton—influenced the Enlightenment.
Locke thought that people were born with blank minds.
Therefore, they were molded by their observations and experiences. If given the right influences, people could be changed to
create a new society.
Newton thought of the world as a machine, created by a
mechanic, God. God then allowed the world-machine to run
according to natural laws that could be uncovered through systematic investigation. Enlightenment thinkers believed that by
applying Newton’s methods, they could discover the natural
laws that governed society. If all institutions followed these
natural laws, the result would be an ideal society.
187
Ideas of the Philosophes
How did the
philosophes affect
the Unites States
Constitution?
The intellectuals of the Enlightenment were called
philosophes. They came chiefly from the nobility and the middle class. They thought the role of philosophy was to change
the world. A spirit of rational criticism was to be applied to
everything, including religion and politics.
Montesquieu studied governments. He believed that
England’s government had three branches: the executive (the
monarch), the legislative (Parliament), and the judicial (the
courts). He believed that this separation of powers gave the
government a system of checks and balances. American philosophes worked this idea into the United States Constitution.
Voltaire championed deism, a religious philosophy built on
the idea that God had set the world in motion and allowed it to
run without his interference. Diderot published a 28-volume
Encyclopedia that spread Enlightenment ideas.
New Social Sciences
The founders of the modern social science of economics are
believed to be the Physiocrats, a French group, and Scottish
philosopher Adam Smith. The Physiocrats believed that if individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interest,
all society would ultimately benefit. The state, therefore, should
not interfere in the economy. This doctrine became known as
laissez-faire. The best statement of laissez-faire was made by
Adam Smith when he published The Wealth of Nations in 1776.
The Spread of Ideas
How were Rousseau’s
thoughts different
from other
Enlightenment
thinkers?
188
(page 549)
(page 551)
In his work The Social Contract, Rousseau presented the
idea that through a social contract, an entire society agreed
to be governed by its general will. Rousseau also argued that
education should foster, not restrict, children’s natural instincts.
Unlike many Enlightenment thinkers, Rousseau believed that
emotions, as well as reason, were important to human development. He sought a balance between heart and mind, emotions
and reason.
Mary Wollstonecraft advanced the strongest statement for
the rights of women. In A Vindication of the Rights of Women,
Wollstonecraft argued that if government based on the arbitrary
power of a monarch was wrong, then men’s power over women
Chapter 17, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What did the
Pysiocrats believe?
(page 548)
was wrong. Wollstonecraft declared that because women have
the power of reason, they deserved equal rights in education, as
well as in economic and political life.
During the Enlightenment, ideas were spread through the
salon. These were elegant gatherings in the homes of the wealthy
upper class. They brought writers and artists together with aristocrats, government officials, and the wealthy middle class.
John Wesley, an Anglican minister, tried to make his preaching understandable to the lower classes. His Methodist movement influenced both the English and later the American
movement to abolish slavery.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What is laissez-faire?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. What Enlightenment movement was important to the abolition of slavery?
Using information from the text and your knowledge of life today,
argue in favor of Mary Wollstonecraft’s position on women’s rights
or against it. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper.
Chapter 17, Section 2
189
Chapter 17, Section 3
(Pages 554–563)
The Impact of the
Enlightenment
Europe’s individual nations were chiefly guided by the self-interest of their
rulers. As you read, use a chart like the one below to list the conflicts of
the Seven Years’ War. Include the countries involved and where the conflicts were fought.
Confl icts of the Seven Years’ War
Enlightenment and Absolutism
190
The philosophes believed in natural rights for all people.
These rights included equality before the law; freedom of
religious worship; freedom of speech; freedom of the press;
and the rights to assemble, hold property, and pursue happiness. To establish and preserve their natural rights, people
needed to be governed by enlightened rulers. Many historians
once assumed that a new type of monarchy, enlightened absolutism, emerged in the eighteenth century.
Frederick II of Prussia made a few reforms, such as granting
limited freedom of speech and press, and greater religious toleration. But he kept Prussia’s serfdom and rigid social structure intact.
In Austria, Joseph II made far-reaching reforms, including
abolishing serfdom and establishing equality before the law
and religious toleration. However, he alienated the nobles and
Church by doing so, and his successors undid almost all of
Joseph II’s reforms.
In Russia, Catherine the Great favored the landed nobility
and took strong measures to put down peasant rebellion. She
greatly expanded Russia’s territory. Monarchs of all three of these
nations cared more for power and territory than for reform.
Chapter 17, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Which monarch tried
hardest to institute
reforms?
(page 554)
The Seven Years’ War
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What drive on the
part of a monarch
set the stage for the
Seven Years’ War?
(page 558)
The Seven Years’ War was a global conflict with shifting alliances. Prussia conquered Austrian Silesia. France allied with
Prussia, and Austria allied with Great Britain. Territories were
forcibly exchanged in Europe, India, and North America. In 1748
the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war and returned all
occupied territories to their original owners, except for Silesia.
Austria’s ruler, Maria Theresa rebuilt her army and then got
France and Russia to ally with Austria. The British then allied with
the Prussians. The European conflict eventually ended and Maria
Theresa had to officially recognize Prussia’s control of Silesia.
The struggle between Britain and France went on in other
parts of the world and is known as the Great War for Empire.
The greatest conflicts of the Seven Years’ War took place in
North America. The British and French fought for control of the
St. Lawrence waterways (in present-day Canada) and for control of the Ohio River valley. Eventually, the British won. In the
Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French gave Canada and the lands
east of the Mississippi to England, which also got Florida from
France’s ally, Spain. To make up for the loss of Florida, France
gave Spain its Louisiana territory. Great Britain was now the
world’s greatest colonial power.
Enlightenment and Arts
How were the
baroque and rococo
styles different?
Chapter 17, Section 3
(page 561)
The ideas of the Enlightenment had an impact on world culture. By the 1730s, a new style, known as rococo, had spread
over Europe. Unlike the baroque, which stressed grandeur and
power, rococo emphasized grace and charm.
Eighteenth-century Europe produced some of the world’s
most enduring music. Bach, a German composer, is one of the
greatest composers of all time. Handel, a German who worked
in England, wrote Messiah. These two composers perfected the
baroque musical style.
Franz Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, in the
latter part of the century, wrote in the classical style. Mozart was
a child prodigy who wrote some of the world’s greatest operas.
191
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Which nation was the world’s greatest colonial power at the end of the
Seven Years’ War?
2. What four musical geniuses lived in the eighteenth century?
Descri pt
ptive
Describe two imaginary residences—one built in the baroque style—
to project power and grandeur—and one built in the rococo style
to project grace and charm, using delicate designs, curves, and
gold color.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
192
Chapter 17, Section 3
Chapter 17, Section 4
(Pages 566–569)
The American Revolution
The American Revolution and the formation of the United States of
America seemed to confirm premises of the Enlightenment. As you read,
use a chart like the one below to identify key aspects of the government
created by the American colonists.
New American Government
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Britain and the American Revolution
Why was the
American Revolution
such a gamble?
Chapter 17, Section 4
(page 566)
In 1707 England and Scotland were united into the United
Kingdom of Great Britain. Parliament and the monarch shared
power, with Parliament gradually becoming more important.
The British government wanted to raise taxes in the colonies to help pay for the war and the colonies’ defense. In 1765
Parliament passed the Stamp Act, which imposed a tax on
legal documents and newspapers. There was strong opposition,
and the act was repealed in 1766. Crisis followed crisis in the
1770s. Fighting erupted in April 1775. The Second Continental
Congress approved the Declaration of Independence. The revolution was a big gamble, as Britain was a strong military power
with enormous financial resources. The Continental Army was
made up of untrained amateurs.
Other nations, seeking revenge on Britain, supplied arms,
money, and soldiers to the rebels.
The British decided to end the war in 1781. The Treaty of
Paris in 1783, gave Americans control of the territory from the
Appalachians to the Mississippi.
193
The Birth of a New Nation
What part of
the Constitution
guaranteed natural
rights to Americans?
After throwing off oppressive rule, the former colonies, now
states, feared a strong central government. Thus, their first constitution, the Articles of Confederation, created a government
that lacked the power to deal with the nation’s problems. In
1787 delegates met again and wrote an entirely new plan, called
the Constitution.
The Constitution created a federal system, in which the
national government and the state governments shared power.
Based on Montesquieu’s ideas, the national, or federal, government was separated into three branches: the executive (headed
by the president), the legislative (the Congress), and the judicial
(the courts). Each branch had some power to restrain acts of
the other branches.
During negotiations over ratification, the new Congress proposed 12 amendments to the Constitution, and 10 of them were
approved by the states. These 10 amendments became known
as the Bill of Rights. They guaranteed freedom of religion,
speech, press, petition, and assembly. They gave Americans the
right to bear arms and to be protected against unreasonable
searches and arrests. They guaranteed trial by jury, due process
of law, and the protection of property rights.
Many of the rights in the Bill of Rights were similar
to the natural rights proposed by the philosophes. Many
Europeans saw the American Revolution as the acting out of
the Enlightenment’s political dreams. The creation of the United
States seemed to confirm that a better world could be achieved.
Chapter 17, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
194
(page 569)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What countries supported the Americans in their revolution against the British?
2. Why did Europeans see the creation of the United States as the acting out of the
Enlightenment’s political dreams?
Trace the American Revolution from the Stamp Act to the
Treaty of Paris.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 17, Section 4
195
Chapter 18, Section 1
(Pages 576–585)
The French Revolution
Begins
Social inequality and economic problems contributed to the French
Revolution. As you read, use a diagram like the one below to list the factors
that contributed to the French Revolution.
French
Revolution
Why was Louis XVI
forced to call a
meeting of the
Estates-General?
196
(page 576)
The French Revolution created both a new political order
and a new social order. It is considered a turning point in
European history.
Since the Middle Ages, the French population had been
legally divided into three status groups, or estates. The First
Estate held the clergy, the Second Estate held the nobles, and
the Third Estate held everyone else. The First and Second
Estates controlled most of the wealth of the kingdom but did
not pay the taille, France’s chief tax. The Third Estate contained
vastly different people, from wealthy merchants to craftspeople
to poor peasants to the bourgeoisie, or middle class. They all
resented the old rigid social order.
The French aristocracy spent money lavishly during economic decline. Louis XVI was forced to call a meeting of the
Estates-General, which contained representatives of all three
estates, to raise taxes.
Chapter 18, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Background to the Revolution
From Estates-General to National Assembly
Why would the king
support the old
system of voting in
the Estates-General?
Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates-General on May 5,
1789. Most of the Third Estate wanted to set up a constitutional
government that would make the clergy and the nobility pay
taxes, too. The Third Estate demanded that each deputy have a
vote. The king supported the old system, which gave the First
and Second Estate the power to outvote the larger Third Estate.
On June 17, 1789, the Third Estate declared that it was the
National Assembly and would draft a constitution. Locked out of
their meeting place they moved to a nearby indoor tennis court
and swore that they would continue meeting until they had a
new constitution.
Louis XVI prepared to use force against the Third Estate. After
hungry Parisians destroyed the Bastille, in search of arms, the
king’s authority collapsed in Paris. Revolts then spread all over
France. Peasant rebellions became part of a vast panic known as
the Great Fear. The peasants were afraid that foreign troops would
stop the revolts, so they broke into the houses of the lords to
destroy the records of their obligations.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
End of the Old Regime
Why did the French
Revolution turn
more radical?
Chapter 18, Section 1
(page 579)
(page 581)
In reaction to the peasant rebellion, the National Assembly
abolished all legal privileges of the nobles and clergy on August
4, 1789. On August 26 it adopted the Declaration of the Rights
of Man and the Citizen that proclaimed that all men were free
and equal before the law, that appointment to public office
should be based on talent, and that no group should be exempt
from taxation. It was not clear whether these rights were to
include women.
Thousands of Parisian women marched to Versailles. They
met with the king and forced him to accept the decrees.
The revolutionaries then decided to weaken the Church,
because it had been a supporter of the old system. The National
Assembly seized and sold Church lands, and a law was passed
requiring that bishops and priests be elected by the people, not
appointed by the pope.
The new Constitution of 1791 set up a limited monarchy. A
Legislative Assembly would make the laws. However, only males
over 25 who paid a certain amount of taxes could vote, and
only relatively wealthy people could be deputies. Some people
wanted more reform.
European leaders began to fear that revolution would
spread to their countries. Austria and Prussia threatened to
197
use force to restore Louis XVI to full power. The Legislative
Assembly declared war on Austria in 1792. Angry citizens protested this, and Paris radicals declared themselves a commune—
a popularly run city council. They organized a mob attack on
the royal palace and Legislative Assembly. They took the king
captive and forced the Legislative Assembly to extend the right
to vote to all adult males. Many members of the Paris Commune
called themselves sans-culottes, because they wore long pants
instead of the knee-length breeches favored by the nobles.
Economic conditions and the threat of foreign intervention had
made the revolution more radical.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Before the French Revolution, which group paid all the taxes?
2. Why did France declare war on Austria?
198
Trace the conditions and events that led to the Great Fear.
Chapter 18, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 18, Section 2
(Pages 586–595)
Radical Revolution
and Reaction
Political groups controlled the revolution, which many people in France
and abroad opposed. As you read, create a diagram like the one below
listing actions taken by the National Convention.
Actions taken by the National Convention
1.
2.
3.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Move to Radicalism
Why did some people
want the king to
be executed?
Chapter 18, Section 2
(page 586)
In August, 1792 the sans-culottes attacked the palace, and
the royal family had to seek protection from the Legislative
Assembly. The Paris Commune forced the Assembly to call a
National Convention to draft a new constitution.
The National Convention began to serve as the ruling body
of France. It abolished the monarchy and established the French
Republic. Political clubs, such as the Girondins and the Jacobins,
formed factions—groups that oppose each other. Girondins
favored keeping the king alive, while Jacobins wanted him
executed to keep him from serving as a rallying point for the
republic’s opponents. In early 1793, the Convention condemned
Louis XVI to death, and he was beheaded on January 21.
A coalition of Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and
the Dutch Republic took up arms against France. Disputes
between political factions blocked the writing of a constitution.
The Convention gave broad powers to the Committee of Public
Safety, which came to be dominated by Maximilien Robespierre.
199
The Reign of Terror
Why did the
Convention try to
de-Christianize
France?
For about a year during 1793 and 1794, the Committee of
Public Safety took control of the government. It adopted practices that became known as the Reign of Terror. Almost 40,000
people were killed. Revolutionary armies were set up to bring
rebellious cities under control.
The Committee of Public Safety held that the violence was
only temporary. They took steps to shape what Robespierre
called the Republic of Virtue. A law aimed at primary education
for all was passed, but not widely implemented. Another law
abolished slavery in the French colonies. The Committee tried
to control the high prices of essential goods such as food, fuel,
and clothing, but with little success.
The National Convention tried to de-Christianize France,
because it believed the religion encouraged superstition rather
than reason. Churches and cathedrals were closed or given new
purposes. Priests were encouraged to marry. Robespierre came
to realize that most French people were still Catholic and would
not accept de-Christianization.
A Nation in Arms
200
(page 591)
As foreign troops gathered on France’s borders, the
Committee of Public Safety raised the largest army ever seen
in Europe. It pushed the invaders back across the Rhine and
even conquered the Austrian Netherlands. By summer of 1794,
France had largely defeated its foreign enemies. There was less
need for the Reign of Terror, but still it continued. But in July,
Robespierre himself was guillotined. In August, the release of
prisoners began.
Chapter 18, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What are some
questions that could
be asked about
France’s raising of
such a huge army,
and about that
army’s victories?
(page 589)
The Directory
After the Reign of
Terror ended, how
did the National
Convention change?
(page 593)
With the Terror over, the National Convention moved in a
more conservative direction. A new constitution was created.
It set up two legislative houses. A lower house drafted laws.
An upper house accepted or rejected proposed laws. However,
members of both houses were chosen by electors. Only those
who owned or rented property worth a certain amount could
be an elector. Only 30,000 people in the whole nation qualified
to be an elector.
The executive power was held by a committee of five called
the Directory. The Directory lasted only five years, and was
known for its corruption. Eventually, the military gained power.
Then one successful and popular general, Napoleon Bonaparte,
toppled the Directory in a coup d’etat—a sudden overthrow of
a government.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. What steps did the National Convention take to try to de-Christianize France?
2. Why was the government of the Directory unpopular?
Exposi tory
Chapter 18, Section 2
Explain why the Reign of Terror took place.
201
Chapter 18, Section 3
(Pages 596–603)
The Age of Napoleon
As Napoleon built his empire across Europe, he also spread the revolutionary idea of nationalism. As you read, use a diagram like the one below to
list the achievements of Napoleon’s rule.
Achievements of
Napoleon’s Rule
The Rise of Napoleon
202
In one sense, Napoleon Bonaparte brought the revolution to
an end when he took power. However, he always reminded the
French that he had preserved the best parts of the revolution
during his reign as emperor. His father came from minor nobility in Italy, but the family was not rich. However, Napoleon was
talented and won a scholarship to a famous military school. He
devoted himself to reading French philosophers and studying
military campaigns. Napoleon rose quickly through the ranks.
At the age of 24, he became a brigadier general. He won
battles against the Papal States and the Austrians that gave
France control of northern Italy. Napoleon became known for
speed, surprise, and decisive action. His troops were devoted to
him. In 1797 he returned to France as a hero. He was given an
army to invade Britain. Napoleon knew that such an invasion
would fail and suggested taking Egypt, an important colony of
Britain’s, instead. However, the British navy defeated the French
naval forces supporting Napoleon’s army in Egypt. Seeing certain defeat, Napoleon abandoned his army and returned to
Paris. There he took part in the coup d’etat of 1799 that overthrew the Directory. He set up a new government, the consulate. In theory, it was a republic, but actually, Napoleon had
absolute power. In 1802 Napoleon was made consul for life. In
1804 he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I.
Chapter 18, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why did Napoleon
become a hero to
the French?
(page 596)
Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
In what ways was
Napoleon a despot?
One of Napoleon’s first moves at home was to establish
peace with the Catholic Church. This eliminated the Church as
an enemy and also gave Napoleon the support of those who
had acquired church lands.
Napoleon’s most famous achievement was codifying the laws.
Before the revolution, France had almost 300 different legal systems. The most important code, the Napoleonic Code, preserved
the principles of equality of all citizens before the law, the right
of an individual to choose a profession, religious toleration, and
abolition of serfdom and feudal obligations. However, under the
Napoleonic Code women lost control over their property when
they married, they could not testify in court, and they were generally treated as children.
Napoleon created a strong, centralized administration. Public
officials and military officers were all promoted on the basis of
ability. Careers were opened to men of talent. However, Napoleon
was also despotic. He shut down 60 of France’s 73 newspapers
and banned many books. He insisted that all manuscripts be
looked at by the government before publication. Even the mail
was opened by government police.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Napoleon’s Empire
Why did Napoleon
want to sell the
Louisiana territory?
Chapter 18, Section 3
(page 598)
(page 601)
In 1803 Napoleon sold the Louisiana territory to the United
States for $15 million. This gave him money to fight his enemies.
In a series of battles at Ulm, Austerlitz, Jena, and Eylau from
1805 to 1807, Napoleon’s Grand Army defeated the Austrian,
Prussian, and Russian armies. From 1807 to 1812, Napoleon was
the master of Europe. At the core of his empire was an enlarged
France. Spain, Holland, the kingdom of Italy, the Swiss Republic,
the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and the Confederation of the
Rhine were all dependent states ruled by Napoleon’s relatives.
Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden were forced to become
allies in Napoleon’s struggle against Britain.
Also, Napoleon aroused ideas of nationalism—the sense of
unique identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols—in the conquered countries. They
felt united in hating the French, while at the same time, they
saw what power national unity had brought France.
203
The Fall of Napoleon
What happened
after Napoleon
invaded Russia?
(page 602)
Napoleon’s downfall began when he invaded Russia in
1812. The Russian army retreated for hundreds of miles and
burned the countryside so the French army could not get food
or fuel. Fewer than 40,000 of Napoleon’s 600,000 soldiers
returned from Russia. Other countries attacked, and Napoleon
was defeated and sent into exile on the island of Elba in 1814.
The victorious powers restored the monarchy with Louis XVIII
as king. The French did not support the monarchy, and when
Napoleon escaped, the troops sent to capture him instead supported him. He entered Paris in triumph in 1815. However, at
Waterloo in Belgium, Napoleon suffered a bloody defeat at the
hands of a British and Prussian army commanded by the Duke
of Wellington. Napoleon was exiled to the island of St. Helena.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What were the results of Napoleon’s peace-making agreement with the Catholic Church?
Exposi tory
204
Contrast the impact of the Napoleonic code on male citizens with its
impact on women.
Chapter 18, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. What general commanded the combined British and Prussian army that finally
defeated Napoleon?
Chapter 19, Section 1
(Pages 614–621)
The Industrial Revolution
As you read, use a table like the one below to name important inventors
mentioned in this section and their inventions.
Inventors
Inventions
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
What effect resulted
from each of the
causes listed below?
changes in farming
new machines
railroads
Chapter 19, Section 1
(page 614)
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the 1780s.
Changes in farming had increased food production and reduced
the need for farm labor, so workers were available for factories.
Britain also had wealthy people with money, or capital, to
invest. The country had natural resources such as rivers, iron,
and coal. With growing cities and a vast colonial empire, it had
markets at home and abroad.
Two new inventions changed how raw cotton was made into
cloth. James Hargreaves invented a spinning jenny. Edmund
Cartwright invented a water-powered loom. These new machines
made spinning and weaving much faster. James Watt invented a
steam engine and a way for his engine to drive machinery.
The new spinning and weaving machines had to be near
the source of power: water or steam. Work moved from homes
into factories. Children as well as adults worked long hours in
the factories.
The British iron and coal industries boomed. Richard Trevithick
built a steam locomotive, and George Stephenson designed wheels
that would let it run on a railway. Railroads carried resources to the
factories and manufactured goods to markets. Building railroads created new jobs. Mass production and efficient transportation lowered
the price of goods. More people could buy factory products, so business owners built more factories. The economy grew and grew.
205
The Spread of Industrialization
Based on the text,
what general statement can be made
about the role of government in industrial growth?
The Industrial Revolution spread faster to some countries
than to others. Most countries did not have as much wealth as
Great Britain had. Also, government policies influenced the rate
of industrialization.
On the continent of Europe, the first three industrialized
areas were Belgium, France, and the German states.
Governments helped by providing money for roads, canals, and
railroads. By 1850 railroads connected many parts of Europe.
Industrialization also grew quickly in the United States.
Because the country was so large, transportation was especially
important. Thousands of miles of roads, canals, and railroads
were built to connect east and west. Robert Fulton built the first
paddle-wheel steamboat in 1807, making river transport easier.
The whole country became one large market for goods made in
the northeastern United States.
American factory workers typically came from farm families.
Most of the textile workers were women and girls. Sometimes
whole families would work together in a factory.
Social Impact in Europe
206
(page 619)
Huge social changes resulted from the Industrial Revolution.
Between 1750 and 1850, the population of Europe almost doubled. Cities grew and the number of large cities increased. One
reason was the increasing food supply. The only major famine
in Western Europe was the Irish potato famine of 1840s, caused
by a fungus. Many Irish people died, and many more migrated
to the United States.
Industrial capitalism was an economic system based on
industrial production. It gave rise to new social classes: the
industrial middle class and the industrial working class.
Someone who ran the factories or developed the markets was a
member of the industrial middle class, or bourgeois. The industrial working class, who worked in a factory or mine, toiled
long hours in dangerous, unhealthy settings. Conditions in textile mills and coal mines were especially harsh.
Poor conditions in cities and factories gave rise to reform
movements. The Factory Act of 1833 limited child labor in
Britain. Some reformers hoped to replace industrial capitalism
with socialism. In socialism, the public would own the means
of production, such as factories. Early socialists thought this
would make society fairer.
Chapter 19, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
If you were a member of Parliament in
Britain in the 1800s,
what law might you
propose to improve
conditions for the
industrial working
class?
(page 618)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why did spinning and weaving move from homes to factories?
2. List two ways an increase in population contributed to the Industrial Revolution.
Imagine that you are a young man or woman in the 1800s who has
left the farm to live and work in the city, taking a job in a factory.
Write about your experiences at home and at work. Use as many of the
five senses as possible: sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch. Try to use
strong, active verbs so that your reader will have a clear sense of the
experiences you are describing.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 19, Section 1
207
Chapter 19, Section 2
(Pages 624–629)
Reaction and Revolution
In 1848 liberals and nationalists rebelled against many of the conservative
governments of Europe. As you read, use a chart like the one below to
summarize the causes of the revolutions in France in 1830 and 1848.
Revolution of
1848
Revolution of
1830
The Congress of Vienna
Paragraph 3
defines a political
philosophy called
.
Paragraph 4
explains how the
leaders tried to
establish and maintain a
of
.
Paragraph 5
describes the principle of
.
208
The powers that had defeated Napoleon met in September
1814 at Vienna, Austria. There they redrew the map of Europe
as part of a final peace settlement.
The most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna was
Prince Klemens von Metternich, the prime minister of Austria.
His plan was to restore to power the legitimate rulers, that is,
members of the royal families who ruled before Napoleon. He
and other leaders followed conservative values.
Conservatism is a political philosophy based on tradition
and social stability. Conservatives at that time favored political
authority and organized religion. Hating revolutions, they did
not value individual rights or representative government.
Leaders at the Congress of Vienna wanted to establish a balance of power in which no one country would dominate Europe.
For example, because Russia had gained land, it gave new lands
to Austria and Prussia as well. Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and
Austria agreed to meet from time to time to maintain the balance
of power. Over time, the leaders of Europe (except Great
Britain) adopted a principle of intervention. They claimed the
right to intervene in other countries after a revolution to restore
legitimate rulers to their thrones. On this basis, they crushed
revolutions in Spain and Italy.
Chapter 19, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Paragraph
2 describes
Metternich’s plan to
restore
rulers.
(page 624)
Forces of Change
How were liberalism and nationalism
alike and different?
Alike:
Different:
Liberalism
Nationalism
(page 626)
Liberals and nationalists opposed conservative ideas and the
existing political system. Liberalism and nationalism were
forces for change.
The political philosophy called liberalism grew out of the
Enlightenment. Liberals believed that all people should be equal
before the law. They wanted freedom of assembly, speech, and the
press. Many liberals wanted representative government, separation
of church and state, and a constitution or a bill of rights. Liberalism
especially attracted wealthy men in the industrial middle class.
They wanted a voice in their governments, which were run by old
land-owning families. They did not want real democracy.
Nationalism arose after the French Revolution. Nationalists
believed each nationality (group with shared language and customs) should have its own government. German nationalists
wanted a united German state. Hungarian nationalists wanted
freedom from Austria.
