Abuse and Impact Resistant Gypsum

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2001 Rexford Road
Charlotte, NC 28211
704-365-7300
[email protected]
© Ron Blank & Associates, Inc. 2012
Abuse and Impact Resistant Gypsum:
Stronger and Safer Walls
Please note: you will need to complete the conclusion quiz online at RonBlank.com to receive credit
Course #: NGC09K
An AIA Continuing Education Program
Credit for this course is 1 AIA HSW CE Hour
An American Institute of Architects (AIA) Continuing
Education Program
Approved Promotional Statement:
Ron Blank & Associates, Inc. is a registered provider with The American Institute of
Architects Continuing Education System. Credit earned upon completion of this
program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion
are available for all course participants upon completion of the course conclusion quiz
with +80%.
Please view the following slide for more information on Certificates of Completion
through RBA
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional
education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or
construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA or Ron Blank &
Associates, Inc. of any material of construction or any method or manner of
handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.
An American Institute of Architects (AIA) Continuing
Education Program

Course Format: This is a structured, web-based, self study course with a final
exam.

Course Credit: 1 AIA Health Safety & Welfare (HSW) CE Hour

Completion Certificate: A confirmation is sent to you by email and you can print
one upon successful completion of a course or from your RonBlank.com
transcript. If you have any difficulties printing or receiving your Certificate please
send requests to [email protected]
Design professionals, please remember to print or save your certificate of completion after
successfully completing a course conclusion quiz. Email confirmations will be sent to the email
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Course Description
Analyze the different types of gypsum technologies in terms of
composition, characteristics, and testing. Discover the benefits
of impact resistant gypsum in terms of performance, application,
and cost.
Learning Objectives
 Define key terms associated with gypsum and wall surfaces.
 Discuss ASTM C 1629 classification system for abuse resistant
panels and ASTM test methods.
 Compare and contrast the performance of different gypsum
board technologies.
 Discuss the installation process, performance features, various
applications, and cost benefits of impact resistant gypsum.
Definition and Product Types
Win or Lose…
Can the walls take the team?
Introduction
 Abuse and Impact Resistant products were
introduced in mid-90’s as a lower cost alternative
to Cement Masonry Units (CMU).
 Enhancements such as mold and moisture
resistance were added in 2004.
 In school districts across the country , these
products have replaced CMU for most walls.
Architects Still Ask
What’s the difference
between abuse and
impact resistance?
Definitions
Abuse Resistance
 Designed for use in wall assembly areas
where surface abrasion is a concern
-Surface of the board
Impact Resistance
 Designed for use where abuse and impact
resistance is needed
-Surface of the board
-Intrusion into the wall cavity
Types of Damage
Surface damage:
Abrasion or scuffing due to high
traffic during standard use and
indentation of the wall surface from
low-energy or occasional impact
Penetration:
Damage due to high-energy
or continual impact that
breaks into the stud cavity
Understand the Products
Three different types of gypsum board discussed here:
Impact
Resistant
Gypsum
Abuse
Resistant
Gypsum
Standard
Gypsum

Regular

Gypsum Fiberboard


5/8 Type X
(baseline)

