greek and latin roots

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List of Greek and Latin roots in English
1
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English.
Some of those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List of
medical roots, suffixes and prefixes.
•
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
A
Root
Meaning in English
Origin
language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
ab-, a-, abs-
away from
Latin
ab "away"
abnormal, abrasion, absent,
abstain, abstract, aversion
ac-
sharp or pointed
Latin
acere
acupuncture
acerb-
sharp, bitter, sour
Latin
acerbus
acerbic, exacerbate
acid-
sour or acid
Latin
acidus
acidosis
acr-
height, summit, tip
Greek
ἄκρος (ákros) "high", "extreme"
acrobatics, acromegaly,
acronym, acrophobia
acr-
bitter, pungent, sharp, sour
Latin
acer, acris
acrid, acrimony
acu-
sharp
Latin
acutus, past participle of acuere
"to sharpen", from acus "needle"
acupuncture, acute,
acutifoliate
ad-, a-, ac-, af-,
ag-, al-, ap-, ar-,
as-, at-
movement to or toward; in addition to
Latin
ad "to", "toward"
accept, adapt, affect,
approximate, ascend
adip-
fat
Latin
adeps, adipis "fat"
adipose
aer-
air, atmosphere
Greek
ἀήρ (aēr) "air"
aeronautics, aerosol
aesthet-
feeling, sensation
Greek
aisthētikos "of sense perception"
from αἰσθάνεσθαι
(aisthanesthai) "to perceive"
aesthetics, anaesthetic
agr-
field
Greek
ἀγρός (agros) "field"
agronomy
agri-, -egri-
field
Latin
ager, agris "field, country"
agriculture, peregrine
alb-
dull white
Latin
albus
albedo, albino, albumen
am-, amat-,
amor-
love, loved
Latin
amor "love" from amāre "to
love"
amateur, amorous
ambi-
both, on both sides
Latin
ambi "on both sides"
ambidexterity, ambivalent
amic-, -imic-
friend
Latin
amicus
amicable, inimical
amph-, amphi-
around, about, both, on both sides of, both kinds
Greek
ἀμφί (amphi) "on both sides"
amphibian, amphibolic,
amphoterism
ampl-
ample, abundant, bountiful
Latin
amplus
amplification
an-, a-
not, without
Greek
Greek ἀν-/ἀ- "not"
anhydrous, atypical
ana-, an-
again, against, back, up
Greek
ἀνά (ana) "again", "against"
anabaptist, anaphylaxis,
anion, anode
andr-
male, masculine
Greek
ἀνδρός andros
androgen, android
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
2
anem-
wind
Greek
ἄνεμος anemos
anemometer
anim-
breath
Latin
anima "breath"
animal, animation
ann-, -enn-
year, yearly
Latin
annus "year"
anniversary, annual,
biannual, millennium
ant-, anti-
against, opposed to, preventive
Greek
ἀντί anti "against"
antagonist, antibiotic,
antipodes
ante-, anti-
before, in front of, prior to
Latin
ante "before", "against"
antebellum, antediluvian,
anticipate, antiquarian
anth-
flower
Greek
ἄνθος (anthos) "flower"
anther, anthology
anthrop-
human
Greek
ἄνθρωπος (anthropos) "man"
anthropology,
anthropomorphic
ap-, apo-
away from, separate, at the farthest point
Greek
ἀπό (apo) "from, away, un-,
quite"
apocrine, apogee, apostasy
aqu-
water
Latin
aqua
aquamarine, aquarium,
aqueduct, aquifer
ar-
plow, till
Latin
ărāre
arable
ar-
be dry
Latin
ārēre "be dry or parched"
arid
arche-, archi-
ruler
Greek
ἀρχή (archē) "rule" (in
compounds: ἀρχε-, ἀρχι-)
archangel, archetype
archae-, arche-
ancient
Greek
ἀρχαῖος arkhaios "ancient" from archaeology or archeology,
arkhē "beginning"
archaic
arct-
Relating to the North Pole or the region near it;
relating to cold; used as the scientific name of
some bear species, e.g. Ursus arctos horribilis
Greek
ἄρκτος arktos "bear"
Arctic Ocean
argent-
silver
Latin
argentum
argent, Argentina
arist-
excellence
Greek
ἀρετή, ἄριστος aretē, aristos
aristocracy
arthr-
joint
Greek
ἄρθρον (arthron)
arthritis, arthropod
astr-
star, star-shaped
Greek
ἄστρον (astron) "star"
asterisk, astrology,
astronomy, disaster
athl-
prize
Greek
ἄθλος (athlos) "contest, feat"
athlete, pentathlon
audi-
hearing, listening, sound
Latin
audire "to hear"
audible, auditorium,
auditory
aug-, auct-
grow, increase
Latin
augēre, auctus "to increase"
augend, augmentation
aur-
relating to gold, or gold-colored
Latin
aurum "gold"
aureate, aureole
auri-
relating to the ear
Latin
auris "ear"
auricle
aut-, auto-
self; directed from within
Greek
αὐτός (autos) "self", "same"
autograph, automobile,
autonomy
avi-
bird
Latin
avis
aviary, aviation
axi-
axis
Latin
axis
axisymmetry
axio-
merit
Greek
ἄξιος (axios) "worth"
axiology
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
3
B
Root
Meaning in English
Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
bac-
rod-shaped
Latin
from baculum "rod"
bacilla, bacteria
bar-
weight, pressure
Greek
βάρος (baros)
barograph, barometer
basi-
at the bottom
Greek
from βαίνω, I walk, march, βάσις basic, basis
"step"
bathy-,
batho-
deep, depth
Greek
βαθύς (bathús, bathýs)
batholith, bathyscaphe
be-, beat-
bless
Latin
beare, beatus
beatification
bell-
war
Latin
bellum, belli
antebellum, bellicose, belligerent
ben-
good, well
Latin
bene (adverb)
benefit, benignity
bi-
two
Latin
bis, "twice"; bini, "in twos"
binary, binoculars, bigamy, biscotti
bib-
drink
Latin
bibere, bibitus
imbibe
bibl-
book
Greek
βιβλίον (biblíon) "book"
bible, bibliography
bio-
life
Greek
βίος (bíos) "life"
biography, biology, biologist, biosphere,
bioluminescent
blenn-
slime
Greek
βλέννος (blennos)
blennophobia, blennosperma
blast-
germ, embryo, bud, cell with
nucleus
Greek
βλασταίνω (blastainō), "I put
forth shoots"
blastula, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast
bon-
good
Latin
bonus
bonify, bonitary
bor-
north
Greek / Latin
(boreas)
Greek βορρᾶς (borras) "the north borealis
wind"
botan-
plant
Greek
βοτάνη, βότανον (botanē,
botanon)
botany
bov-
cow, ox
Latin
bos, bovis
bovine
brachi-
arm
Greek
βραχίων (brakhíōn)
brachial artery, brachiosaurus
brachy-
short
Greek
βραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs)
brachydactyly
brady-
slow
Greek
βραδύς (bradús, bradýs)
bradycardia
branchi-
gill
Greek
βράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion)
branchiopod, nudibranch
brev(i)-
brief, short (time)
Latin
brevis, breviare
abbreviation, brevity
briz-
nod, slumber
Greek
βρίζω (brizō)
brom-
oats
Greek
βρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, bróme)
"oats"
Bromus ramosus
brom-
stench
Greek
βρόμος (brómos) "stench,
clangor"
bromide
bronch-
windpipe
Greek
βρόγχος (brógkhos, brónkhos)
bronchitis, bronchus, bronchiole
bront-
thunder
Greek
βροντή (brontē)
Brontosaurus
bucc-
cheek, mouth, cavity
Latin
bucca
buccal, buccinator muscle
bulb-
bulbous
Latin
bulbus
bulbous, bulbule
bull-
bubble, flask
Latin
bulla, "bubble"
ebullient, ebullism
burs-
pouch, purse
Latin
bursa
bursa, bursar, bursary, disburse
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
4
C
Root
Meaning in English
Origin
language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
cac-
bad
Greek
κακός (kakos)
cacophony
cad-, -cid-, cas-
fall
Latin
cadere, casus
accident, cadence, case
caed-, -cid-, caes-, cut
-cis-
Latin
caedere, caesus
caesura, incisor
calc-
stone
Latin and
Greek
from Latin calx "lime", and from Greek
χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble" "limestone"
calcite, calcium, calculus
call-, calli-
beautiful
Greek
from Greek κάλλος kallos "beauty"
calligraphy
calor-
heat
Latin
calor "heat"
calorie
calyp-
cover
Greek
καλύπτειν (kaluptein)
apocalypse
camer-
vault
Latin
camera
bicameral, camera
camp-
field
Latin
campus "field", "level ground"
champion, campaign
can-
dog
Latin
canis
canine, Canis Major
can-, -cin-, cant-
sing
Latin
canere
cantata, canto, cantor
cand-
glowing, iridescent
Latin
candere "to be white or glisten"
candela, candid, candle, candor,
incandescent, incendiary, incense
cap-, -cip-, capt-,
-cept-
hold, take
Latin
capere, captus "take or hold" (vowel
changes from a to i in compounds)
capture, captive, conception, recipient
capit-, -cipit-
head
Latin
caput, capitis "head"
capital, decapitation, precipitation
capr-
goat
Latin
caper, capri
Capricorn, caprine
caps-
box, case
Latin
capsa
capsule
carbo-
coal
Latin
carbo, carbonis
carbon
carcer-
jail
Latin
carcer, carcerare
incarceration
carcin-
cancer (disease)
Latin from
Greek
Latin from Greek καρκίνος (karkinos)
"crab"
carcinogenic, carcinoma
cardi-
relating to the heart
Greek
καρδιά kardia "heart"
cardiograph, cardiology
cardin-
hinge
Latin
cardo, cardinis
cardinal
carn-
flesh
Latin
caro, carnis
carnal, carnival, carnivore
carp-
relating to fruit
Greek
καρπός (karpos) "fruit"
carpology
carp-
relating to the wrist
Greek
καρπός (karpos) "wrist"
carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cast-
pure
Latin
from Latin castus "chaste"
caste, castigate, castrate
cata-, cat-
down
Greek
from Greek κατά (katá) "down"
catabolic, catalyst, catastrophe,
catatonia, cathode, cation
caten-
chain
Latin
catena
catenary, concatenation
cathar-
pure
Greek
καθαρός (katharos)
catharsis
caud-
tail
Latin
cauda
caudal
caus-, -cus-
cause or motive
Latin
causa
causative
cav-
hollow
Latin
cavus "hollow"
cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess-
go
Latin
cedere, cessus
procession, recede, secede
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
