educ - week -07 LEARN

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Sherfield and Moody Cornerstones
Topic: Learn
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
1
What is Learning?
• A cognitive mental action
• Can be conscious and/or unconscious
• Can be formal or informal
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
2
Historical Learning Theories
• Socratic method (Socrates):
– Learning by Asking questions
• Dialectic method (Plato):
– Learning by dialouge
• Active learning (Lao-Tse):
– Experience-based learning
• Case study (Confucius):
– Storytelling and discussion
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
3
Historical Learning Theories
(cont’d.)
• Sensory learning (Locke):
– Our five senses fill our “blank slate”
• Learning styles (Rousseau):
– Learning should follow our basic instincts, feelings
• Behaviorism (Watson):
– Learning through conditioned response
• Holistic learning (Piaget):
– Learning through experiencing a variety of stimuli
• Mastery learning (Bloom):
– Transforming information to new, complex ideas
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
4
The Learning Process
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Motivation to learn the material
Understanding the material
Internalize the material
Apply the material
Evaluate the material
Use the material to grow and change
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
5
Three Ways to Determine How You
Learn
• What are your dominant intelligences?
• What is your learning style?
• What is your personality type?
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
6
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
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Professor Howard Gardner (1983)
Eight intelligences everyone possesses
Not equal to traditional I.Q. measurement
Dominant intelligences are more welldeveloped
• Other intelligences less-developed
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
7
Eight Areas of Intelligence
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Visual/spatial – “picture smart”
Verbal/linguistic – “word smart”
Musical/rhythmic – “music smart”
Logical/mathematical – “number smart”
Body/kinesthetic – “body smart”
Interpersonal – “people smart”
Intrapersonal – “self smart”
Naturalistic – “environment smart”
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
8
Learning Styles Theory
• How do you best process information?
• Three styles:
• Visual – “eye smart”
• Auditory – “ear smart”
• Tactile/kinestetic – “action smart”
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
9
Keeping it all Straight
• Learning style = how you best process
information
• Learning strategy = how you choose to study
• Dominant intelligence = well-developed
aspect of intelligence
• Personality type = your preferences and
patterns
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
10
Personality Typing
• Carl Jung (1921) and Isabell Briggs-Myers and
Kathernine Briggs (1942)
• Human behavior is not random and patterns
are caused by individual motivation and
energies
• Four major categories of personality
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
11
How Do You Draw Your Energy?
• Extroverts (E)– draw strength others and
prefer to live in the outside world. Outgoing
and love interaction and being the center of
attention
• Introverts (I) – draw strength from their inner
world. Need alone time to energize. Often
quiet and reflective. Make decisions by
themselves and are private
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
12
How Do You Best Learn
Information?
• Sensers (S) – gather information through five
senses. Like concrete facts and details. Have
common sense. Focused on “what is”
• Intuitives (N) – not as detail-oriented. Rely on
gut feelings. Innovative and see possibilities.
Focused on “what could be”
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
13
How Do You Make Decisions?
• Thinkers (T) – logical people. Analytical and do
not make decisions based on emotion. Can
sometimes be seen as insensitive and lacking
compassion. Make decisions with head v.
heart
• Feelers (F) – like harmony and consider others’
opinions and feelings. Usually tactful and
warm. Make decisions with heart v. head
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
14
How Do You Prefer to Live Your
Life?
• Judgers (J) – orderly people who prefer
structure in their lives. Good at setting goals
and sticking to them. Work before play.
• Perceivers (P) – less structured and more
spontaneous. Overextend themselves and do
not like timelines. Play before work.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
15
Sixteen Personality Types
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ISTJ – “the dutiful”
ISFJ – “the nurturer”
INFJ – “the protector”
INTJ – “the scientist”
ISTP – “the mechanic”
ISFP – “the artist”
INFP – “the idealist”
INTP – “the thinker”
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ESTP – “the thinker”
ESFP – “the performer”
ENFP – “The inspirer”
ENTP – “the visionary”
ESTJ – “the guardian”
ESFJ – “the caregiver”
ENFJ – “the giver”
ENTJ – “the executive”
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
16
Topic Reflections
• Get involved in a variety of learning and social
situations
• Use your less dominant areas in order to strengthen
them
• Read more about personality typing and learning styles
• Surround yourself with others who learn differently
than you
• Try new ways of learning and studying
• Remember that inventories do not measure your worth
as an individual or student
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
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