PROTEIN RICH CONCENTERATES FOR RUMINANTS PROTEINACEOUS CONCENTERATES “ The feed stuffs, rich in terms of crude protein, low in fiber and highly digestible.” IMPORTANCE IN THE RUMINANTS’ DIET Protein concentrates play a very important role in the ruminant diet in satisfying their protein requirement. As protein is an essential component of both meat and milk production. A dairy Cow producing 10 liters of milk a day, utilizes about 400g of protein, this requirement can be fulfilled by providing protein rich concentrates in the diet. Protein concentrates are also important for the better utilization of roughages. Since they provide degradable protein to the rumen microbes. This, in turn, increases the intake and digestibility of roughages. Different sources of protein concentrates provide rumen undegradable protein to the ruminants, which result in the increased production of meat and milk. TYPES OF PROTEIN CONCENTRATES Oil Seed Cakes Plant Origin Oil Seed Meals Protein Concentrates Animal Origin Blood Meal, Bone Meal etc There are different resources of protein concentrates of plant as well as animal origin in Pakistan. But only the concentrates of plant origin are conventionally used. PROTEIN CONCENTRATES OF PLANT ORIGIN IN PAKISTAN They are mostly the byproducts of oil extraction industry, e.g Oil Seed Cakes, Oil Seed Meals and Maize gluten feed, Maize gluten meal, etc. A large area of Pakistan is utilized in the cultivation of these crops, hence it possess huge resources of their byproducts. OIL SEED CAKES Oil Cakes are produced when oil is extracted mechanically from the seed. They include Cotton Seed Cake, Mustard Seed Cake, Maize Oil Cake, Linseed Cake, Soya Bean Cake etc. Among available oil cakes, Cotton Seed Cake and Maize Oil Cakes have high protein values for ruminants, due to their low ruminal degradability, as compared to the mustard seed cake which is highly degradable. COTTON SEED CAKE MAIZE OIL CAKE COTTON SEED CAKE Cotton seed cake is an excellent protein supplement for ruminants, as it provides 25% crude protein that is almost utilized by the animal. Research also shows, highest milk yield and increased milk fat % can be achieved by feeding the cows on CSC. Economically, it is among the least cost protein concentrate in our country. LIMITATIONS:- Cotton seed cake due to its gossypol content is restricted in the ruminant diet up to a limit. It can be safely included up to 15% in the diet of cattle or Buffalos. More than that can affect the reproductive performance of ruminants. Calves are susceptible to the gossypol toxicity because of their incomplete rumen development. It is recommended that concentrates for calves under 5 months old contain not more than 10% cotton seed cake. MAIZE OIL CAKE Maize cake similar to the cotton seed cake has high protein values for ruminants, it provides 15-18% crude protein & 10-12% fat. It is also rich in other nutrients. ADVANTAGES Increases the milk fat % Contains vitamin E which is highly beneficial in the reproductive process of ruminants. (Generally other cakes are deficient in vitamin E). It has good digestibility as crude fiber content is only 8-10%. Increases animal health and resistance power against diseases. OIL SEED MEALS Oilseed meals are the byproducts of solvent extraction process. E.g Soyabean meal, cottonseed meal, corn gluten meal, sunflower seed meal, rapeseed meal etc. Compared to the oil seed cakes, oil meals are high in protein and low in residual fat. Oilseed meals such as soyabean meal and cottonseed meal are commonly used as a protein supplement in beef, dairy and sheep diets. SOYABEAN MEAL Soyabean meal represents more than 50% of total oil seed meal production in the world. It’s a high quality protein feed, with high energy content and also rich in bypass protein. It contains 44% crude protein with all indispensable amino acids except cystein and methionine. It can be fed to all ruminants up to 30% of the ration. LIMITATIONS:- Soyabean meal contains 0.6% saponins, an anti-nutritional factor that can lead to systemic illness in the animals. More than 30% soybean meal in the diet of cattle may lead to systemic toxicity. Soyabean meal is processed by several ways to reduce its saponin level. SOYBEAN MEAL RAPESEED MEAL RAPESEED MEAL Rapeseed meal is a high protein containing feed, that is widely used for ruminants. Worldwide production of rapeseed meal is second only to soybean meal. It possesses 34% CP that is mostly rumen degradeable; however, it also contains 12% crude fiber. LIMITATIONS:- Rapeseed meal due to its high levels of anti-nutritional factors, is restricted in the diet of ruminants. These factors include glucosinolates, erucic acid (toxic), tannins and phytic acid. Glucosinolates due to their pungent taste, reduces palatability of the feed. Therefore inclusion is limited up to 2kg.