5
celer-
quick
Latin
celer, celerare
acceleration, celerity
cen-
new
Greek
καινός (kainos)
Cenozoic
cen-
empty
Greek
κενός (kenos)
cenotaph
Latin
censere "to estimate"
census
censcent-
hundred
Latin
centum
cent, centennial, centurion
centen-
hundred each
Latin
centeni
centenary
centesim-
hundredth
Latin
centesimus
centesimal, centesimation
centr-
center
Greek
κέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur"
eccentric
cephal-
head
Greek
κεφαλή (kephale)
cephalic, cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram-
clay
Greek
κέραμος (keramos)
ceramic
cerat-
horn
Greek
κέρας, κέρατος (keras, keratos) "horn"
keratin
cern-
sift
Latin
cernere
discern, secern
cervic-
relating to the neck,
relating to the cervix
Latin
cervix, cervicis "neck"
cervix, cervical
ceter-
other
Latin
ceterus
et cetera
chir-
of the hand or hands
Greek
χείρ (kheir) "hand"
chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera
chelon-
relating to a turtle
Greek
χελώνη (khelōne) "tortoise"
chelonia
chlor-
green
Greek
χλωρός (khlōros) "green"
chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
chore-
relating to dance
Greek
χορεία khoreia "dancing in unison" from
χορός khoros "chorus"
choreography
chord-
cord
Latin and
Greek
chorda "rope" from χορδή (chordē)
chordata
chrom-
color
Greek
χρῶμα (chrōma) "color"
chromium, chromosome, monochrome
chron-
time
Greek
χρόνος (chronos)
chronic, chronology, chronometer
chrys-
gold
Greek
χρυσός (khrusos) "gold"
chrysolite
cili-
eyelash
Latin
cilium
cilia, supercilious
cine-
motion
Greek
κινέω (kineō)
cinema
ciner-
ash
Latin
cinis, cineris
incineration
cing-, cinct-
gird
Latin
cingere, cinctus
succinct
circ-
circle
Latin
circus
circus
circum-
around
Latin
circum
circumcise, circumference,
circumlocution, circumnavigate
cirr-
orange
Greek
κιρρός (kirros)
cirrhosis
cirr-
curl, tentacle
Latin
cirrus
cirrus
civ-
citizen
Latin
civis
civility
clad-
branch
Greek
κλάδος (klados)
clade
clar-
clear
Latin
clarus, clarare
clarity, declaration
clast-
broken
Greek
κλαστός (klastos)
iconoclast, osteoclast
claud-, -clud-,
claus-, -clus-
close
Latin
claudere, clausus
clause, exclusion, include
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
6
clav-
key
Greek
from Greek κλείς kleis "key" from
κλείειν, (kleiein) "to close"
cl(e)ist-
closed
Greek
κλειστός (kleistos)
cleithr-
bar, key
Greek
clement-
mild
Latin
clemens, clementis
clemency, inclement
clin-
bed, lean, recline
Latin
-clinare
declination, inclined
cochl-
shell
Greek
κόχλος (kochlos)
cochlea
coel-
hollow
Greek
κοῖλος (koilos)
blastocoel, coelom, spongocoel
cogn-
know
Latin
cognoscere
cognitive, cognizant, recognize
col-
strain
Latin
colare, colum
colander
coll-
hill
Latin
collis
coll-
neck
Latin
collum
collar
color-
color
Latin
color
coloration, coloratura, tricolor
con-, co-, col-,
com-, cor-
with, together
Latin
cum
coagulate, collide, compress, connect,
contain, corrode
con-
cone
Greek
κῶνος (kōnos)
conic, conical, conoid
condi-
season
Latin
condire
condiment
contra-
against
Latin
contra
contradiction, contrast
copr-
dung
Greek
κόπρος (kopros)
coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
corac-
raven
Greek
κόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos)
coracoid
cord-
heart
Latin
cor, cordis
accord, cordial
corn-
horn
Latin
cornu
cornea, cornucopia, unicorn
coron-
crown
Latin
corona, coronare
corona, coronation
corpor-
body
Latin
corpus, corporis
corporation, corpse, corpuscle
cortic-
bark
Latin
cortex, corticis
corticosteriod
cosm-
universe
Greek
κόσμος (kosmos)
cosmic, cosmonaut
Greek
κοσμητ- (kosmet-)
cosmetics, cosmetology
cosmet-
clavichord, clavicle, conclave
cleithrum
cost-
rib
Latin
costa
costal
cotyl-
cup
Greek
κοτύλη (kotulē)
cotyledon
-cracy, -crat
government, rule,
authority
Greek
κράτος (kratos)
democracy
crani-
skull
Greek
κρανίον (kranion)
cranium
crass-
thick
Latin
crassus
crassitude
cre-
make
Latin
creare, creatus
creation, creature
cred-
believe, trust
Latin
credere, creditus
credentials, credibility, creditor,
incredible
crep-
boot, shoe
Greek
κρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos)
cribr-
sieve
Latin
cribrum, cribrare
ring
Greek
κρίκος (krikos)
cris-, crit-
judge
Greek
κρίσις (crisis)
crisis, critic
crisp-
curled
Latin
crispus
crispate
cribble, cribrate
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
7
crist-
crest
Latin
crista
cristate
cross-
fringe, tassel
Greek
κροσσός (krossos)
cruc-
cross
Latin
crux, crucis
crucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
crur-
leg, shank
Latin
crus, cruris
crural
crypt-
hidden
Greek
κρυπτός (kruptos)
cryptic, cryptography
cten-
comb
Greek
κτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos)
ctenophore
cub-
cube
Greek
κύβος (kubos)
cubic, cuboid
cub-
lie
Latin
cubare
incubation, succuba
culin-
kitchen
Latin
culina
culinary
culp-
blame, fault
Latin
culpa
culpable, exculpate
cune-
wedge
Latin
cuneus
cuneiform
curr-, curs-
run
Latin
currere, cursus
concurrent, current, cursive, recursion
curv-
bent
Latin
curvus
curvature
cuspid-
lance, point
Latin
cuspis, cuspidis
bicuspid
cut-
skin
Latin
cutis
cuticle
cyan-
blue
Greek
κυανός (kuanos)
cyanide
cycl-
circular
Greek
κύκλος (kuklos)
bicycle, cycle, cyclone
cylind-
roll
Greek
κύλινδρος (kulindros)
cylinder
cyn-
dog
Greek
κύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos)
cynosure
cyst-
capsule
Greek
κύστις (kustis)
cystic
cyt-
cell
Greek
κύτος (kutos)
cytoplasm, cnidocyte
D
Root
Meaning in English
Origin
language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
dactyl-
finger, toe, digit
Greek
δάκτυλος (daktulos)
dactylology, pterodactyl
damn-, -demn-
to inflict loss upon
Latin
damnāre
condemn, damnation
de-
from, away from,
removing, down
Latin
dē
deletion, dementia, descend
deb-
owe
Latin
debere, debitus
debit
deca-, dec-,
deka-, dek-
ten
Greek
δέκα deka, ten
decagram, decahedron
decim-
tenth part
Latin
decimus, tenth; from decem, ten
decimal, decimate
Greek
δέλτα (delta)
deltoid
deltdem-
people
Greek
δῆμος (dēmos)
demagogue, democracy
den-
ten each
Latin
deni
denarius, denary
dendr-
resembling a tree
Greek
δένδρον (dendron): akin to
δρύς, drys, "tree"
dendrite, dendrochronology
dens-
thick
Latin
densus
condense, density
dent-
tooth
Latin
dens, dentis
dental, dentifrice, dentures
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
8
derm-
skin
Greek
δέρμα (derma)
dermis, epidermis, hypodermic
deuter-
second
Greek
δεύτερος (deuteros)
Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexter-
right
Latin
dexter
dexterity, dextrose
dexi-
right
Greek
δεξιός, right
Dexiarchia
di-
two
Greek
δι-
dicot, diode, dipole
dia-
apart, through
Greek
διά (dia)
dialysis, diameter, diagram
dict-
say, speak
Latin
dicere, dictus
contradict, dictate, dictation, dictionary, edict,
predict
digit-
finger
Latin
digitus
digital
dino-
terrible, fearfully great
Greek
δεινός (deinos)
dinosaur
dipl-
double; twofold
Greek
διπλός (diplos)
diploid, diplosis
doc-, doct-
teach
Latin
docere, doctus
docile, doctor, indoctrinate
dodec-
twelve
Greek
δώδεκα (dodeka)
dodecasyllabic
dogmat-, dox-
opinion, tenet
Greek
δόξα
dogmatic, orthodox
dom-
house
Latin
domus
dome
don-
give
Latin
donare
condone, donation
dorm-
sleep
Latin
dormire
dormant, dormitory
dors-
back
Latin
dorsum
dorsal
du-
two
Latin
duo
dual
dub-
doubtful
Latin
dubius
dubious
duc-, duct-
lead
Latin
dux, ducis
abduction, conductor, introduction, production,
reduction, deduction
dulc-
sweet
Latin
dulcis
dulcet
dur-
hard
Latin
durus
durable, duration, duress, endure, obdurate
dy-
two
Greek
δυο (duo)
dyad
dynam-
power
Greek
δύναμη (dunamē)
dynamism, dynasty, dynamite
dys-
badly, ill
Greek
δυσ-
dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy
E
Root
Meaning in English
Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
ec-
out
Greek
ἐκ (ek)
eccentric
eco-
house
Greek
οἶκος (oikos)
ecology, economics, ecumenism
ecto-
outside
Greek
ἐκτός (ektos)
ectoderm
ed-, es-
eat
Latin
edere, esus
edible
ego-
self, I (first person)
Latin, Greek
ego, ἐγώ
egocentric
ego-, eg-
goat
Greek
αἴξ (aix)
egophony
em-, empt-
buy
Latin
emere, emptus
exemption, preempt, redeem
eme-
vomit
Greek
ἔμετος (emetos)
emetic
emul-
striving to equal, rivaling
Latin
aemulus, aemulare
emulator
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
9
en-, em-
in
Greek
ἐν (en)
emphasis
endo-
inside
Greek
ἔνδον (endon)
endocrine, endocytosis
engy-
narrow
Greek
ἐγγύς (engys)
ennea-
nine
Greek
ἐννέα (ennea)
ens-
sword
Latin
ensis
eo-, eos-, eoso-
dawn, east
Greek
Ἠώς/Ἕως
Eocene
ep-, epi-
upon
Greek
ἐπί (epi)
epicenter, epitaph, epoch
epistem-
knowledge or science
Greek
ἐπιστήμη (epistēmē)
epistemic
equ-, -iqu-
even, level
Latin
aequus
equal, equivalence
equ-
horse
Latin
equus
equestrian
erg-
work
Greek
έργον (ergon)
ergonomics
err-
stray
Latin
errare
aberration, errant
erythr-
red
Greek
ἐρυθρός (eruthros)
erythrocyte
eso-
within
Greek
ἔσω (esō)
esoteric
etho-, eth-, ethi-
custom, habit
Greek
ἦθος (ēthos)
ethology
ethm-
sieve
Greek
ἠθμός (hethmos); ἤθειν (hethein)
ethmoid
ethn-
people, race, tribe, nation