Enhanced Paper Enhanced Gypsum
Core
Gypsum Fiberboard
with Fiberglass Mesh

Enhanced Paper Enhanced Gypsum
Core with Fiberglass
Mesh

Fiberglass faced –
Enhanced Core

Fiberglass faced –
Enhanced Core
Abuse Resistant (AR) Gypsum
Used where surface damage is a concern
Gypsum Fiberboard
 Enhanced with manufacturer’s
proprietary slurry of gypsum particles
and cellulose fibers
Abuse Resistant Gypsum
 Abuse-resistant gypsum wallboard
features an enhanced gypsum core
wrapped with heavy abrasion resistant paper or abrasion resistant
fiberglass facing
Impact Resistant (IR) Gypsum
Used where damage of the cavity is a concern
Gypsum Fiberboard
 Enhanced with manufacturer’s
proprietary slurry of gypsum particles
and cellulose fibers and reinforced with
fiberglass mesh
Fiberglass Mesh
Impact Resistant Gypsum
 Impact-resistant gypsum wallboard
features an enhanced gypsum core
wrapped with heavy abrasion resistant paper or abrasion resistant
fiberglass facing and reinforced with
fiberglass mesh
Fiberglass Mesh
ASTM C 1629
Standard Classification for Abuse-Resistant Non-decorated Interior
Gypsum Panel Products and Fiber-Reinforced Cement Panels
Issued in January 2006
ASTM C 1629
This standard consists of four testing methods
ASTM D 4977
Surface Abrasion
ASTM E 695
Soft Body Impact Test
ASTM D 5420
Gardner Impact Surface
Indentation Resistance
Applicable
only on
Impact
Resistant
products
Annex A1
Hard Body Impact Test
ASTM C 1629
- Classifications and Performance Requirements
ASTM D 4977
ASTM D 5420
ASTM E 695
Annex A1
Surface Abrasion
Surface Indentation
Resistance
Soft Body Impact
Hard Body Impact
Classification
Level
Abraded Depth
Maximum
Indentation
Maximum
Impact
Minimum
Impact
Minimum
1
0.126"
0.150"
90 ft-lbs
50 ft-lbs
2
0.059"
0.100"
195 ft-lbs
100 ft-lbs
3
0.010"
0.050"
300 ft-lbs
150 ft-lbs
See next slide for description
ASTM C 1629
- Classifications and Performance Requirements
 Each classification level is based on specific minimum or maximum
results depending on the test.
 A product may meet Level 1 on one type of test and Level 3 on
another test.
 Each performance characteristic should be specified based upon the
desired classification level.
Note:
The minimum level for the Hard Body Test is not a lot better than
standard gypsum (35 lbs). A Level 1 result on the Hard Body Test is not
a very impact resistant product.
ASTM C 1629 - Classification Levels
 Each abuse/impact property of abuse resistant wall panels is divided into
three classification levels.
 Level 1: Minimum performance that meets the standard
 Level 2: Mid-range performance
 Level 3: Highest performance
 The test methods specified are utilized to establish the abuse-resistance
classification of an abuse resistant wall panel. Each classification level
requires a minimum overall specified performance. Any classified abuse
resistant wall panel can be used at a classification level which is rated
lower than the highest level qualified.
“This standard will enable manufacturers to quantify their products' performance.”
-Robert Wessel
ASTM C11 member and assistant executive director,
Gypsum Association
