Exam 7 Personality Psychology
A review of research on the differences between men and women in the textbook suggests that
Men are more likely than women to respond aggressively to frustration.
Self-determination theory is grounded in the __________ tradition which emphasizes responsibility,
growth, and the actualizing tendency.
The textbook states that an important part of satisfying the need for competence is working on tasks
that are
Optimally challenging
According to the __________ theory of Deci and Ryan, there is a big difference between engaging in
an activity because of extrinsic reasons and engaging in the same activity for intrinsic reasons
The study of gymnasts summarized in the textbook suggested that self-determined motivation was
negatively correlated with
Personality theorists refer to the connection between choice and behavior as locus of
If our needs are not met in a context that fails to provide either involvement, structure, or autonomy
support, we will not feel motivated. Instead of engaging in the activities of the enterprise we may feel:
Psychological research significance tests, such as a t-test, tell us whether there is a significant
difference in average scores between two groups, but __________ size tells us the size of that
Personality theorists refer to the connection between choice and behavior as locus of
The textbook suggests that being __________ means adjusting our own behavior and attitudes
somewhere along the continuum of motivation depending on the situation and activity
Self regulated
The textbook summarizes evidence indicating trivial effects sizes for gender differences in all of the
following risk-taking areas EXCEPT
Drug Abuse
The textbook summarizes areas in which there are significant differences between males and females
based on meta-analytic studies. The authors suggest that all of the following are areas in which
evidence suggesting a significant gender difference has NOT been found EXCEPT:
The distribution of scores of males and females on a test of spatial ability presented in the textbook
shows a d of .73 which indicates a size of effect that is considered
Meta-analytic research into self-esteem suggests that: Project Milestone
Men have slightly higher self-esteem than women
The literature on influence ability suggests all of the following EXCEPT:
People may understand the contingency between their behavior and some outcomes and are able to
control their behaviors (locus of __________), but they may not want or feel free to engage in those
behaviors (locus of __________)
control; causality
Aronson and colleagues define a __________ as a generalization about a group of people in which
attributes are assumed to be true of all members of the group regardless of the actual variation among
the group’s members
According to Bandura, __________ is the belief that one can be competent and effective at some
The only factor included in the Five-Factor Model to show a large d or effect size is
extroversion: assertiveness.
With regard to differences in empathy between the sexes, all of the following are accurate EXCEPT
The textbook lists four models that have been proposed to explain how personality impacts health. All
of the following are included in that list EXCEPT:
Psycho Dynamic Development
22. Maddi and his colleagues have observed that people high in hardiness turn potentially stressful
situations into something less threatening and ultimately even growth enhancing with what they term
__________ coping.
23. People work to solve problems or do something concrete to change the cause of stress in __________
coping. Project Milestone
24. Summarizing the research on hardy or resilient personality types, the textbook concludes that
hardiness and resilience are likely one trait.
25. Further research into the observation that positive emotions broaden one’s way of thinking and
negative emotions reduce the desire to act and cause a narrowing of attention and thought have been
linked to the corresponding levels of the neurotransmitter
26. In reviewing the literature on positive emotions, the author of the textbook concludes that
27. The textbook lists seven habits of highly resilient people which include all of the following EXCEPT
a strong religious conviction
28. The textbook suggests that having meaning in one’s life is associated with all of the following EXCEPT
29. Based on the research of Maddi, et al, if you were asked to set up a program for middle managers in a
company to reduce their likelihood of stress and burnout, you would want to be sure to include
training in transformational coping
30. Hans Selye applied the term __________ to individuals who experienced high levels of stress without
becoming ill
31. The term ego-resilience used to refer to the ability to modify one’s response to meet the requirements
of a stressful situation and to return to one’s characteristic level of self-regulation after a stressor.
Researchers today refer to this concept as
Trait Resilliance
32. A research group is looking at the effects of optimism vs. pessimism on the number of killer T-cells in
an individual’s immune system. Likely, they are working on the __________ model of the impact of
personality on health
33. Recent research has suggested that all of the following roles are played by positive emotions EXCEPT
34. The textbook suggests that each of the following is involved in helping hardy people rebound from
difficulty or stress, EXCEPT:
35. In theorizing about the nature of hardiness, early research suggested that executives who stayed
healthy in the face of stress were higher in the three C’s. All of the following are among the “three C’s”
36. cultures in East Asia, tend to believe in supernatural forces, fate, and even predetermined destiny due
to the extent to which they share an external locus of control.
37. According to __________ models, some people, like those higher in consciousness or with an internal
locus of control, adopt a healthier lifestyle and take better care of themselves such as eating a healthy
diet, exercising, and not smoking
38. People may understand the contingency between their behavior and some outcomes and are able to
control their behaviors (locus of __________), but they may not want or feel free to engage in those
behaviors (locus of __________)
39. By definition, people with a(an) __________ orientation approach situations through amotivation,
detachment, and apathy. They believe there is little they can do to attain a desired outcome.
40. Strategies that help individuals develop and express their own self are autonomy supportive; the
opposite of autonomy support is
Exam 8 Personality Psychology
41. The meta-analytic data presented in the textbook suggests that men have higher rates of all of the
following mental disorders EXCEPT
42. Researchers today define __________ as the prevalence of erotic arousals, feelings, fantasies, and
behaviors one has for males, females, or both.
Sexual orientation
43. Bailey and colleagues found evidence that two aspects of same-sex sexuality also have a genetic
component: childhood gender __________ and adult masculinity-femininity.
44. The maternal immune hypothesis suggests that a male child could be predisposed to homosexuality
45. The textbook uses the term __________ for sexual orientations that change over time
46. With regard to the kin selection theory of same-sex sexuality from the evolutionary psychological
perspective, the textbook concludes that there is:
47. A recent study in Italy found that
48. The third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-3) is of interest in the study of sexual
orientation as it is the center for a variety of sexual behaviors and experiences. LeVay’s studies of the
INAH-3 found all of the following EXCEPT it
49. All of the following are true about androgens EXCEPT
50. Early research on sexuality hypothesized that gays and lesbians had gender
51. With regard to the concept of a “gay gene,” the textbook concludes that:
52. With regard to an evolutionary explanation for female same-sex sexuality, evolutionary psychologists
53. A 2002 study reported in the textbook suggests that approximately what percentage of women aged
15 to 44 reported having had any same-sex sexual contact ever in their lives?
54. Studies have suggested that women who had high prenatal exposure to __________ were more likely
to be classified as bisexual or lesbian.
55. While there have only been a few studies of the brain structures of same and different sex-orientation,
the most promising – and controversial – by LeVay have found differences in the __________ that
may be correlated with sexual orientation.
56. Gay men are less likely to be firstborns than heterosexual mean and to have more older brothers.
These findings suggest that same-sex sexuality, in males, is genetic and transmitted at least partially
through the
57. The textbook presents a number of false statements or myths about gays, lesbians, and bisexuals.
Each of the following is one of those myths EXCEPT
58. A 2002 study reported in the textbook suggests that approximately what percentage of men aged 15 to
44 reported having had any same-sex sexual contact ever in their lives?
59. The biobehavioral model of sexual orientation suggests that there are two systems of sexual
orientation controlled by two separate biological systems. One system is called sexual desire and the
second system is called:
60. The textbook defines __________ as the motivation to initiate sexual activity.
61. Research suggests that __________ of women define themselves as “heterosexual.”