Greek
ἔθνος (ethnos)
ethnarch, ethnic
etym-
true
Greek
ἔτυμος (etumos)
etymology
eu-
well, good
Greek
εὖ (eu)
euphoria, euthanasia
eur-
wide
Greek
εὐρύς (eurus)
Europe
ex-, e-, ef-
from, out
Latin
ex
exclude, extend, extrude
exo-
outside
Greek
ἔξω (eksō)
exoskeleton, exothermic
exter-, extra-
outer
Latin
externus
exterior
extrem-
outermost, utmost
Latin
extremus
extremity, extremophile
ennead, enneagon
F
Root
Meaning in English
Origin
language
Etymology (root
origin)
English examples
f-, fat-
say, speak
Latin
fari, fatus
fate, infant, preface
fab-
bean
Latin
faba
faba bean
fac-, -fic-, fact, -fect-
make
Latin
facere, factus
defect, factory, manufacture
falc-
sickle
Latin
falx, falcis
falciform
fall-, -fell-, fals-
deceive
Latin
fallere, falsus
falsity, infallibility
fallac-
false
Latin
fallax, fallacis
fallacy
famili-
a close attendant
Latin
famulus
familiarity
fant-
to show
Greek
φαντάζω
fantasy
fasc-
bundle
Latin
fascis
fasciculation, fascism
fatu-
foolish, useless
Latin
fatuus
fatuous, infatuation
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
10
feder-
treaty, agreement, contract,
league, pact
Latin
foedus, foederis
confederation, federal
fel-
cat
Latin
feles, felis
Felinae, feline
felic-
happy, merry
Latin
felix, felicis
felicity
fell-
suck
Latin
fellare
fellation
femin-
women, female
Latin
femina
femininity
femor-
thigh
Latin
femur, femoris
femoral
fend-, fens-
strike
Latin
fendere, -fensus
defend, offense
fenestr-
window
Latin
fenestra
defenestration
fer-
carry
Latin
ferre
reference, transfer
feroc-
fierce
Latin
ferox, ferocis
ferocity
ferr-
iron
Latin
ferrum
ferrous
fet-
stink
Latin
fetere
fetid, fetor
fic-
fig
Latin
ficus
Ficus
fid-, fis-
faith, trust
Latin
fides, fidere, fisus
confidence, fidelity
fil-
thread
Latin
filum
filament
fili-
son
Latin
filius
affiliation
fin-
end
Latin
finis
finish, final
find-, fiss-
split
Latin
findere, fissus
fission, fissures
firm-
fix, settle
Latin
firmus, firmare
confirmation, firmament
fistul-
hollow, tube
Latin
fl-
blow
Latin
flare, flatus
flatulence, inflation, insufflation
flacc-
flabby
Latin
flaccus, flaccere
flaccid
flav-
yellow
Latin
flavus
flavonoid
flect-, flex-
bend
Latin
flectere, flexus
flexible, flexile, flexor, inflection
flig-, flict-
strike
Latin
fligere, flictus
conflict, inflict
flor-
flower
Latin
flos, floris
floral, florid
flu-, flux-
flow
Latin
fluere, fluxus
effluent, fluency, influx
foc-
hearth
Latin
focus
focal
fod-, foss-
dig
Latin
fodere, fossus
fossil
foen-
hay
Latin
fenuculum
foli-
leaf
Latin
folium
defoliant
font-
spring
Latin
fons, fontis
font, fontal, fontanelle
for-
bore, drill
Latin
forare, foratus
foralite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
form-
shape
Latin
forma
conformity, deformity, formation, reformatory
fornic-
vault
Latin
fornix, fornicis
fornication
fort-
strong
Latin
fortis
fortification
fove-
shallow round depression
Latin
fovea
fovea
frang-, -fring-,
fract-, frag-
break
Latin
frangere, fractus
fracture, fragment, frangible, infringe
fistula
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
11
frater-, fratr-
brother
Latin
frater
fraternity
fric-, frict-
rub
Latin
fricare, frictus
dentifrice, friction
frig-
cold
Latin
frigere
frigid, frigorific
front-
forehead
Latin
frons, frontis
confront, frontage, frontal
fruct-, frug-
fruit
Latin
frux, fructis
fructose
fug-, fugit-
flee
Latin
fugere
centrifuge, fugitive, refuge
fum-
smoke
Latin
fumus
fume, fumigation
fund-
bottom
Latin
fundus, fundare
fundamentalism, profundity
fund-, fus-
pour
Latin
fundere, fusus
diffusion, effusion, fusion, profuse, profusion,
transfusion, effusive
fung-, funct-
do
Latin
fungi, functus
function, fungibility
fur-, furt-
steal
Latin
fur, furare
furtive
furc-
fork
Latin
furca
bifurcation
fusc-
dark
Latin
fuscus
obfuscation
G
Root
Meaning in English Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
galact-
milk
Greek
γάλα, γαλακτός (gala, galaktos) galactic
gastr-
stomach
Greek
γαστήρ (gaster)
gastric, gastroenterology
geo-
earth
Greek
γῆ (gē), γεω- (geō-)
geography, geology, geometry
gel-
icy cold
Latin
gelum
gelatin, gelid
gen-
race, kind,birth
Greek
γένος (genos)
eugenics, genocide
ger-, gest-
bear, carry
Latin
gerere, gestus
digest, gestation
germin-
sprout
Latin
germen, germinis
germination
glabr-
hairless
Latin
glaber
glabrous
glaci-
ice
Latin
glacies
glacier
gladi-
sword
Latin
gladius
gladiator
glia-
glue
Greek
γλία (glia)
glial
glob-
sphere
Latin
globus
global, globule
glori-
glory
Latin
gloria
glorify
glutin-
glue
Latin
gluten, glutinis
agglutination
grad-, -gred-, gress- walk, step, go
Latin
gradus, gradere, gressus
grade, regress
gram-
writing
Greek
γράμμα (gramma)
grammar, grammatic
gran-
grain
Latin
granum
granary, granite, granola, granule
grand-
grand
Latin
grandis
grandiloquous, grandiosity
graph-
draw, write
Greek
γραφή (graphē)
grapheme, graphic, graphology
grat-
thank, please
Latin
gratus
gratitude, ingrate
grav-
heavy
Latin
gravis
aggravation, grave, gravity
greg-
flock
Latin
grex, gregis
egregious, gregarious, segregation
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
12
gubern-
govern, pilot
Latin
gubernare
gubernatorial
gust-
taste
Latin
gustus
disgust, gusto
gutt-
drop
Latin
gutta
gutta, guttifer, guttiform
guttur-
throat
Latin
guttur
guttural
gymn-
nude
Greek
γυμνός (gymnos)
gymnasium, gymnastics, gymnosperm
gyn-
woman
Greek
γυνή
gynecology
H
Root
Meaning in
English
Origin
language
Etymology (root
origin)
English examples
hab-, -hib-, habit-,
-hibit-
have
Latin
habere, habitus
habit, prohibition
haem-, hem-
blood
Greek
αἷμα (haima)
haemophilia, hemoglobin
hal-
salt
Greek
ἅλς, ἁλός (hals, halos)
halogen
hal-, -hel-
breathe
Latin
halare, halatus
anhelation, inhale
hapl-
simple, single
Greek
ἁπλοῦς (haplous)
haploid, haplotype
haur-, haust-
draw
Latin
haurire, haustus
exhaustion
heli-
sun
Greek
ἥλιος (hēlios)
heliocentric, heliotrope, helium
hemi-
half
Greek
ἥμισυς (hēmisus)
hemicycle, hemisphere
hen-
one
Greek
ἕν (hen)
henad, hyphen
hendec-
eleven
Greek
ἕνδεκα (hendeka)
hendecagon
hept-
seven
Greek
ἑπτά (hepta)
heptagon, heptathlon, heptode
her-, hes-
cling
Latin
haerere, haesus
adhesive, coherent
herb-
grass
Latin
herba
herbal, herbicide
hered-
heir
Latin
heres, heredis
heredity
herp-
creep
Greek
ἕρπω, ἕρπειν (herpō,
herpein)
herpes, herpetology
heter-
different, other
Greek
ἕτερος (heteros)
heterodoxy
heur-
find
Greek
εὑρίσκω (heuriskō)
heuristic
hex-
six
Greek
ἕξ (hex)
hexagon, hexahedron, hexode
hibern-
wintry
Latin
hibernus
hibernation
hiem-
winter
Latin
hiems
hiemal
hipp-
horse
Greek
ἵππος (hippos)
hippodrome
hirsut-
hairy
Latin
hirtus, hirsutus
hirsute
hispid-
bristly
Latin
hispidus
hispidity, hispidulous
histri-
actor
Latin
histrio, histrionis
histrionic
hod-
way
Greek
ὁδός (hodos)
cathode, herpolhode, hodometer
hol-
whole
Greek
ὅλος (holos)
holistic
hom-
same
Greek
ὁμός (homos)
homophone, homosexual
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
13
home-
like
Greek
ὅμοιος (homoios)
homeostasis
homin-
human
Latin
homo, hominis
hominid
homal-
even, flat
Greek
ὁμαλός (homalos)
anomalous
honor-
esteem
Latin
honos, honoris
honorable, honorarium
hor-
boundary
Greek
ὅρος (horos)
aphorism, horizon
hor-
hour
Greek
ὥρα (hōra)
horoscope
horm-
that which
excites
Greek
ὁρμή (hormē)
hormone
hort-
garden
Latin
hortus, horti
horticulture
hospit-
host
Latin
hospes, hospitis
hospital, hospitality, inhospitable
host-
enemy
Latin
hostis
hostile
hum-
ground
Latin
humus, humare
exhumation, inhume
hyal-
glass
Greek
ὕαλος (hualos)
hyaline, hyaloid
hydr-
water
Greek
ὕδωρ (hudōr)
hydraulics, hydrology, hydrolysis, hydrophily, hydrophobia,
hydroponic, hydrous
hygr-
wet
Greek
ὑγρός (hugros)
hygrometer
hyo-
U-shaped
Greek
ὑοειδής (huoeidēs)
hyoid
hyp-
under
Greek
ὑπό (hupo)
hypothermia
hyper-
above, over
Greek
ὑπέρ (huper)
hyperbole, hypertonic
hypn-
sleep
Greek
ὕπνος (hupnos)
hypnosis
hyster-
later
Greek
ὕστερος (husteros)
hysteresis
I
Root
Meaning in English
Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
ichthy-
fish
Greek
ἰχθύς (ichthus)
ichthyology
icos-
twenty
Greek
εἴκοσι (eikosi)
icosagon, icosahedron
id-
shape
Greek
εἶδος (eidos)
idol
ide-
idea; thought
Greek
ιδέα (idea)
ideogram, ideology
idi-
personal
Greek
ἴδιος (idios)
idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign-
fire
Latin
ignis
igneous, ignition
in- (1), im-
in, on
Latin
in
import, incur, intend, invite
in- (2), il-, im-, ir-
not, un- (negation)
Latin
in-
illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra-
below, under
Latin
infra
infrastructure
insul-
island
Latin
insula
insular, insulation
inter-
among, between
Latin
inter (preposition)
intercollegiate, intermission, intersection
intra-
within
Latin
intra
intramural
irasc-, irat-
be angry
Latin
irasci
irascible, irate
is-, iso-
equal, the same
Greek
ἴσος (isos)
isometric, isomorphic, isotropic
iter-
again
Latin
iterum, iterare
iteration
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
itiner-
14
route, way
Latin
iter, itineris – march, journey
itinerary
J
Root
Meaning in
English
jac-
Origin
language
lie
