• Cognitive theories try to get inside the mind of the child and
to propose the types of mental structures and thinking
processes that may be taking place.
• It was important to open the ‘black box’ of the human mind
in order to understand how people came to learn.
• Learning by thinking about and trying to make sense of what
you see, feel and hear.
• The learner as an active processor of information
P.A. Ertmer and T.J. Newby. (2013). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing, Critical Features From an Instructional Design
Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly. 2 6 ( 2 ) PP. 43 – 71 .
building block of knowledge
use current schemes to interpret the external
world (equilibrium)
adjust old schemes to better fit environtment
4 Stages of Cognitive Development
Piagetian View of Cognitive and Language Development
Vygotskyan View of Cognitive and Language Development
Interaction with the
world and with others
Changing Relationship between Cognitive Development and Language
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Implication for teaching
Use verbs aligned to the taxonomy to plan lessons that would
that learners’ cognitive skills
from LOTS to HOTS
Attention should be given to:
• The need to organize and
structure meaningful
learning activities.
• The requirements of the
task must be appropriate to
the developmental stage
(Piaget, Bruner) and allow
for the development of
HOTS (Bloom)
• Children will provide different explanations of reality
at different stage of cognitive develoment.
• Learning material and activities should involve the
appropriate level of motor or mental operation for a
child; avoid asking students to performs tasks that
are beyond their level cognitive capabilities.
• Use teaching methods which actively involve
students and present challenges.
Basic teaching techniques associated with
a cognitive theory of language learning
Problem based learning (problem solving),
Discovery learning,
Cognitive strategies,
Project based learning, etc
Suharno. Cognitivism and Its Implication Inteaching Second Language Learning. Parole. Vol. 1 Oktober 2010