In 1830 liberalism and nationalism led to revolutions in several countries. Belgium won its independence from the Dutch
Republic. French liberals overthrew King Charles X and established a constitutional monarchy under his cousin Louis-Philippe.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Revolution of 1848
Apart from France,
what was the outcome of most revolutions in Europe in
1848?
Chapter 19, Section 2
(page 627)
Revolutions occurred in a number of European countries in
1848, starting in France. While the French middle class demanded
the right to vote, peasants and workers faced economic hardships. The government of Louis-Philippe refused to make
changes. Revolutionaries overthrew the king and set up the
Second Republic. A new constitution allowed universal male
suffrage, meaning all adult men could vote. Napoleon’s nephew,
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, was elected president.
News of the revolution in France sparked other movements
for change. Many German rulers promised reforms, and elected
representatives wrote a united German constitution. However,
the German rulers did not accept it, and the German states did
not unite.
Many different nationalities were included in the Austrian
Empire. In 1848 demonstrations broke out in major cities. The
Austrian rulers crushed nationalist revolutions by Hungarians
and Czechs.
As in Germany, liberals and nationalists in Italy tried to create a unified constitutional state. However, their former rulers
(including Austria in the north) succeeded in regaining control.
209
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What were two principal goals of the Congress of Vienna?
2. Explain why radical revolutionaries and members of the working class might not be satisfied with reforms made by the liberals.
Take the position of a European conservative, a liberal, or a nationalist
in the period from 1815 to 1848. Write as if you were trying to persuade
other people to adopt your position. State what you want to happen and
why others should agree. Assemble facts and information to support your
point of view. Explain why you consider the opposing viewpoints incorrect. Present arguments to draw undecided readers to your side.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
210
Chapter 19, Section 2
Chapter 19, Section 3
(Pages 630–637)
National Unification and
the National State
In the mid-1800s, the Germans and Italians created their own nations.
However, not all national groups were able to reach that goal. As you read,
use a table like the one below to list the changes that took place in the indicated countries during the nineteenth century.
Great Britain
France
Austrian Empire
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Toward National Unification
Decide whether each
statement is fact
or opinion. Write F
beside the statements
of fact. Write O beside
the statements of
opinion.
Russia should
not have attacked
Ottoman territory.
The Crimean
War broke up the
Concert of Europe.
Garibaldi was
a greater leader
than Bismarck was.
Prussia had a
strong leadership.
Chapter 19, Section 3
Russia
(page 630)
Although the efforts of Italian and German nationalists
failed in 1848, by 1871, both Italy and Germany were unified
states. This became possible because the Concert of Europe
broke down. Relationships changed because of the Crimean War
between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (1853–1856). After
Russia invaded Ottoman lands, Britain and France declared war
on Russia. Austria did not support either side. Without working
together, they were not strong enough to keep control.
Italian nationalists hoped to unite under King Victor Emmanuel
II of Piedmont, in northern Italy. The king’s foreign minister, Cavour,
allied with the French and then got Austria to declare war in 1859.
In the peace settlement, Piedmont got Lombardy from Austria. Other
Italian states then revolted against their rulers and joined Piedmont.
In southern Italy, nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi raised a volunteer army called the Red Shirts. They took control of much of Italy
and turned their conquests over to Piedmont. The new state of Italy
was proclaimed in 1861. Rome and other areas were added by 1870.
German nationalists looked to Prussia for leadership. King
William I and his prime minister, Count Otto von Bismarck,
built a strong army. Prussia won wars against Austria in 1866
and France in 1870–1871. William I was proclaimed Kaiser
(emperor) of Germany in 1871.
211
Nationalism and Reform in Europe
What were some
strengths and weaknesses of LouisNapoleon’s rule in
France?
Strengths:
Weaknesses:
After 1848 Great Britain grew more liberal. The governments
of France, Austria, and Russia grew more authoritarian. Britain
passed a law in 1832 letting more men vote. Most of the new
voters were in the industrial middle class. Other reforms followed. The country was fairly stable during the long reign of
Queen Victoria. Irish nationalists protested British control of
Ireland, however.
In France, voters overwhelmingly approved LouisNapoleon’s proposal to restore the empire. He became Emperor
Napoleon III in 1852. He expanded the economy and rebuilt the
city of Paris. His empire fell after France lost the FrancoPrussian War of 1870.
The Hapsburg rulers of Austria kept firm control over
minority nationalities before 1866, when they lost a war with
Prussia. Then they agreed to a compromise with Hungarian
nationalists. Austria and Hungary became separate, self-governing units under one monarch.
After losing the Crimean War, Russia remained isolated. Czar
Alexander II freed, or emancipated, the serfs in 1861. His son
turned against reform.
Nationalism in the United States
212
(page 637)
Liberalism and nationalism were written into the United
States Constitution. However, different factions had different ideas
about how to interpret those ideals. Federalists wanted a strong
central government. Republicans feared a strong central power.
By the middle of the century, the United States was deeply
divided over the issue of slavery. The economy in the South
depended on cotton plantations, worked chiefly by slave labor.
Abolitionists in the North thought slavery should be abolished.
After Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, South
Carolina voted to withdraw, or secede, from the United States.
Other southern states did the same in 1861. The states that
withdrew from the Union formed a new country, the
Confederate States of America.
A bloody civil war between the Union and the Confederacy
lasted from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was defeated, and
the southern states were brought back into the Union. Slavery
was ended throughout the United States.
Chapter 19, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In the 1800s, why
might government
leaders in the United
States have reacted
differently to liberal
ideas from leaders of
countries in Europe?
(page 634)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What is a likely reason Great Britain did not experience such revolutionary upheavals as
other European countries did?
2. What similar, parallel events occurred in Russia and the United States in the 1860s?
Write about the unification of Italy. Tell events in the order they
occurred. Be sure your narrative answers the questions who, when,
where, what, how, and why.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 19, Section 3
213
Chapter 19, Section 4
(Pages 638–643)
Culture: Romanticism and
Realism
Artistic movements are influenced by the society around them.
Romanticism was in part a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, while
advances in science contributed to a new movement called realism. As
you read, use a table like the one below to list popular literature from the
romantic and realist movements.
Romanticism
Romanticism
Does it pay more
attention to reason
or to
?
Does it show more
respect for technology or for
?
Does it draw more
inspiration from the
present or from the
?
214
(page 638)
Romanticism was a new movement in art, music, and literature that began in the late 1700s. It was a reaction to the
Enlightenment focus on universalism and reason. Instead,
romanticism stressed the unique individual, emotions, and the
imagination. Romantics were interested in past times before the
Industrial Revolution. Their architecture copied medieval styles.
Many romantics rebelled against middle-class conventions. They
wore long hair and unusual clothes.
Romantic artists tried to reflect their inner feelings and
imagination. They abandoned classical reason for warmth and
emotion. The French romantic painter Delacroix showed scenes
of popular uprisings and exotic animals. The later music of composer Ludwig van Beethoven had powerful, intense melodies.
He reflected romantic ideals when he said, “I must write, for
what weighs on my heart, I must express.”
Romantic literature shows a similar interest in emotion, the
past, and the unfamiliar. Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott was set in
medieval England. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Edgar Allan
Poe’s short stories were filled with imaginative horror. Poems by
William Wordsworth and William Blake honored nature and the
human soul.
Chapter 19, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
To judge whether a
work of art was classical or romantic,
one might ask:
Realism
New Age of Science
What effect might
faith in science have
on popular attitudes
toward religion?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Realism
(page 641)
The Industrial Revolution brought a new interest in scientific research. By the 1830s, new discoveries had brought practical benefits for much of Europe. Europeans developed a great
faith in science.
In biology, Louis Pasteur of France suggested that diseases were
caused by germs. That made modern medical advances possible.
In chemistry, Dmitry Mendeleyev of Russia classified all the
known chemical elements on the basis of their atomic weights.
In physics, Michael Faraday of Great Britain made an electrical generator. It was the first step toward the use of electrical
current.
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution influenced many fields
of science. He published On the Origin of Species by Means of
Natural Selection in 1859 and The Descent of Man in 1871.
Darwin argued that every species, including humans, evolved
from earlier species. In a process he called natural selection,
the organisms best suited for survival are the ones that live to
reproduce. Many people objected to Darwin’s ideas as offending
their moral values or religious beliefs.
(page 643)
The romantics
showed strange,
exotic settings.
The realists were
more interested in
.
The romantics
showed medieval
heroes or great
events. The realists
preferred to show
.
Chapter 19, Section 4
Realism was another movement in art and literature after
about 1850. Influenced by developments in science, the realists
believed the world should be shown as it really is. They had an
interest in everyday life and ordinary people.
Many realists cared about social issues. They wrote novels
about the ways social issues affected their characters.
In France, the novelist Gustav Flaubert wrote Madame
Bovary. It showed the limitations of life in a French small town.
In Great Britain, author Charles Dickens wrote many novels
about the life of the poor during the Industrial Revolution. Novels
such as Oliver Twist and David Copperfield show life among the
poor in London. Dickens became immensely popular.
Realist artists believed that no subject was too ugly to paint.
The most famous was the French realist painter Gustave
Courbet. He painted pictures of factory workers and peasants.
215
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. The French realist painter Gustave Courbet once said, “I have never seen either angels or
goddesses, so I am not interested in painting them.” What did he mean?
2. Why did the writings of Charles Darwin arouse so much controversy?
Exposi tory
Form a theory about the Industrial Revolution and scientific discoveries
affected trends in art and literature in the 1800s. How did they influence romanticism? How did they influence realism? Write about your
theory, illustrating it with specific examples from literature and art.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
216
Chapter 19, Section 4
Chapter 20, Section 1
(Pages 652–657)
The Growth of Industrial
Prosperity
Industrialization led to dramatic increases in productivity as well as to new
political theories and social movements. As you read, complete a diagram
like the one below showing the cause and effect relationship between the
resources and the products produced.
Electricity
Steel
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Internal-combustion engine
The Second Industrial Revolution
The Second
Industrial
Revolution resulted
in part from the
electrical generator and the internal
combustion engine,
which provided
new sources of
.
Chapter 20, Section 1
(page 652)
The first Industrial Revolution had used water power, steam
power, coal, iron, and railroads. By the late 1800s, a new age of steel,
chemicals, electricity, and petroleum made European economies even
more productive. It was called the Second Industrial Revolution.
The first practical electrical generators were made in the 1870s.
Electricity was a valuable new source of energy. It could be carried
from place to place on wires. It was easy to convert to other forms
of energy such as light, heat, and motion. Electricity gave rise to new
inventions such as Thomas Edison’s light bulb, Alexander Graham
Bell’s telephone, and Guglielmo Marconi’s radio.
Oil and gasoline provided a new source of power for transportation. They were the fuel for the internal combustion engine. Oilfueled ocean liners, airplanes, and automobiles all used the internal
combustion engine.
As the economy grew, markets grew. In the industrialized
parts of Western Europe, wages rose after 1870. Assembly line
production, introduced by Henry Ford in 1913, made mass production more efficient. Improved transportation lowered the
cost of getting goods to market.
217
The Working Class
Karl Marx was
sympathetic toward
the proletariat, or
working class. He
wrote that society
was “more and
more splitting up
into two great hostile camps, into two
great classes directly
facing each other:
Bourgeoisie and
Proletariat.”
Based on this quote,
what was Marx’s
bias toward the
bourgeoisie?
While industrialization brought some people a higher standard of living, it was also very hard on industrial workers. They
worked long hours in terrible conditions and lived in crowded
slums. Reformers of that period thought that industrial capitalism was heartless.
Moderate reformers wanted to work within the system.
They hoped for shorter hours, better benefits, and safer working
conditions.
More radical reformers wanted to replace industrial capitalism with a new system called socialism. Socialist political parties
emerged after 1870. They based their ideas largely on the theories of Karl Marx.
Karl Marx and Frederick Engels published The Communist
Manifesto in 1848. They blamed horrible factory conditions on
the system of industrial capitalism. Marx believed human history
was one long story of class struggle between the oppressor and
the oppressed. Oppressors, or bourgeoisie, own the means of
production. Marx predicted that the oppressed working class, or
proletariat, would eventually rebel and form a dictatorship.
The rebels would take control of the means of production.
Economic differences would end, bringing a society without
social classes.
In time, working class leaders formed socialist parties based
on Marx’s ideas. Most important was the German Social
Democratic Party (SPD), formed in 1875. By 1912 it was the biggest party in Germany. SPD members of the German parliament
passed laws to improve life for the working class. Socialist parties in different countries of Europe joined together to form the
Second International. Still, other Marxists, called revisionists,
rejected the revolutionary approach.
Trade unions, or labor unions, worked for change within the
system. Workers would organize a union. Then they would try
to get their employers to let union representatives negotiate for
the whole group. This process is called collective bargaining.
To pressure employers to negotiate, unions would sometimes
strike. Striking workers would stop working until their demands
were met. At first, laws in many countries made strikes illegal.
Unions in Great Britain won the right to strike in the 1870s.
Chapter 20, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
218
(page 655)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. How did the use of steel contribute to the Second Industrial Revolution?
2. Why was it important to labor unions to be allowed to strike?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Take a position on the opinions of Karl Marx. Clearly state your position and try to persuade your reader to agree. Provide facts and
other evidence for your position, and refute any opposing arguments.
Conclude by restating your position and summing up the evidence.
Chapter 20, Section 1
219
Chapter 20, Section 2
(Pages 658–665)
The Emergence of Mass
Society
The Second Industrial Revolution resulted in an increased urban population, a growing working class, and an increased awareness of women’s
rights. As you read, complete a chart like the one below summarizing the
divisions among the social classes.
Working
Social Classes
Middle
The New Urban Environment
220
(page 658)
As workers migrated to cities, urban centers grew and became
overcrowded. Between the 1850s and 1890, the percentage of the
population that lived in cities increased by half in Great Britain,
nearly doubled in France, and more than doubled in Prussia, the
largest German state. The city of London, which had 960,000 people
in 1800, increased to 6,500,000 by 1900. The population grew even
faster because of improvements in public health and sanitation.
Cholera and other diseases spread easily in crowded conditions. Contaminated water carried germs from person to person.
For example, cholera ravaged Europe in the 1830s and 1840s.
Citizens and reformers asked government to do something
about housing, public health, and sanitation. City governments
responded by setting up boards of health. Building inspectors
and medical officers inspected the quality of housing.
Cities required that new buildings have running water and
internal drainage systems. Dams and reservoirs were constructed to
store fresh, clean water. Aqueducts and tunnels carried the water
into the cities. Gas heaters in the 1860s and later, electric heaters,
enabled many people to take hot baths. Huge underground pipes
carried untreated sewage to disposal sites far away from the cities.
Chapter 20, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Dams, reservoirs,
aqueducts, and tunnels were parts of
the solution to the
urban need for
water.
Wealthy
Social Structure
Which of these would
be the best source of
information about the
challenges of city life
for the working class?
letters written by
a banker who rented
out property in the
city
(page 660)
While standards of living rose in general after 1871, a large
gap remained between rich and poor. Western society was
divided into three broad classes.
A wealthy elite with rich bankers, merchants, and industrialists made up only 5 percent of the population but controlled
from 30 to 40 percent of the wealth. The middle class included
doctors, lawyers, business managers, and members of the civil
service lived comfortable lives. Small shopkeepers, traders, and
prosperous farmers formed a lower middle class. Below them
were white-collar workers such as bookkeepers and telephone
operators. The working classes made up almost 80 percent of
Europe’s population, including peasants, farm workers, industrial
workers, and domestic servants.
Diary of a young
mother who worked
in a textile mill
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Women’s Experiences
One can conclude
that the main factor
influencing women’s
decision about paid
employment was the
.
Chapter 20, Section 2
(page 661)
Women had few rights in the early 1800s. They were
defined mainly by their family roles. Legally and economically,
they depended on men. Married women could not hold property in their own name. Home and family remained a full-time
job for most married middle-class women. Working-class women
typically worked to help support their families, at least until
they married.
Feminism, or the movement for women’s rights, began during the Enlightenment. Some women claimed that they had a
natural right to own property. Some middle-class and uppermiddle-class women fought for the right to attend universities or
enter occupations dominated by men.
Some, such as Emmeline Pankhurst in Britain, demanded
suffrage, or the right to vote. However, few nations allowed
women to vote before 1914.
221
Education and Leisure
Based on your
knowledge of leisure activities
today, what is one
lasting effect you
can infer that the
Second Industrial
Revolution had on
leisure activities?
(page 664)
Between 1870 and 1914, most Western governments began
to pay for primary schools. Boys and girls between age 6 and
age 12 were required to go to school. Governments also set up
schools to train teachers.
One reason was the white-collar jobs created by the Second
Industrial Revolution. These new jobs called for workers who
could read, write, add, and subtract. Another reason was the
effect of liberalism and nationalism. As more citizens gained the
right to vote, they needed to be able to read. By 1900 most
adults in Western and Central Europe could read. The increase
in literacy gave rise to newspapers for a mass reading public.
Besides reading, other new forms of leisure became popular.
With the separation of work from home, people thought of leisure
as what they did for fun after work. New forms of leisure included
dance halls, amusement parks, and organized team sports.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. List two reasons European cities grew rapidly in the 1800s.
I nformative
222
Write about how the lives of women changed between 1800 and 1914.
Organize your account as a narrative. Explain what life was like for
women in different times, places, and social classes. Include the reasons for the changes and the effects of the changes.
Chapter 20, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. List two reasons governments began to provide primary education for children.
Chapter 20, Section 3
(Pages 668–673)
The National State and
Democracy
While democracy triumphed in Western Europe, authoritarianism prevailed
in Central and Eastern Europe, and industrialization swept the United
States. International rivalries set the stage for war. As you read, complete a
diagram like the one below listing the countries in each alliance.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Triple
Alliance
1882
Triple
Entente
1907
Western Europe and Political Democracy
How were the political party systems in
Great Britain and
France different and
alike?
Great Britain
France
Both
Chapter 20, Section 3
(page 668)
Growing prosperity after 1850 contributed to the expansion of
democracy in Western Europe. Countries passed laws allowing all
adult males to vote. Prime ministers began to answer to a group
elected by the people, such as a parliament, instead of to the king.
This principal was known as ministerial responsibility. Mass
political parties formed and looked for ways to appeal to voters.
Great Britain had a working two-party system: the Liberal Party
and the Conservative Party. Extending the right to vote led to social
reforms. At first, working-class voters supported the Liberal Party.
Then they formed trade unions with more radical goals and turned
their support to the new Labour Party, which formed in 1900.
In France, the Third Republic gained a constitution in 1875.
It had a president, a prime minister, and a two-house legislature. High-ranking officials elected the upper house. All adult
males got to vote for members of the lower house, the Chamber
of Deputies. The prime minister was responsible to the
Chamber of Deputies. Because the country had a dozen political
parties, he had to form a coalition in order to stay in power.
223
Central and Eastern Europe: The Old Order
In the major countries of Central and
Eastern Europe in
the late 1800s, the
individual with the
most political power
was the
.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia were less industrialized
than Western Europe. Fewer people could read. Voters had little
say in what happened. Emperors and elites kept the real power.
Germany had a two-house legislature under the constitution
of 1871. However, ministers were responsible to the emperor
instead of to the legislature. Emperor William II, Chancellor
Bismarck, and the wealthy elite did not let democracy take hold.
The dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary (1867) had a constitution, but Emperor Francis Joseph largely ignored it. He issued
decrees when parliament was not in session and kept personal
control over the government. Nicholas II in Russia was committed to maintaining the absolute power of the czar, or emperor.
Industrialization gave rise to socialist parties, but Czar Nicholas
repressed them. The czar created a legislature called the Duma
but limited its power.
The United States
(page 671)
After recovering from the American Civil War, the United States
became an industrial world power. The Second Industrial Revolution
brought economic expansion. American steel and iron production
was the best in the world. The United States was the richest country
in the world, but wealth was very concentrated. The richest 9 percent of the people owned 71 percent of the wealth.
In the late 1800s, the United States began to expand abroad.
Americans started a colony in the Samoan Islands in the Pacific.
By 1887 American settlers controlled the Hawaiian sugar industry and annexed the Hawaiian Islands. By winning the SpanishAmerican War in 1898, the United States gained Puerto Rico,
Guam, and the Philippines.
International Rivalries
(page 672)
In 1871 German emerged as the most powerful state in
Europe. Otto von Bismarck was afraid that France would form
an alliance against Germany. For protection against France, he
made a defensive alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879. Italy
joined the alliance in 1882. It was called the Triple Alliance.
Bismarck also arranged a treaty with Russia and tried to stay on
good terms with Great Britain.
Emperor William II fired Bismarck in 1890 and took personal control of German foreign policy. He dropped the treaty
with Russia. Almost at the same time, France formed an alliance
224
Chapter 20, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
By 1900 the United
States was the
country
in the world and
had started to gain
a global
.
(page 670)
Why did the formation of defensive
alliances among
European powers
make a major war
more likely?
with Russia. By 1907 Britain joined the alliance with France and
Russia. That alliance was called the Triple Entente. Europe was
divided into two opposing camps.
Crises in the Balkans set the stage for World War I. Austria
and Russia competed for influence in the Balkans. In 1908
Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. That
angered the Serbians, who had hoped to combine the southern
Slavs into one strong state. Russia threatened to attack Austria.
However, Emperor William II of Germany spoke in support of
Austria, and Russia backed down.
Wars broke out among the Balkan states in 1912 and 1913.
Austria considered Serbia a threat to the empire of AustriaHungary. Russia was determined to defend the Slavs and not to
back down again. Because both Russia and Austria-Hungary had
powerful allies, war could easily explode.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why did Emperor William II of Germany fire Chancellor Bismarck?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. What overseas territories did the United States acquire by 1900?
Exposi tory
Chapter 20, Section 3
Explain why the Balkans were so critical to the relationships among
larger European powers in the early 1900s. Make a general statement
and support it with specific factual information. Describe the issues in
the Balkans in that time period and the positions of the major powers
involved.
225
Chapter 20, Section 4
(Pages 674–679)
Toward the Modern
Consciousness
Radical change in the economic and social structure of the West was
matched by equally dramatic artistic, intellectual, and political changes.
As you read, complete a chart like the one below that lists an artist and a
characteristic of the art movement indicated.
Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Cubism
Abstract painting
The Culture of Modernity
Impressionist
PostImpressionist
Cubist
Abstract
226
Between 1870 and 1910, many writers and artists rebelled
against traditional styles. The changes they produced are called
modernism. Naturalist writers addressed social problems realistically. Symbolist writers thought the only reality was the human
mind; art should reflect the mind, not comment on society.
Impressionist painters such as Claude Monet went outside
to paint nature directly. Monet captured the interplay of light,
water, and sky. Starting in France in the 1880s, PostImpressionists Paul Cezanne and Vincent van Gogh used color
to express moods and feelings.
After photography, painters no longer felt a need to paint realistically. Pablo Picasso created a style called cubism. He used geometric
designs and looked at the human body from many angles. Starting
about 1910, abstract painters such as Wassily Kandinsky avoided
visual reality completely. Kandinsky used only line and color.
Architects made functional buildings and skyscrapers, free of
ornamentation. Frank Lloyd Wright designed homes with geometric
lines. In music, Igor Stravinsky used strong expressive rhythms.
Chapter 20, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
If you wanted to
know what the
French countryside
looked like in the
late 1800s, which
paintings would provide the most accurate information?
(page 674)
Uncertainty Grows
New ideas in science challenged the
Newtonian belief
that physical
reality worked like a
.
(page 676)
Scientific discoveries changed how people thought about
themselves and the world. Westerners in the 1800s thought science gave solid information about the physical world. Following
the ideas of Isaac Newton, they thought the physical world
worked like a giant machine.
Science brought greater uncertainty after about 1900. The
French scientist Marie Curie discovered that the element radium
gave off energy, or radiation. This energy came from inside the
atom; so atoms must not be hard material bodies but small,
active worlds.
Albert Einstein published his special theory of relativity in 1905.
He wrote that space and time are not absolute but are relative to the
observer. He concluded that matter was another form of energy.
Sigmund Freud, a doctor from Vienna, changed ideas about the
human mind. He published The Interpretation of Dreams in 1900.
Freud believed that past experiences and internal forces strongly
influence human behavior, even when people are not aware of
them. He invented a method called psychoanalysis to help people
become aware of their repressed experiences and thoughts.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Extreme Nationalism
“War is a biological necessity of the
first important, . . .
since without it an
unhealthy development will follow,
which excludes every
advancement of the
race, and therefore
all real civilization.”
—F. von Bernhardi
Does this quotation
represent fact or
opinion?
Chapter 20, Section 4
(page 678)
Nationalism became more intense in the late 1800s. For
some people, this meant that their nation was more important
than any other.
Some writers tried to justify the dominance of Western
nations by using ideas from Charles Darwin. They applied
Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human societies. This
was called Social Darwinism. The British philosopher Herbert
Spencer argued that social progress came from survival of the
fittest. Some thought this meant that the weak should die and
the strong should not help them.
Extreme nationalists used Social Darwinism to justify acts of
violence against people who did not share their language and
traditions. They believed that war was the best way to achieve
survival of the fittest.
Anti-Semitism, or prejudice against Jews, was common. New
parties in Germany and Austria-Hungary won votes by blaming
problems on the Jews. In Russia, many Jews were killed in
pogroms, or massacres.
Jewish nationalists called Zionists dreamed of a Jewish
homeland to be established in Palestine. Many Jews moved to
Palestine or the United States to escape persecution in Europe.
227
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What important scientific discovery was made by Marie Curie?
2. How did anti-Semitism affect politics in Germany and Austria-Hungary?
Exposi tory
Form a theory about how new ideas in science and psychology might
have influenced now developments in art in the late 1800s and early
1900s. Consider how a change in people’s image of the natural world
might affect what they choose to portray in their art. Support and illustrate your theory with specific individuals, ideas, and types of art.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
228
Chapter 20, Section 4
Chapter 21, Section 1
(Pages 686–691)
Colonial Rule in
Southeast Asia
Through the new imperialism, Westerners controlled vast empires,
exploited native populations and opened markets for European products.
As you read, make a chart showing which countries controlled what parts
of Southeast Asia.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Spain (until 1898)
Holland
United States (after 1898)
France
Great Britain
The New Imperialism
“The path of progress
is strewn with the
wrecks of nations . . .
Yet these dead people
are, in truth, the stepping stones on which
mankind has arisen
to the higher intellectual and deeper emotional life of today.”
This British quote
may be biased
because the
British had been
.
in recent wars.
Chapter 21, Section 1
(page 686)
In the 1880s, European states began to scramble for overseas
territory. In this “new imperialism,” they wanted direct control over
large areas. One reason was economic. European countries saw
Asian and African societies as a source of raw materials such as oil,
tin, and rubber. They also saw those societies as a market for manufactured goods.