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
Latin
jacēre "to be thrown"
adjacent
jac- (originally IAC), -ject- cast, throw
Latin
iacio, iacere, ieci, iectus – "to throw" (and
cognates thereof)
eject, interject, ejaculate,
trajectory
janu-
door
Latin
janua
janitor
joc-
joke
Latin
jocus
jocularity
jug-
yoke
Latin
jugare, jugum
conjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct-
join
Latin
jungere, junctus
conjunction, juncture
junior-
younger
Latin
junior
juniority
jus-, jur-, judic- (originally law, justice
IVS)
Latin
ius, iuris; iudex, iudicis
judge, jury, justice
juv-, jut-
help
Latin
juvare, jutus
adjutant
juven-
young, youth
Latin
juvenis
juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta-
beside, near
Latin
juxta
juxtaposition
K
Root
Meaning in English
Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
kil(o)-
thousand
Greek
χίλιοι (chilioi)
kilobyte, kilogram, kilometer
kine-
movement, motion
Greek
κινέω (kineo)
telekinesis, kinetic energy, kinesthetic
klept-
steal
Greek
κλέπτης (kleptēs)
kleptomania
kudo-
glory
Greek
κῦδος (kudos)
kudos
L
Root
Meaning in English
Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
lab-, laps-
slide, slip
Latin
labi, lapsus
elapse, relapse
labi-
lip
Latin
labia, labiae
bilabial, labial
labor-
toil
Latin
labor
collaboration, elaboration
lacer-
tear
Latin
lacer
laceration
lacrim-
cry, tears
Latin
lacrima "tear"
lacrimal, lacrimous
lact-
milk
Latin
lac, lactis, lactare
lactate, lactation, lactose
lamin-
layer, slice
Latin
lamina
laminate, lamination
lamp-
shine
Greek
λαμπάς lampas "torch"
lamp
lapid-
stone
Latin
lapis, lapidis
lapidary
larg-
large
Latin
largus
enlargement
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
15
larv-
ghost, mask
Latin
larva
larva, larvae, larval
lat-
broad, wide
Latin
latus
latitude
later-
side
Latin
latus, lateris
bilateral
laud-, laus-
praise
Latin
laudere
laud
lav-
wash
Latin
lavare
lavatory
lax-
not tense
Latin
laxus, laxare
laxative, relaxation
led-, les-
hurt
Latin
laedere, laesus
lesion
leg-
law
Latin
lex, legis, legare
legal, legislative
leg-
send
Latin
legare
relegate
lei-
smooth
Greek
λείος leios
leiomyoma
lekan-
dish, pot
Greek
λεκάνη lekane
lekane
leni-
gentle
Latin
lenis, lenire
leniency
leon-
lion
Latin
leo, leonis
Leo, leonine, Leopold
lep-
flake, scale
Greek
λέπις lepis
Lepidoptera
leps-
grasp, seize
Greek
λήψης lepsis
epilepsy
leuc(o)-, leuk(o)-
white
Greek
λευκός leukos
leucocyte
lev-
lift, light
Latin
levis "light" (in weight), levare
elevator, levitation
liber-
free
Latin
liber, liberare
liberation, liberty
libr-
book
Latin
liber, libri
librarian, library
lig-
bind
Latin
ligare, ligatus
ligament, ligature
limac-
slug
Latin
limax, limacis
limacoid, limacon
lin-
line
Latin
linea
line, linearity
lingu-
language, tongue
Latin
lingua
bilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict-
leave
Latin
linquere, lictus
relict, relinquish
lip-
fat
Greek
λίπος lipos
lipolysis
liter-
letter
Latin
littera
alliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, obliterate
lith-
stone
Greek
λίθος (lithos)
lithosphere, megalith, monolith, Neolithic Era
loc-
place
Latin
locus
local, location
log-
thought, word, speech
Greek
λόγος (logos) "word"
logic, monologue, morphological
long-
long
Latin
longus
elongate, longitude
loqu-, locut-
speak
Latin
loqui
allocution, eloquence
luc-
bright, light
Latin
lux, lucis light
Lucifer (bearer of light)
lud-, lus-
play
Latin
ludere, lusus
allude, illusion
lumin-
light
Latin
lumen, luminis
illumination, luminous
lun-
moon
Latin
luna
lunar, lunatic
lysis
dissolving
Greek
λύσις (lusis)
analysis, cytolysis, hydrolysis
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
16
M
Root
Meaning in English
Origin
language
Etymology (root
origin)
English examples
macro-
long
Greek
μακρός (makros)
macron
magn-
great, large
Latin
magnus
magnanimous, magnificent, magnitude
maj-
greater
Latin
major, majus
majesty, majority, majuscule
mal-
bad, wretched,
Latin
malus
malfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malodorous
mamm-
breast
Latin
mamma
mammal, mammary gland
man-
flow
Latin
mānāre, manatus
emanate, emanationism, immanant, immanation
man-
stay
Latin
manēre, mansus
immanence, immanent, manse, permanence, permanent,
remanence, remanent
mand-
hand
Latin
mandāre, mandatus
mandate, remand
mania
mental illness
Greek
μανία (manίā)
kleptomania, maniac
manu-
hand
Latin
manus
manual, manuscript
mar-
sea
Latin
mare, maris
marine, maritime
mater-,
matr-
mother
Latin
mater, matris
maternity, matriarch, matrix
maxim-
greatest
Latin
maximus
maximum
medi-,
-midi-
middle
Latin
medius, mediare
median, medieval
meg-
great, large
Greek
μέγας (megas)
megaphone
mei-
less
Greek
μεῖον (meiōn)
meiosis
melan-
black, dark
Greek
μέλας (melas)
Melanesia, melanoma
melior-
better
Latin
melior
amelioration
mell-
honey
Latin
mel, mellis
mellifluous
memor-
remember
Latin
memor
memorial
mening-
membrane
Greek
μήνιγξ (meninx)
meningitis
men-
month
Greek
μήν (mēn)
menopause
menstru-
monthly
Latin
menstruus
menstruation, menstrual
mensur-
measure
Latin
mensura
commensurate
ment-
mind
Latin
mens, mentis
demented, mentality
mer-
part
Greek
μέρος (meros)
polymer
merc-
reward, wages, hire
Latin
merx, mercis
mercantile, merchant
merg-,
mers-
dip, plunge
Latin
mergere
emerge, immersion
mes-
middle
Greek
μέσος (mesos)
mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-,
metr-
measure
Greek
μέτρον (metron)
metric, thermometer
meta-
above, among,
beyond
Greek
μετά (meta)
metaphor, metaphysics
mic-
grain
Latin
mica
micelle
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
17
micr-
small
Greek
μικρός (mikros)
microphone, microscope
migr-
wander
Latin
migrare
emigrant, migrate
milit-
soldier
Latin
miles, militis
military, militia
mill-
thousand
Latin
mille
millennium, million
millen-
thousand each
Latin
milleni
millenary
mim-
repeat
Greek
μίμος (mimos)
mime, mimic
min-
jut
Latin
minere
prominent
min-
less, smaller
Latin
minor, minus
minority, minuscule
mir-
wonder, amazement
Latin
miror, mirari, miratus
sum
admire, miracle, mirror
mis-
hate
Greek
μῖσος (misos)
misandry, misogyny
misce-,
mixt-
mix
Latin
miscere, mixtus
miscellaneous, mixture
mit-
thread
Greek
μίτος (mitos)
mitochondrion
mitt-, miss-
send
Latin
mittere, missus
intermittent, missionary, transmission
mne-
memory
Greek
μνήμη (mnēmē)
mnemonic
mol-
grind
Latin
mola, molere, molitus
molar
moll-
soft
Latin
mollis
emollient, mollify
mon-
one
Greek
μόνος (monos)
monism, monolith, monotone
monil-
string of beads
Latin
monile
Moniliformida
mont-
mountain
Latin
mons, montis
Montana
mord-
bite
Latin
mordere, morsus
mordacious, morsel, remorse
morph-
form, shape
Greek
μορφή (morphē)
anthropomorphism, morpheme, morphology
mort-
death
Latin
mors, mortis
immortal, mortality, mortuary
mov-, mot-
move, motion
Latin
movere, motus
mobile, momentum, motor, move
mulg-, muls- milk
Latin
mulgere
emulsion
mult-
many, much
Latin
multus
multiple, multiplex, multitude
mur-
wall
Latin
murus, muri
immured, mural
mus-
thief
Latin
mus, muris
mouse
musc-
fly
Latin
musca, muscae
Muscicapidae, Muscidae
mut-
change
Latin
mutare
mutation
my-
mouse
Greek
μῦς (mus)
musophobia
myri-
countless, ten
thousand
Greek
μυρίος (murios)
myriad, myriapod
myrmec-
ant
Greek
μύρμηξ (murmēx)
myrmecoid, Myrmidons
myth-
story
Greek
μῦθος (muthos)
mythic, mythology
myx-
slime
Greek
μύξα (muxa)
Myxini
myz-
suck
Greek
μυζάω (muzaō)
Myzopoda
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
18
N
Root
Meaning in English
Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
nar-
nostril
Latin
naris
narc-
numb
Greek
νάρκη (narkē)
narcosis, narcotic
narr-
tell
Latin
narrare
narrative
nas-
nose
Latin
nasus
nasal
nasc-, nat-
born
Latin
nascere, natus
nascent, native
naut-
ship
Greek
ναύτης (nautes)
Argonaut, astronaut
nav-
ship
Latin
navis
naval
ne-
new
Greek
νέος (neos)
neologism
necr-
dead
Greek
νεκρός (nekros)
necrophobia
nect-
swimming
Greek
νηκτός (nēktos)
nectopod
nect-, nex-
join, tie
Latin
nectere, nexus
connect, connexion
neg-
say no
Latin
negare
negative
nema-
hair
Greek
νῆμα (nēma)
nematode
nemor-
grove, woods
Latin
nemus, nemoris
nemoral
nephr-
kidney
Greek
νεφρός (nephros)
nephritis
nes-
island
Greek
νῆσος (nēsos)
Polynesia
neur-
nerve
Greek
νευρών (neurōn)
neurology, neurosurgeon
nict-
wink
Latin
nictari
nictation
nigr-
black
Latin
niger
denigrate
nihil-
nothing
Latin
nihilum
annihilation
noct-
night
Latin
nox, noctis
noctambulist, nocturnal
nod-
knot
Latin
nodus
node, nodule
nom-
arrangement, law
Greek
νόμος (nomos)
autonomous, taxonomy
nomad-
those who let pasture herds Greek
νομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados) nomadic
nomin-
name
Latin
nomen, nominis
nomination
non-
not
Latin
non
none
non-
ninth
Latin
nonus
nonary
nonagen-
ninety each
Latin
nonageni
nonagenary
nonagesim- ninetieth
Latin
nonagesimus
nonagesimal
not-
letter, note, paper
Latin
notare
annotation, notable
noth-
spurious
Greek
νόθος (nothos)
nothogenus
noto-
back, south
Greek
νότος (notos)
notochord
nov-
nine
Latin
novem
November, novennial
nov-
