History final 1 – notes – manifest destiny

History final 1 – notes – manifest destiny
How were the rationalizations of Manifest Destiny rooted in the early (Colonial) years
of our country?
In your opinion was Manifest Destiny accomplished peacefully or not?
NO it was not achieved nor accomplished peacefully
North – Oregon from British – treaty
War with Spaniards – over letting in Anglo- Americans
War with Mexico
1. Annex of Texas 1845
 Mexican- American war begins 1846 (– 1848)
 1st battle Paolo alto
 1848 A peace agreement U.S. to pay Mexico $15 million dollars in receipt of
California and New Mexico, the Rio Grande as the Texan border, and the right
for Mexicans in those territories to become U.S. citizens was made.
Unnecessary bloodshed and many deaths
Were the results of Manifest Destiny worth the collateral damage suffered by nonAmericans?
In my opinion no it was not worth it, they could have made a peace treaty or worked around not having
many battles and loss of many lives over land
All of the native Americans’ did not ‘fit’ in the white man’s world, nor did they fit into the definition of
manifest destiny …it in a sense left them homeless And did not own the land where they lived.
Santa -fe and Oregon trail
Tejas revolution..political consequences
Election of 1840
2 party political system
Whigs : North (conscience) vs. south (cotton) vs. democrats
John Tyler became president in 1841
John O Sullivan - made up this term which caused controversy
Economic growth - wealth measured by land ownership
Political - country was united until manD finished then the country fell apart because of
sectional differences
o Rasism and classing Mexicans as white, native Americans
History final 1 – notes – manifest destiny
James Polk presidency 1845-1849
o Oregon territory (54o 50o)- treaty in 1846
o Independent treasury system
o US war with Mexico - Guadeloupe- Hidalgo treaty 15 mill in exchange for 55% of their
 Destabilized the political and economy of Mexico
 Racism n calling them Mexicans 'white American' when they were mixed
1. The war officially began over a border dispute in what is now south Texas, but President James K. Polk had a
larger goal in mind – the acquisition of Mexico’s northern territories of Alta California and Nuevo México.
2. President Polk initially planned a limited war, but Mexico’s stubborn refusal to part with its northern territories
led to a decision to invade and conquer Mexico City.
3. Mexico lost 55% of its territory to the United States between 1836 and 1848.
4. The U.S. Army won every major battle in the war, but it was unable to suppress guerrilla activity, which never
ceased. This was America’s first counter-insurgency war in a foreign country.
5. Mexicans civilians suffered from the U.S. occupation, whether from personal violence, extended anti-guerrilla
operations, bombardment of cities, or the imposition of martial law. U.S. military forces remained in Mexico
from May 1846 until July 1848.
6. Of the 90,000 U.S. soldiers who served in Mexico, nearly 14,000 died, a death rate of 15.5% – the highest rate
of any foreign war in U.S. history.
7. Regarding the causes of death, one U.S. soldier in seven died in battle or from battle wounds; six in seven died
from disease, accidents, or other causes.
8. Among those who believed that the war was unnecessary and/or unjust were former president John Quincy
Adams, future presidents Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant, former vice-president John C. Calhoun, and
three-time presidential candidate Henry Clay.
9. In April 1847, the Massachusetts legislature passed a resolution denouncing the war as “a gigantic crime”
waged against a “weak neighbor” for the purposes of conquest, territorial aggrandizement, and the extension of
10. On January 3, 1848, the House of Representatives passed a resolution stating that “the war was unnecessarily
and unconstitutionally commenced by the president.”
11. In contrast to the antiwar movement, the All of Mexico movement that arose in 1847 wanted to annex all of
Mexico to the United States. President Polk was inclined to seek more territory but not all of Mexico.
12. The U.S. agent who negotiated the peace treaty, Nicholas Trist, had been recalled by the president, but he
negotiated the treaty anyway. The president reluctantly accepted the treaty.
History final 1 – notes – manifest destiny
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