Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011

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Wales Outdoor
Recreation Survey 2011
Full report
Wales Outdoor
Recreation Survey 2011
Full report
Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
Full report
Foreword
Background
This publication is the main results report from the 2011 Welsh Outdoor Recreation Survey
commissioned jointly by the Countryside Council for Wales and Forestry Commission Wales. A
Technical Report accompanies this document and is available separately.
Contact details
For more information on the survey, contact:
Sue Williams
Senior Social Research Officer
Uwch Swyddog Ymchwil Cymdeithasol
Cyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru: Countryside Council for Wales
Maes Y Ffynnon
Ffordd Penrhos
Bangor
LL57 2DN
Ffon/Tel: 01248 387386
E-bost/E-mail: [email protected]
Ar y We/
surve.aspx
Website:
www.ccw.gov.uk/enjoying-the-country/welsh-outdoor-recreation-
Official Statistics
This is an Official Statistics publication. For more information about Official Statistics and
the UK Statistics Authority visit www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk.
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Contents
Foreward
03
Executive Summary
05
Crynodeb Gweithredol
08
Section 1: Survey Details
11
Section 2: Overall Participation
16
- amount and frequency of participation
17
- types of activities
24
- types of places
29
- barriers to participation
31
Section 3: Visits to the Outdoors
34
- what do people do?
35
- where do people go?
42
- who do people go with?
51
- why do they go?
54
Section 4: Future Participation
57
- latent demand
58
- barriers to increasing participation
62
Section 5: Conclusions
64
Appendix 1 – Questionnaire
66
Publishing Information
© CCW / FCW August 2012
This is a report of research
commissioned by the Countryside
Council for Wales and the Forestry
Commission Wales. However, the views
and recommendations presented in this
report are not necessarily those of CCW
/ FCW and should, therefore, not be
attributed to CCW / FCW.
Countryside Council For Wales
Maes y Ffynnon
Penrhosgarnedd
Bangor
Gwynedd
LL57 2DW
T: 0845 1306 229
F: 01248 385505
E: [email protected]
W: ccw.gov.uk
T: 0300 068 0300
F: 0300 068 0301
E: [email protected]
W: forestry.gov.uk
4
You may reproduce this document free
of charge for non-commercial purposes
in any format or medium, provided that
Forestry Commission Wales
Welsh Government
Rhodfa Padarn
Llanbadarn Fawr
Aberystwyth
Ceredigion
SY23 3UR
Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
Full report
Executive Summary
Background
This publication is the main report from the 2011 Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey (WORS)
commissioned jointly by the Countryside Council for Wales and Forestry Commission Wales. A
total of 6,393 telephone interviews were conducted between January 2011 and January 2012
with adults aged 16+ living in Wales. The approach followed was comparable to that used in
the previous WORS survey when 6,045 interviews were undertaken between January 2008
and January 2009.
Throughout this report, the focus is on statistically significant differences between subgroups within the 2011 sample and statistically significant differences between the 2008 and
2011 results. Some figures may appear to represent a change between surveys or between
the average across all respondents and a sub-group within the sample but due to sample
sizes, cannot be said to be a statistically significant variation and might not be real.
Key findings:
Overall participation
High proportions of the Welsh adult population visited the outdoors in 2011 with an
average of 95% taking any visits in the last 12 months and 88% taking any visits in the
4 weeks prior to interview. This is based on recording participation in a very broad
range of outdoor activities. These results are similar to the proportion of visits
recorded in the 2008 survey.
During 2011, variations were recorded in levels of visit taking (in either the last 4
weeks or last 12 months) amongst different age groups. In the last 12 months, 76% of
those aged 75 and over had taken an outdoor visit compared to 98% of those aged 74
and under. Variations were also recorded on the basis of whether respondents had a
long-term illness/disability or not (87% with, 97% without), academic qualifications
(97% with, 82% without) and car access (96% with, 83% without). Similar variations
were recorded in the 2008 survey.
Walking was the most frequently undertaken activity in 2011, particularly in terms of
visits taken in the last 4 weeks (undertaken on 84% of visits). In 2011 walking was the
single main activity undertaken in 62% of visits, a lower proportion than in 2008 (66%).
Around a quarter of adults (27%) visited the outdoors 'frequently' based on an average
of 21 visits or more in the last 4 weeks. The frequency of participation recorded was
at a similar level in both 2008 and 2011.