new
Latin
novus
innovation, nova
noven-
nine each
Latin
noveni
novenary
novendec-
nineteen
Latin
novendecim
nox-, noc-
harmful
Latin
noxa
noxious
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
19
nu-
nod
Latin
nuere
innuendo
nub-
to marry, to wed
Latin
nubes, nubis, nubere
connubial, nubile
nuc-
nut
Latin
nux, nucis
nucleus
nuch-
back of neck
Latin
nucha
nuchal cord
nud-
naked
Latin
nudus
denude, nudity
null-
none
Latin
nullus
nullify
numer-
number
Latin
numerus
numeral
nunci-
announce
Latin
nuntius
pronunciation
nuptinutri-
Latin
nourish
nuptial
Latin
nutrire
nutrient
O
Root
Meaning in
English
Origin
language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
ob-, o-, oc-, of-, og-,
op-, os-
against
Latin
ob
obstinate, obstreperous, occur, offend, omit, oppose,
ostentatious
oct-
eight
Greek
ὀκτώ (oktō)
octagon, octahedron, octode
oct-
eight
Latin
octō
octangular, octennial, octovir
octav-
eighth
Latin
octāvus
octaval
octogen-
eighty each
Latin
octogeni
octogenary
octogesim-
eightieth
Latin
octogesimus
octogesimal
octon-
eight each
Latin
octoni
octonary
ocul-
eye
Latin
oculus, oculare
ocular, oculus, ullage
od-
path, way
Greek
ὁδός (hodos)
anode, diode, odometer, pentode, tetrode, triode
od-
hate
Latin
odium
odious
odont-
tooth
Greek
ὀδούς, ὀδόντος (odous,
odontos)
odontology
odor-
fragrant
Latin
odor
odorous
oeco-
house
Greek
οἶκος (oikos)
ecology
oed-
swollen
Greek
οἴδημα (oidēma)
oedema
oen-
wine
Greek
οἶνος (oinos)
oenology
oesophag-
gullet
Greek
οἰσοφάγος (oisophagos)
oesophagus
ogdo-
eighth
Greek
ὄγδοος (ogdoos)
ogdoad
-oid
like
Greek
-οειδής (-oeidēs)
asteroid, mucoid, organoid
ole-
oil
Latin
oleum
oleosity
olecran-
skull of elbow
Latin from
Greek
ὠλέκρανον (ōlekranon)
olecranon
olig-
few
Greek
ὀλίγος (oligos)
oligarchy
oliv-
olive
Latin
oliva
olivaceous, olivary, olivette
-oma
cancer
Greek
-ωμα
melanoma
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
20
omas-
paunch
Latin
omasum
omasum
oment-
fat skin
Latin
omentum
omental
omin-
creepy
Latin
omen, ominis
abominable, ominous
omm-
eye
Greek
ὄμμα (omma)
ommatidium
omni-
all
Latin
omnis
omnipotence, omnivore
omo-
shoulder
Latin
omphal-
navel
Greek
ὀμφαλός (omphalos)
omphalectomy
oner-
burden
Latin
onus, oneris
exonerate, onerous
onom-
name
Greek
όνομα (onoma)
onomatopoeia
ont-
existing
Greek
ὄντος (ontos)
ontogeny, ontology
-onym
name
Greek
ὄνυμα (onuma)
antonym, pseudonym, synonym
oo-
egg
Greek
(oion)
oocyte
opac-
shady
Latin
opacus
opacity
oper-
work
Latin
opus, operis
inoperable, opera
opercul-
little cover
Latin
operculum
ophi-
snake
Greek
ὄφις (ophis)
ophiophagy
ophthalm-
eye
Greek
ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos)
ophthalmology
opisth-
behind
Greek
ὄπισθεν (opisthen)
opisthosoma, opsimath
opoter-
either
Greek
ὁπότερος (hopoteros)
opt-
eye
Greek
ὀπτός (optos)
optical
opt-
choose
Latin
optare
adopt, optional
optim-
best
Latin
optimus
optimum
or-
mouth
Latin
os, oris
oral, orator
orb-
circle
Latin
orbis
orbit
orch-
testicle
Greek
ὄρχις (orchis)
orchid
ordin-
order
Latin
ōrdō, ordinis
ordinal, ordinary
organ-
organ, instrument,
tool
Greek
ὄργανον (organon)
organism
ori-, ort-
eastern
Latin
oriri, ortus
orient
orn-
decorate
Latin
ōrnāre
adorn, ornament, ornate
ornith-
bird
Greek
ὄρνις (ornis, ornithos)
ornithology
orth-
straight
Greek
ὀρθός (orthos)
orthodontist, orthodoxy, orthosis
oscill-
swing
Latin
oscillum
oscillation
oss-
bone
Latin
os, ossis
ossification
osteo-
bone
Greek
ὀστοῦν (ostoun)
osteoporosis
osti-
entrance
Latin
ostium
ostiole
ostrac-
shell
Greek
ὄστρακον (ostrakon)
ostracism
ot-
ear
Greek
οὖς, ωτός (ous, ōtos)
otology
ov-
egg
Latin
ovum
oval, ovary, ovule
ovi-
sheep
Latin
ovis
ovine
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
oxy-
sharp, pointed
21
Greek
ὀξύς (oxus)
oxygen, oxymoron
P
Root
Meaning in English
Origin
language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
pac-
peace
Latin
pax, pacis
pacifism
pach-
thick
Greek
παχύς (pachus)
pachydermata, Pachypodium
paed-
child
Greek
παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos)
paediatric
pagin-
page
Latin
pagina
pagination
pal-
stake
Latin
palus
impalement, pale
palae-, pale-
ancient, old
Greek
παλαιός (palaios)
paleontology
palin-
back
Greek
πάλιν (palin)
palindrome
pall-
be pale
Latin
pallere
pallid, pallor
palli-
mantle
Latin
pallium
pallium
palm-
palm
Latin
palma
palmate
palustr-
in marshes
Latin
paluster
palustral
pan-, pam-
all
Greek
πᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos)
pandemic
pand-, pans-
spread
Latin
pandere, pansus
expand, expansion
par(a)-
beside, near
Greek
παρά (para)
parallel, parameter
pariet-
wall
Latin
paries, parietis
parietal
part-
part
Latin
pars, partis
bipartite, partition
parthen-
maiden
Greek
παρθένος (parthenos)
parthenogenesis
parv-
little
Latin
parvus
parvovirus
pasc-, past-
feed
Latin
pascere, pastus
pasture, repast
pass-
pace, step
Latin
passus
passer-
sparrow
Latin
passer
passeriform, passerine
pat-
be open
Latin
patere
patent
path-
feel, hurt
Greek
πάθος (pathos)
pathetic, pathology
pati-, pass-
suffer, feel, endure, permit
Latin
pati, passus
passive, patience
patr-
father
Greek
πατήρ, πατριά (patēr, patria)
patriarch
patr-
father
Latin
pater, patris
patrilocal
pauc-
few
Latin
paucus
paucal, pauciloquent, paucity
Latin
pavire
pavement
pavpecc-
sin
Latin
peccare
impeccable
pect-
fixed
Greek
πηκτός (pēktos)
pectic, pectin
pector-
chest
Latin
pectus, pectoris
pectoral
pecun-
money
Latin
pecunia
pecuniary
ped-
child
Greek
παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos)
pedagogy
ped-
foot
Latin
pes, pedis
pedal, quadruped
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
22
pejor-
worse
Latin
pejor
pejorative
pell-, puls-
drive
Latin
pellere, pulsus
propellent, propulsor, repellent
pen-
almost
Latin
paene
peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pend-, pens-
hang
Latin
pendere
suspend
penn-, pinn-
feather
Latin
penna
pennate, pinnate
pent-
five
Greek
πέντε (pente)
pentagon, pentode, pentagrid
pentecost-
fiftieth
Greek
πεντηκοστός (pentēkostos)
pentecostalism
pept-
to digest
Greek
πέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein,
peptos)
peptic, peptide
per-
thoroughly, through
Latin
per
perfection, permeate, persistence, pervade
peran-
across, beyond
Greek
πέραν (peran)
peri-
around
Greek
περί (peri)
persic-
peach
Greek
περσικός (persikos)
pessim-
worst
Latin
pessimus
pessimal
pet-
strive towards
Latin
petere
appetite, competition
petr-
rock
Greek
πέτρα (petra)
petroglyph
phae-
dark
Greek
φαιός (phaios)
phaeomelanin
phag-
eat
Greek
φαγεῖν (phagein)
sarcophagus
phalang-
close formation of troops,
finger bones
Greek
φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx,
phalangos)
phalanges
phalar-
having a patch of white
Greek
φάλαρος (phalāros)
phalarope
pharmac-
drug, medicine
Greek
φάρμακον (pharmakon)
pharmacy
phaner-
visible
Greek
φανερός (phaneros)
phanerozoic
pher-
bear, carry
Greek
φέρω (pherō)
pheromone
phil-, -phile
love, friendship
Greek
φιλέω (phileō, philia)
hydrophile, philosophy
phleg-
heat
Greek
φλέγω (phlegō)
phlegm, phlegmatics
phloe-
tree bark
Greek
φλοιός (phloios)
phlobaphene, phloem
phob-
fear
Greek
φόβος (phobos)
hydrophobia
phon-
sound
Greek
φωνή (phōnē)
homophone, microphone, phonograph
phor-
carry, bear
Greek
φόρος (phoros)
metaphor
phos-, phot-
light
Greek
φῶς, φωτός (phōs, phōtos)
phosphor, photograph
phragm-
fence
Greek
φράγμα (phragma)
diaphragm
phren-
diaphragm, mind
Greek
φρήν, φρενός (phrēn,
phrenos)
phrenetic, schizophrenia
phryn-
toad, toad-like
Greek
φρύνη (phrunē)
Phrynobatrachus
phyl-
tribe
Greek
φύλον (phulon)
phylogenetics, phylum
phyll-
leaf
Greek
φύλλον (phullon)
chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
phys-
nature
Greek
φύσις (phusis)
physics
physalid-
bladder
Greek
φυσαλ(λ)ίς (phusal(l)is)
physalis
phyt-
plant
Greek
φυτόν (phuton)
neophyte, phytoplankton
perimeter, peripheral, periscope
[1]
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
23
pic-
pitch
Latin
pix, picis
pil-
hair
Latin
pilus
depilatory, epilator
pin-
drink
Greek
πίνειν (pinein)
pinocytosis
pin-
pine
Latin
pinus
pineal gland
ping-, pict-
paint
Latin
pingere, pictus
depiction, picture
pingu-
fat
Latin
pinguis
Pinguicula
pir-
pear
Latin
pirus
piriformis muscle
pisc-
fish
Latin
piscis
Pisces, piscivore
pis-
pea
Greek
πίσος (pisos)
plac-
plate, tablet
Greek
πλάξ, πλακός (plax, plakos)
plac-
calm
Latin
placare, placatus
placate
plac-, -plic-
please
Latin
placēre, placitus
placebo, placid
plagi-
oblique
Greek
πλάγιος (plagios)
plagioclase
plan-
flat
Latin
planus
explanation, planar, plane
Latin
plangere, planctus
plangent
plang-, planctplas-
mould
Greek
πλάθω (plathō)
plasma, plastic
platy-
flat, broad
Greek
πλατύς (platus)
platypus
plaud-, -plod-,
plaus-, -plos-
approve, clap
Latin
plaudere, plausus
applaud, applause, explosion, implode,
plaudits, plausible
ple-, plet-
fill
Latin
plere
complement, suppletion
pleb-
people
Latin
plebs, plebis
plebian, plebs
plec-
interwoven
Greek
πλέκω (plekō)
plectics, symplectomorphism
plect-, plex-
plait
Latin
plectere, plexus
