1. Title of study
Assessing Determinants of Food Insecurity: The Case of Rural region of the Country, Ethiopia
The general objective of this study is to identify the most important determinants of food insecurity in
rural regions of the country and to examine the effects of some variables that may influence food
insecurity of rural households and identify the most important determinants and describe the
relationship between food insecurity and its determinants.
2. The Analysis of the issue
In this study, data will be analyzed using both descriptive statistics and econometric method. The level of
socoi-economic and demographic variable will be analayzed and explained using descriptive statistical
Determination of Food Poverty Threshold Level
Household Food Balance Model (HFBM), which used by Haile et al (2005), will be used to determine
household status. FDRE FSS (1996), 2,100 kilo calories per person per day will used as a measure of
calories required (i.e., demand) to enable an adult to live a healthy and moderately active life. A
household will then consider food secure or insecure if the daily recommended calorie will equal or above
and below the food insecurity line respectively. The degree of food insecurity will estimated using the
Foster, Greer and Thorbeck (FGT) equation.
Econometric Model
There are some econometric models that explain variables that are qualitative (presence or absence in
nature). In such cases one often takes accounts of these effects by dummy variable. Dummy variable can
take two values 0 or 1. Since the dummy variable takes on two values, it is a dichotomous variable
(Maddala, 1992). Regarding the dummy dependent variable there are three different models that one can
use: the Linear Probability model, Logit model and Probit model.
Specification of the model
The model will be estimated through iterative maximum likelihood procedure with the help of STATA
computer software.
3. Research Method
To attain the stated objectives, data will be collected both from primary and secondary sources. A cross
sectional primary data will be collected from selected households in the study area through structured
questionnaires. Structured questionnaire will be prepared and will be used to collect primary data
through household survey. The questionnaire will be designed in such a way that it can help the
researcher to dig out detail information on household demographic characteristics, socioeconomic
aspects and coping strategies of households to make it simple and understandable. Secondary data will be
collected from published and unpublished sources so as to generate information about the general back
ground of the study area. In this study, sample will be drawn using startified sampling method. Stratified
sampling technique will be used in order to obtain a representative sample. Under this technique, the
population is divided into two classes or sub-population depends on agricultural activity. The different
sub-populations are called strata. Since each stratum is more homogeneous than the total population, we
will be able to get more representative sample element for target population.
4. The General structure of the study
Ethiopia has been facing challenging problems ranging from those induced by Environmental crises to
those caused by demographic and socioeconomic constraints that adversely affect peoples’ production
system (World Bank 1992; Getachew 1995; Markos 1997). Ethiopia is among the poorest and most food
insecure countries of the world where 44% of its population live below the national poverty line (MoFED,
The study will tried to analyze the major determinants of households’ food insecurity by comparing direct
calorie intake per adult equivalent with the minimum requirement sample household as food secure and
insecure in rural regions of the country.
The main reasons for selecting rural region of the country as the area of the study are:
i. Eventhough, the Rural regions has been repeatedly exposed to recurrent drought and famine no
researches clearly showed us that the determinants of food insecurity
ii. Rural regions are exposed to a number of natural and man-made disasters.
iii. Ethiopia has been labeled as typical food insecure area despite various food and nutrition security
interventions made by the government and non-government organizations.
The implication is that the Food insecurity situations of the area are not given attention. Beside this,
most research papers focuses on the national level determinants of Food insecurity than at rural
regional level. Therefore, it becomes imperative to look and define the empirical cause of food insecurity
problems at the rural regional level of the country taking as study area. Having this background in mind
the study put forward the following research questions.
i)What is the condition of food insecurity problem in the rural region households of the country?
ii)What are the determinant factors for food insecurity problem in the rural region households of the
5. The Academic contribution of the study
The study conducting on the major determinants of food insecurity and is valuable for the achievement
of Millennium Development Goal. For this and other reasons, such studies are important for the success
of huge efforts made in the area to ensure food security. Policy makers and planners will also draw
lessons on designing effective strategies for further efforts in addressing food insecurity and poverty
The output of the study will also be informative for development practitioners, academicians, donors and
non-governmental organizations interested to operate in the area. Finally, this research will serve as
stepping stone for other researchers in similar area.
6. Literature Review
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Coates J, Webb P, Robert H (2003). Measuring Food Insecurity: Going Beyond Indicators of Income and
Anthropometry. FANTA, 2003
Devereux, S.: (2006) Distinguishing between chronic and transitory food insecurity in
emergency needs
assessments, World Food Programe
Ezera, M. (1997): Demographic Responses to Ecological Degradation and Food Insecurity Drought Prone
Areas in Northern Ethiopia. Amsterdam, Ph.D.
Foster GE, Greer J, Thorbacke E (1984). A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measure. Econometrics 52/3:
Greene, W. H. (1993): Econometric Analysis. 2nd Edition. New York, Macmillan.
Gujarati, D: (2004) Basic Econometrics, 4th edition, The McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.
Haswell, M. (1953): Economics of Agriculture in Savannah Village. Colonial Research Study, No.8.
Hoddinott, J. (1999): Operational zing Household Food Security and Development Strategies.
Hosmer, D. and S. Lemeshow (1989): Applied Logistic Regression. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Kherallahet al (2002): Reforming Agricultural Markets in Africa. IFPRI. The John Hopkins University
Maddala, G.S. (1992): Introduction to Econometrics. Second Edition. Prentice-Hall,Inc., USA.
Marquardt, D. W. (1970): Generalized Inverses, Ridge Regression, Biased Linear Estimation, and Non-
linear Estimation. Techno metrics, 12:591-612.
McCullagh, P. and Nelder, J.A. (1983): Generalized Linear Models. Chapman &Hall,New York.
Montgomery, D.C., and Peck, E. A. (1992): Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis. 2nd Edition. John
Wiley & sons, Inc.
Mwanki, A. (2005): Achieving Food Security in Africa - Challenges and Issues. Cornell University. USA.
Maxwell, S. and Frankenberger, T. (1992). Household Food Security: Concepts, Indicators, Measurements,
IFAD and UNICEF, Rome, Italy
MoFED, 2002: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development Ethiopia Sustainable Development and
Poverty Reduction Program and poverty profile of Ethiopia Addis Ababa, 2002
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