An Invitation to Environmental Sociology 5th Edition Test Bank

An Invitation to Environmental Sociology 5th Edition Test
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Test Bank For An Invitation to Environmental Sociology 5th Edition by Michael M
Bell , Loka L. Ashwood
What student Can Expect From A Test Bank?
A test bank will include the following questions:
Multiple Choice Questions
Matching Questions
Fill In The Blanks
Essay Questions
Short Questions
Chapter 9: The Human Nature of Nature
Test Bank
NOTE: the correct answer to each Multiple Choice, True/False, Short Answer, and
Essay Questions are italicized.
Multiple Choice: Choose the BEST answer from the four foils provided.
1. Which of the following is not “nature” or “natural” according to Aristotle? (p. 255)
1. A wooden bed
2. Molten lava
3. A breath of fresh air
4. A violently destructive tornado
2. Which of the following is “nature” or “natural” according to Aristotle? (p. 255)
1. A wooden bed made by a human
2. A dam made by a beaver
3. Hives made by bees
4. Fires made by spontaneous combustion
3. Stephen Jay Gould replicated the “craniometry” research of Samuel G. Morton and
concluded that: (p. 260)
1. the smaller stature of females explained the difference in cranial size.
2. cranial size does not indicate intelligence.
3. feet size is a better predictor of intelligence.
4. there is no significant difference between “races” in cranial size.
4. Where did the idea of the national park originate? (p. 265)
1. In England where it was later transplanted to the United States
2. In Southeast Asia
3. On the Indian subcontinent
4. In the United States
5. The example of the Keoladeo Ghana bird sanctuary established in Bharatpur, India
demonstrates: (p. 269)
1. that bird populations will increase if given sufficient wilderness in which to propagate.
2. that local villagers have a devastating impact on wildlife.
3. that humans and nature can coexist in harmony due to their interdependencies.
4. that beneficial grazing was successful at overturning governmental ban on cattle grazing.
1. What is an environmental nonproblem? (p. 277)
1. Idealist conceptions of the environment that ignores problems
2. Industrial narratives that spin and suppress the evidence of environmental
1. Scientific conflict over environmental problems that arises over disputed
1. A lie
1. The book argues that under moral holism, (p. 254)
1. environmental problems have emerged because we have tried to pretend that we are
distinct from nature.
2. people are part of nature.
3. “Follow nature” is superfluous advice.
4. All of the above.
1. The authors’ argument that nature is an inescapably social and political phenomenon rests
on the assumption that: (p. 258)
1. the ancients show us as much in their teachings.
2. nature is in part socially constructed.
3. scientific conflict over environmental issues arise over contested
1. politics is a polluting force.
What is one example of environmental determinism? (p. 262)
Huntington’s claim that climate was correlated with civilization
The successful establishment of the Keoladeo Ghana bird sanctuary
The construction of climate change skepticism
Suburban and exurban zoning controls
1. How does the idea of an “ozone hole” exemplify social construction? (p. 265)
It’s an example of the realist–constructionist debate.
It threatens the natural conscience of environmentalists.
It demonstrates that how we see nature depends upon our perspective on social life.
The ozone hole is used as a metaphor to capture public and political attention.
1. Which of the following was the tragic example of naturalistic arguments used to promote
racism? (p. 260)
1. Huntington’s civilization research
2. Morton’s Craniometry
3. The social construction of the ozone hole
4. The development of a bird sanctuary in India
1. The case of changes in agreement over global warming is a prime example of which
concept? (p. 277)
1. Social reflection
2. Postmodernism
3. Environmental nonproblems
4. Social inconvenience of “nature”
1. What was Ellsworth Huntington’s conclusion about the relationship between climate and
civilization? (p. 262)
1. That climate was poorly related to the degree of civilization of a people
2. That Europe and the northeastern United States were associated with the highest levels of
3. That climate was correlated with size of skull
4. That climate shaped what forms of wilderness protection certain civilizations pursued
1. The author writes, “Wildness is a state of mind more than a state of nature.”
What does
he mean by this? (p. 268)
1. Fixing environmental problems requires psychological change.
2. Morton’s Craniometry spoke to the way different people understood nature.
3. The political sphere uses larger-than-life metaphors to shift public opinion on environmental
4. We socially construct the meaning of nature.
How has tourism’s rise been closely associated with environmentalism’s rise? (p. 272)
Environmentalism has long stressed giving value to what is far from one’s own home.