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Those who had not taken visits in the last 12 months in 2011 were likely to mention
physical health barriers including disabilities (29%), other health issues (27%) and old
age (14%) as reasons for non-participation. However, these factors were mentioned
less often in relation to reasons for not taking visits during the last 4 weeks, with a
lack of time (31%) more likely to restrict visit taking in this shorter time period.
Visits to the outdoors
In terms of the potential health benefits of outdoor recreation, in just over two-thirds
of outdoor visits taken in 2011, participants reported that the main activity was
enough to raise their breathing rate (68%) and in over half of these cases (58%) the
activity was intense enough to make the participant out of breath or to cause them to
sweat.
In terms of the main destinations of visits, the most visited types of place were
woodland/ forests (18%), local parks (12%), hills, mountains and moorland (11%) and
beaches (11%). The proportions of visits where woodland/ forests or beaches were the
main destination type were higher in 2011 than in the previous survey (increasing
from 14% to 18% and 7% to 11% respectively), while local parks and roadside
pavements or tracks were less likely to be the main destinations visited (decreasing
from 15% to 12% and 12% to 9% respectively).
The majority of the visits recorded in both surveys were taken within 5 miles of their
starting point, with an increase in the proportion of such visits during 2011 (73% in
2008 to 78% in 2011). A car was the main form of transport used in just over half of
visits (55%), an increase from 44% in 2008 despite the higher proportion of ‘close to
home’ visits.
In 2011, the most frequently provided reasons for taking visits to the outdoors were
health and exercise (26%), exercising a dog (25%), fresh air or to enjoy pleasant
weather (16%) and pleasure or enjoyment (16%). While a similar range of responses
were provided in 2008, the results are not directly comparable due to the addition of
new answer options in the 2011 survey.
Future participation
During 2011, six in ten members of the adult population in Wales stated that they
would like to visit the outdoors more often (60%), the same proportion as recorded in
2008.
Around a quarter of Welsh adults (26%) would like to visit beaches more often, 17%
would like to visit hills, mountains or moorland and 13% would like to visit other
coastal areas or a woodland/ forest. In terms of activities, 30% of Welsh adults would
like to take part in walking more often, 8% would like to take part in off-road cycling
and 6% would like to do more road cycling or sightseeing.
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A lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier to participating more often
in 2011, mentioned by around a third of respondents (32%). Notably this reason was
less likely to be provided as a barrier than was the case in 2008 (39%).
Poor weather was also given as a reason for not participating - mentioned by 11% of
adults in 2011, a lower proportion than in 2008 (20%). The higher proportion of
respondents providing this as a reason in 2008 may have been influenced by the heavy
flooding experienced by parts of Wales that year.
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Crynodeb Gweithredol
Cefndir
Y cyhoeddiad hwn yw'r prif adroddiad o Arolwg 2011 o Hamdden Awyr Agored yng Nghymru a
gomisiynwyd ar y cyd gan Gyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru a Chomisiwn Coedwigaeth Cymru.
Cynhaliwyd cyfanswm o 6,393 o gyfweliadau dros y ffôn rhwng mis Ionawr 2011 a mis Ionawr
2012 gydag oedolion 16+ oed sy'n byw yng Nghymru. Roedd y dull a ddefnyddiwyd yn debyg
i'r un a ddefnyddiwyd yn yr Arolwg blaenorol o Hamdden Awyr Agored yng Nghymru pan
gynhaliwyd 6,045 o gyfweliadau rhwng mis Ionawr 2008 a mis Ionawr 2009.
Mae'r ffocws ym mhob rhan o'r adroddiad ar y gwahaniaethau sy'n arwyddocaol yn ystadegol
rhwng is-grwpiau o fewn sampl 2011 a gwahaniaethau sy'n arwyddocaol yn ystadegol rhwng
canlyniadau 2008 a 2011. Gall rhai ffigurau ymddangos i fod yn newid rhwng arolygon neu
rhwng y cyfartaledd ar draws pob ymatebydd ac is-grŵp o fewn y sampl hwnnw ond
oherwydd maint y samplau, ni ellir dweud eu bod yn wahaniaethau sy'n arwyddocaol yn
ystadegol a dylid eu hystyried fel dangosol yn unig.
Darganfyddiadau allweddol:
Cymryd rhan yn gyffredinol
Roedd cyfrannau uchel o boblogaeth oedolion Cymru yn mynd allan i'r awyr agored yn
2011 gyda chyfartaledd o 95% wedi mynd allan i'r awyr agored yn y 12 mis diwethaf a
88% wedi mynd allan i'r awyr agored yn y 4 wythnos cyn y cyfweliad. Mae hyn yn
seiliedig ar gofnodi cymryd rhan mewn ystod eang iawn o weithgareddau awyr agored.
