PSYC 1810-OL, Chapter 10 Concepts to Describe Page 1 . Chapter 10 1. Cognitive appraisal – (1) A theory of emotion which implicates people’s personal interpretations of an event in determining their emotional reaction. (2) A persons feelings toward events that could impact them directly or indirectly. (3) Two workers react after their colleague is promoted; one feels happy for her friend, while the other feels resentful because he thinks he is more deserving of the promotion. 2. Coping – (1) Constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person (2 To invest one’s own conscious effort, to solve personal and interpersonal problems, in order to try to master, minimize or tolerate stress and conflict) (3) Employing denial, the mother of a recently deceased child chooses to still prepare nightly meals for the child, attempting to distance herself from the problem. 3. Fight or flight response (1) The presence of something that is terrifying, either mentally or physically. The response is triggered by the release of hormones that prepare your body to either stay or deal with a threat or to run away to safety. (2) A physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival. (3) Choosing to flee when encountering a growling dog during your morning jog 4. General adaptation syndrome – (1) A three-stage pattern of responses triggered by the effort to adapt to stressors (2) The predictable way the body responds to stress (3) A long commute may be stressful. If so, moving job roles somewhere closer to home, or asking to work remotely, may help 5. Health psychology – (1) A field focused on understanding how psychological factors affect health and illness and which interventions help maintain health and combat illness. (2) The study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare (3) Helping people make choices that have a positive impact on their health — and the wellbeing of their families, the workforce and their communities 6. Optimistic thinking – (1) A persons own actions result in positive things happening, that they are responsible for their own happiness, and that they can expect more good things to happen in the future. (2) Happiness through Positive Thinking (3) A person who believes that he will get a promotion and that everything will turn out alright PSYC 1810-OL, Chapter 10 Concepts to Describe Page 2 . 7. Problem-focused coping – (1) The causes of stress in practical ways which tackles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently directly reducing the stress (2) Direct coping that goes straight to the issues that have brought on or are aggravating a person's symptoms (3) A woman chooses to break up with her boyfriend to stop the stress his negative behavior has on their relationship. 8. Social support – (1) The friends and social contacts on whom one can depend for help and support. (2) Various types of support that people receive from others (3) A friend who listens or gives advice when his/her friend is going through troubled time 9. Stereotype threat – (1) A highlighted stereotype implicates the self though association with a relevant social category (2) A situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group (3) Performance in academic contexts can be harmed by the awareness that one's behavior might be viewed through the lens of racial stereotypes. 10. Tend and befriend response – (1) A hypothesized stress response reaction that prompts humans to protect their own children, other children, people who are hurt or vulnerable, and to join humanitarian-oriented social groups that are intended to reduce human suffering (2) The desire to build affiliative connections and seek the help of others (3) A child who is bullied at school might ask for help from his teacher or parents.