perplex
plen-
full
Latin
plenus
plenary
plesi-
near
Greek
πλησίος (plēsios)
pleth-
full
Greek
πλῆθος (plēthos)
pleur-
side
Greek
πλευρά (pleura)
plic-
fold
Latin
plicare, plicatus
plinth-
brick
Greek
πλίνθος (plinthos)
Latin
plorare
plor-
plethora
duplication, replicate
implore
plu-
rain
Latin
pluere
plum-
feather
Latin
pluma
plumage, plumate
plumb-
lead
Latin
plumbum
plumber
plur-
more
Latin
pluris
plural
plurim-
most
Latin
plurimus
plus-
more
Latin
plus
surplus
plut-
wealth
Greek
πλοῦτος (ploutos)
plutocracy
pluvi-
rain
Latin
pluvia
pluvial
pneu-
air, lung
Greek
πνεῦμα (pneuma)
pneumatic
pod-
foot
Greek
πούς, ποδός (pous, podos)
podiatry, tripod
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
24
pogon-
beard
Greek
πώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn,
pōgōnos)
pogonotrophy
poie-
make
Greek
ποιέω (poieō)
poiesis
pol-
pole
Greek
πόλος (polos)
dipole, polar
pole-, poli-
city
Greek
πόλις (polis)
metropolis, politics
polem-
war
Greek
πόλεμος (polemos)
polemic
poli-
grey
Greek
πολιός (polios)
pollic-
thumb
Latin
pollex, pollicis
Latin
pollen, pollinis
pollination
pollinpoly-
many
Greek
πολύς (polus)
polygon
pon-, posit-
put
Latin
ponere, positus
component, position, postpone
ponder-
weight
Latin
pondus, ponderis
preponderance
pont-
bridge
Latin
pons, pontis
pontoon
popul-
people
Latin
populus, populare
population
por-
passage
Greek
πόρος (poros)
pore
porc-
pig
Latin
porcus
porcine, pork
porphyr-
purple
Greek
πορφύρα (porphura)
porphyrin
port-
gate
Latin
porta
portal
port-
carry
Latin
portare, portatus
export, transportation
post-
after, behind
Latin
post
posterior, postscript
pot-
drink
Latin
potus, potare
potable
potam-
river
Greek
ποταμός (potamos)
hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
prasin-
leek-green
Greek
πράσινος (prasinos)
prasinous
prat-
meadow
Latin
pratum
prav-
crooked
Latin
pravus
depravity
pre-
before
Latin
prae
previous
prec-
pray
Latin
prex, precis, precāri
deprecation
Latin
praeda, praedari
predator
grasp
Latin
prehendere, prehensus
comprehend
prem-, -prim-, press- press
Latin
premere, pressus
pressure
presby-
old
Greek
πρέσβυς (presbus)
Presbyterianism
preter-
past
Latin
praeter
preterite, pretermission
preti-
price
Latin
pretium, pretiare
prim-
first
Latin
primus
primary, primeval, primitive
prior-
former
Latin
prior
priority
priv(i)-
separate
Latin
privus, privare, privatus
deprivation, privilege
pro-
before, in front of
Greek
πρό (pro)
pro-
for, forward
Latin
pro
propulsion
prob-
try
Latin
probus, probare
probation
predprehend-, prend-,
prehens-
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
25
proct-
anus
Greek
πρωκτός (prōktos)
proctology
propri-
one's own, ownership
Latin
proprietas
appropriate, property, propriety
pros-
forward
Greek
πρός (pros)
prot-
first
Greek
πρῶτος (prōtos)
protoplasm
proxim-
nearest
Latin
proximus, proximare
approximate, proximity
prun-
plum
Latin
prunus
prune
psamma-
sand
Greek
ψάμμος (psammos)
pseud-
false
Greek
ψευδής (pseudēs)
pseudonym
psil-
bare
Greek
ψιλός (psilos)
epsilon
psych-
mind
Greek
ψυχή (psuchē)
psycho
psychr-
cold
Greek
ψυχρός (psuchros)
pter-
wing, fern
Greek
πτερόν (pteron)
helicopter
pto-
fall
Greek
πτῶσις (ptōsis)
ptosis
ptyal-
saliva
Greek
πτύον (ptuon)
ptych-
fold, layer
Greek
πτύξ, πτυχή (ptuchē)
triptych
pub-
sexually mature
Latin
pubes
pubescent, pubic
public-
Latin
publicus
publication
pude-
Latin
pudere
impudent
pugn-
fight
Latin
pugna, pugnare
pugnacious, repugnant
pulchr-
beautiful
Latin
pulcher, pulchri
pulchritude
pulmon-
lung
Latin
pulmo, pulmonis
pulmonary
pulver-
dust
Latin
pulvis, pulveris
pulverize
pung-, punct-
prick
Latin
pungere, punctus
puncture, pungent
puni-
punish
Latin
punire, punitus
impunity, punitive
pup-
doll
Latin
pupa
pupa, puppet
pur-
pure
Latin
purus
impurity, purify
purg-
cleanse
Latin
purgare
expurgate, purgatory, purge
purpur-
purple
Latin
purpura
put-
prune, reckon
Latin
putāre
compute, putative
pyg-
rump
Greek
πυγή (pugē)
pygostyle, callipygian
pyl-
gate
Greek
πυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn)
pylon
pyr-
heat, fire
Greek
πῦρ, πυρός (pur, puros)
pyrolysis
Q
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
Root
26
Meaning in English
Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
quadr-
four
Latin
quattuor
quadrangle, quadrillion
quadragen-
forty each
Latin
quadrageni
quadragenary
quadragesim-
fortieth
Latin
quadragesimus
quadragesimal
quart-
fourth
Latin
quartus
quartary, quartile
quasi-
as if
Latin
quasi
quasar
quatern-
four each
Latin
quaterni
quaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass-
shake
Latin
quatere
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit-
search, seek
Latin
quaerere
Inquisition, query
qui-
rest
Latin
quies
quiet, requiem
quin-
five each
Latin
quini
quinary
quindecim-
fifteenth
Latin
quindecimus
quindecimal
quinden-
fifteen each
Latin
quindeni
quindenary
quinque-
five
Latin
quinque
quinquennium
quint-
fifth
Latin
quintus
quintary, quintile
quot-
how many, how great
Latin
quota, quotient
R
Root
Meaning in English
Origin language Etymology (root origin)
English examples
rad-, ras-
scrape, shave
Latin
radere, rasus
abrade, abrasion, erasure
radi-
beam, spoke
Latin
radius, radiare
radiance, radiation
radic-
root
Latin
rādix, rādīcis
eradicate, radical
ram-
branch
Latin
rāmus
ramification, ramose
ran-
frog
Latin
rana
Rana
ranc-
rancidness, grudge, bitterness Latin
rancere
rancid, rancor
rap-
turnip
Latin
rapum
rapeseed
raph-
seam
Greek
ῤαφή (rhaphē)
Latin
rarus
rarity
rarrauc-
harsh, hoarse
Latin
raucus
raucous
re-, red-
again, back
Latin
re-
recede, redact
reg-, -rig-, rect- straight
Latin
regere, rectus
dirigible, erect, erection, rectum
rem-
oar
Latin
remus
bireme, trireme
ren-
kidney
Latin
renes
renal
rep-, rept-
crawl, creep
Latin
repere, reptus
reptile
ret-
net
Latin
rete
reticle, retina
retro-
backward, behind
Latin
retro
retrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd-
rod
Greek
ῥάβδος (rhabdos)
rhabdoid, rhabdom
rhach-, rach-
spine
Greek
ῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis) rhachiodont
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
27
rhag-
tear, rent
Greek
ῥαγίζω
rhagades
rhe-
flow
Greek
ῥεῖν (rhein)
rheostat
rhig-
chill
Greek
ῥῖγος (rhigos)
rhigosaurus
rhin-
nose, snout
Greek
ῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos)
rhinoplasty
rhiz-
root
Greek
ῥίζα (rhiza)
rhizome
rhod-
rose
Greek
ῥόδον (rhodon)
rhododendron
rhomb-
spinning top
Greek
ῥόμβος (rhombos)
rhombus
rhynch-
snout
Greek
ῥύγχος
Rhynchobatus
rid-, ris-
laugh
Latin
ridere, risus
derision, ridicule
robor-
oak, strength
Latin
robur, roboris
corroboration
rod-, ros-
gnaw
Latin
rodere, rosus
corrode, erosion, rodent
rog-
ask
Latin
rogare
derogatory, interrogation
rostr-
beak, prow
Latin
rostrum
rostral, rostriform, rostrum
rot-
wheel
Latin
rota, rotare
rotation
ruber-, rubr-
red
Latin
ruber
rubric, ruby
rug-
wrinkle
Latin
ruga, rugare
corrugation
rumin-
throat
Latin
rumen, ruminis
rumination
rump-, rupt-
break
Latin
rumpere, ruptus
eruption, rupture, interrupt
rur-
country
Latin
rus, ruris
rural
S
Root
Meaning in English
Origin
language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
sacchar-
sugar
Greek
σάκχαρον (sakcharon)
saccharin
sacr-, secr-
sacred
Latin
sacer, sacrare
consecrate, sacrament
sagac-
wise
Latin
sagax, sagacis
sagacity
sagitt-
arrow
Latin
sagitta
sagittal plane, Sagittaria
sal-
salt
Latin
sal, salis, salere
salinity
sali-, -sili-, salt-
jump
Latin
salire, saltus
resilient, salient, saltus
salic-
willow
Latin
salix, salicis
salicin
salv-
save
Latin
salvus, salvare
salvation
san-
healthy
Latin
sanus
insane, sanity
sanc-
holy
Latin
sancire, sanctus
sanctify, sanctuary
sanguin-
blood
Latin
sanguis, sanguinis
consanguinity, sanguine
sapi-, -sipi-
taste, wise
Latin
sapere
insipience, sapient
sapon-
soap
Latin
sapo, saponis
saponification
sarc-
flesh
Greek
σάρξ, σαρκός (sarx,
sarkos)
sarcophagus
saur-
lizard, reptile
Greek
σαῦρος (sauros)
dinosaur
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
28
sax-
rock
Latin
saxum
scab-
scratch
Latin
scabere
scabies
scal-
ladder, stairs
Latin
scala
scalar, scale
scalen-
uneven
Greek
σκαληνός (skalēnos)
scalene muscles, scalene triangle
scand-, -scend-,
scans-, -scens-
climb
Latin
scandere
ascend, transcendent, descend
scaph-
anything hollow, bowl, ship
Greek
σκάφη, σκάφος
scaphoid bone
scel-
leg, thigh
Greek
σκέλος, σκέλεος (skelos)
isosceles
schem-
plan
Greek
σχῆμα (schēma)
schematic
schis-
split
Greek
σχίζω, σχίσμα (schisma)
schism
sci-
know
Latin
scire
prescient, science
scind-, sciss-
split
Latin
scindere
rescind, scissors
scler-
hard
Greek
σκληρός (sklēros)
scleroderma, sclerosis
scoli-
crooked
Greek
σκολιός (skolios)
scoliosis
scop-, scept-
look at, examine, view, observe
Greek
σκέπτομαι, σκοπός
(skopos)
horoscope, kaleidoscope, stethoscope
scrib-, script-
write
Latin
scribere, scriptus
inscribe, scripture
sculp-
carve
Latin
sculpere, sculptus
sculpture
scut-
shield
Latin
scutum
scute
scyph-
cup
Greek
χούφτα (chouphta)
Scyphozoa
se-, sed-
apart
Latin
se