Nationalism was another motive. Colonies were a source of
national prestige. European nations competed with one another
to see who could have the most colonies or the best colonies.
Imperialism was also tied to Social Darwinism and racism.
Social Darwinists believed that in the struggle between nations,
the fit are victorious over the unfit. Racists believed that race
determines a person’s trait and abilities. They considered some
races superior to others.
Some Europeans took a more religious and humanitarian
approach to imperialism. They believed Europeans had a moral
responsibility to civilize primitive people. They called this responsibility the “white man’s burden.” To some, this meant spreading
Christianity. To others, it meant bringing the benefits of Western
democracy and capitalism to non-Western societies.
229
Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia
What caused control
of the Philippines to
pass from Spain to
the United States?
What caused guerrillas led by Emilio
Aguinaldo to fight
against the United
States?
Competition for overseas territories increased European
involvement in Southeast Asia. By 1900 almost the whole area
was under European rule. Only Thailand (then called Siam)
managed to keep its independence. In 1819 the British founded
the colony of Singapore. Singapore soon became a major stopping point for steamships going to or from China. Afraid the
British would try to take over Vietnam, the French made that country a French protectorate. France also extended power over
nearby countries. It united the whole area as French Indochina.
After the Spanish-American War, the United States made the
Philippines an American colony. Emilio Aguinaldo led an independence movement in the Philippines. After several years of
war, the United States defeated the Filipino guerrillas.
Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia
Alike:
Different—
Indirect rule:
(page 690)
European countries governed their new colonial empires
either by indirect rule or direct rule. In indirect rule, the colonial power cooperated with local political elites. Where local rulers resisted foreign conquest, the colonial powers removed them
from power. In these cases, the colonial power brought people
from the home country to govern the colony. This was called
direct rule.
The colonial powers used their colonies to provide raw
materials and buy European products. In many colonies, this led
to plantation agriculture. Peasants on the plantations worked at
poverty levels. Colonial rule did bring some progress, such as
the construction of roads and railroads.
Direct rule:
230
Chapter 21, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How were indirect
rule and direct rule
alike and different?
(page 688)
Resistance to Colonial Rule
To understand the
causes of a colonial
resistance movement,
one might ask:
Did
agriculture under
colonial rule
make life hard for
peasants?
Did the Western
that
students learned in
Western-style schools
conflict with their
experience under
colonial rule?
(page 691)
Many people in Southwest Asia were not happy about colonial rule. The earliest resistance came from the existing ruling
class. Some resistance came in the form of peasant revolts.
Under colonial rule, peasants were often driven off the land to
make way for plantation agriculture.
A new kind of resistance began after 1900. It was based on
the force of nationalism. The leaders were members of a new,
educated, urban middle class. Colonial rule had created this new
class of merchants, clerks, students, and professionals.
At first, many of the leaders of these movements did not
demand national independence. They simply tried to defend
their people’s economic interests or religious beliefs. Not until
the 1930s, however, did these resistance movements begin to
demand independence as a nation.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. What were two interpretations of the “white man’s burden”?
2. Why did colonial powers establish plantations in their colonies?
the story of the extension of European power over the societies of
I nformative Tell
Southeast Asia. Use a story plan made up of four elements: time, place,
colonial power, and events. Discuss what happened, when it happened,
why it happened, how it happened, and what parties were involved.
Chapter 21, Section 1
231
Chapter 21, Section 2
(Pages 692–699)
Empire Building in Africa
Almost all of Africa was under European rule by 1900. As you read, make
a chart like the one below showing which countries controlled what parts
of Africa.
Western Power
Area of Africa
Belgium
Britain
France
Germany
West Africa and North Africa
232
Between 1880 and 1900, almost all of Africa came under
European rule.
Such products as peanuts, timber, and palm oil drew Europeans
to West Africa. The British started settlements along the coast to protect their trade interests. Britain annexed part of the Gold Coast in
1874 and established a protectorate over Nigeria. France added
much of West Africa to its empire by 1900. Germany controlled
Togo, Cameroon, German Southwest Africa, and German East Africa.
In Egypt, an army officer named Muhammad Ali seized power
from the Ottomans in 1805 and established a separate Egyptian
state. He introduced modern reforms including public schools. In
1869 the French entrepreneur Lesseps completed the Suez Canal,
connecting the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The British bought
Egypt’s share in the canal in 1875. In 1914 Egypt became a British
protectorate. The British also wanted to control the Sudan, south of
Egypt. A Muslim cleric known as the Mahdi started a revolt in 1881.
Britain did not secure control of the Sudan until 1898.
France started colonies in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco.
Italy tried to take over Ethiopia but lost to Ethiopian forces in
1896. Later Italy seized Turkish Tripoli and renamed it Libya.
Chapter 21, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Italy was the only
European state to
lose a battle to an
African state. What
can one infer from
this about Italy’s
motives for taking
Tripoli as a colony?
(page 692)
Central and East Africa
Bismarck acquired
colonies in East
Africa as a solution
to which problem?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
South Africa
The United States
and the Union of
South Africa were
similar in being selfgoverning states run
by the descendants
of settlers from
.
European explorers aroused popular interest in the jungles
of Central Africa. David Livingstone and Henry Stanley explored
Africa for decades. When the British did not accept Stanley’s
suggestion to send settlers to the Congo River, Stanley
approached King Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold rushed in with
enthusiasm to settle lands along the Congo River. France then
occupied parts of Central Africa farther north.
Under popular pressure to build an empire, the German
chancellor Otto von Bismarck said, “All this colonial business is
a sham, but we need it for the elections.” The Berlin conference
met in 1884 and 1885 to settle conflicting claims in East Africa.
The conference awarded colonies to both Britain and German.
Portugal received a clear claim on Mozambique.
(page 696)
Europeans had a strong and fast-growing presence in South
Africa. By 1865 nearly 200,000 people of European origin lived
there. Cecil Rhodes, the British founder of diamond and oil
companies, dreamed of British colonies all the way from Egypt
to Cape Colony, connected by a railroad. The result was a war
between the British and the Dutch Boers, starting in 1899. After
the British won in 1902, they combined Cape Colony, Orange
Free State, and Transvaal into a self-governing Union of South
Africa. Only whites were allowed to vote.
Effects of Imperialism
What were the
advantages and disadvantages of how
Britain and France
ruled in Africa?
Chapter 21, Section 2
(page 695)
(page 697)
By 1914 only two independent states remained in Africa:
Ethiopia and Liberia. All the rest of the continent was divided
up among Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain,
and Portugal.
The British governed chiefly by indirect rule. This system did
not disrupt local customs. British administrators made all the
decisions, and the old elite were responsible for enforcing them.
Most other European colonial powers governed their colonies in Africa through direct rule. In the French colonies, the
government of France appointed a French governor-general. The
French ideal was to assimilate African subjects into French culture rather than to preserve native traditions.
233
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. The Red Sea was connected with the Indian Ocean. Why did Great Britain particularly
care about control of the Suez Canal?
2. What was the Great Trek?
Descri pt
ptive
Pretend that you are a journalist traveling with Henry Stanley during
his search for David Livingstone. Write a description of your travel
through the tropic rain forest and finding Livingstone on the shore of
Lake Tanganyika. Use as many of the five senses as possible to communicate your experience to newspaper readers back home.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
234
Chapter 21, Section 2
Chapter 21, Section 3
(Pages 702–707)
British Rule in India
The British brought stability to India but destroyed native industries and
degraded Indians. As you read, use a chart like the one below to identify
some causes and effects of British influence on India.
Cause
Effect
1. British textiles
2. cotton crops
3. school system
4. railroad, telegraph, telephone services
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Sepoy Mutiny
When people are
ordered to do something that deeply
offends their religion, they may
be expected to
.
Chapter 21, Section 3
(page 702)
During the 1700s, British power in India increased. The
power of the Moguls declined. The British government authorized the British East India Company to take an active role in
Indian affairs. The British East India Company hired Indian soldiers, called sepoys.
Sepoys rebelled in 1857. They had just been issued a new
kind of rifle. A rumor started that the cartridges, which soldiers
had to bite, were greased with pig and cow fat. This offended
both Hindus and Muslims. When a group of sepoys refused to
bite the cartridges, the British put them in prison. Other sepoys
rebelled.
The rebellion spread. Both sides committed atrocities.
Indians killed 200 women and children in a building in Kanpur.
The British killed many Indians as well. Within a year, Indian
troops loyal to the British crushed the rebellion.
As a result of the uprising, the British Parliament transferred
the rule of India from the East India Company to the British
government. In 1876 Queen Victoria took the title Empress of
India. She called India the jewel in her crown. Another result of
the uprising was the beginning of nationalist feeling in India.
235
British Colonial Rule
From the description
of the school system
the British set up
in India, one can
conclude that the
schools were primarily designed to meet
the needs of the
After the Sepoy Mutiny, the British government began to
rule India through a viceroy and a civil service. The British
administration brought order and relatively honest, efficient government. A school system, using the English language, was set up to
train upper-class Indian children for civil and military service.
British rule also harmed the people of India in several ways.
British manufactured goods destroyed local industries. Local
officials, sent by the British to collect taxes, abused their authority. Because the British encouraged farmers to switch from food
production to growing cotton, the food supply could not keep
up with the growing population. Millions died of starvation.
Indian Nationalists
education.
236
(page 705)
The British presence in India led to an Indian independence movement.
Early nationalists pressed for reform, not independence.
However, the pace of reform was slow. Many Indian nationalists,
who were English-educated, decided they could not count on the
British to make changes voluntarily. In 1885 a small group met in
Mumbai (then called Bombay) and formed the Indian National
Congress (INC). The INC called for a share in the governing process.
Mohandas Gandhi became active in the independence movement. He began a movement based on nonviolent resistance. Its
aim was to force the British to improve the lot of the poor and
to grant independence to India. After many years, Gandhi’s
movement led to Indian independence.
Chapter 21, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In both Africa and
India, many leaders
of the nationalist
and independence
movements had a
(page 704)
Colonial Indian Culture
Read the paragraph
about newspapers.
Write a sentence
that expresses the
main idea of the
paragraph.
(page 706)
The relationship between India and the British led to a cultural awakening. A British college was established in Calcutta in
the early 1800s. A local publishing house was opened. It printed
a variety of textbooks. Newspapers were printed in the regional
languages of India. Nationalists used newspapers to arouse
mass support for nationalist causes.
The most famous Indian author was Rabindranath Tagore. A
great writer and poet, he won the Nobel Prize in literature in
1913. He set to music the Bengali poem that became the
anthem of Indian nationalism. He set up a school that became
an international university.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What was the immediate cause of the Sepoy Mutiny?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. List two goals of Gandhi’s movement based on nonviolent resistance.
Imagine that you were a member of the British Parliament or the
British colonial administration during the period of British colonial
rule in India. Make one policy recommendation for the British government, related to India. Clearly state your recommendation, as though
in a speech or letter. Support your recommendation with arguments
and specific facts related to Indian history, economics, or culture.
Chapter 21, Section 3
237
Chapter 21, Section 4
(Pages 708–715)
Nation Building in
Latin America
Latin American countries gained their independence but became economically dependent on Western powers. As you read, create a Venn diagram
comparing and contrasting colonial rule in Africa and in Latin America.
Africa
Latin America
Nationalist Revolts
Cause:
Effect:
238
Social classes divided Latin America. At the top were peninsulares, officials from Spain or Portugal. Below them were the creoles, descended from Europeans. Creoles controlled land and
business and resented Spanish or Portuguese rule. Mestizos, of
mixed European and Native American ancestry, worked as servants
or laborers.
Revolution in North America inspired Latin Americans to
revolt against European control.
In Mexico in 1810, a priest named Miguel Hidalgo led Native
Americans and mestizos in revolt against Spanish rule. The uprising failed, and Hidalgo was executed. Creoles and peninsulares
declared Mexico independent in 1821, keeping power for themselves. Initially a monarchy, Mexico became a republic in 1823.
Two members of the creole elite led revolutions throughout
South America. They were José de San Martín of Argentina and
Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. Between 1810 and 1824, forces led by
San Martín or Bolívar overthrew Spanish rule in Argentina, Bolivia,
Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Brazil
became independent in 1822 and Central America in 1823. United
States president James Monroe warned European powers not to try
to restore European control. This was called the Monroe Doctrine.
Chapter 21, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The American
Revolution inspired
Latin Americans
to revolt against
Spanish or
Portuguese rule.
(page 708)
Difficulties in Nation Building
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How did settlers
in Texas solve the
problem of corrupt
government under
Santa Anna?
(page 711)
The new countries in Latin America faced many problems.
Unclear boundaries led to wars among the new republics.
Transportation and communication were difficult. There was little
sense of national unity.
The new republics had little experience in self-government.
Strong leaders called caudillos came into power. For example,
Antonio López de Santa Anna ruled Mexico from 1833 to 1855.
He misused money and stopped reforms. In the Mexican state
of Texas, settlers from the United States revolted against Santa
Anna’s rule. Texas became independent in 1836 and joined the
United States in 1845. The United States conquered other
Mexican territory by 1848. The next strong Mexican leader was
Benito Juárez. He brought many reforms: religious toleration,
public schooling, and land for the poor.
Latin American countries had political independence.
However, they became economically dependent on Great Britain
and later on the United States. Foreign investors built transportation and communication systems. National economies came to
depend on cash crops such as sugar and coffee, produced for
export. The landed elites continued to dominate society and
government. Most people remained very poor.
Political and Economic Change in Latin America
If U. S. Marines
stayed in a Latin
American country
for decades, how
would the people
of that country be
likely to respond?
Chapter 21, Section 4
(page 713)
After 1870 Latin American governments wrote constitutions.
They took ideas from the United States and democracies of Europe.
However, the elites kept power by limiting the right to vote.
As the United States became a world power about 1900, it
intervened in Latin America. The Spanish-American War of 1898
gave the United States control over Cuba and Puerto Rico. After
helping Panama break away from Colombia in 1903, the United
States built the Panama Canal from coast to coast. U. S. forces
were sent to various Latin American countries to protect U. S.
commercial interests. U. S. Marines were in Haiti from 1915 to
1934 and in Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933.
Mexico had another revolution. The conservative dictator
Porfirio Díaz ruled Mexico between 1877 and 1911. Wages
declined and most rural people had no land. A liberal landowner
forced Díaz from power in 1911. A wider revolution followed.
Bandits led by Pancho Villa swept the countryside. Emiliano
Zapata led peasants to demand and enforce land reform. A new
constitution in 1917 set up a presidential government, land reform,
and limits on foreign investors.
239
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why did the United States build a canal across Panama?
2. What was the Monroe Doctrine?
Exposi tory
Explain the importance of social class to the revolutions of Latin
America and the governments that followed. Give specific examples of
the role different social classes played in particular events. Start and
finish with a general statement that gives an overview of the role of
social class in Latin American history in that period.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
240
Chapter 21, Section 4
Chapter 22, Section 1
(Pages 724–731)
The Decline of the Qing
Dynasty
As the Qing dynasty declined, Western nations increased their economic
involvement with China. As you read, create a chart like the one below to
compare the Tai Ping and Boxer Rebellions.
Tai Ping
Boxer
Reforms Demanded
Method Used
Outcomes
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Causes of Decline
From the events
leading up to the
Opium War, one can
conclude that the
British who determined polity in
relation to China
cared more about
than
about
.
Chapter 22, Section 1
(page 724)
The Qing dynasty of the Manchus was at its height in 1800.
Soon after that, however, the dynasty went into decline. Some
problems were internal: corruption, peasant unrest, and incompetence. The government did not want to make reforms.
Other problems came from Western powers. To limit foreign
influence, the Qing rulers allowed European merchants in only one
place: Guangzhou, or Canton. The British imported tea, silk, and
porcelain from China. The Indian cotton they exported to China
was not enough to cover the cost of their imports. They added
another export from India to China: opium, an addictive drug. The
Chinese government protested. In the resulting Opium War of
1839–1842, the British won the island of Hong Kong and wider
trading privileges. China later agreed to legalize the opium trade.
Peasants revolted in the Tai Ping Rebellion of 1850–64. Their
leader believed he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. He
called for giving land to all peasants, treating women as the equals
of men, outlawing alcohol and tobacco, and eliminating private
property. In 1853 the rebels captured the city of Nanjing and killed
25,000 residents. Europeans and local warlords helped the Qing
dynasty restore order. The weakened dynasty finally started to listen
to reformers. They built industries but did not introduce democracy.
241
The Advance of Imperialism
In general, under
what conditions was
foreign influence
strongest in China?
The weakness of the Qing dynasty enabled other nations to
gain power in China. Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and
Japan signed agreements with local warlords. These agreements
gave each nation a sphere of influence, where only that nation
was allowed to trade.
Russia forced China to give up some lands in the north.
When Russia took control of Manchuria, Japan felt threatened
and signed an alliance with Britain.
Japan made inroads into Korea, which China ruled. China
and Japan went to war over Korea in 1894. Japan won the war,
gaining Taiwan.
In 1897 Chinese rioters killed two German missionaries.
That formed an excuse for Germany to demand land on the
Shandong Peninsula. After China agreed, other European powers made more demands.
China was in an internal crisis. The young emperor Guang Xu
announced One Hundred Days of reform in 1898. He tried to
modernize and westernize Chinese institutions. His aunt, Empress
Dowager Ci Xi, put him in prison and stopped his reforms.
Responses to Imperialism
242
(page 730)
Great Britain and the United States feared that other countries would overrun China if the dynasty collapsed. Britain had
a sphere of influence in China, but the United States did not.
Acquiring Hawaii and the Philippines increased American interests in the Pacific.
In 1899 United States secretary of state John Hay proposed an
Open Door policy. Under such a policy, all countries would have
equal trading privileges in China. The policy did not end spheres
of influence, but it made it easier for other countries to do business there. It also reduced worries among the other imperialist
powers that any one power would try to dominate trade in China.
The Open Door Policy came too late to prevent the Boxer
Rebellion. “Boxers” were members of the Society of Harmonious
Fists. They were upset by foreign influences and the foreign
takeover of Chinese lands. In 1900 they roamed the countryside,
killing foreign missionaries and Chinese converts to Christianity.
They also killed foreign businessmen and a German diplomat.
Response was immediate and overwhelming. An allied army
from six imperialist nations restored order. They made the
Chinese government pay indemnity, or payment for damages,
and demanded still more privileges.
Chapter 22, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The behavior of the
Boxers showed their
bias
Chinese traditions
and
foreign influences.
(page 728)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. “Balance of trade” refers to the relations between a country’s imports and exports. A
country that exports more than it imports has a favorable balance of trade. One that
imports more than it exports has an unfavorable balance of trade. Use this concept to
explain why the British insisted on bringing illegal opium into China.
2. How did the Tai Ping Rebellion increase the power of local warlords?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Take a position on the Open Door Policy. Was it a good or a bad idea?
Write to persuade readers to agree with your opinion. State your position
clearly. Present facts and information to support your point of view.
Chapter 22, Section 1
243
Chapter 22, Section 2
(Pages 732–737)
Revolution in China
Reforms led to a revolution in China, and the arrival of Westerners brought
changes to its culture and economy. As you read, create a chart like the
one below listing the reforms requested by Sun Yat-Sen and those implemented by Empress Dowager Ci Xi.
Sun Yat-sen’s Proposals
The Fall of the Qing
Who were his
followers and allies?
How was he
regarded in Russia?
What were
his favorite leisure
activities?
244
(page 732)
Empress Dowager Ci Xi had resisted suggestions for reform.
After the Boxer Rebellion, however, she introduced reforms.
They included a Western-style school system and local legislative assemblies. In 1910 China held elections for a national
assembly. However, the pace of reform was too slow for the
emerging new urban middle class.
One radical was Sun Yat-sen. He formed the Revive China
Society. He believed China needed a strong national government, which the Qing dynasty could not provide. He hoped to
bring democracy in three stages: a military takeover, one-party
rule, and finally a constitutional democracy. In 1905 he united
radical groups from across China into an alliance. It later
became the Nationalist Party. He called for a republic based on
equality. His principles included nationalism, democracy, and
the right to earn a livelihood.
In 1911 while Sun Yat-sen was traveling abroad, his followers
revolted. The government was too weak to react, and the Qing
dynasty collapsed. The rebels asked an army general, Yuan, to serve
as president. They asked him to allow the election of a legislature.
The Westernized middle class that supported Sun Yat-sen was
small. Few peasants supported him. General Yuan ruled as a dictator and tried to start a new dynasty. China fell into civil war.
Chapter 22, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Which question
would best guide
research about the
influence of Sun
Yat-sen?
Empress Dowager Ci Xi’s Reform
Cultural Changes
“Before my eyes are
many miserable
scenes, the suffering of others and
myself forces my
hands to move. I
become a machine
for writing.”
—Ba Jin
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
According to the
quotation above, Ba
Jin
because he has to.
Chapter 22, Section 2
(page 735)
Traditional Chinese culture was based on the ideas of
Confucius. In the early 1900s, those ideas came into tension
with new Western ideas. This was especially true in the cities.
Traditional culture remained more popular in the countryside
and among Chinese conservatives.
Foreign investments were making the Chinese economy
more modern. Westerners introduced modern transportation and
communication. They created a market for Chinese exports.
They brought China into the world economy.
On the other hand, these changes caused problems for
China. Imperialism destroyed local industries. Profits went back
to the imperialist countries instead of staying in China.
During World War I, foreign investment in China dropped
temporarily. Chinese entrepreneurs started new businesses.
Shanghai and other major cities developed an urban middle
class. An industrial working class grew as well.
Daily life in the cities had changed much since 1800. Ideas
from Europe and the United States influenced the educated,
wealthy elite and middle class. Radical reformers wanted to get
rid of traditional culture. They introduced Western books, paintings, music, and ideas.
Chinese writers copied Western writers in describing life
realistically. They wrote about the Westernized Chinese middle
class. Midnight by novelist Mao Dun described the changing
customs of the urban elite in Shanghai. Ba Jin wrote three
books—Family, Spring, and Autumn—about the loss of traditional ways as younger family members break away.
245
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. List three stages by which Sun Yat-sen hoped to move China from Qing rule to
democracy.
2. What themes did the Chinese novelists Mao Dun and Ba Jin feature in their novels?
Exposi tory
Explain the causes and effects of the growth of a new, educated
middle class in Shanghai and in other cities of China. Start and end
with an overview of the changes you will describe. Organize your
information to make it clear to the reader.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
246
Chapter 22, Section 2
Chapter 22, Section 3
(Pages 738–745)
Rise of Modern Japan
Western intervention opened Japan to trade, and the interaction between
Japan and Western nations led to a modern industrial Japanese society.
As you read, create a table like the one below listing the promises in the
Charter Oath of 1868 and the provisions of the Meiji constitution of 1890.
Charter Oath
Constitution
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Japan Responds to Foreign Pressure
Perry brought warships into Edo Bay.
What was the cause
of this event? What
was the effect?
Cause:
Effect:
Chapter 22, Section 3
(page 738)
By 1800 the Tokugawa shogunate had ruled Japan for 200
years. The Tokugawa followed a policy of isolation. Japan had
formal relations with only one other country, Korea. It allowed
no foreign merchants except Dutch and Chinese traders at
Nagasaki.
Western nations wanted to end Japan’s isolation. In 1853
Matthew Perry brought four American warships into Edo Bay
(now Tokyo Bay). He brought a letter from United States president Millard Fillmore. The president asked Japan to open relations with the United States. About six months later, Perry
returned with a larger fleet. Under military pressure, Japan agreed
to make concessions and open several ports to Western traders.
Diplomatic relations began between Japan and Western nations.
Samurai warriors in southern Japan did not want Japan to
interact with foreigners. In 1863 rebellious groups made the
shogun promise to end relations with the West. When they fired
on Western ships, however, the ships returned fire and
destroyed their fortifications.
The incidence strengthened the samurai resistance. When
the shogun did not take a stronger position against the West,
the samurai attacked the shogun’s palace at Kyoto. His forces
collapsed. That ended the shogunate system and restored the
power of the emperor.
247
The Meiji Restoration
In the Meiji
Restoration, how
were the Liberals
and the Progressives
alike and different?
Alike:
Different:
(page 740)
The new leaders put an end to the old order. The new leaders made the young emperor Mutsuhito the symbol of the new
era. He called his reign the Meiji, or “Enlightened Rule.” This
period is called the Meiji Restoration.
Two main factions emerged in the legislative assembly—the
Liberals and the Progressives. The Liberals wanted political
reform based on the Western democracies. An elected parliament would hold the supreme authority. The Progressives
wanted to give the executive branch more control. They wanted
power shared between the executive and legislative branches.
In the end, the Progressives won. The Meiji constitution was
adopted in 1889. Based on the constitution of Germany, it gave
most authority to the executive branch. Real power lay with the
prime minister and cabinet, chosen by the Meiji leaders.
The Meiji leaders introduced economic changes. The Meiji
leaders wanted a “rich country and a strong state.” They encouraged
industry by providing subsidies, training, improved transportation
and communications, and education in applied science.
Joining the Imperialists
248
Japan wanted colonies too. Japanese expansion began in
1874. In that year, Japan seized the Ryukyu Islands from
China. In 1876 Japan’s navy made Korea open Korean ports
to Japanese trade. Defeating China in war in 1894 brought
Japan the Chinese island of Taiwan (then called Formosa). In
1904 Japan launched a surprise attack on the Russian naval
base at Port Arthur. When Russia sent its Baltic fleet to the
Pacific, the Japanese navy defeated it. The Western powers
were stunned by Japan’s victory over Russia. Japan was now
a world power.
Chapter 22, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Why were the
Western powers
stunned by Japan’s
victory over Russia?
(page 743)
Culture in an Era of Transition
The main idea
is that Japanese
was heavily influenced by Western
(page 745)
Western culture greatly influenced Japanese culture during the Meiji Restoration. Japanese authors began to write
novels that followed the French tradition of realism. The
Japanese invited technicians, engineers, architects, and artists
from Europe and the United States to teach their skills in
Japan. In time, a reaction set in. Many Japanese artists began
to return to older techniques. Japanese artists looked for
forms of expression that were new but truly Japanese. Some
tried to combine Japanese and foreign techniques.
during the Meiji
Restoration.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. How did the Meiji leaders promote industrial growth?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. List two reasons Japan wanted territories overseas.
an account of the Meiji Restoration, including its causes and
I nformative Write
effects. Describe events generally in the order in which they happened.
Include the four story elements of time, place, people, and events.
Write the story so that it flows smoothly, without displaying emotion
or interjecting your opinion.
Chapter 22, Section 3
249
Chapter 23, Section 1
(Pages 758–761)
The Road to World War I
Militarism, nationalism, and a crisis in the Balkans led to World War I.