Tourists are attracted to places of man-made beauty.
Tourist travel to places that permit them the “tourist gaze.”
The “culture of leisure” separates tourists from locals.
The best definition of ghosts of place is: (p. 274)
the way a landscape and its people can bring in the tourist’s dollars.
the way tourists need to “see” the landscape to give it significance.
the way local people experience landscape visually.
a sense of the presence of that which is not, and those who are not, physically there.
1. What was the primary argument of groups like Negative Population Growth, Zero
Population Growth, and FAIR, Population–Environment Balance, according to the text? (p.
1. Population growth is primarily from immigration.
2. Population growth negatively impacts our environment and quality of life.
3. Overpopulation causes environmental degradation, traffic jams, deteriorating
infrastructures, and homelessness.
4. All of the above.
True or False: Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false by
circling the correct answer. Note to Instructors: If preparing an exam for electronic
grading, these instructions should be modified to instruct students how to fill in their
bubble sheets. For example, “Please indicate whether the following statements are true
or false by blackening the correct oval, 1 or A for True, 2 or B for False.”
1. True
In Climate and Civilization, Ellsworth Huntington
concluded that difficult climates produce people with the
greatest strength of will, the least idleness, and the
highest intelligence needed to survive harsh and extreme
conditions. (p. 260)
1. True
Latour and Freudenberg argue that we should
conceptualize the social and environmental as distinctly
separate categories or ideas. (p. 279)
1. True
Marx believed that Darwin’s theory of natural selection
was used by elites to suppress the working class. (p. 258)
1. True
Government agencies in the U.S. correctly displayed the
depletion of ozone in the atmosphere as a “hole” to urge
action to decrease the release of CFC’s. (p. 265)
1. True
The traditional cattle grazing of the Maasai is the majo
cause of the decline of rhino and elephant populations in Kenya. (p. 270)
1. True
Actor network theory helps explain the dialogue between
Ideal and material factors in the “nature-culture”
dichotomy. (p. 279)
Short Answer: Provide a brief response, not to exceed one paragraph.
1. The book argues that under moral separatism “we can’t follow nature.” Explain. (p. 254)
ANSWER: Under moral separatism, nature is different from us and is moved by different
principles, it has no meaning for us. Thus nature is irrelevant and we cannot follow it.
1. Aristotle was concerned about “monism” within Plato’s view of creation. What is “monism”
and why was Aristotle concerned about it? (p. 254)
ANSWER: Monism is the view that everything is good. As a result, Plato worried that
there would become to be no difference—in fact, there is nothing at all.
1. Name and describe at least two of the four characteristics of an environmental nonproblem. (p. 277)
ANSWER: First, industrialist attack the status of the science through “spinning” results
by promoting contrarian scientists and intimidating others. Second, they use political
appointees to edit and suppress government reports, to interfere in the work of
individual government scientists, and to prevent government scientists from speaking to
the media. Third, they have used the existing rules of political process to slow down
government decision-making through holding frequent legislative hearings and to
establish onerous rules and procedures for the release of findings by government
agencies. And fourth, they have exploited the media’s love of controversy and desire to
appear neutral by always including an opposing voice in a news story, even if that voice
has little scientific credibility.
1. What are actor networks? (p. 281)
ANSWER: Bruno Latour and his colleagues have argued that we should regard the
elements of what we often call “nature” and the “environment” as actors in a common
network with human actors. Latour suggests that we call all these network elements,
human and otherwise, actants, lest we fall into our old oppositions again. These actants
mutually constitute one another, Latour says, through what he calls actor networks.
Essay: Provide a comprehensive response, not to exceed two pages. Several
questions have more than one part to them; be sure to respond to each part of the
1. The ancient Indian fable of blind people encountering an elephant for the first time is used
to demonstrate the realist-constructionist debate about environmental problems.