secede, sedition
seb-
tallow
Latin
sebum
sebaceous, sebum
sec-, sect-, seg-
cut
Latin
secare
secant, section, segment
sed-
settle, calm
Latin
sedare, sedatus
sedative
sed-, -sid-, sess-
sit
Latin
sedere, sessus
reside, sediment, session, supersede
sedec-
sixteen
Latin
sedecim
sedecimal
seget-
in cornfields
Latin
segetum
sei-
shake
Greek
σείω, σεισμός (seismos)
seismograph
selen-
moon
Greek
σελήνη (selēnē)
Selene, selenium
sell-
saddle, seat
Latin
sella
sella turcica
sema-
sign
Greek
σῆμα (sēma)
semantics, semaphore
semi-
half
Latin
semis
semifinal
semin-
seed
Latin
semen, seminis
insemination
sen-
old man
Latin
senex, senis
senator, senility
sen-
six each
Latin
seni
senary
senti-, sens-
feel
Latin
sentire, sensus
consensus, sentient
sept-
fence, partition, enclosure
Latin
saeptum
transept
sept-
seven
Latin
septem
septennial
septen-
seven each
Latin
septeni
septenary
septim-
seventh
Latin
septimus
septimal, septime
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
29
septuagen-
seventy each
Latin
septuageni
septuagenary
septuagesim-
seventieth
Latin
septuagesimus
septuagesima, septuagesimal
septuagint-
seventy
Latin
septuaginta
Septuagint
sequ-, secut-
follow
Latin
sequere, secutus
consecutive, sequence
ser-, sat-
cultivate
Latin
serere, satus
sative
ser-
body fluid
Latin
serum
serous
ser-
late
Latin
serus
serein, serotine
serp-
crawl, creep
Latin
serpere, serptus
serpent
serr-
saw, saw-toothed
Latin
serra, serrare
serration
serv-
save, protect, serve
Latin
servare
conservation
sesqui-
one and a half
Latin
sesqui
sesquicentennial
set-
bristle, hair
Latin
saeta
seta, setose
sever-
stern, strict, serious
Latin
severus
severity
sex-, se-
six
Latin
sex
semester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen-
sixty each
Latin
sexageni
sexagenary
sexagesim-
sixtieth
Latin
sexagesimus
sexagesimal
sext-
sixth
Latin
sextus
sextant
sibil-
hiss
Latin
sibilus, sibilare
sibilance
sicc-
dry
Latin
siccus
desiccation
sider-
star
Latin
sidus, sideris
sidereal
sign-
sign
Latin
signum
design, designate, signal
sil-
quiet or still
Latin
silere
silence
silv(i)-
forest
Latin
silva
silviculture
simi-
ape, monkey
Latin
simia
simian
simil-
likeness, trust, group
Latin
similis
assimilate, similarity
simul-
imitating, feigning
Latin
simulare
simulation
singul-
one each
Latin
singulus
singular
sinistr-
left
Latin
sinister, sinistri
sinistral
sinu-
(to draw) a line
Latin
sinuare
insinuate
sinus-
hollow, bay
Latin
sinus
siph(o)-
tube
Greek
σίφων (siphōn)
siphon
sist-
cause to stand
Latin
sistere
consist, persistence
sit-
food, grain, wheat
Greek
σῖτος (sitos)
sitology
soci-
group
Latin
socius, sociare
associate, social
sol-
sun
Latin
sol, solis
solar
sol-
comfort, soothe
Latin
solari
consolation, solace
sol-
alone, only
Latin
solus
desolate, sole, solo, solipsism
solen-
pipe, channel
Greek
σωλήν (sōlēn)
solenoid
solv-, solut-
loosen, set free
Latin
solvere, solutus
dissolve, solution
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
30
soma-
body
Greek
σῶμα, σώματος (sōma,
sōmatos)
somatic
somn-
sleep
Latin
somnus
insomnia
somni-
dream
Latin
somnium
son-
sound
Latin
sonus
resonance
soph-
wise
Greek
σοφός (sophos)
sophist
sorb-, sorpt-
suck
Latin
sorbere
absorb, absorption
sord-
dirt
Latin
sordes, sordere
sordid
soror-
sister
Latin
soror
sorority
spati-
space
Latin
spatium
spatial
spec-, -spic-, spect-
look
Latin
specere
conspicuous, inspection, specimen
spect-
watch, look at
Latin
spectare
spectator
specul-
observe
Latin
speculari
speculation
sper-
hope
Latin
spes, sperare
desperation, esperance
sperm-
seed
Greek
σπέρμα (sperma)
angiosperm
sphen-
wedge
Greek
σφήν (sphēn)
spher-
ball
Greek
σφαῖρα (sphaira)
sphere, spheroid
sphinct-
closing
Greek
σφίγγα
sphincter
spic-
spike
Latin
spica
spicule
spin-
thorn
Latin
spina
spine
spir-
breathe
Latin
spirare
respiration
spond-, spons-
a surety, guarantee; give
assurance, promise solemnly
Latin
spondere, sponsus
respond
spondyl-
vertebra
spu-, sput-
spew, spit
Latin
spuere
sputum
squal-
scaly, dirty, filthy
Latin
squalere
squalid, squalor
squam-
scale
Latin
squama
squamous
squarros-
spreading at tips
Latin
st-
stand
Latin
stare, status
stable, station, statistic, statue, status
stagn-
pool of standing water
Latin
stagnare
stagnant
stalact-
Greek
σταλακτίτης (stalaktitēs)
stalactite
stalagm-
Greek
σταλαγμός (stalagmos)
stalagmite
stann-
tin
Latin
stannum
stannous
statu-, -stitu-
stand
Latin
statuere
institution, statute
stea-
fat, tallow
Greek
στέαρ, στέατος (stear,
steatos)
stearic acid
steg-
covering
Greek
stell-
star
Latin
stella
constellation, stellar
sten-
narrow
Greek
στενός (stenos)
stenography
stere-
solid
Greek
στερεός (stereos)
steganography
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
31
stern-, strat-
spread, strew
Latin
sternere, stratus
stratify
stern-
breastbone
Greek
στέρνον (sternon)
sternum
stich-
line, row
Greek
στίχος (stichos)
Greek
στίγμα (stigma)
stigma
stigstill-
drip
Latin
stilla, stillare
distillation
stimul-
goad, rouse, excite
Latin
stimulus
stimulate
stingu-, stinct-
apart
Latin
stinguere
distinction, distinguish
stoch-
aim
Greek
στόχος
stochastic
stom-
mouth
Greek
στόμα (stoma)
stomatoplasty
strept-
twisted
Greek
στρεπτός (streptos)
strig-
compress
Latin
strix, strigis
strigogyps
strigos-
having stiff bristles
Latin
string-, strict-
upright, stiff
Latin
stringere, strictus
stringent
stroph-
turning
Greek
στροφή (strophē)
apostrophe
stru-, struct-
to make up, build
Latin
struere, structus
construction, construe
stud-
dedication
Latin
studere
student
stup-
wonder
Latin
stupere
stupor
styl-
column, pillar
Greek
στῦλος (stulos)
stylus
su-, sut-
sew
Latin
suere, sutus
suture
sui-
self
Latin
sui
sui generis, suicide
suad-, suas-
urge
Latin
suadere, suasus
persuasion
suav-
sweet
Latin
suavis
suave
sub-, su-, suf-, sug-,
sus-
below
Latin
sub
submerge, suffix, suggest
subter-
under
Latin
subter
subterfuge
sucr-
sugar
Latin
sud-
sweat
Latin
sudare
sudoriferous
sulc-
furrow
Latin
sulcus
sulcus
sum-, sumpt-
take
Latin
sumere, sumptus
assumption, consume
super-
above, over
Latin
super
supersede
supin-
lying back
Latin
supinus
supination
supra-
above, over
Latin
supra
supranationalism
surd-
deaf
Latin
surdus
absurdity
surg-
rise
Latin
surgere
resurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym-
with
Greek
σύν (sun)
symbol, symmetry, sympathy,
synchronous, synonym, system
syring-
pipe
Greek
σύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringe
syringos)
sucrose
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
32
T
Root
Meaning in English Origin language
Etymology (root origin)
English examples
tac-, -tic-
be silent
Latin
tacere, tacitus
reticent, tacit
tach-
swift
Greek
ταχύς (tachus)
tachometer, tachycardia
taeni-
ribbon
Greek
ταινία (tainia)
taenidium, taeniodont, Taeniolabis
tal-
ankle
Latin
talus
talus bone
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag- touch
Latin
tangere, tactus
contact, tactile, tangent
tapet-
carpet
Latin
tapete, tapetis
tapestry, tapetum, tapis
tard-
slow
Latin
tardus
retard, tardigrade, tardy
tars-
ankle
Greek
ταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket)
tarsal
taur-
bull
Greek
ταῦρος (tauros)
Minotaur
taur-
bull
Latin
taurus
Taurus
tax-
arrangement, order
Greek
τάξις (taxis)
taxonomy
techn-
art, skill
Greek
τέχνη (technē)
technology
teg-, tect-
cover
Latin
tegere, tectus
integument, protection
tele-
far, end
Greek
τῆλε (tēle)
telegram, telephone, telescope
tele-
complete
Greek
τέλος (telos)
teleology
temn-
cut
Greek
τέμνω (temnō)
Temnospondyli
tempor-
time
Latin
tempus, temporis
contemporary, temporal, temporary
ten-, -tin-, tent-
hold
Latin
tenere, tentus
continent, detention, tenacious, tenor
tend-, tens-
stretch, strain
Latin
tendere, tensus
extend, extension
tenu-
slender, thin
Latin
tenuis
attenuate, tenuous
tep-
be warm
Latin
tepere
tepid, tepor
ter-, trit-
rub
Latin
terere, tritus
attrition, contrite, detritus, trite
teret-
rounded
Latin
teres, teretis
subterete, teretial
terg-, ters-
wipe
Latin
tergere, tersus
detergent, terse
termin-
boundary, limit, end Latin
terminus
determine, terminal, termination
tern-
three each
Latin
terni
ternary, ternion
terr-
dry land
Latin
terra
subterranean, terrace, terracotta, terrain
terti-
third
Latin
tertius
tertian, tertiary
test-
witness
Latin
testis
testament, testimony
tetr-
four
Greek
τέσσαρες (tessares)
tetrahedron, tetrode
tex-, text-
weave
Latin
texere, textus
context, texture, textile
thalam-
chamber, bed
Greek
θάλαμος (thalamos)
thalass-
sea
Greek
θάλασσα (thalassa)
Panthalassa
than-
death
Greek
θάνατος (thanatos)
euthanasia
the-, thus-
god
Greek
θεός (theos)
enthusiasm, theology
the-
put
Greek
τίθημι (tithēmi), θήκη (thēkē) Bibliotheca, theca, theme, thesis
Greek
θηλή (thēlē)
thel-
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
33
theori-
speculation
Greek
θεωρία (theōria)
theorem, theory
ther-
beast, animal
Greek
θήρ, θηρός (thēr)
theroid, theropod
therm-
heat, warm
Greek
θερμός (thermos)
endotherm, thermometer
thym-
mood
Greek
θυμός (thumos)
dysthymia
thyr-
door
Greek
θύρα (thura)