Mae'r canlyniadau hyn yn debyg i'r gyfran o ymweliadau a gofnodwyd yn arolwg 2008.
Yn ystod 2011, cofnodwyd gwahaniaethau mewn lefelau mynd allan i'r awyr agored (yn
un ai'r 4 wythnos ddiwethaf neu'r 12 mis diwethaf) ymysg gwahanol grwpiau oedran.
Yn y 12 mis diwethaf, roedd 76% o'r rhai 75 oed a throsodd wedi mynd allan i'r awyr
agored o gymharu â 98% o'r rhai 74 oed ac iau. Cofnodwyd gwahaniaethau hefyd ar sail
p'un ai oedd gan ymatebwyr salwch hirdymor/anabledd (87% gyda, 97% heb),
cymwysterau academaidd (97% gyda, 82% heb) a mynediad i gar (96% gyda a 83% heb).
Cofnodwyd gwahaniaethau tebyg yn arolwg 2008.
Cerdded oedd y gweithgaredd a wnaed amlaf yn 2011, yn arbennig yn nhermau
ymweliadau yn y 4 wythnos ddiwethaf (a gynhaliwyd ar 84% o ymweliadau). Yn 2011
cerdded oedd yr un prif weithgaredd a wnaethpwyd mewn 62% o ymweliadau, cyfran
is nag yn 2008 (66%).
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Roedd tua chwarter oedolion (27%) yn mynd allan i'r awyr agored 'yn aml' yn seiliedig
ar gyfartaledd o 21 neu fwy o ymweliadau yn y 4 wythnos ddiwethaf. Roedd amlder y
cyfranogiad a gofnodwyd ar lefel debyg yn 2008 a 2011.
Roedd y rhai nad oeddent wedi mynd allan i'r awyr agored yn y 12 mis diwethaf yn
2011 yn debygol o sôn am rwystrau iechyd corfforol yn cynnwys anableddau (29%) a
henaint (14%) fel rhesymau dros beidio cymryd rhan. Fodd bynnag, soniwyd am y
ffactorau hyn yn llai aml yng nghyswllt rhesymau am beidio ymweld â'r awyr agored yn
ystod y 4 wythnos ddiwethaf, gyda diffyg amser (31%) yn fwy tebygol o gyfyngu
ymweliadau yn y cyfnod byrrach hwn.
Mynd allan i'r awyr agored
Yn nhermau manteision iechyd posibl mynd allan i'r awyr agored, mewn ychydig dros
ddau-draean yr ymweliadau i'r awyr agored yn 2011, dywedodd cyfranogwyr fod eu
prif weithgaredd yn ddigon i gynyddu eu cyfradd anadlu (68%) ac yn dros hanner yr
achosion hyn (58%) roedd y gweithgaredd yn ddigon caled i wneud i'r cyfranogwyr golli
eu gwynt neu chwysu.
Yn nhermau prif gyrchfannau, y mathau o lefydd yr ymwelwyd mwyaf â hwy oedd
coetiroedd/coedwigoedd (18%), parciau lleol (12%), bryniau, mynyddoedd a gweundir
(11%) a thraethau (11%). Roedd y cyfrannau o ymweliadau lle mai
coetiroedd/coedwigoedd neu draethau oedd y prif fath o gyrchfan yn uwch yn 2011
nag yn yr arolwg blaenorol (cynyddu o 14% i 18% a 7% i 11% yn yr un drefn), tra bod
parciau lleol a phalmentydd neu draciau wrth ymyl y ffordd yn llai tebygol o fod y prif
gyrchfannau yr ymwelwyd â hwy (yn gostwng i 15% i 12% a 12% i 9% yn yr un drefn).
Gwnaed y mwyafrif o'r ymweliadau a gofnodwyd yn y ddau arolwg o fewn 5 milltir o'u
man cychwyn, gyda chynnydd sylweddol yn y gyfran o ymweliadau o'r fath yn ystod
2011 (73% yn 2008 i 78% yn 2011). Car oedd y prif ddull o gludiant a ddefnyddiwyd
mewn ychydig dros hanner yr ymweliadau (55%), cynnydd o 44% yn 2008 er y gyfran
uwch o ymweliadau 'agos at adref').