Summarize this debate and provide an example of how the realist and constructionist
perspective are complementary, not contradictory. (p. 264)
ANSWER: The realist idea of what you see is what you know is exemplified by different
people grabbing different parts of the elephant and describing the elephant as so:
Tail/snake; leg/tree; ear/leaf. Ecological dialogue rather suggests that what we see also
interacts with what we believe, and vice versa. Thus, we can learn from what we see,
but we also believe something larger about an elephant, and thus we can integrate
these two ways of knowing.
1. Is it possible to “follow nature?” Defend your answer sociologically, drawing upon materials
from the course. (p. 254)
ANSWER: Yes or No answer must discuss material holism and moral separatism
1. The development of a natural conscience depends upon the sense of a realm free from the
pollution of social interests—a natural other, from which we may gain a sense of a natural
me. But is such a realm possible? Can there be a moral realm that is truly free of social
interests? Explain. (p. 254)
ANSWER: No. Because of the contradictions of nature, the processes of social
selection and social reflection in nature, and the process of resonance, social ideas
always shape our ideas of nature.
1. Give an example of how environmental policies have been used to promote social
exclusion. (p. 275)
ANSWER: Restrictive zoning, restrictive immigration, relocation of residents, historical
segregation, xenophobic arguments.
1. Based on your readings, how would you answer the question, “What is nature?” (p. 258)
ANSWER: Draw on social construction, notions of materialism and idealism in answer.
1. The sociologist Raymond Williams once wrote: “…the idea of nature contains, though often
unnoticed, an extraordinary amount of human history.” What did he mean by this? Of what
theoretical approach is this statement an example? In your answer, draw upon the
materials of this course to give at least three applications of Williams’ insight. (p. 258)
ANSWER: This is a social constructivist account that shows how society and politics
shape the meaning of nature. This has evolved, from Thoreau to Rachel Carlson.
Identification: Please identify the following key terms, thinkers, and texts. The best
identification answers will: 1) provide a succinct definition, explanation, or discussion of
the term, thinker, or text; 2) give an example or elaboration; 3) where relevant, note the
thinker with whom the term or text is associated, or the terms or texts with which the
thinker is associated; and 4) note any closely related concepts or critiques. Items with
asterisks (*) indicate those for which the thinker should be noted.
Key Terms
natural conscience
moral holism
moral separatism
social construction of nature*
social selection
social reflection
natural selection
survival of the fittest
scientific racism
environmental determinism
culture of leisure
tourist gaze
ghosts of place
lifeboat ethics
environmental claims making
environmental counter-claims
ecological dialogue
social inconvenience of “nature”
actor network theory
Key Thinkers
Holmes Rolston
Raymond Williams
Charles Darwin
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Herbert Spencer
Samuel George Morton
Stephen Jay Gould
Ellsworth Huntington
Ramachandra Guha
Nancy Peluso
John Urry
Thomas Greider
Lorraine Garcovich
Claire Hinrichs
Garrett Hardin
John Hannigan
Bruno Latour
Bill Freudenberg
Key Texts
On the Origin of the Species (Charles Darwin)
Climate and Civilization (Ellsworth Huntington)
The Trouble with Wilderness (William Cronon)
Matching: Please match the term, thinker, and/or text in column A with its complement
or correspondent in column B, by placing the appropriate identification letter/number in
the space provided. (You may use answers more than once.) Note to Instructors:
Scramble the items in column B before administering an exam. Also, if preparing an
exam for electronic grading, the above instructions should be modified to instruct
students how to fill in their bubble sheets.
Column A
Column B
A moral holism
____ People are part of nature and
environmental problems have emerged because we try to pretend otherwise.
B holistic superfluousness
____ separatist irrelevance
C nature
____ a source of change within itself
D not nature
____ man-made
E wu wei
____ acting without deliberate effort
F yu wei
____ acting deliberately
G te
____ essence
H Dao
____ the way
I postmodernism
____ truth is socially relative
J Charles Darwin
____ theory of natural selection
K Charles Darwin
____ On the Origins of the Species
L naturalization
____ used by science as a source of
political legitimation
M Ellsworth Huntington
____ environmental determinism
N Ellsworth Huntington
____ Climate and Civilization
O Bruno Latour
____ nature-culture
P William Freudenberg
____ socio-environmental
Q Craniometry
____ Samuel George Morton
R Tourist Gaze
____ John Urry
S Garrett Hardin
____ “Lifeboat ethics”