Section 15.1 Energy and Its Forms IPLS

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Name ___________________________
Chapter 15
Class ___________________
Date _____________
Energy
Section 15.1 Energy and Its Forms
(pages 446–452)
This section describes how energy and work are related. It defines kinetic energy
and potential energy, and gives examples for calculating these forms of energy. It
also discusses examples of various types of energy.
Reading Strategy (page 446)
Building Vocabulary As you read, complete the concept map with
vocabulary terms and definitions from this section. For more information on
this Reading Strategy, see the Reading and Study Skills in the Skills and
Reference Handbook at the end of your textbook.
kinetic energy
Energy
which
is
can
be
potential energy
which
can
be
the energy
of motion
gravitational
potential energy
elastic potential
energy
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Energy and Work (page 447)
1. What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work.
2. When work is done on an object,
that object. Circle the correct answer.
energy
heat
is transferred to
height
3. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about work and energy.
a. Energy in food is converted into muscle movement.
b. Both work and energy are usually measured in joules.
c. One joule equals one meter per newton.
Kinetic Energy
(pages 447–448)
kinetic energy
4. The energy of motion is called
.
5. Is the following sentence true or false? You can determine the kinetic
false
energy of an object if you know its mass and its volume.
Physical Science Reading and Study Workbook Level B
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Name ___________________________
Chapter 15
Class ___________________
Date _____________
Energy
6. Circle the letter of the formula used to calculate an object’s kinetic
energy.
a. Kinetic energy = 1 mv 2
2
b. Kinetic energy = mv 2
2
v
c. Kinetic energy = m
Potential Energy
7. What is
(pages 448–450)
potential energy? It is energy that is stored as a result of position or shape.
8. Is the following sentence true or false? The work done by a rock climber
going up a cliff decreases her potential energy.
false
9. An object’s gravitational potential energy depends on its
, its
, and the acceleration due to
gravity. Circle the correct answers.
height
mass
size
10. Is the following sentence true or false? Gravitational potential energy of
known as
elastic potential energy
.
Forms of Energy (pages 450–452)
For numbers 12 through 17, write the letter of the form of energy that best matches
the description.
Descriptions
Forms of Energy
b 12. Energy stored in gasoline,
a. mechanical energy
coal, and wood
a 13. The sum of an object’s potential
b. chemical energy
energy and kinetic energy,
c. electrical energy
excluding atomic-scale movements
d. thermal energy
e 14. Produces the sun’s heat and light
e. nuclear energy
f
15. Travels through space in the form
f. electromagnetic energy
of waves
c 16. Produces lightning bolts
d 17. Increases as atoms within an object
move faster
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true
an object increases as its height increases.
11. The potential energy of an object that is stretched or compressed is
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Chapter 15
Class ___________________
Date _____________
Energy
Section 15.2 Energy Conversion
and Conservation
(pages 453–459)
This section describes how energy is converted from one form to another and
presents the law of conservation of energy.
Reading Strategy
(page 453)
Relating Cause and Effect As you read, complete the flowchart to explain
an energy conversion used by some gulls to obtain food. For more
information on this Reading Strategy, see the Reading and Study Skills in
the Skills and Reference Handbook at the end of your textbook.
How Gulls Use Energy Conversions
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Gull lifts oyster,
increasing
oyster’s
gravitational
potential energy.
Energy Conversion
The gull drops
the oyster, and the
oyster’s gravitational
potential energy is
converted into kinetic
energy as the oyster
falls. (Air resistance
can be ignored.)
The oyster strikes a
rock and breaks, and
kinetic energy is
converted into
thermal energy. The
kinetic energy and
gravitational potential
energy of the oyster
are now zero.
(page 454)
1. Is the following sentence true or false? Energy can be converted from one
true
form to another.
2. When a wind-up toy is set in motion, elastic potential energy that was
stored in a compressed spring is converted into the
of the toy’s moving parts.
Conservation of Energy
kinetic energy
(page 455)
3. What does the law of conservation of energy state?
Energy cannot be created
or destroyed.