Yn 2011 y rhesymau a roddwyd amlaf am ymweld â'r awyr agored oedd iechyd ac
ymarfer (26%), mynd â'r ci am dro (25%), awyr iach neu fwynhau tywydd dymunol
(16%) a phleser neu fwynhad (16%). Er y rhoddwyd ystod tebyg o ymatebion yn 2008,
ni fedrir cymharu'r canlyniadau yn uniongyrchol oherwydd yr ychwanegwyd opsiynau
ateb newydd yn arolwg 2011.
Cymryd rhan yn y dyfodol
Yn ystod 2011, dywedodd chwech ym mhob deg o'r oedolion yn y boblogaeth yng
Nghymru yr hoffent ymweld yn amlach â'r awyr agored (60%), yr un gyfran ag a
gofnodwyd yn 2008.
Hoffai tua chwarter oedolion Cymru (26%) ymweld yn fwy aml â thraethau, hoffai 17%
ymweld â bryniau, mynyddoedd neu weundir a hoffai 13% ymweld ag ardaloedd
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arfordirol eraill neu goetir/coedwig. O ran gweithgareddau, hoffai 30% o oedolion
Cymru gerdded yn amlach, hoffai 8% gymryd rhan mewn seiclo oddi ar y ffordd a
hoffai 6% wneud mwy o feicio ffordd neu weld golygfeydd.
Diffyg amser oedd y rheswm a nodwyd amlaf fel rheswm dros beidio cymryd rhan yn
fwy aml yn 2011, a nodwyd gan tua thraean yr ymatebwyr (32%). Mae'n amlwg fod y
rheswm yma'n llai tebygol o gael ei roi fel rhwystr nag yn 2009 (39%).
Rhoddwyd tywydd gwael hefyd fel rheswm dros beidio cymryd rhan - nodwyd gan 11%
o oedolion yn 2011, cyfran is nag yn 2008 (20%). Gall y llifogydd trwm a gafodd
rhannau o Gymru yn 2008 fod yn rheswm am y gyfran uwch o ymatebwyr a roddodd
hyn fel rheswm y flwyddyn honno.
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Section 1: Survey Details
Background
The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW) promote the outdoor environment of Wales as a
rich and valued resource for leisure and recreation, as well as being a source of economic
and social benefits. Their aim is to ‘make the environment a valued part of everyone’s life in
Wales’ and to connect people with the beauty that the Welsh countryside has to offer.
Forestry Commission Wales (FCW) works in conjunction with CCW in a number of ways in the
promotion of the country’s natural resources for outdoor recreation.
As the Welsh Government’s statutory advisor on sustaining the natural environment and
wildlife in Wales for the enjoyment of all, CCW is responsible for establishing and monitoring
data relating to participation in outdoor recreation in Wales. This enables CCW to provide
the Government with the necessary advice and information for policy formation and
implementation.
Following a pilot in 2007, the 2008 Welsh Outdoor Recreation Survey (WORS) was
commissioned. The survey involved just over 6,000 interviews with adult residents of Wales
(undertaken between 21st January 2008 and 21st January 2009) providing measurement of the
following key areas:
Frequency of participation in outdoor recreation;
Activities undertaken;
Places visited;
Motivations for visiting the outdoors;
Barriers to visiting the outdoors;
Levels of ‘latent demand’ to participate in more outdoor recreation.
As part of their continued commitment to monitoring levels of engagement with the natural
environment in Wales, CCW and FCW commissioned TNS to undertake a repeat of the 2008
survey during 2011.
The objectives of the survey were to provide:
A robust quantitative evidence base on participation in outdoor recreation by adults
living in Wales in 2011.
A statistically valid comparison of data between 2008 and 2011, including the
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identification of significant changes in all aspects of participation.
In-depth multivariate analysis and briefings on specified subjects.
Methodology
Data Collection
Fieldwork for the survey was undertaken between 17th January 2011 and 16th January 2012.
A total of 6,393 telephone interviews were carried out between January 2011 and January
2012 with adults aged 16+ living in Wales. The approach followed was comparable to that
used in the previous survey when 6,045 interviews were conducted.
Interviews lasted an average of 15 minutes and were conducted on all days of the week
(including weekends) and at different times of the day and month. The sample was stratified
by Spatial Plan Area with at least 1,000 interviews in each of Wales’ six Spatial Planning
Areas (SPAs).
Data weighting
To achieve a random sample in each SPA area, households were selected by Random Digital
Dialling (RDD) and a Computer Assisted Telephoning Interviewing (CATI) system was used to
randomly select individual respondents if more than one adult lived in the household.
Results from questions 1 to 3 and questions 16 to 21 have been weighted using demographic
and geographic variables to provide results representative of the Welsh population.