As you read, create a diagram like the one below to identify the factors
that led to World War I.
World War I
Causes of the War
.
250
The late 1800s were a period of intense nationalism and
imperialist expansion. European nation-states competed with
one another. They formed defensive alliances in case their rivals
got too strong. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the
Triple Alliance in 1882. France, Great Britain, and Russia created
the Triple Entente in 1907. Crises in the Balkans and elsewhere
tested those alliances. The crises left European states angry at
one another and eager for revenge.
Not all national groups had their own states. The Slavs in
the Hapsburg Empire, the Irish in the British Empire, and the
Poles in the Russian Empire dreamed of having their own states.
Another source of conflict was the growth of socialist labor
movements. They used strikes that sometimes became violent.
Some conservative leaders responded to suppress internal disorder.
European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914. Most
countries had a military draft, or conscription. (The United
States and Britain did not.) As armies grew, so did the influence
of military leaders. They drew up complex plans to use in case
of war. They insisted that their plans could not be changed.
When war broke out in 1914, political leaders had few choices.
They had to follow the plans the military leaders had made.
Chapter 23, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The rapid growth
of European armies
increased the
likelihood that if
a war began, the
war would be
(page 758)
The Outbreak of War
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What caused
Germany to declare
war on Russia?
Chapter 23, Section 1
(page 760)
Serbia wanted to form a large, independent Slavic state in
the Balkans. Russia, a Slavic nation, favored the idea. AustriaHungary, which had many Slavic minorities, was opposed. A
secret society called the Black Hand was willing to use violence
to help create a large Serbian kingdom.
In 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the heir to the
throne of Austria-Hungary. He and his wife visited Sarajevo,
Bosnia, a part of Austria-Hungary in the Balkans. Bosnia had
many Serbs. On June 28, 1914, a Bosnian Serb shot and killed
Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife. The shooter was a
member of the Black Hand.
Austrian leaders did not know whether the government of
Serbia was involved. They wanted to attack Serbia. Afraid that
Russia would help Serbia defend itself, the Austrians asked
Germany for support. Emperor William II of Germany promised
to support Austria in case of a war between Austria and Russia.
On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
Czar Nicholas II of Russia ordered the Russian army to
get ready for a war (mobilize) against Austria-Hungary. Army
leaders told the czar their plan was for a war against AustriaHungary and Germany; they could not follow only part of
their plan. The czar agreed to mobilize against both empires.
Germany then declared war on Russia.
German officers had a plan too. Their plan was for a war
against Russia and France. The plan was to attack France first,
through Belgium, and then move against the other. They were
not willing to change their plan, so Germany declared war
on France.
On August 4, Great Britain declared war on Germany for
violating Belgian neutrality. All the great powers of Europe were
at war.
251
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. List three examples of European minority groups in multinational empires that wanted
their own national state.
2. What was the German military plan for a war with Russia?
Exposi tory
How were militarism, nationalism, and alliances among European
powers contributing causes of World War I? Give specific illustrations
for each point. Consider both the events that triggered the war and
the expansion of a local incident into a conflict among many
powerful countries.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
252
Chapter 23, Section 1
Chapter 23, Section 2
(Pages 762–769)
World War I
The stalemate at the Western Front led to a widening of World War I, and
governments expanded their powers to accommodate the war. As you read,
identify which country belongs to the allies and the Central Powers. What
country changed allegiance? What country withdrew from the war?
Allies
Central Powers
Split Off
Allies
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate
How was war on
the Western Front
different from and
similar to the war on
the Eastern Front?
Western Front:
Eastern Front:
Both:
Chapter 23, Section 2
(page 762)
Before 1914 many political leaders thought diplomacy could
prevent war. The German plan was to capture France quickly.
French soldiers, rushing to the front in taxicabs from Paris,
stopped the Germans before they reached Paris. The German
advance ended with the First Battle of the Marne in September
1914. Both sides dug trenches for shelter. Soon trenches
reached from the English Channel to Switzerland. Neither side
could make the other move. Deadly trench warfare continued
for four years.
War on the Eastern Front was very different. Troops moved
quickly. Russian troops moved into eastern Germany. The
Germans stopped them at the battles of Tannenberg in August
and Masurian Lakes in September. Italy left the Triple Alliance
and joined the former Triple Alliance of France, Britain, and
Russia. Russia had early victories over Austria-Hungary, but the
Germany helped Austria push the Russians back. Millions of
Russians were killed, captured, or wounded. Together, Germany,
Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria attacked Serbia. Serbia had to
drop out of the war.
253
The Great Slaughter
Military leaders
were unused to
trench warfare. How
did that fact affect
their decisions?
A World War
“Lusitania Sunk”
“Sinking of
Lusitania Illegal
and Immoral”
Many more soldiers died in World War I than in earlier
European wars of the 1700s or 1800s. One reason was trench
warfare. Military leaders were not used to trench warfare.
Sometimes they would attack to try to break through enemy
lines. The defending troops in their trenches could easily
shoot the men running toward them. At Verdun, in France,
700,000 men were killed over a period of 10 months. Each
side tried to wear the other down, turning World War I into
a war of attrition.
Air warfare was a new feature of World War I. Airplanes
were used for surveillance and then in air battles. German
zeppelins—airships filled with hydrogen—dropped bombs
over England. Shooting a zeppelin caused it to burst into flames.
(page 766)
As the war went on and on, more countries became involved.
The Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria allied with Austria-Hungary
and Germany. They became known as the Central Powers. Russia,
Britain, and France (called the Allies) declared war on the Ottomans.
The Ottoman Empire controlled much of the Middle East. A
British officer known as Lawrence of Arabia urged Arab princes
to revolt against the Ottomans. British troops from Egypt, India,
Australia, and New Zealand defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1918.
The United States tried to remain neutral, but German submarines killed Americans while attacking the British navy. This
caused the United States to enter the war.
The Impact of Total War
Rank these sources
by their value in
providing information
about what life was
like for women during
World War I.
254
(page 767)
The war affected the lives of everyone in the warring countries. To mobilize so many resources and people, governments
assumed greater powers. They drafted millions of young men.
They set up price, wage, and rent controls. They rationed food
supplies and materials. They took over transportation systems and
industries. European nations set up planned economic directed
by government agencies. World War I had become a total war,
requiring a complete mobilization of resources and people.
Chapter 23, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Label each of these
newspaper headlines
“F” or “O” to indicate
whether it expresses a
fact or an opinion.
(page 764)
A small-town
newspaper article
about local women
Letters from
women who had
war-related jobs
Government
propaganda
encouraging women
to work in weapons
factories
As the war went on, public enthusiasm waned. Governments
used propaganda to influence public opinion. They also used
force. Even in democracies, governments permitted less freedom
of expression than in peacetime. Newspapers were censored. In
Britain, under the Defence of the Realm Act, protesters could be
arrested as traitors.
World War I created new roles for women. Because so many
men were away at war, many of their jobs were given to women.
When the men came home after the war, women lost their jobs
to men. The social role of women had changed, however.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Why were zeppelins relatively unsatisfactory as air fighting machines?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Who was Lawrence of Arabia?
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 23, Section 2
Write a description of trench warfare as it might have been experienced by the soldiers in the trenches. Guide your reader to feel that he
or she is sharing the experience. Create vivid images that involve as
many of the five senses as possible. Use strong, active verbs to draw
the reader into your description.
255
Chapter 23, Section 3
(Pages 772–777)
The Russian Revolution
The fall of the czarist regime and the Russian Revolution put the Communists
in power in Russia. As you read, use a chart like the one below to identify
the factors and events that led to Lenin coming to power in 1917.
Lenin in Power
(1917)
Background to Revolution
256
Russia was not ready for the challenges of World War I. Czar
Nicholas II took personal charge of the army, though he did not
have military skills. Millions of Russian soldiers were killed or
wounded. Meanwhile, the czar’s wife, Alexandra, came under
the influence of a man named Grigori Rasputin. He seemed to
have magical powers to stop her son’s uncontrolled bleeding.
While the czar was away at war, Rasputin influenced government decisions through Alexandra.
Economic disasters on the home front added to public
unrest. In early 1917, the Russian government started to ration
bread. Mothers working in the factories did not have enough
to feed their children. At the beginning of March, working-class
women held strikes in Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg).
They demanded “Peace and Bread.” Other workers joined them.
A general strike shut down all the factories in Petrograd.
Many soldiers in Petrograd refused to shoot at the crowd.
Instead, they joined the demonstrators. The Duma, or legislative body, set up a provisional (temporary) government. No longer supported by the aristocrats or the army, the czar resigned.
Alexander Kerensky headed the provisional government. He
made the mistake of deciding to keep Russia in the war. That
angered the workers and peasants. Soviets, or councils representing workers and soldiers, sprang up all over Russia.
Chapter 23, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The German word
for city is burg. The
Russian word for
city is grad. What
can you infer about
why the city of
St. Petersburg was
renamed Petrograd
in 1914?
(page 772)
From Czars to Communists
Which question
would best help lead
to an understanding
of the events of
November 16, 1917?
How old was the
Winter Palace?
Who was using
the Winter Palace?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What was the
architecture of the
Winter Palace?
Chapter 23, Section 3
(page 774)
The Bolsheviks began as a small group within a Russian
party that followed the ideas of Karl Marx. Their leader was a
radical known as V. I. Lenin. Lenin was out of the country when
the provisional government took power in March 1917. German
leaders, at war with Russia, wanted to cause problems in Russia.
Hoping Lenin would cause trouble, they shipped him back to
Russia in April 1917.
Lenin believed that only violent revolution could end the
capitalist system. The Bolsheviks promised to end the war,
redistribute land, and put committees of workers in charge of
factories. They promised to transfer power from the provisional
government to the soviets. By the end of October, Bolsheviks
made up a slight majority in the soviets of Moscow and Petrograd.
Leon Trotsky was the head of the Petrograd soviet. He was
a dedicated revolutionary. On November 6, Bolsheviks seized
the Winter Palace, headquarters of the provisional government.
The provisional government quickly collapsed.
A Congress of Soviets from all over Russia was meeting
at the time. Publicly, power passed from the provisional government to the Council of Soviets. Real power remained with
Lenin. He ended the war with Germany in March 1918 by the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. However, Russia sank into civil war.
Liberals, moderate socialists, and czarists opposed the new
Bolshevik, or Communist, government. Many liberals wanted a
constitutional monarchy. Many socialists wanted gradual reform
and democracy.
The Allies were very concerned about the Communist takeover. They also wanted to bring Russia back into the war. They
sent aid to the anti-Communist forces in Russia. From 1918 to
1921 civil war raged between the Communists, or Reds, and
their opponents, or Whites.
The Communists had several advantages. Unlike their opponents, they had a unified goal and were able to translate their
beliefs into practical instruments of power—such as their policy
of war communism, which ensured the Red Army had supplies
They had a strong leader in Leon Trotsky, commissar of war.
They also used terrorist techniques through their secret police,
the Cheka. Finally, because foreign armies were helping the
anti-Communist forces, the Communists could appeal to Russian
patriotism. By 1921 the Communists were in total command of
Russia. It was a centralized, one-party state.
257
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How did the provisional government and the Bolsheviks differ in relation to World War I?
2. How did Rasputin gain influence over Russian government decisions?
I nformative
Write an account of the Russian revolution from 1917 (or before)
to 1921. Present the facts as they happened, without inserting your
opinion. Be sure your account answers the questions who, what,
when, where, why, and how.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
258
Chapter 23, Section 3
Chapter 23, Section 4
(Pages 778–783)
End of World War I
After the defeat of the Germans, peace settlements brought political and
territorial changes to Europe and created bitterness and resentment in some
nations. As you read, use a chart like the one below to identify the national
interests of each country as it participated in the Paris Peace Conference.
France
Britain
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Last Year of the War
In 1918 the
stalemate was
broken and
the arrival of
enabled the Allies
to win the war.
Chapter 23, Section 4
United States
(page 778)
After Russia withdrew from the war in 1918, Germany no
longer had to fight on two fronts. General Erich von Ludendorff
guided German military operations. Free to concentrate on the
Western Front, Ludendorff hoped to win the war with one big
final push into France. German troops attacked in March 1918.
By April they were within 50 miles (80 kilometers) of Paris.
American troops arrived in time to help stop them. French,
Moroccan, and American troops defeated German troops at the
Second Battle of the Marne on July 18. The Allies went on to
win the Second Battle of the Somme on August 8.
A million American troops poured into France in 1918. The
allies began a steady advance toward Germany. On September
29, 1918, Ludendorff informed German leaders that the war
was lost. He advised them to make peace. The Allies refused
to make peace with the government of Emperor William
II. German sailors, workers, and soldiers rebelled across
northern Germany. The emperor left the country, and the
Social Democrats announced a new democratic republic. On
November 11, 1918, they signed an armistice, or an agreement
to stop fighting.
259
The Peace Settlements
France suffered
greatly from German
attacks during the
war. The French were
afraid Germany
might attack again
in the future.
Which provisions of
the peace settlement
were intended to
solve this problem?
In January 1919, representatives of 27 Allied nations met in
Paris to work out a final settlement. They did not all have the
same interests. When the war had started, both sides fought for
territorial gains. Some countries had been promised territory in
return for joining the war.
President Woodrow Wilson of the United States saw the war
differently. He described it as a fight between democracy (the
Allies) and absolutism (the Central Powers). Before the end of the
war, he described his ideas for a peace settlement in a speech to
the United States Congress. These ideas were Wilson’s Fourteen
Points. They included reducing military forces and weapons;
letting each people choose their own government; reaching
peace agreements openly; and creating a League of Nations to
guarantee the rights of all nations. Wilson’s ideas were popular
with the Allies. National interests also affected their decisions.
David Lloyd George, prime minister of Great Britain, had won
election by promising to make the Germans pay for the war.
Georges Clemenceau, premier of France, wanted revenge and
national security—protection against future German attacks.
The final peace settlement consisted of five separate treaties with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. Most
important was the Treaty of Versailles, signed with Germany
on June 28, 1918. It declared that Germany and Austria were
responsible for starting the war. It ordered Germany to pay the
Allies reparations for all the damage the war had caused. It
required Germany to reduce its army and navy and eliminate its
air force. Germany lost territory in the west to France and in the
east to a new Polish state. To protect France from future attacks,
German land along the Rhine River became a demilitarized
zone, with no weapons or defenses.
The peace treaties broke up the empires of Central and
Eastern Europe. Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
ceased to exist. Germany and Russia lost much territory. New
nation-states were created: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania,
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary. In the Balkans,
Serbia achieved its dream of a larger union of southern Slavs;
Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes were combined in a new state called
Yugoslavia.
The settlement left problems that would lead to later conflicts. Because national groups lived in overlapping areas, the
new states had ethnic minorities. The Allies broke their promise to Arab states that had been part of the Ottoman Empire;
instead of independence, they were placed under French and
British rule as mandates.
Chapter 23, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
260
(page 780)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What change in 1918 encouraged Ludendorff to think that Germany could win the war
with one final push into France?
2. Which feature of the peace settlements caused resentment among the Arab states?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
State an opinion about one or more provisions of the peace settlement
at the end of World War I. Present your opinion as though you were
a participant in the peace conference in Paris, trying to persuade the
other Allied representatives of your point of view. Support your opinion with information and arguments. Include responses to counterarguments, showing why those who disagree with you are wrong.
Chapter 23, Section 4
261
Chapter 24, Section 1
(Pages 790–795)
The Futile Search for Stability
Global Depression Weakens the Western Democracies Peace and prosperity were short-lived after World War I as a global depression weakened
Western democracies. As you read, use a table like the one below to compare
France’s Popular Front with the New Deal in the United States.
Popular Front
New Deal
Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security
Circle YES or NO.
Why or why not?
262
The peace settlement at the end of World War I left many
nations unhappy. The League of Nations was not strong enough
to settle disputes and keep the peace. One problem was that the
United States was not a member. The Senate refused to ratify
the Treaty of Versailles, wanting to stay out of European affairs.
France demanded strict enforcement of the Treaty of
Versailles, including high German reparations. After making its
first payment in 1921, Germany said it could not pay any more.
France sent troops into the German industrial area of the Ruhr
Valley. German workers went on strike.
Germany printed paper money to pay workers’ wages.
As a result, German money lost its value, and prices went up.
Inflation was out of control. Workers carried their weekly pay
home in wheelbarrows. An international plan was adopted to
make reparations more reasonable. Briefly in the later 1920s,
Europe enjoyed prosperity and cooperation. Germany and
France signed the Treaty of Locarno in 1925. It guaranteed
Germany’s new western borders with France and Belgium.
Sixty-three nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928,
promising not to make war. The pact did not provide a way
to enforce this.
Chapter 24, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Was the KelloggBriand Pact likely to
prevent war?
(page 790)
The Great Depression
In the late 1920s,
agricultural
overproduction
caused
.
A crisis in the United
States stock markets
caused Americans
to
,
with the result
that European
banks collapsed.
A final result of both
those factors was
(page 792)
A depression is a period of low economic activity and
high unemployment. A global depression brought an end to the
period of prosperity. One cause was a series of downturns in
the late 1920s. Farm prices dropped because of overproduction.
The other cause was a crisis in the United States stock market.
Americans withdrew their investments from Europe, causing
European banks to collapse.
In 1932 about 40 percent of German workers and nearly
25 percent of British workers were unemployed. Governments
responded by lowering wages and raising tariffs. Those measures made the crisis worse.
Governments assumed more power to try to deal with the
crisis. The economic crisis changed how people thought about
government and the economy. Workers and intellectuals showed
interest in Karl Marx, who had predicted that overproduction
would destroy capitalism.
Desperate people were willing to give leaders with simple
solutions dictatorial powers.
.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Democratic States
In times of crisis,
such as war or
depression, the
involvement of
governments in the
economy tends to
.
Chapter 24, Section 1
(page 794)
World War I increased democracy in the short run. Women
in several countries won the right to vote. Republics replaced
former empires but struggled for economic stability.
Germany’s new Weimar Republic battled runaway inflation and social problems. Families lost their life savings. Many
Germans blamed the Weimar Republic during the depression.
In France, the Great Depression brought political instability. In 1936 a coalition of Communists, Socialists, and Radicals
formed the Popular Front. Its program for workers included
collective bargaining, a 40-hour workweek, paid vacation, and
a minimum wage.
British leaders ignored the ideas of economist John Maynard
Keynes, who advised government to stimulate demand by
giving people work even if it meant the government engaged in
deficit spending, or going into debt.
In the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New
Deal encouraged government intervention in the economy. It
included public works and social security.
263
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Why did the United States Senate refuse to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and join the
League of Nations?
2. Describe the ideas of John Maynard Keynes for how to bring about an economic recovery.
Exposi tory
Analyze the relationship between economics and politics in the 1920s
and 1930s. Form a theory or generalization about the relationships,
and support it with specific illustrations. Consider cause and effect.
Also consider any differences among countries. Your theory or
generalization may address these differences.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
264
Chapter 24, Section 1
Chapter 24, Section 2
(Pages 796–803)
The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes
By 1939 many European countries had adopted dictatorial regimes that
aimed to control every aspect of their citizens’ lives for state goals. As you
read, use a web diagram like the one below to list methods Mussolini used
to create a Fascist dictatorship.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Methods used
by Mussolini
The Rise of Dictators
Mussolini called
women’s roles
as homemakers
and mothers
“their natural
and fundamental
mission in life.”
Was this statement
FACT or OPINION?
(Circle one.)
Chapter 24, Section 2
(page 796)
Democracy in Europe after World War I was short-lived. By
the late 1930s France and Britain were the only major democracies in Europe. A new form of dictatorship was the totalitarian
state, led by one leader and one party. Totalitarian governments
aimed to control every aspect of their citizens’ lives. Individual
rights were less important than the good of the state, as defined
by the government.
One form of totalitarianism is fascism. Fascism glorifies
the state above the individual. In Italy in the early 1920s, Benito
Mussolini set up the first fascist movement in Europe. Italy had
severe economic problems after World War I. Inflation grew and
workers held strikes. The middle class began to fear a communist takeover.
Mussolini’s Blackshirts attacked socialist offices and newspapers.
They used violence to break up strikes. In 1922 Mussolini threatened to march on Rome unless his Fascists were given power. King
Victor Emmanuel III gave in and made Mussolini prime minister.
The Fascists outlawed other parties and established a secret
police. Fascist youth groups promoted military activities and values.
265
A New Era in the USSR
From the information
about the changes
Stalin introduced,
one can conclude
that Stalin’s rule
overall was
for Russia.
(page 799)
During Russia’s civil war, Lenin controlled industries. He
took grain from peasants to feed the army. By 1921, people were
starving. Lenin adopted a New Economic Policy (NEP). It let
individuals sell farm produce and run small businesses. The government kept control of heavy industry, mines, and banks. The
NEP prevented total disaster. In 1922 the Communists created
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union).
Lenin died in 1924. A struggle for power followed among
members of the Politburo, the communist policy-making body.
As general secretary of the Communist Party, Joseph Stalin
appointed local and regional officials. He used that power to
gain control of the party. Stalin ended the NEP and launched a
series of Five-Year Plans. They set economic goals to industrialize Russia. They emphasized production of weapons, heavy
machinery, oil, and steel. Cities did not have enough housing
for the workers. Real wages fell. In agriculture, Stalin forced
peasants to work on collective farms instead of having farms of
their own, a system known as collectivization. Food production fell. To keep personal control, Stalin arrested and executed
Bolsheviks from the pre-Stalin era.
Authoritarian States in the West
1.
?
2.
?
266
The settlement at the end of World War I created new
republics in Eastern Europe. However, they had little experience of self-rule. Many peasants could not read, and large landowners dominated the land. Leaders feared communist unrest
and ethnic conflict. They installed authoritarian governments to
preserve the old order. While authoritarian, these governments
were not totalitarian.
In Central and Eastern Europe, only Czechoslovakia remained
a democracy. It had a large middle class and tradition of liberalism.
Spain was another state where authoritarianism replaced
democracy. The Second Republic was created in 1931. It lasted
barely over five years. Francisco Franco, a military general, led
an army revolt against the democratic government in 1936.
Spain fell into civil war.
Foreign involvements complicated the war. Italy and Germany
sent Franco weapons, money, and soldiers. The republican government got help from the Soviet Union and 40,000 foreign
volunteers. Franco’s forces won in 1939. Franco set up a dictatorship that favored large landowners, businesspeople, and the
Catholic Church.
Chapter 24, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
To determine
whether an
authoritarian state
is also totalitarian,
one might ask:
(page 802)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How did the Blackshirts change Italy?
2. List the main provisions of Lenin’s New Economic Policy.
Write about the political history of Spain in the 1930s. Tell events in
the general order in which they happened. Discuss what happened,
when it happened, why it happened, how it happened, and who was
involved. Do not show approval or disapproval. Simply present the
facts in an objective way.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 24, Section 2
267
Chapter 24, Section 3
(Pages 804–809)
Hitler and Nazi Germany
Hitler’s totalitarian state was widely accepted, but German Jews and minorities were persecuted. As you read, use a chart like the one below to list
anti-Semitic policies enforced by the Nazi Party.
Anti-Semitic Policies
Hitler and His Views
268
Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889. He formed his
basic beliefs of racism, anti-Semitism, nationalism, and Social
Darwinism while in Vienna.
He joined a small, nationalist party in Munich in 1919. It
soon became the National Socialist German Workers’ Party,
or Nazi (from the German word Nazional) for short. The
party had an armed force called the SA, the Storm Troops, or
Brownshirts. In 1923 he led an unsuccessful revolt called the
Beer Hall Putsch. In jail, he wrote his ideas in the book Mein
Kampf (My Struggle).
Hitler decided to bring the Nazi Party to power through
legal means. He built its membership nationwide. He appealed
to national pride, honor, and militarism. Germans suffering from
the Great Depression wanted a strong leader. The Nazis became
the majority party.
In 1933 President Hindenburg agreed to appoint Hitler
chancellor of Germany. The Reichstag, or legislature, authorized
the government to ignore the constitution. The Nazis took complete control. They removed Jews from government jobs. They
put their opponents into large prisons called concentration
camps. When Hindenburg died in 1934, they abolished the
office of president. Hitler was sole dictator.
Chapter 24, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hitler wanted power
over the government
of Germany. After
the Beer Hall Putsch
failed, he saw that
he could achieve
that goal through
an uprising. How
did Hitler solve
his problem?
(page 804)
The Nazi State, 1933–1939
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
People in Germany
called Hitler their
Führer, or “leader.”
What does this say
about how Germans
saw their relationship
to Hitler?
Chapter 24, Section 3
(page 806)
Hitler wanted to build a totalitarian state. He believed—
incorrectly—that Germans and Scandinavians were descended
from ancient Greeks and Romans, whom he called the Aryan
race (Indo-Europeans). The Germans had ruled an empire
(Reich) twice before: the Holy Roman Empire and the German
Empire of 1871–1918. He planned to establish a new German
empire, the Third Reich.
All the people of Germany would have to help. “The time of
personal happiness is over,” Hitler stated. The Nazis organized
groups to involve people in their goals. They used terror and
repression. The Schutzstaffeln (“Guard Squadrons”), or SS, ran
the police. They used concentration camps, execution squads, and
death camps. The goal was to make the Aryans the master race.
Hitler put people back to work and ended the depression.
Some new jobs were in construction projects and public works.
Even more important, the government put many people to work
building weapons. One reason many people accepted Hitler and
the Nazis was that they succeeded in ending unemployment.
Mass demonstrations and party rallies raised popular
enthusiasm. The Nazis also controlled churches, schools, and
universities. Youth organizations taught Nazi ideals. The Nazis
considered women important as the ones who would bear
Aryan children to continue the race. Women could be social
workers or nurses, but they were not allowed to hold jobs in
industry or traditionally male professions.
Anti-Semitism was part of Nazi beliefs from the beginning.
Once in power, the Nazis enforced anti-Semitic policies. In 1935
in Nuremberg, they announced new laws called the Nuremberg
laws. Anyone with even one Jewish grandparent was defined
as a Jew. Jews were no longer German citizens. They had no
civil rights and could not marry non-Jews. They could not hold
certain jobs. Later, they were required to wear yellow stars and
carry identification cards saying they were Jewish.
The night of November 9, 1938, brought a violent rampage
known as Kristallnacht, “night of shattered glass.” Nazis killed
Jews, burned synagogues, and destroyed Jewish businesses.
Jews were required to clean up the mess.
More restrictions on Jews were introduced. The SS encouraged them to leave Germany. Those who did so were fortunate,
compared to those who stayed.
269
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. List two activities of the Nazi government illustrate that it was a totalitarian state.