thyratron
thyre-
large shield
Greek
θυρεός (thureos)
Thyreophora, thyroid, thyrotropin, thyroxine
tim-
be afraid
Latin
timere
timid, timorous
ting-, tinct-
moisten
Latin
tingere, tinctus
tincture
tom-
cut
Greek
τομή (tome), τόμος (tomos)
ectomy, atom, tome
ton-
stretch
Greek
τόνος (tonos)
isotonic, monotone, tone
top-
place
Greek
τόπος (topos)
topic, topography
torn-
cut
Latin from Greek tornare < τόρνος (tornos)
torpe-
numb
Latin
torpere
torpent, torpid, torpor
torqu-, tort-
twist
Latin
torquere, tortus
extortion, torque, torture
tot-
all, whole
Latin
totus
subtotal, total, totality
tox-
arrow, bow
Greek
τόξον (toxon)
trab-
beam
Latin
trabs, trabis
trabeculae
trachy-
rough
Greek
τραχύς (trachus)
trachea
trag-
goat
Greek
τράγος (tragos)
tragus
trah-, tract-
draw, pull
Latin
trahere, tractus
subtrahend, tractor
trans-, tra-, tran-
across
Latin
trans
tradition, transcend, transportation
trapez-
four-sided, table
Greek
τράπεζα (trapeza)
trapezius, trapezoid
traum-
wound
Greek
τραῦμα (trauma)
trauma, traumatic
trecent-
three hundred
Latin
trecenti
trecentennial, trecentillion
tredec-
thirteen
Latin
tredecim
tredecimal
treiskaidek-
thirteen
Greek
τρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaideka)
triskaidekaphobia
trem-
tremble
Latin
tremere
tremor
trema-
hole
Greek
τρῆμα (trēma)
trematode
tri-
three
Greek
τρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria)
triad, trigon, triode, tripod
tri-
three
Latin
trēs
triangle, triumvirate, trivia
tricen-
thirty each
Latin
triceni
tricenary
tricesim-, trigesim-
thirtieth
Latin
tricesimus
trigesimal
trich-
hair
Greek
θρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos)
peritrichous, trichopathophobia, Trichoptera
trin-
three each
Latin
trini
trinary, trine, trinity
trit-
third
Greek
τρίτος (tritos)
tritagonist
troch-
wheel
Greek
τροχός (trochos)
trochlea
trop-
turning
Greek
τρόπος (tropos)
heliotropism, psychotropic, tropic
troph-
feed, grow
Greek
τροφή, τροφός (trophos)
dystrophy, pogonotrophy, trophic
trud-, trus-
thrust
Latin
trudere, trusus
extrusion, intrude
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
34
tuss-
cough
Latin
tussis, tussire
pertussis
tympan-
drum
Greek
τύμπανον (tumpanon)
tympani
typ-
stamp, model
Greek
τύπος (tupos)
archetype, phenotype, typography
U
Root
V
Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin)
English examples
uber-
fruitful
Latin
uber, uberare
exuberant
uligin-
in marshes
Latin
uligo, uliginis
uliginous
ulo-
wooly
Greek
ultim-
farthest
Latin
ultimus
ultimatum, ultimate
ultra-
beyond
Latin
ultra
ultrasonic
umbilic-
navel
Latin
umbilicus
umbilical
umbr-
shade, shadow
Latin
umbra
penumbra, umbrella
un-
one
Latin
unus, unius
unary, unicorn, union
unc-
hooked
Latin
uncus
uncinate
unci-
ounce, twelfth
Latin
uncia
uncial
und-
wave
Latin
unda
abundant, undulate
undecim- eleventh
Latin
undecimus
undecimal
unden-
eleven each
Latin
undeni
undenary
ungui-
claw, nail
Latin
unguis
ungul-
claw, hoof
Latin
ungula
ungulate
ur-, uro-
tail
Greek
οὐρά (oura)
uroid, uroborus
ur-, uro-
urine
Greek
οὖρον (ouron)
urology
urb-
city
Latin
urbs, urbis
urban, urbanize, suburbanite, urbanism
urg-
work
Latin
urgere
urgent
urs-
bear
Latin
ursus
Ursa Major, ursine
ut-, us-
use
Latin
uti, usus
usual, utility
uv-
grape
Latin
uva
uvea
uxor-
wife
Latin
uxor
uxoricide
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
Root
Meaning in English
35
Origin language Etymology (root origin)
English examples
vac-
empty
Latin
vacare
vacancy, vacation, vacuum
vad-, vas-
go
Latin
vadere
evade, pervasive
vag-
wander
Latin
vagus, vagare
vagabond, vague
van-
empty, vain, idle
Latin
vanus
vanity
vap-
lack (of)
Latin
vapor
evaporation, vapid, vaporize
veh-, vect-
carry
Latin
vehere, vectus
vehicle, vector
vel-
veil
Latin
velum
revelation, velate
vell-, vuls-
pull
Latin
vellere, vulsus
convulsion
veloc-
quick
Latin
velox, velocis
velocity
ven-
vein
Latin
vena
venosity
ven-
hunt
Latin
venari
venison
ven-, vent-
come
Latin
venire
advent, convention
vend-
sell
Latin
vendere
vendor, vending
vener-
respectful
Latin
venus
veneration, venereal
vent-
wind
Latin
ventus
ventilation
ventr-
belly
Latin
venter
ventral
ver-
true
Latin
verus
aver, veracious, verify, verisimilitude, verity
verb-
word
Latin
verbum
verbal, verbatim, verbosity
verber-
whip
Latin
verber
reverberation
verm-
worm
Latin
vermis
vermiform
vern-
spring
Latin
ver, vernus
vernal
vert-, vers-
turn
Latin
vertere, versus
convert, inversion, invert, vertical
vesic-
bladder
Latin
vesica
vesical
vesper-
evening, western
Latin
vespera
vesperal
vest-
clothe, garment
Latin
vestis
divest, vest
vestig-
track
Latin
vestigium
investigate
vet-
forbid
Latin
vetare
veto
veter-
old
Latin
vetus, veteris
inveterate, veteran
vi-
way
Latin
via
deviate, obvious, via
vic-
change
Latin
vicis
vice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen-
twenty
Latin
viceni
vicenary
vicesim-, vigesim- twentieth
Latin
vicesimus
vicesimary, vicesimation, vigesimal
vid-, vis-
see
Latin
videre, visus
video, vision
vil-
cheap
Latin
vilis
vile, vilify
vill-
shaggy hair, velvet
Latin
villus
villiform
vin-
wine
Latin
vinum
vinous
vinc-, vict-
conquer
Latin
vincere, victus
invincible, victory
vir-
man
Latin
vir
virility
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
36
vir-
green
Latin
virere
virid, viridian
visc-
thick
Latin
viscum
viscosity
viscer-
organs of the body cavity Latin
viscus, visceris
eviscerate, visceral
vit-
life
Latin
vita
vital, vitamin
vitell-
yolk
Latin
vitellus
vitellogenesis
viti-
fault
Latin
vitium
vice, vitiate
vitr-
glass
Latin
vitrum
vitreous
viv-
live
Latin
vivere
revive, survive, vivid
voc-
voice
Latin
vox, vocis
provocative, vocal, vocation
vol-
fly
Latin
volare
volatility
vol-
wish
Latin
velle
volition
volv-, volut-
roll
Latin
volvere, volutus
convolution, revolve
vom-
discharge
Latin
vomere
vomit
vor-, vorac-
swallow
Latin
vorare, vorax
devour, voracious
vov-, vot-
vow
Latin
vovere, votus
votive
vulg-
common, crowd
Latin
vulgus
divulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner-
wound
Latin
vulnus, vulneris
vulnerable
vulp-
fox
Latin
vulpes, vulpis
vulpine
X
Root
Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin)
English examples
xanth- yellow
Greek
ξάνθος (xanthos)
xanthogenic
xen-
foreign
Greek
ξένος (xenos)
xenophobia
xer-
dry
Greek
ξηρός (xēros)
xerography, xerophyte
xiph-
sword
Greek
ξίφος (xiphos)
xiphoid
xyl-
wood
Greek
ξύλον (xulon)
xylem, xylophone
Z
Root Meaning in English Origin language Etymology (root origin)
English examples
zo-
animal, living being
Greek
ζῷον (zōion)
protozoa, zoo, zoology
zon-
belt, girdle
Greek
ζώνη (zōnē)
zone
zyg-
yoke
Greek
ζυγός (zugon)
heterozygous, zygote
Greek
ζύμη (zumē)
enzyme, lysozyme
zym- ferment
List of Greek and Latin roots in English
References
[1] "phalaros" in LSJ (http:/ / archimedes. mpiwg-berlin. mpg. de/ cgi-bin/ archim/ dict/ hw?lemma=fa/ la_ros& step=entry& id=d004)
External links
• Root Word Dictionary (http://www.macroevolution.net/root-word-dictionary.html)
• List of Latin Derivatives (http://web.archive.org/web/20070823220828/http://cdsjcl.f2g.net/derivatives.
html)
• Greek and Latin roots (http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/courses.hp/zool250/Roots/roots.A-C.htm)
• Database of Latin Dictionaries (http://www.brepols.net/publishers/pdf/Brepolis_DLD_manual_en.pdf)
37
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
List of Greek and Latin roots in English Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=516380353 Contributors: 12 Noon, 12mmclean, [email protected],
2602:306:CCC5:DFB0:3494:6B18:D8FA:36B7, 28421u2232nfenfcenc, 28bytes, 2D, A little insignificant, A p3rson, A520, Acather96, Aeasterw, Aesopos, After Midnight, Aizquier, Al-jeraiwy,
Alan Liefting, Alansohn, Allens, Altzinn, Alvestrand, AndreasJS, AndrewHowse, Andycjp, Animum, Antonielly, Arjun G. Menon, Arpgme, Art LaPella, Arthena, Aruton, Asclepius, Asterion,
Auntof6, Austin Martin, Authraw, Awxdotcom, B, B.d.mills, BD2412, Barticus88, Bassdownunder, Bavaria72, Belovedfreak, Biglovinb, Bill, Bobo192, Boing! said Zebedee, Bped1985,
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Cocheese805, Coffee, Cometstyles, Cxz111, Cyguy5, Cynwolfe, DA3N, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DBigXray, DDuea, DRosenbach, Damascity, Danaman5, Danielletardis, Danielsavoiu, Darklilac,
Darknobility759, Darn6766, Dewritech, Dimboukas, Dougofborg, Download, Dreadstar, Dspratomo, EagleFan, Eekerz, El C, Electriccatfish2, Engineer Bob, Equendil, Eslifer, EthanAlvaree,
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GeneralAtrocity, Geoff Wing, Georgialways, Glacialfox, Glane23, GoingBatty, Grafen, Gurch, H bar2, Hans-Friedrich Tamke, Huttarl, Hydrogen Iodide, I a m pp, Ian Pitchford, Insanity
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Medalon M17, Michael Devore, Michael Hardy, MikeVitale, Mild Bill Hiccup, Minimac's Clone, Misterkeith, Mofus, Monterey Bay, Mrug2, Muhandes, Mvonstein, Naufana, NawlinWiki,
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