Results from questions 4 to 15 relate to the respondents’ most recent trip to the outdoors.
Information from these questions has been weighted so that the results are representative of
all visits taken to the outdoors by the Welsh population during the survey period.
Questionnaire
The 2011 questionnaire was designed to largely replicate that used in the 2008 survey to
facilitate comparison between the results from the two surveys. Some minor amendments
were made including the addition of two new questions at the end of the survey, regarding
places visited for outdoor recreation in the last 12 months and places respondents would like
to visit more often. Also, an additional two motivation answer options were added to the
reasons for taking visits question (please note that respondents were not shown a list of
responses for this question in either survey but the additional categories available for use by
interviewers may have affected how responses were recorded).
A copy of the 2011 questionnaire can be found in Appendix 1.
A full Technical Report outlining the survey methods is available separately.
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Statistical significance
Throughout this report only statistically significant differences between sub-groups
within the 2011 sample and statistically significant differences between the 2008 and
2011 results are mentioned in the commentary.
While some other figures may appear to represent a change between survey years or a
difference between groups within the population, due to sample sizes, these differences
cannot be said to be a statistically significant variation and might not be real.
Definitions
Detailed below are definitions for some of the analysis categories used in this report.
Outdoor visits
Respondents were presented with the following list of activities and asked if they had done
any of them in the outdoors in the last 12 months and those who had were asked if they had
done any in the last 4 weeks. Those who had taken part in one or more of list of activities
below in the last 4 weeks were defined as having taken an outdoor visit. A detailed series of
questions was then asked of these respondents regarding their most recent visit to the
outdoors involving one or more of these activities and the results of these questions were
weighted to produce data representative of visits taken by the Welsh adult population across
the survey period.
Walking
Road cycling
Off-road cycling or mountain biking
Horse riding
Fishing
Rock climbing or caving
Motorised watersports
Other watersports
Swimming outdoors
Snowsports
Field sports (shooting/hunting)
Air sports (hang gliding/ballooning)
Wildlife watching
Running
Sightseeing or visiting an attraction
Off-road driving or motorcycling
Picnicking (as a significant part of
the activity)
Visiting children’s
playgrounds/taking children to play
areas outdoors
Informal games (e.g.Frisbee or golf)
Other outdoor activities
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Frequency
This refers to the number of visits taken by all respondents during the 4 weeks prior to
interview. Respondents have been classified into the following three groups:
Frequent – have taken 21 or more visits to the outdoors in the last 4 weeks.
Infrequent – have taken between 1 and 20 visits to the outdoors in the last 4 weeks.
Rare – have taken no outdoor visits within the last 4 weeks (including those who have
taken no visits for at least 12 months).
Quarter
This refers to the time period in which respondents were interviewed in and may not
correlate exactly with when the visits were taken e.g. a visit reported on 16th January 2011
could have been taken that day or any time within the four weeks prior to the interview (i.e.
16th December 2010 to 15th January 2011). The dates for each survey quarter are as follows:
Quarter one – 16th January to 15th April 2011
Quarter two – 16th April to 15th July 2011
Quarter three – 16th July to 15th October 2011
Quarter four – 16th October 2011 to 15th January 2012
Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD)
The Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation is the official measure of deprivation in Wales. The
categories that featured in the analysis of the 2011 Welsh Outdoor Recreation Survey were
the bottom 10%, 20% and 30% WIMD areas (most deprived areas) and the top 10% (least
deprived areas. For more information, see the Welsh Government website:
www.wales.gov.uk/topics/statistics/theme/wimd/?lang=en
Communities First
Communities First is a Welsh Government programme aimed at improving living conditions
for those living in the most deprived communities in Wales. For more information see the
Welsh Government website:
www.wales.gov.uk/topics/housingandcommunity/regeneration/communitiesfirst/?lang=en.
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Spatial Planning Areas (SPAs)
The Wales Spatial Plan aims to deliver sustainable development through individual area plans
as part of the Welsh Assembly Government’s statutory Sustainable Development Scheme.
There are six Spatial Planning Areas in Wales, some of which have overlapping areas. These
are:
North West Wales.
North East Wales.
Central Wales.
Pembrokeshire.
Swansea Bay.
South East Wales.
The survey sample has been designed to ensure a minimum of 1,000 interviews with
residents of each SPA area. For more information on the SPA areas, see:
www.wales.gov.uk/location/strategy/spatial/?lang=en
Urban/ rural
The urban/ rural classifications are based on data from the National Statistics website (see
www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/geography/products/area-classifications/rural-urbandefinition-and-la/index.html). For the purposes of this survey and to match those used in
2008, these areas were grouped into the following analysis categories:
Urban.