ASTM C 1629
Test Methods and
Performance Comparisons
Surface Abrasion - ASTM D 4977
Purpose:
Measure the ability of a wall system to withstand
scuffs and abrasions
ASTM D 4977 Surface Abrasion Results
5/8” (15.9mm) Type X Gypsum Board
Surface Abrasion - ASTM D 4977
0.126”
0.576”
0.126” - Classification Level 1 maximum
0.576” - Type X gypsum board
Over 1/2” is worn away on a 5/8” thick board
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory
5/8”
Abraded Depth
ASTM D 4977 Surface Abrasion Results
Abuse Resistant Products
Type X Gypsum
Board
Fiberglass Faced
–Enhanced
Gypsum Core
Gypsum
Fiberboard
Enhanced Paper
– Enhanced
Gypsum Core
Result
0.576
0.009
0.284
0.009
Classification
NA
3
NA
3
Level 1 maximum abraded depth = 0.126”
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
Note that the Gypsum Fiberboard does perform much better than Type X, it does not meet the
minimum for Level 1.
ASTM D 4977 Surface Abrasion Results
Impact Resistant Products
Surface Indentation Resistance
- ASTM D 5420 Gardner Impact
Purpose:
Measure gypsum board’s resistance to dents
ASTM D 5420 Surface Indentation Results
Abuse Resistant Products
Type X Gypsum
Board
Fiberglass Faced
–Enhanced
Gypsum Core
Gypsum
Fiberboard
Enhanced Paper
– Enhanced
Gypsum Core
Result
0.230
0.132
0.11
0.132
Classification
NA
1
1
1
Note: Level 1 maximum indentation = 0.150”
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
ASTM D 5420 Surface Indentation Results
Impact Resistant Products
Type X Gypsum
Board
Fiberglass Faced –
Enhanced Gypsum
Core with Fiberglass
Mesh
Gypsum Fiberboard
with Fiberglass
Mesh
Enhanced Paper –
Enhanced Gypsum
Core with Fiberglass
Mesh
Result
0.230
0.129
0.11
0.129
Classification
NA
1
1
1
Note: Level 1 maximum indentation = 0.150”
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
Soft Body Impact Test - ASTM E 695
Purpose:
Measure the ability of a wall system to withstand single
impact force from a small object
ASTM E 695 Soft Body Impact Results
Abuse Resistant Products
Type X Gypsum
Board
Fiberglass Faced
–Enhanced
Gypsum Core
Gypsum
Fiberboard
Enhanced Paper
– Enhanced
Gypsum Core
Result
120 ft - lbs
270 ft - lbs
180 ft - lbs
210 ft - lbs
Classification
1
2
1
2
Level 1 Soft Body Minimum = 90 ft-lbs
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
ASTM E 695 Soft Body Impact Results
Impact Resistant Products
Type X Gypsum
Board
Fiberglass Faced –
Enhanced
Gypsum Core
with Fiberglass
Mesh
Enhanced Paper –
Gypsum
Enhanced
Fiberboard with
Gypsum Core
Fiberglass Mesh
Result
120 ft - lbs
>540ft - lbs
210 ft - lbs
>540 ft - lbs
Classification
1
3
2
3
with Fiberglass
Mesh
Level 1 Soft Body Minimum = 90 ft-lbs
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
Hard Body Impact Test - Annex A1
Purpose:
Measure resistance to penetration by a hard
object, such as a baseball bat or a boot heel
Hard Body Impact -Annex 1 Results
Abuse Resistant Products
Type X Gypsum
Board
Fiberglas Faced
–Enhanced
Gypsum Core
Gypsum
Fiberboard
Enhanced Paper
– Enhanced
Gypsum Core
Result
NA
NA
NA
NA
Classification
NA
NA
NA
NA
Hard Body Impact Test - Not applicable to Abuse Resistant products.