2. How was Hitler successful in ending the Great Depression in Germany?
What policies do you think the United States should have followed
in relation to Nazi Germany in the 1903s? Take a position. Use
information to support your position. Try to convince your reader
to agree with your position.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
270
Chapter 24, Section 3
Chapter 24, Section 4
(Pages 812–815)
Cultural and
Intellectual Trends
The destruction of World War I and the turmoil of the Great Depression
profoundly affected the work of artists and intellectuals. As you read, use
a table like the one below to list literature works by Hesse and Joyce.
Describe the techniques used in each work.
Literary Works
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Mass Culture and Leisure
What was a cause
of widespread
ownership of radios
in Germany?
Cause:
What was an effect
of widespread
ownership of radios
in Germany?
Effect:
Chapter 24, Section 4
Techniques
(page 812)
New inventions changed mass communications. From 1920
to 1922, broadcasting facilities were built in Japan, Europe, and
the United States. Mass production of radios began.
Governments used radio broadcasting and movies for propaganda. Germans heard Hitler’s fiery speeches over the radio.
The Nazis encouraged production of cheap radios sold on the
installment plan. The German propaganda minister Joseph
Goebbels called movies one of the “most modern and scientific
means of influencing the masses.”
Leisure changed after World War I. Mass production made
consumer goods more available. People had more income or
could buy on credit. The eight-hour day became common for
workers, allowing free time for leisure activities. Professional
sports became popular. People of all social classes traveled to
holiday resorts by train, bus, or car.
Totalitarian states used mass leisure as another way to control people. The Nazi program “Strength through Joy” filled the
time of working people with concerts, films, sporting events,
and cheap vacations.
271
Arts and Science
In the 1920s the
new physics, the
psychology of Freud,
and the experience
of world war all
contributed to
making people feel
.
After four years of war, many Europeans felt a sense of
despair. The Great Depression and the growth of fascist movements increase the sense of hopelessness. The future seemed
uncertain.
Artistic trends after 1918 continued trends that had begun
before the war. Abstract art became more popular. Even before
the war, artists were exploring the absurd and the unconscious. World War I increased the feeling that the world did
not make sense.
The Dada movement was based on the idea that life has
no purpose. Dada artists tried to reflect the insanity of life in
their art. For example, photomontage, or a picture made from
multiple photographs, was used by Dada artist Hannah Höch
to comment on women’s roles. Artists of the surrealism movement portrayed the unconscious: fantasies, dreams, and nightmares. The paintings of Spanish surrealist Salvador Dali showed
objects in strange new relationships. Some people wanted art to
be more realistic. This was especially true in Nazi Germany. The
Nazis favored art that showed the Germans as strong, healthy,
and heroic.
Literature reflected the interest in the unconscious.
“Stream of consciousness” was a technique that showed characters’ thoughts. The most famous example is Ulysses by the
Irish writer James Joyce. The German writer Herman Hesse
wrote about spiritual loneliness in modern society. His novels
Siddhartha and Steppenwolf show the influence of Buddhist
religion and Freudian psychology. He won the Nobel Prize for
literature in 1946.
Science built on the changes that began with Albert
Einstein’s theory of relativity. Isaac Newton’s mechanical view
of nature was breaking down. In 1927 German physicist Werner
Heisenberg announced his uncertainty principle, based on the
unpredictable behavior of subatomic particles. He said that all
physical laws are based on uncertainty. The new science fit
with the sense of uncertainty that affected art and literature
in that period.
Chapter 24, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
272
(page 814)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How did “Strength through Joy” serve the purposes of the Nazi government?
2. List two nonrealistic artistic trends of the 1920s.
Write a description of a family weekend in the 1920s. Include at least
three leisure activities discussed in this section, such as listening to
the news on the radio, attending a movie or sports event, or going
to the beach. Use active verbs. Make your description vivid enough
for the reader to feel that he or she is there. Remember differences
between the 1920s and earlier or later periods. Reflect the distinctive
character of the 1920s in your description.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 24, Section 4
273
Chapter 25, Section 1
(Pages 822–827)
Nationalism in the Middle East
After World War I, the quest for national self-determination led to the creation
of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. In the same period, the Balfour Declaration
supported the creation of a national Jewish homeland in Palestine. As you read,
make a venn diagram like the one below comparing and contrasting the national
policies of Atatürk and Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Atatürk
Reza
Shah
Pahlavi
Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire
274
The Ottoman Empire had been steadily declining since the
late 1700s. In 1876 reformers adopted a constitution, but the
sultan suspended it. A group called the Young Turks restored
the constitution in 1908 and deposed the sultan the next year.
However, they lacked broad popular support.
The Ottomans allied with Germany in World War I. Britain
encouraged Arab nationalist activities in Arab areas under
Ottoman rule. Arabia declared its independence in 1916. British
troops from Egypt seized Palestine.
Christian Armenians were a minority in the Ottoman
Empire. In 1915 the government began killing Armenian men
and making Armenian women and children leave the empire,
often dying along the way. About 1.4 million Armenians died
in the genocide, or the mass murder of a particular group of
people (also called ethnic cleansing).
At the end of the war, the remains of the Ottoman Empire
collapsed. Britain and France divided the former Ottoman territory. Only the area of present-day Turkey remained under
Ottoman control. The Turkish war hero Mustafa Kemal led calls
for a Turkish republic. In 1923 the Ottoman Empire had come
to an end.
Chapter 25, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Britain, France,
and Russia protested
the killing of
Armenians. Put
together what you
know about the
event and the time
period. Why did
Britain, France, and
Russia not intervene
to stop the killing?
(page 822)
Middle East Changes
Compare and
contrast Arab
expectations for
the settlement
after World War I
and what actually
happened.
Arab expectations:
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What actually
happened:
Something the
expectations and
reality both had
in common:
Chapter 25, Section 1
(page 825)
President Kemal became known as Atatürk, or “father
Turk.” He tried to transform Turkey into a modern democracy.
The Turkish language was now written in the Roman alphabet
instead of Arabic. Turkish citizens had to adopt family names.
Popular education was introduced. Factories were established to
modernize the economy.
Atatürk tried to break the power of Islam and make Turkey
a secular state. The caliphate was abolished in 1924. Men were
forbidden to wear the fez (brimless cap). Women were forbidden to wear the veil. Women received new rights, including the
right to vote in 1934.
In Persia, the Qajar dynasty had ruled from 1794 to 1925.
It was not very successful in solving its internal problems. The
dynasty asked the Russians and British to help protect it from
its own people. The foreign presence increased after the discovery of oil in 1908. That upset Persian nationalists. In 1921 an
officer named Reza led an army revolt. In 1925 he became shah,
or king, with the name Reza Shah Pahlavi. He tried to modernize Persia (called Iran from 1935). He created a modern school
system and forbade women to wear the veil.
Arabs within the old Ottoman Empire were not a nation,
but they shared a common language, religion, and culture.
World War I freed them from Ottoman rule. However, instead of
self-governing states, they became mandates under the League
of Nations. France ruled the mandates of Syria and Lebanon.
Britain ruled Iraq, Palestine, and Jordan. Arabs retained a sense
of Arab nationalism.
In the early 1920s, a reform leader named Ibn Saud united
the Arabs in the northern part of the Arabian peninsula. He
established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. At first, it was
very poor. However, the discovery of oil brought Western investors and hope for wealth.
Palestine became an area of tension between Arabs and
Jews. Jews had lived there in ancient Israel and Judah but had
been forced into exile. Muslim Arabs made up about 80 percent
of the population. Starting in the 1890s, the Zionist movement
worked to establish Palestine as a Jewish state. The nationalism
of Jews and Arabs came into conflict.
During World War I, the British government issued the
Balfour Declaration in support of a Jewish homeland. After
the Nazis began anti-Semitic policies in Germany in the 1930s,
many Jews fled to Palestine. Violence between Jews and Arabs
flared. Britain tried to stop Jewish migration to Palestine, which
made matters worse.
275
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Why did Persian nationalists rebel against the Qajar dynasty?
2. How did British policy regarding Jews in Palestine change between World War I and
the late 1930s?
Exposi tory
Analyze the causes and effects of the breakup of the Ottoman Empire.
Choose a clear way to organize your writing so that the reader can
easily follow your analysis.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
276
Chapter 25, Section 1
Chapter 25, Section 2
(Pages 828–835)
Nationalism in Africa and Asia
Nationalism led the people of Africa and Asia to seek independence. As
you read, use a table like the one below to contrast the backgrounds and
values of Gandhi and Nehru.
Mohandas Gandhi
Jawaharlal Nehru
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
African Independence Movements
How was there a
gap between Western
ideals and Western
practice?
Ideals:
Practice:
Chapter 25, Section 2
(page 828)
A new generation of Western-educated leaders in Africa
called for independence. Black Africans had fought in World
War I in the French and British armies. They had learned
Western ideas of freedom and nationalism. After the war, they
decided to seek reform. In Nigeria after World War I, educated
Africans joined with the traditional king of Lagos in opposing
British rule. Civil engineer Herbert Macaulay and the editor
of the Lagos Weekly Record ran an editorial campaign against
the colonial government. Forces in Libya carried on a guerrilla
revolt against the Italians.
In Kenya, land had been taken from black Africans and
given to white settlers. Protest organizations emerged in the
1920s. They included the Kikuyu Association and the Young
Kikuyu Association. Government authorities shot into a
protesting crowd, killing at least 20 people.
Many of the young Africans had been educated abroad and
were influenced by the ideas of W.E.B. Du Bois and Marcus
Garvey’s Pan-Africanism movement, which stressed the need
ofr the unity of all Africans. Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya wrote that
British rule was destroying traditional culture. Léopold Senghor
started an independence movement in Senegal.
277
Revolution in Asia
Although the
Comintern was
an international
organization, the
country of
probably had the
greatest influence
on its policies and
activities.
(page 831)
Before World War I, Asian intellectuals had little interest
in the ideas of Karl Marx because most of Asia was agricultural. That changed after Lenin’s Bolsheviks showed that a
revolutionary party could change a system that was not fully
industrialized.
Lenin adopted a new approach to spreading communist
ideas. The Communist International, or Comintern, was formed
in 1919 to promote revolution worldwide. Agents were trained
in Moscow. Then they were sent to their home countries to
form Marxist parties. In some countries, such as China, the
Communists cooperated with nationalist parties to oppose
Western imperialism. In French Indochina, Moscow-trained Ho
Chi Minh organized the Communists of Vietnam in the 1920s.
Indian Independence
People in India called Mohandas Gandhi “Great Soul,” or
Mahatma. He used the nonviolent method of civil disobedience,
or refusal to obey unjust laws.
Britain responded by passing the Government of India Act
in 1935. This expanded the role of Indians in governing. Instead
of an advisory council, India had a two-house parliament with
some elected members.
The Indian National Congress (INC) pushed for independence. Gandhi advised Indians not to pay taxes or buy goods
made in England. In 1930 he led a march to the sea to gather
salt illegally. He and other INC members were arrested.
A Militarist Japan
Two common
economic reasons
for imperialism
are that the home
country wants:
278
(page 834)
Huge financial and industrial corporations called zaibatsu
dominated the Japanese economy. By 1937 the four largest zaibatsu were Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, and Yasuda. Together,
they controlled 21 percent of the banking industry, 26 percent
of mining, 35 percent of shipbuilding, and over 60 percent of
paper manufacturing and insurance.
Chapter 25, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Suppose a British
photographer took
pictures of Gandhi’s
march to the sea
and wrote his or her
opinions about it.
Would this be a
reliable source
of historical
information?
(page 832)
1. a source of
for its industries, and
2.
for its industrial
products.
The Great Depression’s problems brought calls for traditionalism, separation from the West, and new territory to provide
raw materials for manufacturing. In the late 1920s, a militant
group within the ruling party gained control. Army officers
invaded Manchuria in 1931. The government disapproved, but
the conquest had popular support. Soon supporters of militarism and expansionism dominated the government. Japanese
society was put on wartime status.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. How were communist ideas spread in Asia?
2. Explain the role of zaibatsu in the Japanese economy.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Pretend that you write for a newspaper in either Nigeria or India.
Write an editorial making the case for independence from British
rule. Include facts that support your case. Try to present your case in
a way that might persuade people in Britain as well as the people of
your society.
Chapter 25, Section 2
279
Chapter 25, Section 3
(Pages 836–841)
Revolutionary Chaos in China
During the 1920s, two men, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, struggled
to lead a new Chinese state. As you read, make a cluster diagram like
the one below showing the Confucian values that Chiang Kai-shek used
to bring modern Western
ideas into a culturally
conservative population.
New Life
Movement
Nationalists and Communists
1.
2.
Which event of
1927 caused the
Communists to go
into hiding?
280
By 1920 two political parties emerged as rivals for leadership:
the Nationalists of Sun Yat-sen and the Chinese Communists. In
1923 the two parties formed an alliance to drive Western imperialists out of China and subdue the warlords. They formed a revolutionary army to march north and seize control over China. General
Chiang Kai-shek, head of the Nationalist party after Sun’s death in
1925, did not trust the Communists. In the Shanghai Massacre
of April 1927, he killed thousands of Communists. The rest
went into hiding. Chiang founded a Chinese republic at Nanjing.
After the Shanghai Massacre, Chinese Communist leaders
secretly spread Communist Party ideas to working class people of
Shanghai. A Communist organizer named Mao Zedong led some
party members south into the mountains of Jiangxi Province. He
promoted Communist ideas to poverty-stricken peasants.
Mao’s smaller People’s Liberation Army used guerrilla tactics, which are unexpected methods like sabotage and deception to break through Chiang’s forces to march north to the last
surviving Communist base in China.
Chapter 25, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What two shared
goals caused the
Nationalist and
Communist parties
to work together for
a few years?
(page 836)
The New China
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Sun Yat-sen wrote:
“China . . . needs
a republican
government just as
a boy needs school.
As a schoolboy must
have good teachers
and helpful friends,
so the Chinese people,
being for the first time
under republican
rule, must have
a farsighted
revolutionary
government for
their training.”
Sun thought rule by
the
Party could best
provide such
training.
Chapter 25, Section 3
(page 839)
Chiang Kai-shek shared Sun Yat-sen’s idea that China should
become a republic. Like Sun, he believed the Chinese people
were not ready for self-rule. They would learn during a period
of dictatorial one-party rule. During that period, the Nationalists
would carry out land reform and build a modern industrial state.
China was suffering from years of civil war. The peasants
were still very poor. Most of them could not read or write. They
were culturally conservative. Peasants made up 80 percent of
the population of China. In the cities, a westernized middle
class had begun to form. Most of the support for Chang Kaishek’s new government came from the urban middle class. His
supporters had little in common with the peasants.
Chiang tried to combine modern Western ideas with the traditional values of Confucius: hard work, obedience, and integrity. He and his wife set up a “New Life Movement.” It aimed to
promote traditional Confucian ethics. It rejected the excessive
individualism and greed of Western capitalism.
He had some success. He built and repaired highways and
railroads. New Chinese-owned factories opened. Foreign powers gave up many of their leases. Chiang established a national
bank. He improved the educational system.
He was less successful in other ways. His land-reform program had little effect. Because most of his support came from
the middle class, he did not work hard to help the poor. Chiang
did not press for programs that would lead to a redistribution
of wealth from the rich minority to the poor majority. Afraid of
the Communists, he did not allow free political expression. That
lost him the support of intellectuals and political moderates.
281
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What was the Northern Expedition of 1926?
2. What was the base of support for Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist government in China?
Descri pt
ptive
Describe the Long March of 1934–1935. Give your reader a sense
of the hardships along the way as the group moved on foot through
mountains, marshes, rivers, and deserts, fighting the Nationalist
army. Include information about the origin of the Long March,
its destination, and possible motives for participating. Provide
sensory detail.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
282
Chapter 25, Section 3
Chapter 25, Section 4
(Pages 844–849)
Nationalism in Latin America
Order and Security In Latin America, the Great Depression made politics
unstable, and in many cases, military dictatorships were the result. As you read,
make a chart like the one below listing the main exports of Latin America.
Country
Exports
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Latin American Economy
Analyze the creation
of Latin American
government-run
industries during
the Great Depression
in terms of problem
and solution.
Problem:
Solution:
Chapter 25, Section 4
(page 844)
At the beginning of the 1900s, the Latin American economy
depended on the export of foods and raw materials. Argentina
exported beef and wheat; Chile, nitrates and copper; Brazil and
the Caribbean nations, sugar; and Central America, bananas.
Beginning in the 1920s, the United States began to replace
Great Britain as the main investor in Latin America. For example, the United Fruit Company owned land, packing plants, and
railroads in Central America. American companies controlled
copper mining in Chile and Peru, and the oil industries in
Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia.
Many Latin Americans resented U.S. control of Latin
American industries. U.S. businesses sometimes used their profits to keep ruthless dictators in power. In Venezuela, U.S. oil
companies had close ties to dictator Juan Vicente Gómez.
In 1933 President Franklin Roosevelt announced a Good
Neighbor policy, rejecting the use of U.S. military force in Latin
America. The last United States Marines left Haiti in 1934.
The Great Depression was a disaster for Latin American
economies. Demand for their exports dropped. Lacking money
to buy imports, governments invested in manufacturing.
Government-run industries produced steel in Chile and Brazil,
and oil in Argentina and Mexico.
283
Authoritarian Rule
In some large
Latin American
countries during the
Great Depression,
brought to power
new rulers who can
be described as
.
(page 846)
Although most countries of Latin America were republics,
they were run by a small elite of church leaders, military leaders, and large landowners. New military dictatorships formed
in the early 1930s. An oligarchy of large landowners controlled
Argentina. An oligarchy is a government controlled by a select
group of people. A middle-class leader was elected president
in 1916. Both the landowners and the middle class feared labor
unrest. A revolt in 1930 tried to restore the old export economy.
The Group of United Officers (GOU) overthrew the regime in
1943. One of them, Juan Perón, was elected president in 1946.
In Brazil, the army had overthrown the monarchy in 1889
and set up a republic. The power of large landowners weakened when the Great Depression hurt coffee prices. A coup
made Getúlio Vargas president (1930–1945). He passed laws to
help workers and built industry. He took dictatorial power and
used secret police to silence his opponents.
Mexico was neither authoritarian nor a true democracy. The
Mexican revolution had helped the masses and created a stable
political order. The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ran
the government. President Lázaro Cárdenas (1934–1940) redistributed land to peasants and nationalized the Mexican
oil industry.
Which people in
Latin America and
the United States
might be most likely
to object to Diego
Rivera’s paintings?
284
(page 849)
Artistic movements from Europe influenced Latin America
in the early 1900s. Modern art became popular in the cities.
Latin American artists went abroad and brought back modern
techniques. They adapted the European styles to their own
native roots.
Modern artists who created abstract art included Roberto
Matta from Chile and Carlos Merida from Guatemala. Gunther
Gerzso is considered Mexico’s most significant abstract artists of
the twentieth century.
Many artists and writers used their work to promote a new
national spirit. An example was the Mexican artist Diego Rivera.
He had studied in Europe. He was particularly influenced by
fresco painting in Italy. After his return to Mexico, he painted
large murals on walls. Rivera tried to create a national art that
would show Mexico’s legend, festivals, and folk customs. His
work carried a political and social message. He did not want people to forget the Mexican Revolution, which had overthrown the
large landowners and the foreign interests that supported them.
Chapter 25, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Culture in Latin America
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. What was the Good Neighbor policy of President Franklin D. Roosevelt?
2. List two cases of revolts or coups that changed regimes in Latin America between
1920 and 1940.
How did economics influence politics and government in Latin
America in the 1920s and 1930s? Make one or more general statements and support them with historical information. Consider such
economic factors as social classes, exports, foreign investment,
industrialization, and the influence of the Great Depression.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exposi tory
Chapter 25, Section 4
285
Chapter 26, Section 1
(Pages 856–861)
Paths to War
The ambitions of Japan and Germany paved the way for the outbreak
of World War II. As you read, create a chart like the one below listing
examples of Japanese aggression and German aggression prior to the
outbreak of World War II
Japanese Aggression German Aggression
The German Path to War
What FACT influenced
Chamberlain’s view?
What OPINION affected
Chamberlain’s view?
286
Adolph Hitler believed Germans needed more land. In
1935 he announced a new air force and a military draft. The
next year, he sent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland. All
these steps violated the Treaty of Versailles. Distracted by the
Great Depression, other countries did not interfere. Britain tried
appeasement, or meeting Germany’s demands.
Benito Mussolini, leader of Fascist Italy, grew closer to
Hitler after Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935. In 1936 Germany
formed alliances with Italy (the Rome-Berlin Axis) and Japan
(the Anti-Comintern Pact). Italy and Germany helped General
Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. In the Anschluss, or
union, of 1938, Hitler joined Austria to Germany.
In September 1938, Hitler demanded that Germany be given
the Sudentenland, part of Czechoslovakia. At a conference in
Munich, Britain and France agreed. Hitler said he would make
no more demands. British prime minister Neville Chamberlain
believed him.
In March 1939, Hitler occupied more Czech territory. He
demanded the Polish port of Danzig. Britain offered to protect
Poland in case of war. To prevent a British-French-Soviet alliance, Hitler signed a pact with Joseph Stalin, head of the Soviet
Union. Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Britain and
France declared war on Germany.
Chapter 26, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
After the Munich
conference of 1838,
Prime Minister
Chamberlain
reported that the
agreement meant
“peace for our time.”
(page 856)
The Japanese Path to War
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What problem did
Japan try to solve by
conquering territory
on mainland Asia?
Chapter 26, Section 1
(page 859)
Japan needed natural resources. That gave Japan a motive to
seize other countries. Japan controlled a railway in Manchuria.
On the night of September 18, 1931, Japanese soldiers blew up
part of a railway. The soldiers were disguised as Chinese soldiers.
Their purpose was to give Japan an excuse to blame China and
occupy Manchuria. Japan conquered Manchuria easily. It had
many people and resources. A year after the explosion, Japan
formed Manchuria into a separate state called Manchukuo.
The League of Nations sent investigators. When the investigators’ report condemned the Japanese action, Japan withdrew from
the League. The United States did not recognize the Japanese
takeover of Manchuria but was unwilling to threaten force.
Japanese expansion continued over the next several years.
Japan established control over the eastern part of Inner Mongolia
and parts of northern China. The Japanese army determined
Japanese foreign policy. Neither the emperor nor the government
had any control over the army. By the mid-1930s, the army and
its supporters controlled the government of Japan.
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of China, tried to avoid a war with
Japan. He considered the Communists to be a greater threat.
When clashes broke out between Chinese and Japanese troops,
he practiced a policy of appeasement. The Japanese army moved
south into China. Protests occurred in several Chinese cities. In
December 1936, Chiang stopped fighting the Communists to
focus on the Japanese. Chinese and Japanese forces clashed in
1937. Japan seized the Chinese capital of Nanjing in December
1937. Chiang’s government fled but fought on.
Japanese military leaders hoped to establish a new order
in Asia. Japan would teach Manchuria and China how to modernize. Japan also cooperated with Nazi Germany in the hope
that both countries would attack the Soviet Union and divide
its resources. When Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with
Stalin, Japan turned its attention south instead. In the summer of 1940, Japan demanded the right to mineral resources in
French Indochina. The United States objected. Japan bought oil
and scrap iron from the United States. The United States threatened to apply economic sanctions, which would cut off badly
needed materials. Japan decided to launch a surprise attack on
the United States and Southeast Asia at the same time.
287
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Describe an incident in relation to Japan that showed the weakness of the League
of Nations.
2. How and why did Chiang Kai-shek change his response to Japan?
I nformative
Write the story of Hitler’s military and diplomatic activity from
1935 through September 1, 1939, and the response of other European
powers. Use a story plan made up of four elements: time, place,
people, and events. Present the facts in a way that flows smoothly,
without showing emotion or inserting your opinion.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
288
Chapter 26, Section 1
Chapter 26, Section 2
(Pages 864–871)
The Course of World War II
Allied perseverance, effective military operations, and Axis miscalculations
brought the devastation of World War II to an end. As you read, create a
chart like the one below listing key events during World War II and their
effect on the outcome of the war.
Event
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Europe at War
Compare and contrast
the British and
French relationships
to Germany in 1940.
Both:
British:
French:
Chapter 26, Section 2
Effect
(page 864)
Hitler’s attack on Poland stunned Europe. His blitzkrieg,
or lighting war, used columns of tanks, supported by airplanes.
Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland. After a quiet
winter (called the “phony war”), Germany attacked Denmark
and Norway in April 1940, then the Netherlands, Belgium, and
France, dividing the Allied armies.
France signed an armistice on June 22. German troops occupied about three-fifths of France. The rest of France, known
as “Vichy France,” had an authoritarian regime led by Marshal
Pétain, under German control.
Germany now controlled central and western Europe, except
Britain. Although American isolationists wanted to stay neutral,
and neutrality acts passed in the 1930s prevented the U.S. from
becoming involved in European wars, the United States provided
Britain with food, ships, airplanes, and weapons. The German air
force launched an attack on Britain in August 1940. Starting with
military targets, they soon switched to bombing British cities. The
British air force fought back bravely.
Hitler took control over the Balkans. In June 1941, he
invaded the Soviet Union. That winter the Soviets stopped the
German advance. It was the first time in the war that German
armies were stopped.
289
Japan at War
Both Japan and
Germany misjudged
the United States in
thinking that
.
(page 867)
On December 7, 1941, Japanese airplanes bombed the United
States naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Japan soon seized
a number of Pacific islands. By spring 1942, Japan controlled
almost all of Southeast Asia and much of the Western Pacific.
Japanese leaders thought their strike at Pearl Harbor would
destroy the American fleet in the Pacific. Instead, the attack unified Americans. The isolationist insistence on staying out of the
war faded. In response to the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United
States declared war on Japan.
Four days after Pearl Harbor, Hitler declared war on the
United States. He thought the United States would be too busy
fighting in the Pacific to cause him problems in Europe.
The Allies Advance
.
The entry of the United States into the war created a new
coalition, the Grand Alliance between Great Britain, the United
States, and the Soviet Union. They agreed to stress military operations and overlook their political differences.
The war went well for Germany through mid-1942. By May
1943, however, British and American forces defeated Germany
and Italian troops in North Africa. Germany captured the Crimea
and went on to attack Stalingrad. The Soviet Union fought back
successfully in the winter of 1942–1943.
The turning point in the Pacific came when American forces
won the Battle of Midway Island in June 1942. United States
forces moved toward the Philippines. They also recaptured
some Japanese-held islands by “island hopping,” or taking some
islands and skipping others.
Last Years of the War
The United States
and Britain
cooperated with
the Soviet Union to
defeat Germany.
Would you expect
this cooperation
290
(page 870)
By spring 1943, the Allies were winning. On June 6, 1944
(D-Day), the Allies invaded the French coast along the English
Channel. Within three months, the Allies landed 2 million
men and 500,000 vehicles. They pushed inland against the
Germans. After breaking through German defensive lines, Allied
troops moved south and east. They liberated Paris by the end
of August. In March 1945, they crossed the Rhine River and
advanced into Germany.