Town and Fringe.
Village, Hamlet & Isolated Dwellings.
Survey Outputs
Tables presenting the full findings from the survey, a Technical Report and a Summary
Report are also available and can be obtained on the Countryside Council for Wales and
Forestry Commission websites.
www.ccw.gov.uk/enjoying-the-country/welsh-outdoor-recreation-surve.aspx
www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/INFD-7VQEPA
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Section 2: Overall Participation
The results in this section relate to the overall frequencies of visits taken to the outdoors by
the Welsh adult population within the last 12 months, last 4 weeks, seasonal variations in
levels of visit taking, activities undertaken and places visited.
Key findings:
High proportions of the Welsh adult population visited the outdoors in 2011 with an
average of 95% taking any visits in the last 12 months and 88% taking any visits in the
4 weeks prior to interview. This is based on recording participation in a very broad
range of outdoor activities. These results are similar to the proportion of visits
recorded in the 2008 survey.
During 2011, variations were recorded in levels of visit taking (in either the last 4
weeks or last 12 months) amongst different age groups. In the last 12 months, 76% of
those aged 75 and over had taken an outdoor visit compared to 98% of those aged 74
and under. Variations were also recorded on the basis of whether respondents had a
long-term illness/disability or not (87% with, 97% without), academic qualifications
(97% with, 82% without) and car access (96% with, 83% without). Similar variations
were recorded in the 2008 survey.
Walking was the most frequently undertaken activity in 2011, particularly in terms of
visits taken in the last 4 weeks (undertaken on 84% of visits). In 2011 walking was the
single main activity undertaken in 62% of visits, a lower proportion than in 2008 (66%).
Around a quarter of adults (27%) visited the outdoors 'frequently' based on an average
of 21 visits or more in the last 4 weeks. The frequency of participation recorded was
at a similar level in both 2008 and 2011.
Those who had not taken visits in the last 12 months in 2011 were likely to mention
physical health barriers including disabilities (29%), other health issues (27%) and old
age (14%) as reasons for non-participation. However, these factors were mentioned
less often in relation to reasons for not taking visits during the last 4 weeks, with a
lack of time (31%) more likely to restrict visit taking in this shorter time period.
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2.1 Amount and Frequency of Participation
Visits in last 12 months
Respondents were presented with a list of outdoor activities (see page 9) and asked which, if
any, they had undertaken on visits to the outdoors in the last 12 months. This list of
activities was deliberately very broad to ensure that all types of outdoor recreation, in all
types of environment were recorded.
In both survey years, the vast majority of the adult population in Wales had undertaken one
or more of these activities on an outdoor visit during the 12 months prior to being
interviewed (94% in 2008, 95% in 2011 – not significantly different).
Table 2.1 (overleaf) compares levels of visit taking in the last 12 months by the various
demographic groups. While there were no significant differences by gender, those aged 75
and over were notably less likely than those aged 74 and under to have taken visits during
the last 12 months (76% and 98% respectively). Closely related to these variations by age,
lower proportions of those with a long-term illness or disability (87%) had taken any visits
during the previous 12 months (older people are more likely to have a long-term illness or
disability).
In 2011, levels of participation in the last 12 months were also recorded by car access (96%
of those with access taking visits compared to 83% without) and academic qualifications (97%
with any academic qualifications taking visits compared to 83% of those with no
qualifications).
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Table 2.1 Visits taken in last 12 months by demographic group (2011, row %)
Base: All respondents (2011 – 6,393)
Any visits taken
in last 12 months
Total
95
Gender
Any visits taken
in last 12 months
Car access
Yes
96
83
Male
96
No
Female
93
Deprivation
Age
Bottom 20% (most deprived areas)
94
94
16-24
99
Top 10% (least deprived areas)
25-34
98
Communities First Areas
35-54
98
Yes
94
55-74
94
No
95
75+
76
Household income
Long-term illness/ disability
Yes
87
No
97
£15,599 or less
92
£15,600 or above
98
Academic qualifications
Any
97
None/ still in education
83
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Visits in last 4 weeks
In 2011 the majority of Welsh adults (88%) had taken visits to the outdoors in the 4 weeks
prior to interview, similar to the proportion recorded in the 2008 survey.
Table 2.2 overleaf shows the proportions who had taken visits in the last 4 weeks in 2011 by
population group. As with the results relating to visits taken in the last 12 months, while
there was no variation by gender, participation in the last 4 weeks did vary by age with
those aged 75 or over less likely than younger people to have taken visits (81% and 92%
respectively).