Some manufacturer’s will test and publish a result for abuse resistant products. This is not part the test
standard.
Hard Body Impact -Annex 1 Results
Impact Resistant Products
Type X Gypsum
Board
Fiberglass Faced –
Enhanced
Gypsum Core
with Fiberglass
Mesh
Gypsum
Fiberboard with
Fiberglass Mesh
Enhanced Paper –
Enhanced
Gypsum Core
with Fiberglass
Mesh
Result
35 ft - lbs
115 ft - lbs
175 ft - lbs
175 ft - lbs
Classification
NA
2
3
3
Level 1 Hard Body Minimum = 50 ft-lbs
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
Fiberglass mesh increases performance on this test.
Abuse Resistant Comparison
ASTM D 4977
ASTM D 5420
ASTM E 695
Annex A1
Surface Abrasion
Surface Indentation
Resistance
Soft Body Impact
Test
Hard Body Impact
Test
Abraded Depth
Maximum
Indentation
Maximum
Impact Minimum
Impact Minimum
5/8" Type X
Gypsum Board
N/A
N/A
1
N/A
Gypsum
Fiberboard
N/A
1
1
N/A
Enhanced
Gypsum Core
3
1
2
N/A
Classification
Level
Impact Resistant Comparison
ASTM D 4977
ASTM D 5420
ASTM E 695
Annex A1
Surface Abrasion
Surface Indentation
Resistance
Soft Body Impact
Test
Hard Body Impact
Test
Abraded Depth
Maximum
Indentation
Maximum
Impact
Minimum
Impact
Minimum
5/8" Type X Gypsum
Board
N/A
N/A
1
N/A
Gypsum Fiberboard
w/ Fiberglass Mesh
N/A
1
3
3
Enhanced Gypsum
Core w/ Fiberglass
Mesh
3
1
2-3
3
Classification Level
Frequently Asked Questions
Frequently Asked Questions
 Why specify abuse and impact resistant products?
 How does it install?
 What other properties are important?
 Where do I specify these products?
 How do I specify these products?
 How much does it cost?
Why Specify?
 Lower cost alternative to CMU and OSB
 Speed of construction
 Lighter weight construction
 More decorative finish options
 Use conventional building materials
 Ease of maintenance
Installation and Finishing Guidelines
Gypsum Fiberboard
Enhanced Core Products
 Control joints required
when adjacent to regular
gypsum board
 No control joints needed when
adjacent to regular gypsum
board
 Setting type joint
compounds required
 Drying type joint compound can
be used
 Skim coat required
/suggested
 Finishes like regular gypsum
board
 Skim coat required/suggested
for fiberglass faced products
Paper or Fiberglass Faced?
Paper Faced
 Not warranted for pre-rock
installations
 No exposure warranty
 Skim coat not required
Fiberglass Faced
 Warranted for pre-rock
installations
 12 month exposure
warranty
 Skim coat required/
suggested
Pre-rock is a term contractors use when interior gypsum
products are installed prior to the building being dried in.
High Performance Features
Many abuse and impact resistant products offer
additional features.
Fire Rated Assemblies
Indoor Air Quality
Mold Resistance per ASTM D 3273
Paper Tape (without any
enhanced mold resistance)
can be used in conjunction
with a mold resistant gypsum
board and a mold resistant
joint compound to achieve a
mold resistant system. Check
with the manufacturer as to
whether a tested system is
available.
Abuse Resistant Applications
Areas prone to surface abrasion and indentation
Residential:
Institutional:
Commercial:







Stairwells
Garages




Hospital observation
rooms
Operating rooms
Cafeterias
Dormitories
Day care centers
Corridors
Public areas
Lobbies
Entries
Impact Resistant Applications
Areas prone to stud cavity penetration
Residential:
Institutional:
Commercial:

Multi-family housing

Classrooms

Stairwells

Correctional Facilities

Corridors

Gymnasiums




Psychiatric wards

Workshops

Mailrooms
Loading areas
Heavily trafficked
corridors
Public areas
Impact Resistant Shaft Wall
 On August 26, 2006, the City of New York amended Section 1 of the building
code. The new section amended title 1 of the Rules of the City of New York,
section 32-05 Impact Resistant Stair and Elevator Enclosures. This new
section was a direct result of the lessons learned after the World Trade
Center disaster.
 The New York City Department of Buildings developed the requirement, and
in 2009 the International Building Code (IBC) adopted a similar requirement,
Section 403.2.3 Structural Integrity of exit enclosures and elevator hoist
way enclosures.
For more detailed design and code information, please refer to the
appropriate sections of the IBC Code or the building code that governs
your project. The code requirement pertains to specific building types
and sets forth minimum design criteria for shaftwall impact-resistance.
This is based on performance testing per ASTM C 1629 and C 1629M –
Standard Classification for Abuse Resistant Non-Decorated Interior
Gypsum Panel Products and Fiber Reinforced Cement Panels. In 2006,
the gypsum industry adopted ASTM C 1629 as the testing standard for
measuring the performance of all abuse and impact panels.
Impact Resistant Shaft Wall
4” 20 Gauge J-Track
4” 20 Gauge C-T Stud
1” Type X Shaftliner
Base Layer
5/8” Type X Impact Resistant
Gypsum Board
1” Screws spaced 14” o.c.
Face Layer
5/8” Type X Gypsum Board
1 5/8” Screws spaced 12” o.c.
How to Specify
 Specs should include separate sections
 Abuse Resistant Gypsum
 Impact Resistant Gypsum
 Specify Classification Level for each ASTM test
 Abuse Resistant section should not include
Hard Body Impact test
 May include other performance characteristics, such
as mold resistance or GREENGUARD certification
Specify by ASTM C 1629 Classification Level
TEST
DESCRIPTION
ABUSE
IMPACT
ASTM D 4977
Surface Abrasion
1–3
1–3
ASTM D 5420
Surface Indentation
1
1
ASTM E695
Soft Body Impact
1–2
2–3
ASTM C 1629
Hard Body Impact
NA
2–3
Products are classified on each test result and may have varying levels of performance
Selector Guide
Activity Level
Type of Damage
Suggested Product
Moderate
Duty
Incidental surface and indentation damage.
Standard Type X Abuse Resistant
Medium
Duty
Resistance to surface damage from people
and objects. Usually unintentional.
Abuse Resistant –
Impact Resistant
Heavy Duty
Resistance to heavy surface, indentation
and penetration damage form people and
objects. Usually intentional.
Impact Resistant
Extreme
Duty
Extreme levels of surface and impact
damage. Usually intentional.
Double Layer Impact
Resistant
Extreme Duty
 Hard Body Impact Test
 Level 3 = 150 ft. lbs
 Double Layer
 >260 ft. lbs.
Steel Studs
Type S Screws
Impact Resistant
Gypsum Board
Impact Resistant
Gypsum Board
Cost Comparison
$10.00
$9.00
$8.00
$0.00



8” CMU
6” CMU
$1.00
Type X & ½” Plywood
$2.00
IR Fiberglass Type X
$3.00
AR Type X
$4.00
5/8” Type X
$5.00
IR Type X
$6.00
AR Fiberglass Type X
$7.00
Gypsum walls based on 3 5/8” 20 gauge – Level 4 Finish
CMU ( hollow core) wall, tooled joints, not reinforced
Level 5 finish recommended for optimal appearance on fiberglass faced products
Source: RS Means 2011 Cost Data and manufacturer’s average sales price for various gypsum products
Abuse Resistant Options
Indentation
 Gypsum Fiberboard
 Abuse-Resistant
Gypsum
Surface Abrasion
 Abuse-Resistant
Gypsum
Impact Resistant Options
Resist Stud Cavity
Penetration
 Gypsum Fiberboard with
Fiberglass Mesh
 Abuse and Impact Resistant
Gypsum Wallboard with
Fiberglass Mesh
Fiberglass Mesh
Reinforcement
Surface Abrasion
 Abuse and Impact Resistant
Gypsum Wallboard with
Fiberglass Mesh
Heavy Abrasion
Mold and Moisture Resistant
Face Paper
Enhanced Mold and
Moisture Resistant
Type X Core
Heavy Mold and Moisture
Resistant Back Paper
Note: For metal studs, specify a minimum of 20 gauge spaced a maximum of 16" on center.
Test results based on vertical installation.
Fiberglass Mesh
Reinforcement
Course Summary
 Define key terms associated with gypsum and wall surfaces.
 Discuss ASTM C 1629 classification system for abuse resistant
panels and ASTM test methods.
 Compare and contrast the performance of different gypsum
board technologies.
 Discuss the installation process, performance features, various
applications, and cost benefits of impact resistant gypsum.
2001 Rexford Road
Charlotte, NC 28211
704-365-7300
[email protected]
© Ron Blank & Associates, Inc. 2012
Abuse and Impact Resistant Gypsum:
Stronger and Safer Walls
Please note: you will need to complete the conclusion quiz online at RonBlank.com to receive credit
Course #: NGC09K
An AIA Continuing Education Program
Credit for this course is 1 AIA HSW CE Hour
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