Chapter 26, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A natural condition
that helped to prevent
German forces from
conquering the Soviet
Union was the
(page 868)
to continue after
the war?
Circle YES or NO.
Explain your choice.
The Allied and Soviet armies met at the Elbe River in northern Germany at the end of April 1945. Hitler committed suicide
on April 30, two days after Italian partisans, or resistance fighters, shot Mussolini. Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945.
Fighting continued in Asia and the Pacific. President Harry
S. Truman decided to drop atomic bombs on Japan to end the
war rapidly. Japan surrendered on August 14.
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. List three battles on different fronts that were important in stopping the Axis
advance in 1942.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
2. Which parts of Eastern Europe did Soviet troops occupy before meeting the Allied
troops at the Elbe River?
Do you think President Truman should or should not have dropped
the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki? Take a stand. Use
information to support your position. Respond to any arguments that
people who disagree with you would be likely to make. Try to persuade
your reader to agree with your point of view.
Chapter 26, Section 2
291
Chapter 26, Section 3
(Pages 874–879)
The New Order and
the Holocaust
Millions of people were forced to labor for the German and Japanese war
machines. The Holocaust claimed the lives of 6 million Jews. As you read,
use a Venn diagram like the one below to compare and contrast the New
Order of Germany and the New Order of Japan.
Germany
Japan
The New Order in Europe
during World War II.
292
In 1942 Nazi rule stretched across Europe from the English
Channel to the outskirts of Moscow. Some of this territory, such
as western Poland, was annexed directly to Germany. Most of
occupied Europe was run by German officials with help from
local collaborators.
The Nazis saw land in the east as living space for German
expansion. They thought the native Slavs in those areas were
racially inferior. They planned to move Slavs out and replace
them with Germans. Soon after conquering Poland, the
Germans started putting their resettlement plans into effect. SS
leader Heinrich Himmler was in charge. One million Poles were
forced from their homes and relocated to southern Poland. Two
million ethnic Germans had been settled in Poland by 1942.
Hitler had bigger plans for after the war. He planned to
remove Poles, Ukrainians, and Russians from their lands and
make them work as slaves. German peasants would settle on
the abandoned lands. Himmler predicted that 30 million Slavs
might die to achieve this. Seven million foreign workers were
laboring in Germany by the summer of 1944. Another 7 million
did forced labor for the Nazis on farms, industries, and military
camps. The brutal recruitment of foreign workers increased
resistance to the Nazi occupation.
Chapter 26, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In addition to
relocating many
non-Germans from
their homelands,
Germany used
non-Germans as
(page 874)
The Holocaust
Himmler said
about education
in Eastern Europe,
“I do not consider
an ability to read
as necessary.” This
statement reflects his
bias that the people
of Eastern Europe
.
(page 876)
Hitler believed the Germans, or Aryans, were a superior
race. He believed the Jews were trying to destroy the Aryans.
The Nazis decided the Final Solution was genocide, or the
physical extermination of all the Jews.
The SS created special strike forces called Einsatzgruppen
to carry out this plan. They forced Polish Jews into ghettos in
Polish cities. Ghettos were crowded and unsanitary, with little
food. The Einsatzgruppen followed the army into the Soviet
Union. They gathered Jews in villages, shot them, and buried
them in mass graves.
To speed up the process, the Nazis built death camps. They
shipped Jews by railroad cars from Nazi-occupied areas to
Poland. Auschwitz was the largest of six death camps in Poland.
About 30 percent of the arrivals at Auschwitz were sent to labor
camps. The rest were killed in gas chambers. The Nazi’s killing
of 5 to 6 million Jews is called the Holocaust. Collaborators
even helped the Nazis hunt down Jews. The Nazis also killed at
least another 9 to 10 million people, including Roma (Gypsies),
Slavs, and Soviet prisoners of war.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The New Order in Asia
Which of these
would provide
the most accurate
information about
Japanese policy in
Southeast Asia?
memoir of a
local nationalist
leader
propaganda by
government of Japan
anti-Japanese
editorial in Autralia
Chapter 26, Section 3
(page 879)
The Japanese conquest of Southeast Asia forced millions
of native people to work for the Japanese war machine. Japan
had conquered areas under the slogan “Asia for the Asiatics.”
Japan promised to free colonial areas from Western rule. In fact,
Japanese military authorities kept power in each territory.
Japan used these areas as a source of raw materials such
as tin, oil, and rubber. Native people in each territory were
recruited to work in local military units or public works projects. In some cases, these policies brought severe hardships. In
Vietnam, for example, Japanese officials took rice from people
by force and sold it abroad. Over a million Vietnamese people
died as a result.
At first, many Southeast Asian nationalists agreed to cooperate with Japan against their former Western rulers. Later, it
became clear that Japanese policies were only intended to help
Japan. Like the Germans, Japanese military forces showed little
respect for local people or customs. They used labor forces
composed of local workers and prisoners of war. Many nationalists did not like what their new Japanese rulers were doing.
Some turned against the Japanese.
293
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Why did the Nazis move people from western Poland into southern Poland?
2. List four groups killed by the Nazis.
Descri pt
ptive
Describe life in a Polish ghetto in the 1940s. Convey the sights,
sounds, smells, and feelings that must have been common among the
residents of the ghetto. Try to draw your reader into the experience
you are describing. You may want to present your description as a
diary entry by a teenager living in the ghetto.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
294
Chapter 26, Section 3
Chapter 26, Section 4
(Pages 880–887)
Home Front and
Aftermath of the War
Competition Among Countries After World War II, a new set of Cold War
problems faced the international community. As you read, create a chart
like the one below comparing and contrasting the impact of World War II
on the lives of civilians.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Country
Soviet Union
United States
Japan
Germany
Impact on Lives of Civilians
The Mobilization of Four Nations
. . . But it is impossible for me to [tell
if they are loyal]
with the inscrutable
Orientals, and particularly the Japanese.”
—California governor
This quote could be
a useful source of
information about:
Japanese loyalty
racial prejudice
Italian Americans
Chapter 26, Section 4
(page 880)
World War II was a total war that required extensive
mobilization, or assembling and preparing for war. Civilians
made sacrifices to support the war effort. The Soviet Union had
shortages of food and housing. Women worked in factories, dug
antitank ditches, and fought as snipers and on bomber crews.
U.S. war production soared. Over a million African
Americans moved from the rural South to northern cities for
jobs. Japanese Americans on the West Coast were moved to
camps surrounded by barbed wire.
Prices, wages, labor, and resources were controlled in Japan.
Japan used Chinese and Korean workers rather than women.
Late in the war, Japan sent young pilots, called kamikaze, or
“divine wind,” on suicide missions.
295
The Bombing of Cities
In general, is the
bombing of civilians
an effective way
to destroy enemy
morale in wartime?
Circle one:
YES
NO
What evidence
supports your
answer?
Nearly 20 million civilians died in the war, many of them
children. Bombing of cities in Britain, Germany, and Japan
destroyed buildings and killed thousands of civilians.
The first sustained bombing of civilians began in September
1940. The German air force bombed London nightly for months.
The British called these air raids the blitz. The blitz spread to
other British cities and towns. It did great damage, but British
morale stayed high.
Nevertheless, the British hoped to break German morale
by bombing German cities. A thousand bombers attacked the
German city of Cologne on May 31, 1942. The firestorms from
the bombing of Dresden from February 13 to 15, 1945, may
have killed as many as 100,000 inhabitants. Bombs did not
destroy Germany’s morale or industry, but the destruction of
transportation systems and fuel supplies made it hard for new
materials to reach the military.
Loss of its air force exposed Japan to bombing late in the
war. Cities were built of materials that burned easily. Bombs
destroyed many industries and one-fourth of Japanese homes.
Most severe were the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki in August 1945.
1.
2.
296
(page 887)
A period of political tensions, known as the Cold War,
followed the Allied victory in World War II.
Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill met at Tehran in November
1943 to decide the future course of the war. They planned for
American and British forces to invade through France in the spring
of 1944. Soviet forces would liberate Eastern Europe and meet
British-American forces in Germany. The three agreed to divide
Germany after the war.
They met again at Yalta in southern Russia in February
1945. Churchill and Roosevelt faced the prospect of 11 million
Soviet soldiers occupying Eastern and Central Europe. Stalin
promised free elections for Poland. Churchill and Stalin agreed
to Roosevelt’s proposal for a United Nations.
Roosevelt’s successor, Harry S. Truman, met with Churchill and
Stalin at Potsdam in July 1945. Truman demanded free elections
in Eastern Europe. Stalin, whose troops occupied Eastern Europe,
refused because he wanted a buffer zone of Soviet-friendly states.
Chapter 26, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Peace and a New War
In a speech in 1946,
Winston Churchill
said that “an
iron curtain has
descended across the
continent,” dividing
Europe into two
hostile camps.
What two camps did
he mean?
(page 884)
Answer these questions to check your understanding
of the entire section.
1. Why did the industrial employment of women increase in several countries during
World War II?
2. What was the blitz?
Analyze the effects of the Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam conferences.
How did the conferences influence the outcome of World War II? What
groundwork—positive and negative—did they lay for world events
after the war? Select and apply a clear organizational structure to
break the topic into smaller and simpler categories.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Exposi tory
Chapter 26, Section 4
297
Chapter 27, Section 1
(Pages 900–907)
Development of the
Cold War
A period of conflict known as the Cold War developed between the United
States and the Soviet Union after 1945, dividing Europe. As you read, use
a table like the one below to list the American presidents who held office
during this period and the major Cold War events that took place during
their administrations.
President
Major Event
Confrontation of the Superpowers
298
For security reasons, the Soviet Union insisted on keeping
control over the countries it occupied in Eastern Europe, making them politically dependent satellite states.
Communist and anti-Communist forces fought to control
Greece. President Harry S. Truman asked Congress in 1947 for
aid to Greece and Turkey. The Truman Doctrine was to help
people resisting Communist expansion. The American policy of
containment was to keep communism from spreading.
U.S. secretary of state George Marshall believed economic
problems exposed countries to communism. He proposed economic aid to help rebuild war-torn Europe. This was the
European Recovery Program, usually called the Marshall Plan.
Germany and Berlin were divided into four occupied zones.
The United States, Britain, and France agreed to unite their zones
as West Germany. The Soviet Union objected and put a blockade
around West Berlin so that no food could get in. Nobody wanted
a war. American and British planes flew supplies into Berlin. In
1949 the blockade was lifted, and separate governments were set
up for West and East Germany.
Chapter 27, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
What is a probable reason that
the Soviet Union
lifted the blockade
of Berlin after the
Berlin airlift?
(page 900)
The Cold War Spreads
In 1957 the Soviet
Union sent a space
satellite called
Sputnik I to orbit the
Earth.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Put this information
together with what
you know about
the arms race. Why
did the launch of
Sputnik I increase
American fears?
Chapter 27, Section 1
(page 903)
American fears about the spread of communism increased.
In 1949 Communists gained control of China, and the Soviet
Union exploded its first atomic bomb. The United States and the
Soviet Union engaged in an arms race, in which both countries
built up their armies and weapons. They developed the hydrogen bomb and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). They
believed nuclear weapons provided deterrence, meaning that
the weapons prevented war. A nuclear war would be too
destructive for either country to risk.
The search for security during the Cold War led to new defensive military alliances. In 1949 ten countries of Western Europe, the
United States, and Canada, formed the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO). The Soviet Union formed a military alliance
in 1955 with Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Poland, and Romania. This was called the Warsaw Pact.
The Communist government of North Korea tried to take
over South Korea in 1950, confirming American fears of
Communist expansion. The United States extended its military
alliances around the world. The Southeast Asia Treaty
Organization (SEATO) was with Thailand, the Philippines, and
others. In the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) were Turkey,
Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Britain, and the United States.
Nikita Khrushchev became the leader of the Soviet Union in
1955. He wanted to stop East Germans from escaping into West
Berlin. In 1961 the East German government began building a wall
to separate East Berlin from West Berlin. Eventually, it became a
massive barrier guarded by barbed wire, floodlights, machine guns,
and dog patrols.
In 1959 rebels led by Fidel Castro set up a socialist government in Cuba, with Soviet support. U.S. president John F.
Kennedy approved a plan in 1961 for Cuban exiles to invade the
Bay of Pigs in Cuba, hoping to trigger a revolt. The plan failed. In
1962 Khrushchev began to place nuclear missiles in Cuba. (The
United States had nuclear missiles in Turkey, near the Soviet
Union.) Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba to keep the missiles
from getting there. After tense hours, Khrushchev and Kennedy
reached an agreement. The missiles would be removed, and the
United States would promise not to invade Cuba.
The Communists of North Vietnam tried to take over South
Vietnam. According to the domino theory, if that area fell to
communism, other Asian countries would also fall. President
Lyndon Johnson sent more U.S. troops to Vietnam starting in
1964. As the war expanded, many Americans protested.
President Richard Nixon withdrew troops in 1973. Communist
North Vietnam soon absorbed South Vietnam.
299
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. How was the Marshall Plan intended to help prevent the spread of communism?
2. The possibility of nuclear war between the Soviet Union and the United States was perhaps highest during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. What made that incident so risky?
Descri pt
ptive
Write about the Berlin Wall as though you were a resident of either
East Berlin or West Berlin at the time it was built. Describe the
background, the construction, and the resulting barrier as it might
affect the everyday life of someone living nearby. Describe the sights,
sounds, and smells associated with the wall. Use strong, active verbs.
Try to give your reader the feeling of sharing your experience.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
300
Chapter 27, Section 1
Chapter 27, Section 2
(Pages 910–913)
The Soviet Union and
Eastern Europe
The Soviet Union faced revolts and protests in its attempts to gain and maintain control over Eastern Europe. As you read, use a diagram like the one
below to identify how the Soviet Union carried out Communist policies.
Soviet Union’s Communist Policies
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Postwar Soviet Leaders
How were Stalin and
Khrushchev different
and alike?
Stalin
Khrushchev
Both
Chapter 27, Section 2
(page 910)
World War II devastated the Soviet Union. To recover, Stalin
returned to his policies of the 1930s. Soviet workers produced
goods for export in order to pay for importing machines and
technology. The result was a spectacular increase in heavy
industry—the manufacture of machines and equipment for factories and mines. However, a shortage of consumer goods and
housing meant that workers got little in return.
Stalin exercised sole power. He distrusted everybody. He
ordered all literary and scientific work to fit Soviet political needs.
After Stalin’s death in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev emerged as
the Soviet leader. In a program of de-Stalinization, he took
steps to undo some of the worst features of Stalin’s rule. In
1956 he condemned Stalin for his “administrative violence, mass
repression, and terror.”
Khrushchev loosened government controls on literature. He
allowed the publication of One Day in the Life of Ivan
Denisovich by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, set in a prison camp in
Siberia. Production of consumer goods increased, and industrial
growth declined. Khrushchev was forced out of office in 1964.
301
Eastern Europe
What are two questions one might ask
to determine whether
or not a Communist
state in Eastern
Europe was a satellite of the Soviet
Union?
1.
?
2.
?
At the end of World War II, Soviet military forces occupied
all of Eastern Europe and much of the Balkans. All the occupied
states came under Soviet control. Between 1945 and 1947,
Soviet-controlled governments became firmly established in East
Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and Hungary.
The process took longer in Czechoslovakia, which had a
strong tradition of democracy and a multiparty system. The
Soviets seized control of the government of Czechoslovakia in
1948. They dissolved all political parties except the Communist
Party.
Albania and Yugoslavia were more independent of the
Soviet Union. Both countries had strong Communist movements
that resisted the Nazis during the war. After the war, local
Communist parties took control. The regime in Albania resembled Stalin’s style of rule in the Soviet Union. Albania became
more and more independent.
The Communist leader in Yugoslavia was Josip Broz, known
as Tito. After the war, he made Yugoslavia an independent
Communist state. Tito refused to give in to Stalin’s demands.
Tito gained popular support for insisting on national independence. He ruled Yugoslavia until he died in 1980. Although
Yugoslavia had a Communist government, it was not a Soviet
satellite state.
Between 1948 and Stalin’s death in 1953, the Soviet satellite
states in Eastern Europe followed Stalin’s example. They
adopted five-year plans with an emphasis on heavy industry.
They collectivized agriculture, eliminated all political parties
except the Communists, and set up secret police.
Communism did not develop deep roots in Eastern Europe.
People resented Soviet domination. After Stalin died, some
countries made changes. However, they could not escape Soviet
control. The Polish Communist Party adopted reforms in 1956
but promised to stay in the Warsaw Pact.
In Hungary, the leader Imre Nagy declared independence
on November 1, 1956. He promised free elections. Three days
later, the Soviet Army attacked Budapest. The Soviets reestablished control.
Writers led a peaceful rebellion in Czechoslovakia in 1968.
Party secretary Alexander Dubcek introduced reforms. The
“Prague Spring” was short-lived. The Soviet army invaded in
August 1968 and crushed the reform movement.
Chapter 27, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
302
(page 912)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. How did the Soviet Union first acquire power over many states of Eastern Europe?
2. How did governments of the satellite states imitate Stalin’s policies between 1948 and 1953?
Write the story of Soviet control over the satellite states of Eastern
Europe, from the beginning through 1968. Use a story plan made up
of four elements—time, place, people, and events. Discuss what happened, when, why, how, and who was involved. Present the facts objectively, without showing approval or disapproval.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 27, Section 2
303
Chapter 27, Section 3
(Pages 914–921)
Western Europe and
North America
Post-World War II societies rebuilt their economies and communities, but
not without upheaval and change. As you read, use a table like the one
below to list programs instituted by Great Britain, the United States, and
Canada to promote social welfare.
Great Britain
United States
Western Europe: New Unity
304
(page 914)
Most of Western Europe recovered after World War II. The
Marshall Plan brought economic aid from the United States.
France faced a crisis in Algeria in 1958. Charles de Gaulle
drafted a constitution for the Fifth Republic. With de Gaulle as
president, France became a nuclear and industrial power.
Student protests and a general strike in 1968 led de Gaulle to
resign in April 1969.
The chancellor of West Germany from 1949 to 1963 was
Konrad Adenauer, leader of the Christian Democratic Union.
West Germany experienced an “economic miracle.” Employment
was so high that Germany brought in “guest” workers from
other countries.
In Britain, the Labour Party set up a modern welfare state,
providing services and a basic living standard. The government
provided insurance and health care for all. British colonies won
their independence. Six countries formed the European
Economic Community (EEC), also known as the Common
Market, in 1957. The EEC grew into an important trading bloc
(a group of nations with a common purpose).
Chapter 27, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Most countries of
Western Europe experienced economic
in
the period after
World War II and
into the 1950s and
1960s.
Canada
The U.S. after the War
President Truman’s
attorney general warned that
Communists were
“everywhere—in
factories, offices,
butcher stores, on
street corners, in private businesses.”
Is the statement
quoted above fact or
opinion?
(circle one)
FACT
OPINION
In the United States, an economic boom followed World War II.
Consumer goods were available. Labor unions achieved growth in
real wages, the actual purchasing power of income.
The Cold War and the Korean War increased fears of communism. Senator Joseph McCarthy set off a “Red Scare” by saying hundreds of Communists were in high government positions
and the army.
John F. Kennedy, elected president in 1960, was killed in
1963. Lyndon Johnson succeeded him. Johnson pursued programs of health care for the elderly, antipoverty measures, federal assistance for education, and civil rights. The Reverend
Martin Luther King, Jr., led a growing civil rights movement
for racial equality. New laws were passed to end segregation
and discrimination against African Americans.
In the later 1960s, Americans became divided over race riots
and antiwar protests. The election of Richard Nixon as president
in 1968 began a conservative shift in American politics.
Canada adopted a national pension plan and national health
insurance.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Changing Values
Three causes of the
consumer society
were:
1. a rise in real
;
2. availability
of consumer
such as television
sets; and
3. ability to buy on
.
Chapter 27, Section 3
(page 917)
(page 919)
Advances in technology and the struggle for rights brought
changes in society after World War II. Computers, televisions,
and jet planes changed the pace of life. The social structure was
also changing. A new group of managers and technicians joined
the middle class. The number of white-collar workers increased,
and the number of industrial workers declined. More people
moved from rural areas to cities.
A marked increase in real wages let industrial workers buy
consumer goods previously limited to the middle class. Buying
on credit became common. Workers could now afford appliances and automobiles. Some called it the consumer society,
focused on buying goods.
Women made important gains during the two World Wars.
They won the right to vote in many countries. For a time after
1945, women returned to traditional roles. The birth rate rose,
causing a “baby boom.” By the end of the 1950s, families were
smaller, and more women returned to the workforce. Still, they
earned less than men. Simone de Beauvoir’s book The Second Sex
influenced the women’s liberation movement, or feminism.
The number of university students increased sharply. Many were
dissatisfied. Student protests in Europe reached a peak in 1968.
305
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Name two individuals who led European economic recovery in the 1950s and 1960s.
2. Why did Germany start to accept guest workers from other countries, such as Italy, Spain,
Greece, Turkey, and Yugoslavia?
Exposi tory
Form a theory, or model, about the relationship between economic
prosperity and the government’s role in meeting people’s needs. Does
the welfare state grow when needs are greatest or when society has the
most resources to help the less fortunate members of society? Provide
historical information to support your theory. Explain what additional kinds of data might help in testing your theory.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
306
Chapter 27, Section 3
Chapter 28, Section 1
(Pages 930–935)
Decline of the Soviet Union
One of the largest empires in the world ended when the Soviet Union
broke up in 1991. As you read, create a chart like the one below comparing the policies of Brezhnev and Gorbachev.
Leonid Brezhnev
Mikhail Gorbachev
Foreign Policy
Economic Policy
Military Policy
Personal Policy
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Soviet Union under Stress
Determine the
cause-and-effect
relationship among
the following three
events. Write C beside
the cause(s). Write E
beside the effect(s).
Americans
withdraw from the
Moscow Olympics.
Soviets invade
Afghanistan to try
to restore pro-Soviet
regime.
Americans stop
shipping grain to the
Soviet Union.
Chapter 28, Section 1
(page 930)
After Nikita Khrushchev was removed from office, Aleksey
Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev replaced him. Brezhnev emerged
as the dominant leader in the 1970s. He benefited from détente,
improved relations between the United States and the Soviet
Union. Tensions between the superpowers relaxed. Soviet
leaders relaxed their authoritarian rule. Brezhnev allowed
Western styles of music, dress, and art. However, he still punished dissidents, those who spoke out against the regime.
His economic policies still emphasized heavy industry. The
central government was huge and inefficient. The ruling class
was corrupt. Farmers liked working private plots rather than
collective farming.
By the 1970s, détente allowed American grain and consumer
goods to be sold to the Soviet Union. However, détente collapsed
in 1979, when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. The Soviet
Union wanted to restore a pro-Soviet regime in Afghanistan.
The United States viewed this as an act of expansion. It
withdrew from the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and stopped shipping grain to the Soviet Union. U.S. president Ronald Reagan,
elected in 1980, called the Soviet Union an evil empire. He
aided the Afghan rebels. A new arms race began.
307
Gorbachev and Reform
In both the United
States and the Soviet
Union, the arms race
took needed money
away from domestic
problems. What did
the United States
and the Soviet Union
do in 1987 to help
solve that problem?
By 1980 the Soviet economy was in trouble. Mikhail
Gorbachev, a reform leader, was chosen as Communist Party
secretary in 1985. He wanted radical reforms based on perestroika, or restructuring.
He wanted a market economy more responsive to consumers. In 1988 he set up a new Soviet parliament with elected
members, the Congress of People’s Deputies. Its meeting in
1989 was the first such meetings in Russia since 1918.
Gorbachev permitted noncommunist parties. He became the
first and only president of the Soviet Union.
The Cold War ended when Gorbachev came to power. In
1987 he agreed with the United States to eliminate intermediaterange nuclear weapons. Both countries wanted to spend less
money on weapons. Gorbachev also stopped military support
for Communist governments in Eastern Europe. That allowed a
number of peaceful revolutions.
Nationalist movements resurfaced in parts of the Soviet
Union. Antireform Soviet leaders tried to take control in 1991.
Boris Yeltsin, president of the Russian Republic, led resistance
to the coup. Soviet republics declared independence, and the
Soviet Union ceased to exist.
(circle one)
YES
NO
Why or why not?
308
(page 934)
Gorbachev resigned on December 25, 1991. He turned his
responsibilities over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia. Yeltsin
intended to introduce a free market economy as quickly as possible. A rise in organized crime made problems worse.
Another problem was in Chechnya, part of southern Russia.
People in Chechnya wanted to be independent. Yeltsin used
force against the Chechen rebels to keep them in Russia.
At the end of 1999, Yeltsin resigned. Vladimir Putin was
elected president of Russia in 2000. He had been an officer of
the KGB, the former Soviet security agency and secret police.
Putin introduced more reforms to boost economic growth. He
allowed people to buy and sell land freely. He reduced taxes.
The export of oil and natural gas helped the Russian economy.
Some felt that Putin was increasing state control and reducing
freedoms such as freedom of the press.
Russia continued to face challenges. Alcoholism and organized crime remained high. Chechen terrorists killed about 500
people in Russia between 2002 and 2004. Chechen rebels seized
a school in 2004. When Russian troops moved in, hundreds
died, including children.
Chapter 28, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The New Russia
Do you think that
military force will
persuade the people
of Chechnya to be
content as part of
Russia and drop
their demands for
independence?
(page 932)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Describe the structure of government of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1991.
2. List two problems faced by the Russian government under Yeltsin’s leadership in the 1990s.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In your opinion, which challenges are most important for the leaders of
Russia to address, and how should the leaders address those challenges?
Use information and facts to support your opinion. State your point of
view clearly and try to persuade your readers to agree with you.
Chapter 28, Section 1
309
Chapter 28, Section 2
(Pages 936–939)
Eastern Europe
Popular revolutions helped end Communist regimes in Eastern Europe. As
you read, use a chart like the one below to list reasons for and the results
of revolution.
Country
Reasons for Revolution
Results of Revolution
Poland
Czechoslovakia
Romania
East Germany
Yugoslavia
Revolutions in Eastern Europe
310
Without the backing of the Soviet Union, Communist
regimes in Eastern Europe soon fell. In Poland, Lech Walesa
organized a national trade union called Solidarity in 1980. It had
support from workers and the Catholic Church, led by the first
Polish pope. In 1988 the Polish regime agreed to the first free
parliamentary elections in Eastern Europe in 40 years. A noncommunist government was elected. Walesa became president.
Czech intellectuals remained in opposition after Soviet
troops crushed a Czech reform movement in 1968.