Related to this variation, those with a long-term illness or disability were less likely to have
visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks than those without such an impairment (86% and 95%
respectively), as were those with no educational qualifications (85% taking visits compared
to 94% amongst people with any qualifications). Variations were also recorded with regards
to transport access with 93% of those with access to a car having made a visit in the last 4
weeks compared to 88% of those without access to a car.
In 2011, levels of visit taking in the last 4 weeks were also lower amongst those living in the
bottom 20% most deprived areas (88% took visits), in Communities First areas (90% took
visits) and amongst people with a household income of under £16,000 per year (90% took
visits).
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Table 2.2 Visits taken in last 4 weeks by demographic group (2011, %)
Base: All respondents taking visits in the last 12 months (2011 – 6,034)
Any visits taken
in last 4 weeks
Total
93
Gender
Any visits taken
in last 4 weeks
Car access
Yes
93
88
Male
93
No
Female
92
Deprivation
Age
Bottom 20% (most deprived areas)
88
93
16-24
97
Top 10% (least deprived areas)
25-34
96
Communities First Areas
35-54
94
Yes
90
55-74
92
No
94
75+
81
Household income
Long-term illness/ disability
Yes
86
No
95
£15,599 or less
90
£15,600 or above
96
Qualifications
Any
94
None/ still in education
85
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Frequency of visits in last 4 weeks
The chart below illustrates the frequency with which outdoor visits were taken amongst the
adult population in Wales. In both surveys, around a quarter of the population took between
1 and 5 visits in the last 4 weeks (26% in 2008, 25% in 2011), while around a quarter of adults
(27%) visited the outdoors 'frequently' based on an average of 21 visits or more within Wales
in the last 4 weeks in 2011, a figure equal to that recorded in 2008. 12% had not taken any
outdoor visits in the last 4 weeks in 2011, a smaller proportion than that recorded in 2008
(14%). Those most likely to have taken 21 or more visits within Wales in the last 4 weeks
were dog owners (42%) and those living in a village, hamlet or isolated dwelling (38%).
Figure 2.1 Frequency of outdoor visits in last 4 weeks (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All respondents (2008 – 6,045; 2011 = 6,393)
2008
30
26
25
25
21
20
15
17
14
2011
18
17
22
18
12
10
5
5
5
1
1
0
None
1-5
6-10
11-20
Note: Percentages equal more than 100% due to rounding
21
21-50
50-100
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Participation by season
The figure below illustrates how frequently members of the adult population in Wales visited
the outdoors during the spring and summer months from April to September. Results from
both the 2008 and 2011 surveys are shown.
Figure 2.2 Outdoor visits, April to September (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All respondents (2008 - 6,045; 2011 = 6,393)
2008
2011
37
40
33
35
30
25
20
21
15
15
18
15
14
15
10
11
10
3
5
2
4
4
0
More than
once a day
Once a day
Several times
a week
Once a week
Once/ twice a
month
Once/ twice
Never/ don't
know
In both 2008 and 2011, just over four-fifths of respondents typically visited the outdoors at
least once a week during the April to September (83% in 2008, 84% in 2011). However,
respondents in 2011 were more likely than those surveyed in 2008 to state that they
normally visited several times a week (37% compared to 33% in 2008) but less likely to state
that they visited once a day (18% compared to 21% in 2008).
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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The figure below illustrates the frequency of visits taking during the autumn and winter
months from October to March.
Figure 2.3 Outdoor visits, October to March (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All respondents (2008 - 6,045; 2011 = 6,393)
2008
30
26
2011
27
25
20
20
16
15
10
9
18
15
17
18
10
5
5
7
8
4
0
More than
once a day
Once a day
Several times
a week
Once a week
Once/ twice a
month
Once/ twice
Never/ don't
know
Between the 2008 and 2011 surveys, the proportion of the Welsh adult population visiting
the outdoors at least once a week during this time of year remained at a similar level (71% in
2008, 70% in 2011). In both surveys, visits were taken at a lower frequency in the autumn
and winter months than during the April to September period.
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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2.2 Types of activities undertaken on visits
Visits in last 12 months
As shown in Figure 2.4 (overleaf), in 2011, the most frequently undertaken activity on visits
to the outdoors in the last 12 months was walking (87%). This activity was particularly likely
to be undertaken by people who have children (93%), dog owners (90%) and residents of rural
areas (89%).