4. A moving object slows down because friction causes a continual
conversion of kinetic energy into
. Circle the
correct answer.
mechanical
energy
potential
energy
thermal
energy
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Chapter 15
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Energy
Energy Conversions (pages 456–458)
5. As an object falls, the gravitational potential energy of the object is
kinetic energy
converted into
.
6. At what point during a pole-vaulter’s jump is his gravitational
potential energy the greatest? Circle the letter of the correct answer.
a. when he leaves the ground
b. at his greatest height
c. when he hits the ground
7. Circle the letter of the type of energy that increases as the pole bends
before it propels a pole-vaulter up into the air.
a. kinetic energy
b. mechanical energy
c. elastic potential energy
8. Is the following sentence true or false? For a mechanical change in an
isolated system, the mechanical energy at the beginning equals the
mechanical energy at the end of the process, as long as friction is
What Type of Energy Is It?
Situation
A stationary wind-up toy with a compressed spring
A descending roller coaster car
A skier poised to take off at the top of a hill
A car driving on a flat road
A vibrating guitar string
Form of Energy
Potential energy
Both
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
Both
Energy and Mass (page 459)
10. Circle the letters of each correct sentence. What does Einstein’s equation
imply about mass and energy?
a. Mass and energy are equivalent.
b. Mass and energy are never created.
c. Mass and energy can be converted to each other.
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true
negligible.
9. Tell whether the following situations illustrate kinetic energy, potential energy,
or both.
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Chapter 15
Class ___________________
Date _____________
Energy
Section 15.3 Energy Resources
(pages 462–466)
This section describes types of energy resources and ways to conserve them.
Reading Strategy
(page 462)
Identifying Main Ideas As you read the section, write the main idea for
each heading in the table. For more information on this Reading Strategy,
see the Reading and Study Skills in the Skills and Reference Handbook at
the end of your textbook.
Heading
Nonrenewable energy
resources
Main Idea
Nonrenewable energy resources include oil, natural
gas, and coal. They exist in limited quantities.
Renewable energy
resources
Renewable energy resources include hydroelectric,
solar, geothermal, wind, biomass, and nuclear fusion.
Conserving energy
resources
Energy resources can be conserved by reducing energy
needs and by increasing the efficiency of energy use.
Nonrenewable Energy Resources (page 462)
1. What are nonrenewable energy resources?
They are resources that exist in limited
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quantities and, once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of millions of years.
2. List three examples of nonrenewable energy resources.
a.
Oil
b.
Uranium
Coal
c.
3. Circle the letter of each resource that is considered to be a fossil fuel.
a. tree
b. oil
c. coal
4. Is the following sentence true or false? Although fossil fuels are evenly
distributed throughout Earth, they only represent ten percent of total
energy consumed.
false
Renewable Energy Resources
(pages 463–464)
5. An energy resource that can be replaced in a reasonably short period of
time is called a(n)
renewable
resource.
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Chapter 15
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Date _____________
Energy
6. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about renewable energy
resources.
a. Wind and solar energy are both renewable energy resources.
b. Renewable energy resources are always more efficient than
nonrenewable resources.
c. Renewable energy resources can be used to generate electricity and to
heat homes.
7. Is the following sentence true or false? One disadvantage of
hydroelectric power is that it is among the most expensive energy
sources.
false
For numbers 8 through 13, match the letter of each renewable energy source to its
description.
Description
Renewable Energy Sources
c
a. hydroelectric
8. Water pumped below ground
is converted to steam.
b. solar
f
9. The most likely raw material is
c. geothermal
hydrogen.
d. wind
b 10. Mirrors concentrate sunlight to
e. biomass
produce electricity.
f. nuclear fusion
d 11. Kinetic energy of moving air is
electricity by combining hydrogen with oxygen.
Conserving Energy Resources
true
(page 466)
15. Name two practical ways in which people can conserve energy.
Accept reasonable responses, such as carpooling, walking or biking on short trips, using
more efficient appliances, developing and driving more fuel-efficient cars.
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converted into rotational energy of
a turbine.
a 12. Energy is obtained from flowing
water.
e 13. Chemical energy stored in wood,
peat, and agricultural waste can be
converted into thermal energy.
14. Is the following sentence true or false? Hydrogen fuel cells generate
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