Demonstrations in 1988 and 1989 drew huge crowds. The
Communist government collapsed in December 1989. Václav
Havel, a writer, became president. Ethnic tensions led to a
peaceful split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Romanian Communist leader Nicolae Ceauşescu used secret
police to crush dissent. In December 1989, the secret police shot
thousands of peaceful demonstrators. The army refused to support
any more repression. Ceauşescu and his wife were arrested and executed. Former Communists ruled for a time but lost power in 1996.
After mass demonstrations in 1989, East Germany opened
its border with West Germany. People tore down the Berlin
Wall. Germany reunited as one country on October 3, 1990.
Chapter 28, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Between 1988 and
1990,
governments fell from
power and democracies were installed
throughout Eastern
Europe.
(page 936)
The Disintegration of Yugoslavia
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The decline or
removal of close
Communist control allowed for a
revival of
feelings and tensions, resulting
in the breakup of
some countries into
smaller independent
nations.
Chapter 28, Section 2
(page 939)
Yugoslavia was a federation of southern Slavic republics and
provinces. It was under Communist rule but was never a Soviet
satellite state. The Communist Party of Yugoslavia collapsed by
1990. Ethnic tensions and nationalism posed new challenges.
Some republics of Yugoslavia wanted to become independent. The leader of Serbia was Slobodan Milošević. He resisted
calls by non-Serbian areas for independence. First, he wanted to
redraw the borders among parts of the federation to form a new
Greater Serbia.
Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence in June
1991. That September, the Yugoslavian army (dominated by
Serbs) attacked Croatia. They captured one-third of Croatia’s territory before a cease-fire ended the conflict.
The Serbs next attacked Bosnia-Herzegovina. They acquired
70 percent of Bosnian territory. Many Bosnians were Muslims.
The Serbs followed a policy of removing Muslims by killing
them or forcing them from their homes. Such a policy is called
ethnic cleansing. By 1995 there were 250,000 Bosnians killed
and 2 million homeless.
NATO air attacks helped Bosnia and Croatia regain some of
their lost territory. The Serbs finally signed a peace treaty dividing Bosnia into a Serb republic and a Muslim-Croat federation.
NATO troops tried to keep peace along the border between
them.
In 1998 a new war broke out over Kosovo. Kosovo had
been an autonomous (self-governing) province within
Yugoslavia until 1989, when Milošević took away its autonomy.
Groups of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo formed the Kosovo
Liberation Army (KLA). They fought against Serbian rule. Serb
forces tried to crush the KLA by killing ethnic Albanians.
The United States and NATO tried to stop the killing. The
Albanians in Kosovo regained their autonomy in 1999. The rule
of Milošević ended in Serbia in 2000. He was later arrested and
put on trial for killing civilians in Kosovo.
Yugoslavia ended in 2004. It was officially renamed Serbia
and Montenegro. The people of Montenegro voted for independence in 2006. All six republics that had formed Yugoslavia in
1918 were now independent nations.
311
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Other than Yugoslavia, which Eastern European country’s removal of Communist dictators
involved the most bloodshed? Describe the bloodshed that took place in that country.
2. Why did NATO send bomber planes and ground troops into Yugoslavia?
Descri pt
ptive
Pretend that you are a journalist covering wartime events in either
Bosnia or Kosovo during the 1990s. Describe what you see and experience in a way that will help your readers to share the experience. Write
vividly. Use strong verbs. Include as many of the five senses as possible.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
312
Chapter 28, Section 2
Chapter 28, Section 3
(Pages 940–945)
Europe and North America
Postwar Western societies rebuilt their communities, but shifting social
structures led to upheaval and change. As you read, use a Venn diagram like the one below to compare and contrast economic policies of
Thatcherism and those of the Reagan Revolution.
Thatcherism
Reagan Revolution
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Winds of Change in Western Europe
What economic benefit would countries
of Europe gain by
adopting a common
currency?
Chapter 28, Section 3
(page 940)
Western Europe had almost full employment in the 1950s,
1960s, and early 1970s. An economic downturn began about the
mid-1970s, and inflation and unemployment rose.
More nations joined the European Community. In 1994 it
became the European Union (EU) and created a common
European currency, the euro.
France shifted toward socialism under President François
Mitterrand in the 1980s. The economy continued to decline.
Conservatives regained control in the 1990s.
In 1969 the Social Democrats became the leading party in
West Germany, Chancellor Willy Brandt received the Nobel
Peace Prize for increasing contacts between West and East
Germany. Conservatives gained power in the 1980s. German
reunification in 1990 made Germany the leading power in
Europe. It brought economic problems and extremist attacks on
foreigners.
In Britain, Catholic-Protestant conflict raged in Northern Ireland.
Conservative prime minister Margaret Thatcher broke the power of
labor unions and tried to end social welfare. Her economic policy
was called Thatcherism. Antitax riots in 1990 led Thatcher to resign.
313
The U.S. and Canada
When Reagan was
president in the
1980s, why did budget deficits increase
even though expenditures on welfare
programs were being
cut?
In the United States, white southern Democrats began
switching to the Republican Party. President Richard Nixon used
illegal methods to gain information about his political opponents. This led to the Watergate scandal. Nixon resigned on
August 9, 1974.
Vice President Gerald Ford succeeded him in office. Jimmy
Carter, a Democrat and former governor of Georgia, was elected
president in 1976. Carter faced two big problems. Inflation was
out of control. Also, Iran held 52 Americans hostage. Carter lost
the 1980 election.
The new president, Ronald Reagan, made big changes,
known as the Reagan Revolution. He cut back on welfare programs. With the revival of the arms race, he oversaw the largest
peacetime military buildup in U.S. history. Federal spending
soared. The government had record budget deficits, spending
more than it took in.
George Bush, Reagan’s vice president and successor, could
not reverse the economic downturn. He lost the presidential
election of 1992 to Bill Clinton. Clinton claimed to be a new,
more conservative kind of Democrat. A sexual scandal led to his
impeachment (formal charges of misconduct), but he was not
removed from office. His problems helped George W. Bush, son
of former president George Bush, win the presidency in 2000 in
a very close election.
On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked four commercial
jets in the United States. Three were flown into buildings: the
two World Trade Center towers in New York City and the
Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. Almost 3,000 people were
killed. Heroic passengers crashed the fourth plane before it
could fly into yet another building.
The attacks were carried out by the Islamic terrorist group
al-Qaeda, under the direction of Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden
trained al-Qaeda terrorists in Afghanistan. That country was governed by a militant Islamic group, the Taliban, which allowed alQaeda activity. The United States responded to the terrorist
attacks by leading a coalition in a war against Afghanistan. The
Taliban was removed from power. The United States introduced
new airport security measures and established a Department of
Homeland Security. Bush later involved the United States in an
unpopular war in Iraq.
Canada joined the United States and Mexico in the North
American Free Trade Agreement in 1993. In 1995, voters in the
French-speaking province of Quebec narrowly defeated a proposal to withdraw from Canada.
Chapter 28, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
314
(page 943)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Which European national leader won the Nobel Peace Prize, and why?
2. List two actions the United States took in response to the al-Qaeda attacks of
September 11, 2001.
Trace United States political history from the early 1970s to the early
2000s. Do not let your opinions show or influence your account.
Include major events during each presidency and factors influencing
the outcome of presidential elections. Tell events in the approximate
order in which they took place.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 28, Section 3
315
Chapter 28, Section 4
(Pages 946–951)
Western Society and
Culture
Trends in contemporary Western society include rapid changes in science and technology, changes in family structures and population trends,
increased religious diversity, and a shared popular culture among nations.
As you read, complete a chart like the one below to list the issues and
outcomes for the women’s movement since 1970.
Issues
The Quickening Pace of Change
Abortion became
a controversial issue
in the United States.
The United
States Supreme Court
legalized abortion in
1973.
Abortion will
become more common in the future.
316
(page 946)
Since 1970 the pace of material change has quickened and
produced a global economy. Science and technology have
changed people’s lives dramatically. By funding weapons projects during World War II, governments set a new model for scientific research. Complex projects took teams of scientists and
huge, expensive laboratories. An example is the space race. An
American landed on the moon in 1969.
Concerns arose about technology and the environment.
Chemical fertilizers interfered with the balance of nature. Organic
farming and genetically modified foods are controversial.
Marriage rates fell and divorce rates increased. The average
age of marriage went up slightly. The birthrate fell. More
women went to college and joined the workforce.
“Consciousness-raising” groups drew attention to gender
stereotyping, restricting a person’s activities by gender. In 1963
the United States passed the Equal Pay Act, requiring women to
get the same pay as men for doing the same work. Norway and
Denmark adopted gender parity policies in the 1970s, requiring that women make up a certain number of candidates or of
those elected to office.
Chapter 28, Section 4
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Beside each of the
statements below,
write F if it is a
statement of fact.
Write O if it is
a statement of
opinion.
Outcomes
Culture and Identity
In general, communications technology
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
the globalization of
culture.
Chapter 28, Section 4
(page 949)
The United States dominated the art world after World War II.
New York City became the artistic center of the Western world.
Abstract expressionists conveyed emotion and feeling. By the
1980s, postmodern styles emerged. Postmodernism is a revival
of traditional elements and techniques. Postmodern artists often
create works that include elements of film, performance, and
sculpture.
Movies, music, and spectator sports have become part of
popular culture—entertainment created for a mass audience,
for a profit. Radio, television, and film have spread American
pop culture around the world. Europeans watch American television shows and become familiar with the brand names of
American products. They also learn American attitudes about
family, work, and money.
Sports have become big business and are sometimes a part
of politics. A Palestinian terrorist group took 11 Israeli athletes
hostage at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, Germany. After
the United States refused to send athletes to the 1980 Olympics
in Moscow, the Soviet Union refused to take part in the Los
Angeles Olympics in 1984.
Some people worried that the dominance of American pop
culture weakened their own national traditions. They called this
domination cultural imperialism. A law in France reserved at
least 40 percent of radio time for French-language music. At the
same time, Western music was influenced by music from other
cultures, such as reggae and Latin pop.
Migration from former colonies increased religious diversity
in Europe. Millions of immigrants from Africa established
Muslim communities in France, Germany, and Great Britain.
Some Europeans considered non-Christians a threat to their traditional culture. An evangelical Protestant revival grew in the
United States. Conservative Christian groups became a larger
force in American politics.
Many minorities in Europe and North America want to preserve their culture. In 1995 a small majority in the Frenchspeaking province of Quebec voted to remain in Canada.
Basque extremists used terror to pursue independence for the
Basque region of Spain and France. In Northern Ireland, on
“Bloody Sunday” in 1972, British troops fired into a crowd of
Catholic protesters. Thousands died before Catholics and
Protestants signed the Good Friday Agreement in April 1998.
317
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. List three ways families changed after 1970.
2. Define popular culture and give two examples.
An issue in France has been whether or not to forbid Muslim girls to
wear head scarves in school. People who want to ban the practice say
the scarves are distracting and draw attention to religious differences.
People who oppose the ban say the girls should be free to follow their
religion. Take a position on this issue. Answer the arguments of those
who disagree. Try to persuade your reader to share your opinion.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
318
Chapter 28, Section 4
Chapter 29, Section 1
(Pages 960–965)
General Trends in
Latin America
Economic instability led some Latin American countries to move toward
democracy, while the United State intervened to protect its interests. As
you read, use a diagram like the one below to identify social and political
challenges in Latin America since 1945.
Social
Challenges
Political
Challenges
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Economic and Political Developments
In general, economic
tend(s) to create
pressure for governments to change.
Chapter 29, Section 1
(page 960)
In response to the Great Depression, Latin American countries
had developed manufacturing industries to provide the goods they
could no longer afford to import. They depended on the United
States, Europe, and Japan for advanced technology. It was hard to
find markets abroad to sell their manufactured products.
Economic problems led to political instability. In the 1960s, military regimes in Chile, Brazil, and Argentina returned to export-import
economies financed by foreigners. They encouraged multinational
corporations (companies with divisions in more than two countries)
to come to Latin America. That made the countries still more dependent on foreigners. They borrowed huge amounts of money in the
1970s. Wages fell. Unemployment and inflation rose sharply.
With the debt crisis in the 1980s came a movement toward
democracy. Countries had to make reforms to get new loans. Some
military leaders did not want to deal with the problems. Several
countries established democratic regimes by the mid-1990s.
The new democracies were insecure. Globalization and foreign debt continued to cause economic stress. Several Latin
American countries elected authoritarian figures in the 1990s,
such as President Alberto Fujimori in Peru.
319
Latin American Society
To determine if a city
is a megacity, ask:
1. Does the city
have a large
?
2. Is the population growing very
?
3. Are urban
adequate for the people who live there?
(page 962)
Changes in population made economic problems worse. The
population of Latin America grew very fast. It more than tripled
between 1950 and 2000. This change brought a rapid rise in the
size of cities. Fifty cities in Latin America and the Caribbean had
more than a million people by 2000.
These are examples of megacities. A megacity is a huge city
that has grown too fast for urban services to keep up. Many
megacities have slums and shantytowns. Crime and corruption
from the international drug trade are common.
The gap between rich and poor is huge in Latin America.
Landholding elites own huge estates; urban elites own large
businesses. Peasants and the urban poor struggle to survive.
Women’s roles have changed in Latin America. Some women
work in industry and as teachers, professors, doctors, and lawyers.
The U.S. and Latin America
The United States often intervened in Latin America to help
U.S. business interests. Sometimes this meant backing dictators.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced his Good Neighbor
policy in the 1930s. He said that the United States would not send
troops to Latin America. In 1948 the nations of the Americas formed
the Organization of American States (OAS). It passed a resolution to
end military action by one nation in the affairs of another.
However, U.S. leaders feared that poverty would make communism attractive in Latin American countries. U.S. business interests
accused Jacobo Arbenz, president of Guatemala, of having links with
communism. Arbenz was overthrown with help from the U.S. CIA.
The establishment of a Communist government in Cuba in 1959
increased U.S. fears. The United States used its influence whenever it
felt Communism was gaining strength in Central or South America.
Latin American Culture
Authors of magic
realism combine
and
(page 964)
A new form of literature called magic realism developed in
Latin America in the 1940s. It combines realistic events with
dreamlike or fantasy backgrounds. Writers use elements of
magic to comment on a national or social situation. An important example is the novel One Hundred Years of Solitude. The
author, Gabriel García Márquez of Colombia, won the Nobel
Prize in literature in 1982.
.
320
Chapter 29, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How is the end of
the Cold War likely
to affect the degree
of U.S. military
involvement in Latin
America? Explain.
(page 962)
The first Latin American winner of the Nobel Prize in
Literature was Gabriela Mistral, a poet from Chile. Other important writers include the novelists Jorge Edwards from Chile and
Julio Cortázar from Argentina.
International styles influenced Latin American art and architecture after World War II. Perhaps the most striking modern
architecture is in Brasília, the capital of Brazil. The chief architect was Oscar Niemeyer from Brazil. He was already known
internationally as one of the two architects who designed the
United Nations building in New York City.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What made Latin American countries economically dependent on foreigners?
2. Why has the United States sometimes supported dictators in Latin America?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Descri pt
ptive
Chapter 29, Section 1
Describe a typical megacity of Latin America. (You do not have to select
a particular city. Write about the features that megacities have in common.) Create vivid images of the sights, sounds, and smells. Consider the
various parts of the city and the different classes of people who live there.
321
Chapter 29, Section 2
(Pages 966–971)
Mexico, Cuba, and
Central America
Mexico and Central America faced political and economic crises after
World War II, making national progress difficult. As you read, use a table
like the one below to identify the political and economic challenges faced
by El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, and Guatemala after 1945.
El Salvador
Mexico
Panama
Guatemala
(page 966)
NAFTA increases
export opportunities.
NAFTA takes
away American jobs.
NAFTA lets consumers buy goods at
lower prices.
NAFTA lets companies avoid environmental laws.
The Mexican Revolution in the early 1900s created a fairly
stable political order. The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
dominated politics. Every six years, Mexicans elected the PRI
candidate as president. Wages rose in the 1950s and 1960s.
In 1968 police fired on student demonstrators, killing hundreds.
PRI leaders grew concerned. The next two presidents made political
reforms. They allowed more freedom of debate. New parties formed.
Large oil reserves were discovered in Mexico in the late
1970s. The government came to depend on money from selling
oil abroad. When world oil prices dropped in the mid-1980s,
Mexico could no longer make payments on its foreign debt. The
government had to change its economic policies. One new policy was privatization, or selling government-owned companies
to private businesses.
The next president, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, sped up privatization to help pay Mexico’s debts. He worked with leaders of
the United States and Canada to form the North American Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Problems continued. Support for the
PRI dropped. In 2000 Mexico elected Vicente Fox, its first nonPRI president in over 70 years.
Chapter 29, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Many Americans
have strong opinions
about NAFTA. Write
+ if the bias is positive or – if it is negative below.
322
Nicaragua
The Cuban Revolution
Based on the
information provided here about
Ché Guevara, one
can infer that his
political views were
probably
.
The dictator Fulgencio Batista controlled Cuba for a quarter century, starting in 1934. Opposition arose in the 1950s, led by Fidel
Castro. He became a revolutionary while studying law at the
University of Havana. In 1953 he and his brother Raul led an attack
on an army camp. It failed, and the brothers spent time in prison.
Next, the Castro brothers joined a rebel band in the mountains of Mexico. They produced propaganda by radio and print.
The Batista regime collapsed. Castro’s group took control of
Cuba in 1959.
Castro’s regime received aid from the Soviet Union. Worried,
the United States declared a trade embargo, stopping all trade
with Cuba. Chapter 27 describes the Bay of Pigs invasion and
the Cuban missile crisis. Castro tried to spark revolutions in
other parts of Latin America. His ally Ernesto “Ché” Guevara
died in such a war in 1967.
Castro’s Marxist government brought mixed results. Citizens got
free medical services. Nearly everyone learned to read and write.
Cuba relied on Soviet aid and sugar exports to Eastern Europe.
When those Communist regimes fell, the Cuban economy suffered.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Central America
Compare and contrast
the groups the United
States supported in
wars in El Salvador
and Nicaragua.
El Salvador:
Nicaragua:
Both:
Chapter 29, Section 2
(page 968)
(page 969)
Fear of communism led the United States to intervene in
Central American politics in the 1970s and 1980s, supporting
dictators.
In El Salvador in the 1970s, civil war broke out between
Marxist guerrillas and right-wing death squads. Archbishop
Oscar Romero and other Catholic priests were killed. The United
States provided weapons and training to oppose the guerrillas.
At least 75,000 people died before a peace settlement was
reached in 1992.
The Somoza family controlled Nicaragua, with United States
support. In 1979 Marxist guerrillas called Sandanistas won control of the country. The U.S. aided the contras, a group opposed
to the Sandinistas’ policies, to try to overthrow the government.
Manuel Noriega, the military leader of Panama, was involved
in the drug trade. U.S. president George Bush sent U.S. troops to
Panama in 1989, and Noriega was sent to prison. Control of the
Panama Canal passed from the United States to Panama in 1999.
In a civil war in Guatemala, military dictators used death
squads against native Mayan people, killing as many as 200,000.
Some fled to Mexico as refugees.
323
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why did the United States provide military training and weapons for repressive regimes
in Central America?
2. Why did Mexico adopt a policy of privatization after the mid-1980s?
Exposi tory
Analyze the effect of the Cuban Revolution on subsequent events in
Central America. Choose a way to organize the information into
smaller and simpler categories, to make your analysis easy for the
reader to follow.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
324
Chapter 29, Section 2
Chapter 29, Section 3
(Pages 972–977)
The Nations of South
America
South American countries have experienced economic, social, and political
problems, but democracy has advanced since the late 1980s. As you read, use a
table like the one below to list factors leading to the change from military rule
to civilian rule.
Argentina
Brazil
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chile and Argentina
Allende and Perón
introduced social
reforms to help solve
the problems of the
class.
To solve the problem
of foreign control
of major industries,
Allende and Perón
the
industries.
Chapter 29, Section 3
Chile
Venezuela
(page 972)
Salvador Allende, a Marxist, became president of Chile in 1970.
He increased wages and nationalized large corporations. He gained
support in the Chilean congress. The American owners of the copper companies were angry about nationalization. Military forces
killed Allende in 1973, and General Augusto Pinochet became dictator. He ended the congress and outlawed political parties.
The Pinochet regime was brutal. Thousands of opponents and
other civilians were arrested and never seen again—imprisoned,
tortured, or killed. Free elections finally removed Pinochet in 1989.
Chile has moved toward democracy. Economic problems remain.
Argentina was ruled by an oligarchy of large landowners,
supported by the army. In 1943 army officers overthrew the oligarchy. The new labor secretary, Juan Perón, encouraged workers to join unions. He increased job benefits. He was elected
president in 1946. He and his popular wife, Eva Perón, introduced social reforms. He tried to industrialize Argentina and
free it from foreign investors. He nationalized major industries.
Perón’s rule was authoritarian. So was the military regime
that took power in 1976. A failed invasion of the British-controlled Falkland Islands in 1982 discredited the military regime.
The next president, Raúl Alfonsín, restored democracy in
Argentina. The economy became more stable.
325
Brazil
(page 975)
How did Brazil’s
“economic miracle”
benefit and harm
Brazil?
Benefit:
Harm:
Like other countries of Latin America, Brazil had severe economic problems after World War II. Democratically elected governments could not solve the problems. The military seized
control in 1964.
The military government reduced government interference
in the economy. It encouraged the free market. Beginning about
1968, the economy grew quickly. Brazil experienced an “economic miracle.”
Most people in Brazil did not benefit from this economic
growth. Inflation soared. Prices doubled in a year. The generals
running the government were overwhelmed. They backed off,
and democracy returned in 1985.
The new democratic government faced huge challenges. It
had an enormous foreign debt. The inflation rate in 1987 was
800 percent. The government stabilized the economy in the
1990s, but the gap between rich and poor remained high.
Unemployment was high. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, elected in
2002, was the first left-wing president of Brazil in four decades.
He tried to make Brazil more independent in global trade.
Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela
made the national
economies unstable.
326
Dependence on exports made Peru unstable. After a military
takeover in 1968, General Juan Velasco Alvarado tried to help
the peasants. The government transferred most landed estates to
cooperatives, farm organizations owned by and operated for
the peasants. It nationalized foreign-owned industries. It froze
food prices to help urban workers. The Shining Path, a
Communist guerrilla group, killed many people. Alberto
Fujimori was elected president in 1990. He promised reforms
but became a dictator. He was removed from power in 2000.
Conservative coffee plantation owners ran the democratic
government of Colombia. Dependence on coffee exports made
the economy unstable. Poor peasants turned to a new cash
crop—coca leaves, used to make cocaine. Marxist guerrilla
groups made deals with drug cartels (groups of drug businesses) to oppose the government. The United States funded an
antidrug program and sent troops to support it.
Military dictators promoted the oil industry in Venezuela.
Democracy was restored by 1958. Economic problems and policies
provoked riots in 1979. A group of army lieutenants led by Hugo
Chávez attempted a coup in 1992. It failed, but Chávez became a
folk hero. He was elected president in 1998 and again in 2006.
Chapter 29, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In both Peru and
Colombia, economic
dependence on
(page 975)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. List three economic policies undertaken by the government of Juan Velasco Alvarado in Peru.
2. Which two exports are most important to the economy of Colombia?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Imagine that the leader of a Latin American country has come to you
for economic policy advice. What would you advise the leader to do
to improve the national economy and the lives of people living there?
Consider the economic challenges that are most widespread in Latin
America. Use facts to support your suggestions. Present and support your
suggestions in a way that will make the reader agree with your opinion.
Chapter 29, Section 3
327
Chapter 30, Section 1
(Pages 986–993)
Independence in Africa
After achieving independence from their colonial rulers, many African
nations faced political, economic, social, and health challenges. As you
read, complete a chart like the one below identifying the problems in
Africa during its first stages of independence.
Problems in Africa
Economic
Social
Political
Independence and New Nations
Majority Hutus
killed half a million
Tutsis in Rwanda.
War spread into the
Democratic Republic
of the Congo.
Arabs attacked
African tribal
groups in the Darfur
region of Sudan.
These three civil
wars are examples of
conflict.
328
The United Nations Charter stated that colonial peoples
should choose their own governments. Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya,
Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and others were granted independence.
Whites ran South Africa. Afrikaners, descended from the
Dutch, set up racial segregation laws called apartheid. The
black African National Congress (ANC) leader Nelson Mandela
was arrested in 1962.
Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya and Mobutu Sese Seko of Congo
favored capitalism. Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Kwame Nkrumah of
Ghana, and Sékou Touré of Guinea preferred an African form of
socialism, based on tradition. Pan-Africanism, the ideal of black
African unity, led to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in
1963 and the African Union (AU) in 2002.
Africa suffered from single-export economies, foreign debt,
population growth, rapid urbanization, and droughts. AIDS, or
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is epidemic. Ethnic conflict
led to bloody civil wars. The Ibo in eastern Nigeria declared independence as “Biafra” in the late 1960s but lost their war of independence. Hutus and Tutsis killed each other in Rwanda in 1994.
Arab militias killed black Africans in Darfur, Sudan.
Chapter 30, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Ibo people in eastern
Nigeria tried to form
a separate state,
Biafra. Civil war
followed.
(page 986)
New Hopes
(page 990)
Mandela said in
1964, “I have cherished the ideal of a
democratic and free
society in which all
persons live together
in harmony.”
In his inaugural
address in 1994, he
promised to build “a
rainbow nation at
peace with itself and
the world.”
These are evidence of
his
.
Because of the many problems, more than 70 elected leaders were overthrown between 1957 and 1982. Many African
states were under military or one-party rule in the 1980s. Some
restored democracy.
Idi Amin ruled Uganda by terror and brutal repression
throughout the 1970s. He was deposed in 1979. Dictatorships also
came to an end in Ethiopia, Liberia, and Somalia. In those countries, bloody civil wars followed the fall of the dictators’ regimes.
In South Africa, black leader Nelson Mandela spent almost
26 years in prison for his activity with the African National
Congress. He was offered a conditional release in 1985 but
refused, saying that prisoners are not free to negotiate. Bishop
Desmond Tutu, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, and
others worked to free Mandela and end apartheid.
Finally, international pressure forced the South African government to end its apartheid laws. Mandela was released from
prison in 1990. In 1993 President F. W. de Klerk agreed to hold
the first democratic national elections in the history of South
Africa. The election made Nelson Mandela president in 1994.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Society and Culture
African culture and
art are marked by
a tension between
and
.
