Ice Cream Phase Changes Handout

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T H E Ice Cream PHASE CHANGE LAB
Phase change - a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a
change in chemical composition
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P u r p o s e:
 To investigate the effects of heat transfer on phase changes
 To investigate the effects of temperature changes on physical changes
Question:
How can this class cause a phase change to make ice cream from milk, sugar,
salt, vanilla, ice and salt?
Background Information:
In order to have a phase change in matter, heat must be gained or lost. Phase
changes occur all around us in everyday life. For instance, ice melts when a
drink is left in a room at normal temperature. Water freezes when placed in a
really cold temperature, as in the freezer. In this experiment, we will see how
fast heat is lost in order to change the milk from a liquid to a solid state. This is
also an example of a physical change in matter.
Hypothesis:
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Materials:
 1 cup milk
 ¼ cup sugar
 1/3 cup + 1 tsp salt
 1 ½ tsp vanilla
 ice
 measuring cups
 measuring spoons
 Ziploc bags (gallon and quart)
 Tapenewspaper
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 Thermometer
Procedure:
1. Place a newspaper over your work area. Keep
your work on your newspaper.
2. Measure and pour milk, sugar and vanilla
flavoring into the small Ziploc bag. Carefully
seal the bag, tape it closed and shake up the
mixture.
3. Put the small bag into the larger Ziploc bag.
4. In the large bag, add enough ice to cover the
small bag and add the salt.
5. CAREFULLY SEAL THE BAG!!!!
6. Take turns flipping the bag. Hold the bag by its
corners. Keep flipping over and over. Remember
to keep the bag over the towel at all times. It
should take about 10-15 minutes to freeze.
7. When you have ice cream, take the smaller bag
out and wipe it dry. Dump the contents of the
larger bag and into the bucket at your station.
DO NOT DUMP IT DOWN THE DRAIN!!!
8. Dish out the ice cream equally into the cups and
ENJOY!
RESULTS –
DATA CHART:
Procedure Step
Description
1
Temperature of ice in Ziploc bag
2
Temperature of milk
3
Temperature of flavor plus milk
4
Temperature of ice with salt added
5
Temperature of milk after shaking 1 minute
6
2 minutes
7
3 minutes
8
4 minutes
9
5 minutes
10
6 minutes
11
7 minutes
12
8 minutes
13
9 minutes
14
10 minutes
Observations:
Conclusion Questions:
1. What state of matter was the milk when you began?
Measurement
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2. What state of matter was the milk when you were finished?
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3. In order to change the phase of milk, what had to be removed?
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4. What happened to the heat energy that left the milk?
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5. Why was the salt added to the ice?
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6. If you did not add the sugar would the ice cream have frozen faster?
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7. Why did the outside of the bag get wet?
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8. Heat energy is needed to change phase from solid to liquid. List the
possible source of the heat needed for this phase change. Which
source do you think is the best possibility and why?
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9. Explain how the energy flow of the baggie system resulted in your tasty
treat for the end product.
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10. Is the phase change of the milk an Endothermic or Exothermic process?
(circle one)
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11. Describe the phase change that you observed in the ice say whether it is an
endo or exothermic process.
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12. Label the diagram with the contents and phase changes. Complete the bold lines in
the diagram to make them arrows that indicate the heat/energy flow.
EXTENTION:
Why is salt spread on the roads before a winter storm?
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The Thermodynamics of Ice Cream
Pure water freezes at 0.0 °C (32 degrees F) & boils at 100.0 °C (212 degrees
F). However, these values are changed by the presence of a solute (a minor
component such as sugar, salt, etc.) in water.
Adding a solute, like salt, to water raises its boiling point from 100 C̊ to
about 110 C̊. The solutes dilute the number of water molecules at the surface
of the water & thus more energy is required for the water to turn into a gas.
This is called boiling point elevation. When you cook pasta in salted, boiling
water, it will theoretically cook faster since it’s cooking at a higher
temperature (110 C̊ vs 100 C)̊.
Adding a solute, like salt, to water also lowers the freezing point of water
from 0 C̊ to about -10 C̊ or lower, thus the salt water has a lower freezing
point than pure water and stays liquid at very low temperatures. When you
add salt (or any other substance...sand, sugar) to water, it interferes with
the orderly arranging of the water molecules into a solid and prevents the
hydrogen bonds from forming. This is called freezing point depression.
Here are some common examples of these effects: Antifreeze lowers the
freezing point and raises the boiling point of engine coolant (water). Salt is used
to melt ice on the roads & keep it from re-forming.. The greater the
concentration of the solute (salt), the lower the freezing point of water.
Definitions:
State of matter - the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed
shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and
gases (filling the container)) "the solid state of water is called ice"
Solute - a minor component in a solution, such as sugar or salt in water.
Phase change - a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another
without a change in chemical composition
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