Land agent whose job is to bring in new settlers to the area Often, empresarios encouraged Anglos (white Americans whose ancestors come from England) to come to Texas.
1820-First Anglo American to secure permission from Spain to bring American settlers to Texas.
Because he lived in present-day Missouri when Spain controlled Louisiana in 1798, he was familiar with Spanish laws and regulations.
When a depression hits his home, he sets out for Texas to meet with Spanish governor Antonio Martinez.
He wants to get a contract that will allow him to start a colony and bring 300 families to Texas.
At first, his request is denied.
Then, his request is approved.
Unfortunately, he catches pneumonia while preparing for the colony.
Austin dies on June 10, 1821.
His dying wish is for his son, Stephen, to carry out plans for settling Texas.
“Father of Texas” Founded the first Anglo American colony in Texas Possessed the strength of character that allowed him to set up his father’s colony
Wants to set up colony between the Colorado River and the Brazos River Fertile soil Mild climate Abundant water Strict guidelines for colonists “no drunkard, no gambler, no profane swearer, no idler” would be allowed
Austin surveys, or measures, the land.
Wants to sell land for 12.5 cents per acre (cheap) A man will receive land for: Himself-640 acres Wife-320 acres Each child-160 acres Each slave-80 acres
Are attracted to Texas because of low land prices and good farmland MUST become citizens of their new country and take oaths of allegiance to Spain-and them Mexico MUST become Catholic and have good moral character Jared E. Groce is wealthiest of the new colonists.
March 1822-Austin travels to San Antonio to report of his colony’s progress He learns that Mexico has won its independence from Spain.
Under the new Mexican laws, his right to colonize Texas is not recognized.
He travels to Mexico City to solve the problem.
Unorganized Many Americans are seeking colonies in Texas Skeptical of Austin’s desire to start a new colony
Under this law, Austin receives a contract.
Families who raise livestock and farm will receive 4,605 acres of land.
The Mexican government is convinced of Austin’s loyalty, honesty, and sincerity and believe he will be a loyal Mexican citizen.
In turn, Austin learns Spanish, meets important leaders, and learns about Mexican customs.
Mexican emperor Augustin de Iturbide is overthrown in 1823 A new constitution is written Texas and the Mexican state Coahuila become one state Coahuila y Tejas
Austin returns his colony and issues land titles to 297 families.
“Old Three Hundred” Families choose land plots in fertile areas along the Brazos, Colorado, and San Jacinto Rivers, as well as Oyster Creek and Buffalo Bayou (Fort Bend and Houston) Capital of Austin’s colony is San Felipe de Austin (Sealy)
Many of the Old Three Hundred settle around this area!
Shipwreck in 1821 with some of the original settlers Drought Land disputes Conflict with Karankawas and Tonkawas Adjusting to laws of Mexican government
Jane Long (wife of James Long) Aylett Buckner (Gutierrez-Magee expedition) R.M. Williamson-uses a wooden log to support his weight Mary Crownover Rabb Rebekah Cumings Thomas Pilgrim-opens a school
The city of Richmond sits on land granted to Jane Long.
Opened a boarding house in Fort Bend county
Austin receives more contracts to bring settlers to Texas.
His colonies remain successful.
Ability to deal successfully with Mexican authorities He speaks Spanish.
His colonists had little difficulty getting land titles.
His militia made the Natives less of a threat.
His contracts included land with fertile soil.
Empresario from Missouri Most successful after Austin 1825-brings 400 families to Texas His colony is west of Austin’s colony Town of Gonzales is headquarter Native American raids slow early growth of colony
Mexican horseman and rancher Settles along the Guadalupe River Establishes Victoria Despite Native American raids, colonists prosper by farming and ranching
From Ireland Settle Irish immigrants along the Gulf Coast Establish the town of Refugio
Establish a second colony of Irish immigrants at San Patricio Every year on St. Patrick’s Day, the citizens of San Patricio hold a two-day fair.
Encouraged German immigrants to come to Texas Large German influence today in Kelberg, Warrenburg, New Braunfels, and Fredericksburg
German for “slippery road”
David Burnet and Lorenzo de Zavala-later became involved in Texas independence movement Complete the Empresario chart at the end of your notes!
Record where the empresario is from, where they settled, who settled there, and a unique fact.
You may need to use pages 172-179 in the textbook.
Imperial Colonization Law recognized slavery BUT outlawed slave trading.
Slavery was a fact of life in Texas but did not exist to the extent of slavery in the South.
There were free African Americans living in Texas.
Life was difficult for women Worked alongside men Building houses Tending livestock Held few rights Could not vote Could not serve on jury Could not hold public office However, Jane McManus was an empresario.
Not provided by Mexican government Educating children was left to the colonists Some sent their children to the United States for school Thomas Pilgrim opened the first school in San Felipe de Austin Frances Trask opened the first school for girls