Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-5, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in
Sensor Made of PVDF/graphene
Electrospinning Fiber and Comparison
between Electrospinning PVDF Fiber
and PVDF/graphene Fiber
Binoy Bera1, Dipankar Mandal2 & Madhumita Das Sarkar3
Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology,
Kolkata – 700064, India
Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700032, India
Abstract: In this work we developed polyvinylidene
fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF/graphene based fiber by
electrospinning process. Characterization has been
done by FE – SEM , ATR – FTIR instrument.
Nanogenerator of PVDF/graphene fiber has also
been made. Taken the output data from
PVDF/graphene fiber based nanogenerator with
music and finger tapping. Capacitor charging were
also done.
1. Introduction
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is widely used for
industrial applications because of its excellent
chemical stability, mechanical strength, and
ferroelectricity. PVDF has several crystalline
structures: α, β, and ɣ-phases, based on the chain
conformation as trans or gauche linkages.[1–10] The αphase is the most energetic stable states and the βphase has useful piezoelectric and pyroelectric
properties.[1–3] Many researchers have studied the
formation of the β-phase structure of PVDF by a
range of polymer processes: poling under a high
electric field,[4] annealing,[5,6] crystallization under
high pressure,[7] polymer blending,[8] stretching[9] or
using additives.[10] However, it is difficult to obtain
the β-phase crystalline structure of PVDF by
conventional processes. Electrospinning is an
effective way on β phase formation which combines
electrical poling and uniaxial stretching in one step.
2. Experimental procedure
2.1. Materials
Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) pellets (M̅w ≈
275 000, Sigma-Aldrich, USA), N, Nacetone (Merck
dimethylformamide (DMF),
Chemical, India), Graphene.
Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
2.2. Electrospinning sample preparation
For the preparation of electrospinning[11] sample, first
we prepare 12wt% (w/v) PVDF – DMF solution .
Then added add 0.0025 gm of graphene with it and
for making a homogeneous solution , kept this
solution on magnetic stirrer for a definite time. Then
added 4 ml of acetone with it and stirred (30
minutes) by magnetic stirrer for final solution(10ml)
of electrospinning process. Then we load this
samples in syringe(20ml) for electrospinning
2.3. Preparation of PVDF and
PVDF/graphen fiber
For making PVDF and PVDF/graphen fiber I used
electrospinning process.Where, Solution infuse rate
= 1.5ml/h. Syringe to collector distance = 12cm.
Voltage = 12KV. Temperature = 30.3˚C. Humidity =
58 %.
Fig.1. Schematic illustration of the basic setup for
electrospinning. The right side shows a typical SEM image
of the PVDF nanofibrous membranes deposited on the
2.4. Nanogenerator preparation
For the nanogenerator preparation , we use silver
fabric as electrodes.
Page 1411
Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-5, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in
Fig.2. (a) Electrospinning fiber. (b) electrospinning fiber
based nanogenerator.(c) bridge circuit for capacitor
3. Results and discussion
For characterization of nanofiber , ATR – FTIR ,
FE – SEM instruments were used. We noticed and
calculated different output voltage generation of
PVDF/graphene fiber based nanogenerator with
single finger pressure and sound. We also measured
the capacitor (4.7 µF) charging voltage.
Fig.5. Output voltage (a) AC output of PVDF/graphene
NG with music ; (b) AC output of PVDF/graphene NG
with single finger tapping; (c) Capacitor charging response
of PVDF/graphene NG with finger tapping.
From figure 5 we can observe that our designed
Nano generator gives response with gentle touch of
one finger and with music also. From this we can
conclude that our designed Nano generator is very
much sensitive to mechanical pressure and sound
pressure also.
Instead of using graphene with PVDF, we can
incorporate Graphene–MoS2, MoS2,WS2 with
PVDF and can be possible to made ultrasensitive or
supersensitive piezosensor.
4. Acknowledgements
Fig.3. FE - SEM image of (a) Neat PVDF electrospinning
fiber ( inset shows diameter distribution curve of
nanofiber); (b) PVDF/graphene electrospinning fiber (
inset shows diameter distribution curve of nanofiber).
From FE – SEM image we can observe the fiber
PVDF/graphene solution. Fiber diameter varies from
few nanometer to micrometer range.
Binoy Bera would like to thank Dr. Dipankar Mandal
and Dr. Madhumita Das Sarkar for their constant
support, inspiration and guidance.
5. References
[1] N. C. Banik, F. P. Boyle, T. J. Sluckin, P. L. Taylor, S.
K. Tripathy, and A. J. Hopfinger, J. Chem. Phys., 72, 3191
[2] S. B. Lang and S. Muensit, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci.
Process., 85, 125 (2006).
R. Hasegawa, Y. Takahashi, Y. Chatani, and H.
Tadokoro, Polym. J., 3, 600 (1969).
[4] Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, and H. Zeng, Integrated
Ferroelectrics, 80, 245 (2006).
Fig.4. ATR – FTIR spectroscopy graph of (a) neat PVDF
electrospinning fiber; (b) PVDF/graphene electrospinning fiber.
From ATR – FTIR graph we can observe that in case of neat
PVDF electrospinning fiber ,613 cm-1 wavenumber peak is present
but in case of PVDF/graphene electrospinning fiber no such peak
is observed. So from here we can conclude that nonpolar phase (α)
has been transformed into polar active phase (β,ɣ) in
PVDF/graphene electrospinning fiber due to the doping of
Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
[5] M. Benz and W. B. Euler, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 89,
1093 (2003).
[6] M. Neidhofer, F. Beaume, L. Ibos, A. Bernes, and C.
Lacabanne, Polymer, 45, 1679 (2004).
[7] T. Hattori, M. Kanaoka, and H. Ohigashi, J. Appl.
Phys., 79, 2016 (1996).
[8] R. Gregorio Jr. and N. C. P. S. Nociti, J. Phys. D:
Appl. Phys., 28, 432 (1995).
A. Salimi and A. A. Yousefi, Polym. Test., 22, 699
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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-2, Issue-5, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in
[10] M. Nasir, H. Matsumoto, T. Danno, M. Minagawa,
T. Irisawa, M. Shioya, and A. Tanioka, J. Polym. Sci., Part
B: Polym. Phys., 44, 779 (2006).
B. Bera, Literature Review on Electrospinning
Process (A Fascinating Fiber Fabrication Technique),
Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Vol2, Issue-8, 2016.
Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
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