Chapter 30, Section 1
(page 992)
In general, Western culture has had the most impact in the
cities. Many cities are a direct product of colonial rule. Examples
include Dakar, Senegal; Lagos, Nigeria; Cape Town, South Africa;
Brazzaville, Congo; and Nairobi, Kenya. Most African cities look
like cities on other continents. They have high-rise buildings,
wide boulevards, neon lights, movie theaters, and traffic jams.
Most Africans live outside the major cities. Their lives are
more traditional. Millions live in thatched houses without
plumbing or electricity. They farm, hunt, or raise livestock the
way their ancestors did. In times of drought or flood, some
move to the cities for work.
Upon independence, in almost every country, women were
allowed to vote and hold political office. Rural areas often still
observe traditional practices toward women, including arranged
marriages.
African artists and writers struggle to balance traditional and
Western influences. Some make traditional art for the tourist
industry. Novelists Chinua Achebe of Nigeria (Things Fall Apart)
and Noni Jabavu of South Africa (The Ochre People) write about
the tension between traditional and Western values, or between
the city and the country.
329
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What dramatic changes took place in South Africa in the 1990s?
2. How did the ideal of African socialism differ from the socialism of the Soviet Union?
Descri pt
ptive
Imagine and describe a large African city and the countryside of the
same African country. Use strong verbs, vivid scenes, and as many as
possible of the five senses to give the reader the sense of being present.
Highlight the contrasts between the city and the countryside.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
330
Chapter 30, Section 1
Chapter 30, Section 2
(Pages 996–1003)
Conflict in the Middle East
Recurring violence and continuing efforts at international mediation have
been the norm in the Middle East for decades. As you read, create a table
and fill in the important events in the history of Arab-Israeli conflicts.
Year
Event
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Palestine and the Mideast Crisis
Leaders of Arab
nations did not agree
about Pan-Arabism.
Write + or – to show
whether the bias
toward Pan-Arabism
below is positive or
negative.
Arabs need to
support one another.
Money from
oil-rich countries
could raise living
standards in Arab
countries with fewer
resources.
If we unite, too
much of our wealth
will be drained
off by poorer Arab
countries.
Chapter 30, Section 2
(page 996)
Many Jews migrated to Palestine. The United Nations proposed in 1947 that Palestine should be divided into Jewish and
Arab states. Israel became a nation in 1948. Arab states did not
recognize Israel. Palestinian refugees from Israel poured into
neighboring countries.
Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, leader of Egypt, seized the
Suez Canal Company from Britain and France in 1956. Britain,
France, and Israel attacked Egypt but had to withdraw. Nasser
promoted Pan-Arabism, or Arab unity. Egypt and Syria joined
in 1958 as the United Arab Republic. It ended in 1961 when
new leaders in Syria withdrew.
In 1967 Nasser blocked Israeli shipping through the Gulf of
Aqaba. Fearing attack, Israel launched air strikes against Egypt
and other Arab neighbors. Israel seized control of the Sinai
Peninsula, the West Bank of the Jordan River, East Jerusalem,
and the Golan Heights.
Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on the Jewish holiday of
Yom Kippur, 1973. Israel defeated them. During the Yom Kippur
War, Arab countries in the Organization of the Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised oil prices. That caused economic problems in the West.
Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli prime minister
Menachem Begin met with U.S. president Jimmy Carter at Camp
David in 1978. Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula.
331
The Ongoing Crisis
In making the case to
invade Iraq in 2003,
President George W.
Bush claimed that
Iraq had (1) weapons
of mass destruction
and (2) close ties
to al-Qaeda. Other
United Nations members doubted both
claims.
Why did the United
States attack on Iraq
in 2003 have little
world support?
332
(page 1003)
Conservative religious forces in the Middle East have tried to
replace foreign values and culture with those of Islam. This is called
Islamic revivalism. Extremists want to remove all Western influence.
Islamic revivalism began in Iran under Ayatollah Khomeini. It spread
to other countries. Militant Muslims assassinated President Sadat of
Egypt in 1981. The Turkish military has concerns that Islamic revivalism threatens the secular, pro-Western Turkish regime.
Muslim scholars debated issues around the role of women.
Until the 1970s, the trend in urban areas was toward a greater
role for women. Then it shifted toward more traditional roles,
especially in Iran.
The first Arabic-language author to win the Nobel Prize in
literature (1988) was Naguib Mahfouz. His Cairo Trilogy tells of
a merchant family in Egypt in the 1920s.
Chapter 30, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) formed to represent
Palestinians. Al-Fatah, a guerrilla movement led by PLO leader Yasir
Arafat, made terrorist attacks against Israel. In the 1980s, Palestinian
Arabs in Israeli-occupied areas began an intifada, or uprising. War
between Israel and Hezbollah (a radical Islamic group) carried the
conflict into Lebanon. In the Oslo Accords of 1993, the PLO recognized Israel, and Israel agreed to partial Palestinian self-rule.
Progress was slow. A second intifada broke out after 2000.
Iran was an oil-rich country under Shah Mohammad Reza
Pahlavi, a U.S. ally. In 1979 the shah’s government was replaced
by an Islamic republic, led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
Militants held 52 Americans hostage for more than a year. After
Khomeini died in 1997, control passed between Islamic extremists and moderate reformers.
Iran and Iraq (led by Saddam Hussein) were at war from
1980 to 1988. In 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait, on the Persian Gulf.
The United States led forces that freed Kuwait in the Persian
Gulf War of 1991.
Afghanistan had pro-Soviet leaders. Islamic groups opposed
them. The Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979. The United
States and Pakistan helped anti-Communist forces drive them
out. An Islamic group called the Taliban seized control. The
Taliban let Osama bin Laden train Islamic militants of al-Qaeda.
Al-Qaeda attacks on the United States in 2001 led the United
States to invade Afghanistan. The Taliban collapsed. In 2003 the
United States attacked Iraq and removed Saddam Hussein.
Society and Culture
If Islamic revivalism gains power in
Turkey, how will
Turkish policies most
likely change?
(page 999)
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why did the United States invade Afghanistan in 2001?
2. What is the goal of Islamic revivalism?
Tell the history of relations between Israel, its Arab neighbors, and
Palestinians in Israeli-controlled areas. Present the information as a
story that flows smoothly. Include the story elements of time, place, people, and events. Write the story factually, without showing your opinions.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 30, Section 2
333
Chapter 31, Section 1
(Pages 1012–1017)
Communist China
The policies of the Chinese Communist government set up in 1949 failed to
bring prosperity. Since the 1980s, its economy has moved toward free enterprise, but political freedom is still very limited. As you read, use a chart like
the one below to list Communism’s effects on China’s international affairs.
Effects
Communism
Mao’s China
Great Leap Forward:
Cultural Revolution:
Both:
334
Civil war broke out in 1945 between China’s two governments. Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek, were based in
southern and central China. Communists, led by Mao Zedong,
were based in North China. Promises of free land led many
peasants to support Mao. The Communists won in 1949. Chiang
and the Nationalists fled to Taiwan.
The new government took land from wealthy landlords and
gave it to poor peasants. They hoped collective farms would
increase food production. It did not, but the population grew.
To speed up economic growth, Mao introduced the Great Leap
Forward in 1958. Under this program, village-sized collective farms
were combined into huge communes with more than 30,000 people
each. The Great Leap Forward was a disaster. Peasants hated it. Food
production decreased. Almost 15 million people died of starvation.
In 1960 the government started returning to smaller collective farms.
Mao wanted to create a classless society by means of a permanent revolution. In 1966 he launched the Great Proletarian
Cultural Revolution. His Little Red Book was regarded as the
leading source of knowledge. Groups called Red Guards
destroyed temples, books by foreigners, and foreign music.
Intellectuals and artists were attacked.
Chapter 31, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
How were the Great
Leap Forward
and the Cultural
Revolution different
and alike?
(page 1012)
China After Mao
Which of Deng
Xiaoping’s policies
contributed directly
to the increase
in demands for
democracy?
Mao died in 1976. A group of practical reformers led by
Deng Xiaoping took power. They ended the Cultural Revolution.
Deng Xiaoping called for modernization of industry, agriculture, technology, and national defense. The government invited
foreign investors to China and sent students to study abroad.
Peasants were allowed small-scale private enterprise. Per capita
(per person) income doubled. Living standards rose.
Some people wanted democracy. Inflation and corruption
increased discontent, especially in cities.
In May 1989, student protesters called for an end to corruption and the resignation of China’s aging Communist Party leaders. Many people in cities agreed. Massive protests took place in
Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Tanks and troops killed between
500 and 2,000 protesters.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Chinese Society
China tried to control the problem of
by
introducing incentives to have only
one child.
(page 1014)
(page 1016)
From the start, the Communist Party in China wanted to create a new kind of citizen. This new citizen would give as much
as possible for the good of China.
During the 1950s, the role of women in China changed dramatically. Women were now allowed to take part in politics.
They had equal rights with men. But Mao was afraid that loyalty
to the family would interfere with loyalty to the state.
After Mao’s death, family traditions returned. People had better
living conditions and more personal freedom. In order to slow population growth the state began a one-child policy in 1979.
Education benefits, child care, and housing were offered to couples
with only one child.
The Cold War in Asia
(page 1017)
What can one infer
about the relative
strength of the two
sides in the Korean
War? Explain.
China signed a pact of friendship with the Soviet Union in
1950. War soon broke out in Korea. Before 1945 Korea was
under Japanese control. After World War II, the United States
and the Soviet Union divided Korea into two zones. The plan
was to hold elections after the war and reunify Korea. Instead,
a Communist government emerged in North Korea and an anticommunist government in South Korea.
North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950. U.S. troops were
sent to push the invaders back. United Nations troops crossed
into North Korea. The Chinese sent troops to help North Korea
push the UN forces back. After three years of fighting, the two
sides agreed to a cease-fire. Korean leaders took part in the first
Chapter 31, Section 1
335
North-South Summit in 2000. Tensions increased again with
fears that North Korea was trying to make nuclear weapons.
Communist China had relied on the Soviet Union for technology and economic aid. By the late 1950s, however, China and the
Soviet Union were no longer so friendly. Feeling threatened by
the Soviets, the Chinese reached out to the United States. In 1972
Richard Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit Communist
China. China and the United States resumed diplomatic relations
in 1979. China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. What policies did Deng Xiaoping put in place of the Cultural Revolution?
2. How did the relationship between Communist China and the Soviet Union change over time?
Exposi tory
Form a theory, or model, about the relationship between economics and
political actions or ideas in Communist China. Discuss how your model
can be applied to different periods of Chinese history since 1949.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
336
Chapter 31, Section 1
Chapter 31, Section 2
(Pages 1018–1023)
South and Southeast Asia
British India and colonies throughout Southeast Asia gained independence
following World War II, but independence was often followed by continued
conflict. As you read, use a web diagram like the one below to identify challenges India faced after gaining independence.
Challenges
in India
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
India Divided
Which issue was
the cause of border
clashes between India
and Pakistan?
What was the effect
of the civil war
between East and
West Pakistan?
Chapter 31, Section 2
(page 1018)
With the end of British rule, India split into two nations.
India was Hindu and Pakistan was Muslim. Upon independence
in 1947, millions of Hindus and Muslims fled across the new
borders. More than a million people were killed. A Hindu militant assassinated Mohandas Gandhi in 1948.
The former Indian National Congress became the Congress
Party, led by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He had moderate
socialist ideals. He followed the principle of nonalignment,
refusing to take sides in the Cold War or join any alliances.
Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi, was prime minister most
years from 1966 to 1984. Poverty was widespread. Mother
Teresa, a Catholic nun, helped the poor and sick in huge urban
slums. Sikh rebels in Punjab province wanted independence.
Gandhi refused and used military force. Two Sikh members of
her bodyguard killed her in 1984. Her son, Rajiv Gandhi, was
prime minister from 1984 to 1989; he was assassinated in 1991.
Muslim-Hindu conflict continued. India and Pakistan had
border clashes over the ownership of Kashmir.
East and West Pakistan were very different. The government was
based in the west. In 1971 East Pakistan declared its independence.
After a brief civil war, it became the new nation of Bangladesh.
337
Southeast Asia
After World
War II, most
former
in Southeast
Asia became
nations.
(page 1021)
Most colonies in southeast Asia became independent nations
after World War II. The Philippines gained independence from
the United States in 1946. Indonesia, led by Sukarno, became
independent of the Netherlands in 1949. Britain recognized the
independence of Burma (now Myanmar) in 1948 and Malaya in
1957. The struggle for democracy continues in Myanmar, which
is under military rule. Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the democracy
movement in Myanmar, received the Nobel Peace Prize for 1991.
France refused to let go of control of Indochina.
Communists, led by Ho Chi Minh, seized power over much of
Vietnam, with their capital at Hanoi in the north. France controlled the south. In 1954 France agreed to divide Vietnam into
two parts. The conflict continued.
The United States supported nationalist leader Ngo Dinh
Diem in the south. In 1965 President Johnson sent U.S. troops
to prevent a complete Communist takeover. The war reached a
stalemate with no significant gains for either side. The United
States withdrew in 1973. Vietnam was reunified under Communist
rule in 1975. Laos and Cambodia became Communist too. Pol
Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, killed more than
a million Cambodians.
How did the people
of the Philippines
and Indonesia solve
the problem of rule
by authoritarian
dictators?
338
(page 1023)
Economic problems and internal disputes weakened democracy in parts of Southeast Asia. Some came under military or
one-party rule. In the Philippines in 1986, a public uprising
forced dictator Ferdinand Marcos to flee the country. Corazon
Aquino, widow of a murdered opposition leader, became president. Corruption, a weak economy, and terrorism continued to
challenge the Philippines.
In Indonesia, rioting in 1998 forced the authoritarian
General Suharto to step down. Ethnic and religious conflicts
trouble the nation. A tsunami in 2004 and an earthquake in
2005 caused severe damage.
Across the region, the rights and roles of women have
changed. Virtually all nations of Southeast Asia grant women
full legal and political rights, although old customs and attitudes
survive in rural areas.
In India, the constitution of 1950 forbade discrimination,
or prejudicial treatment based on gender. It called for equal pay
for equal work. Child marriage was outlawed. Women in India
were encouraged to attend school and enter the labor market.
Chapter 31, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Democracy in Southeast Asia
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. List four countries of Southeast Asia that became independent, with their dates of independence and their former colonial rulers.
2. What did the 1950 constitution of India say about women’s rights and roles?
Tell highlights of the history of India and Pakistan from the time of independence to the present. Include elements in the relation between India
and Pakistan. Recount events objectively as a smoothly flowing story, in
approximately the order they happened. Discuss what happened, when it
happened, why it happened, how it happened, and who was involved.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I nformative
Chapter 31, Section 2
339
Chapter 31, Section 3
(Pages 1024–1029)
Japan and the Pacific
Since 1945 Japan and the four “Asian tigers” have become economic powerhouses, while Australia and New Zealand remain linked culturally to
Europe. As your read, use a table like the one below to list the key areas
of industrial development in South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore.
South Korea
Taiwan
The Transformation of Japan
JAPAN HAS WORLD’S
MOST DESIRABLE
WORKFORCE
JAPAN EXPORTS RECORD
NUMBER OF CARS
JAPANESE PRACTICES
UNWISE AND UNFAIR
MOST JAPANESE
FACTORIES LESS THAN
60 YEARS OLD
340
(page 1024)
From 1945 to 1952, Japan was an occupied country. Allied
military forces led by U.S. general Douglas MacArthur held and
controlled it. He remodeled Japanese society on a Western
model. A new constitution established a parliamentary system,
guaranteed basic rights, and reduced the power of the emperor.
Since regaining its independence, Japan has become an economic giant. Japan is a stable democracy with two main political
parties—the Liberal Democrats and the Socialists. The central
government plays an active role in the economy. It establishes
price and wage policies and subsidizes key industries. This is
called state capitalism.
Allied plans to take apart the zaibatsu system were scaled
back during the Cold War. Land reform created a strong class of
free farmers. Cultural values of hard work, long hours, cooperation, and savings contributed to Japan’s economic success.
Because the war destroyed Japanese industries, factories are
new and modern. Japan is a leading producer of cars and consumer electronics, and a leading exporter.
Some values are changing. Schools stress individualism and
play down patriotism or aggression. Women have legal rights
but still earn less than men.
Chapter 31, Section 3
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Circle the newspaper
headlines that report
facts (not opinions):
Singapore
The “Asian Tigers,” Australia, and New Zealand
In general, based
on the examples of
the Asian tigers, is
political democracy
necessary in order
for an economy to
thrive?
Yes
No
(circle one)
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Explain your
answer.
Chapter 31, Section 3
(page 1027)
South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong are sometimes called the “Asian tigers.” Like Japan, they built successful
industrial societies.
Dictators ruled both parts of Korea after the Korean War:
Kim Il Sung in the north and Syngman Rhee in the south. Voters
in South Korea elected General Chung Hee Park president in
1961. He promoted land reform and new industries. Chemicals,
textiles, and shipbuilding were key areas of industrial development. Democracy grew slowly and arrived in the 1990s.
The island of Taiwan is the seat of the Republic of China.
Chiang Kai-shek and his Nationalist followers fled there after
losing to the Communists. They claimed that their government
represented all the people of China. Land reform doubled food
production. Manufacturing and commerce grew. By 2000 over
three-quarters of the people lived in urban areas. Chiang ruled
by decree. After his death in 1975, Taiwan moved toward representative government.
Singapore was once a British colony and later briefly part of
Malaysia. It is now an independent state. It has a successful
free-market economy based on shipbuilding, oil refineries, and
electronics. Its port is one of the busiest in the world. Singapore
is also a regional banking center. Its regime is authoritarian but
stable.
Like Singapore, Hong Kong became an industrial powerhouse. Great Britain ruled Hong Kong for more than 150 years.
In 1997 Britain returned control of Hong Kong to mainland
China. China promised to allow Hong Kong to continue a capitalist system for the next 50 years.
Australia and New Zealand lie south and east of Asia.
Culturally and politically, they have identified more with Europe
than with Asia. Both are members of the British Commonwealth.
In recent years, however, Australia and New Zealand have
drawn closer to their Asian neighbors. Immigration from East
and Southeast Asia has increased. Trade relations with Asia are
growing rapidly. The majority of Australia’s exports today go to
East Asia.
341
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Name at least three causes that contribute to Japan’s economic success.
2. What recent factors have drawn Australia and New Zealand closer to their Asian neighbors?
What kind of trade policies do you think the United States should have
in relation to Japan, the Asian tigers, and Australia and New Zealand?
Make a recommendation and support it with information. Present your
information so as to try to persuade the reader to share your opinion.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
342
Chapter 31, Section 3
Chapter 32, Section 1
(Pages 1038–1047)
Challenges of a New
Century
Today’s societies face many social, economic, and political challenges, and
they must balance the costs and benefits of the technological revolution.
As you read, complete a table like the one below to determine cause and
effect of global concerns.
Concern
Cause
Effect
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Deforestation
Greenhouse effect
Weapons
Hunger
Technological Revolution
Why are nuclear,
biological, and
chemical weapons
called weapons of
mass destruction?
Chapter 32, Section 1
(page 1038)
Like the first and second Industrial Revolutions, the revolution in
technology since World War II is changing people’s lives. Computers
were developed during World War II to crack enemy codes. The
microprocessor made personal computers possible. Jumbo jets, the
Internet, satellites, and cell phones make the world a global village.
Technology has also led to nuclear, biological, and chemical
weapons. Bioterrorism is the use of these weapons in terrorist
attacks. Deadly sarin gas was released in a Tokyo subway in
1995. Anthrax-filled letters were used to kill Americans in 2001.
New medicines help doctors treat illnesses. New technologies make “miracle” operations possible and have led to a new
field called bioethics. Moral controversy surrounds genetic engineering (changing cells); stem-cell research (using cells from
human embryos to seek cures); and human cloning. A holistic
health care movement uses natural methods of healing.
New grains in the Green Revolution increased the food supply.
Fertilizers and pesticides increase crop yields but raise environmental concerns. Organic farming does not use chemicals.
343
Environmental Crisis
In the greenhouse
effect,
in the atmosphere
causes
.
(page 1042)
In her 1962 book Silent Spring, scientist Rachel Carson
warned of the dangers of chemical pesticides. Her warnings
gave rise to the new field of ecology, the study of the relationship between living things and their environment.
Deforestation is the clearing of forests for farmland and wood.
Overgrazing and poor farming practices in dry areas cause desertification, turning soil into desert.
Chemical wastes pose another danger. Chlorofluorocarbons
found in many products destroy the ozone layer, which shields
Earth from ultraviolet rays. Forests die from acid rain caused by
sulfur pollution. In the greenhouse effect, carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere causes global warming.
The Kyoto Protocol is a treaty among most countries to reduce
emissions that cause global warming. Accidents can cause ecological
disasters. Economic development that conserves natural resources
for future generations is called sustainable development.
Poverty and Civil Strife
In a global economy, goods are produced, distributed, and
sold on a worldwide scale. The global economy increased in the
1970s. One feature is the gap between rich and poor nations.
Developed nations have well-organized industrial and agricultural systems. They have strong educational systems and use
advanced technologies.
Poorer, developing nations—mostly in Africa, Asia, and Latin
America—have farming economies with little technology. Most
population growth is in developing nations. Millions die of hunger. Civil wars also claim many victims.
Political and Social Challenges
More recently, interest in democracy in
Africa and Asia has
.
344
(page 1045)
The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. It listed rights to which
everyone is entitled. They included life, liberty, personal security, and freedom of movement, opinion, and expression. Human
rights violations still occur in many parts of the world.
After World War II, African and Asian leaders wanted
democracies. Within a decade, military dictatorships or oneparty governments took over. More recently, interest in democracy has revived.
Many countries have laws that require equality for women
and men. Nevertheless, in many developing countries, women
cannot get education or decent jobs.
Chapter 32, Section 1
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Where does the most
population growth
occur?
(page 1043)
Challenge of Terrorism
How are the goals
of Islamic militants and the Irish
Republican Army
different and alike?
(page 1046)
Terrorists often kill civilians and take hostages to achieve
their political goals. Some terrorists are militant nationalists who
want separate states. The Irish Republican Army wants to unite
Northern Ireland (part of the United Kingdom) with the Irish
Republic. Sometimes terrorism is state-sponsored. Iraq, Syria,
Cuba, and North Korea have sheltered and supported terrorist
organizations. Islamic militants are extremists who use violence
to oppose Western influence in Muslim countries.
On September 11, 2001, commercial jets seized by terrorists
flew into buildings in the United States, killing thousands.
President George W. Bush announced a war on terrorism. The
United States and allies attacked Afghanistan and later Iraq.
In October 2001, the United States passed an antiterrorist
bill called the Patriot Act. It allowed secret searches and made it
easier to monitor phone calls, e-mail, voice mail, and library
records. The United States established a Department of
Homeland Security. Airport security tightened around the world.
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Define bioethics and give two examples of specific issues in bioethics.
2. What are two ways that ethnic conflict may contribute to problems of hunger?
What do you consider the most serious challenge facing the world in
the twenty-first century, and what do you think should be done to
address it? Try to make your reader agree with your opinion about
the seriousness of the problem and what should be done. Support your
case with facts and persuasive arguments.
Chapter 32, Section 1
345
Chapter 32, Section 2
(Pages 1048–1053)
New Global Communities
The global economy and new global threats have prompted international
organizations and individuals to work on global problems. As you read, create
a pyramid like the one below to depict how the United Nations is organized.
Security Council
The United Nations
MORE
LESS
Explain your
answer.
346
Founded in 1945, the United Nations (UN) brings nations
together to solve important problems. Its chief goals are peace
and human dignity.
Representatives of all member nations form the General
Assembly of the UN. It discusses issues and recommends action.
The Security Council passes resolutions that require the UN to
act. Of the 15 members of the Security Council, 5 are permanent—the United States, Russia, Britain, France, and China. Ten
others are chosen by the General Assembly for limited terms.
Each permanent member can veto a decision.
The head administrator of the UN is the secretary-general.
The UN has a number of specialized agencies that address economic and social problems. The UN has also provided peacekeeping forces—military forces from neutral member states—to
settle conflicts and supervise truces.
The UN established the International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) in 1957. It works to prevent nuclear proliferation—the
spread of nuclear weapons technology. The greatest risk comes
from nations that have not signed (or have violated) the Nuclear
Nonproliferation Treaty, such as India, Pakistan, and North Korea.
Chapter 32, Section 2
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
In general, do the
challenges of the
twenty-first century
require nations
to work together
more closely or less
closely to solve their
problems?
Circle one:
(page 1048)
Population and Migration
The average age in
Western Europe is
rising because the
has gone down and
has
gone up.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Globalization
Multinational corporations, the World
Trade Organization,
free-trade areas,
and international
nongovernmental organizations
all illustrate the
increase in
.
Chapter 32, Section 2
(page 1050)
The population of the world reached 5 billion in 1988 and
more than 6.5 billion in 2006. By 2050 it will probably increase to
8.9 billion or more. Growth is fastest in developing countries. India
will surpass China as the most populous country in the world.
In wealthy regions such as Western Europe, the population
is becoming smaller and older. In 2000 people age 65 or older
made up 15 percent of the population in Europe, higher than in
any other region.
As life expectancy rises and birthrates fall, populations worldwide will be older on average. People of working age will have
to support more care for the elderly. In less developed countries,
population growth will increase migration and urbanization.
Many cities lack the infrastructure to support a larger population.
Tens of millions of people have migrated since 1945.
Millions were refugees from persecution, civil war, or famine.
Even more people moved to find jobs. Latin Americans have
moved to the United States. Guest workers from poorer countries work in Western Europe. Often they face backlash and
become scapegoats for economic problems.
(page 1051)
Technology has brought globalization, the realization that
different parts of the world depend on each other. In the global
economy, the World Bank makes grants and loans for developing countries. The International Monetary Fund watches
exchange rates and oversees the global financial system.
Multinational corporations—companies with divisions in more
than two countries—tie countries together.
Trade talks among countries led to the General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In 1995 nations that had signed
GATT set up the World Trade Organization (WTO). Groups of
nations form trading blocs. The largest is the European Union.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) agreement set up
other free-trade areas.
Ordinary citizens work together to address global issues—the
environment, gender liberation, child labor, technology, and peace.
Some organizations, such as the Red Cross, have members in many
nations. Some individuals act at the grassroots level, in their own
communities. Nongovernmental organizations include business
and professional groups, foundations, and religious, peace, and
disarmament groups. People have power to make a difference.
347
Answer these questions to check your understanding of the entire
section.
1. Why is urbanization resulting from population growth a problem for many developing
countries?
2. Which feature of the United Nations Security Council frequently leads to stalemate?
Exposi tory
Analyze the global economy. What has caused it? What challenges does it
pose? How have nations and individuals responded? Organize your writing by classifying information, breaking down a larger topic into smaller
categories. Define your categories or ideas to help your reader understand.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
348
Chapter 32, Section 2
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