Almost three-quarters of respondents had undertaken sightseeing or visiting an attraction on
a visit to the outdoors in the last 12 months in 2011 (73%). Those more likely than the
average to have undertaken this activity included those with a household income of £31,200
or more (88%), those with children (86%), those educated to degree level or above (86%) and
those with access to a car (76%).
Just under half of respondents had visited a children’s playground or other outdoor play
areas in 2011 (49%) with women (55%) more likely than men (43%) to have undertaken this
activity.
Picnicking was also undertaken by around half of respondents in 2011 (49%). The groups
more likely than the average to have undertaken this activity included those with children
(74%), 25-34 year olds (65%), residents of the top 10% least deprived areas (55%) and women
(54%).
In terms of the more active pursuits, the highest levels of participation were recorded for
running (27%), road cycling (26%), outdoor swimming (25%) and off-road cycling (20%).
When analysed by SPA region, participation during 2011 was higher than the national average
in Central Wales for fieldsports (14%), while Pembrokeshire residents were more likely than
the residents of other SPAs to have undertaken any type of watersports (30%).
While overall participation was very high in both surveys, there were increases in
participation for some specific activities. The largest increase was recorded for informal
games such as frisbee or golf (39% in 2011 compared to 22% in 2008), while an increase from
31% to 38% was recorded for wildlife watching and the proportion visiting children’s
playgrounds or other outdoor play areas increased from 43% to 49%. Other increases were
recorded for road cycling, off-road cycling or mountain biking, rock climbing or caving,
snowsports and airsports (e.g. hang gliding/ballooning).
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Figure 2.4 Activities undertaken in outdoors in last 12 months (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All respondents (2008 - 6,045; 2011 = 6,393)
Note: multiple responses possible
2008
2011
87
86
Walking
73
71
Sightseeing/ visiting an attraction
49
Visiting children's playgrounds/ taking children outdoors
43
49
46
Picnicking
39
Informal games
22
38
Wildlife watching
31
27
24
26
21
25
27
20
16
Running
Road cycling
Swimming outdoors
Off-road cycling/ mountain biking
10
10
12
10
12
10
9
Off-road driving/ motorcycling
Fishing
Non-motorised watersports
Snowsports
5
8
7
7
5
7
6
5
5
Field sports
Rock climbing/ caving
Horse riding
Motorised watersports
1
2
1
Air sports
Other
5
5
6
None
0
25
20
40
60
80
100
Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Visits in last 4 weeks
In 2011, those who had taken any visits in the last 12 months were asked to specify any
activities undertaken during outdoor visit taken in 4 weeks prior to interview (as shown in
Figure 2.5 overleaf). As in 2008, walking was the most frequently undertaken activity during
this time period (84% in 2011). Those more likely to have undertaken this activity in the last
4 weeks included those qualified at degree level or above (90%), those with bicycle access
(89%), those with children (88%), those living in the top 10% least deprived areas (88%), those
with no illness or disability, those in paid employment (86%) and those living in rural areas
(86%).
Just under half of those who had taken a visit to the outdoors in the last four weeks had
taken part in sightseeing or visiting an attraction in 2011 (47%). This activity was more likely
than average to have been undertaken by those with children (59%), those educated to
degree level or above (58%), 25-54 year olds (54%), those interviewed in the spring and
summer months (54%), those in paid employment (53%) and those with access to a bicycle
(53%).
Just under two-fifths of those who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks in 2011 had
taken children to a playground or other outdoor play area (38%). This activity was more
likely to have been undertaken by those with children in the household (72%), 25-34 year
olds (56%), women (43%), those with bicycle access (43%), those in paid employment (42%)
and those with no long-term illness or disability (40%).
Comparing the results of the 2008 and 2011 surveys, increases were recorded for sightseeing
or visiting an attraction (from 40% in 2008 to 47% in 2011), visiting children’s playgrounds/
outdoor play areas (from 31% to 38%), wildlife watching (from 23% to 32%) and informal
games such as frisbee or golf (from 13% to 24%). Smaller increases were also recorded for
participation in road cycling, running, picnicking and fishing.
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Figure 2.5 Activities undertaken in outdoors in last 4 weeks (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who undertook an activity on an outdoor visit in last 12 months (2008 - 5,732; 2011 = 6,034)
Note: multiple responses possible
2008
84
82
Walking
47
Sightseeing/ visiting an attraction
2011
40
38
Visiting children's playgrounds/ taking children outdoors
31
32
Wildlife w atching
23
24
Informal games
13
22
17
21
17
14
11
10
8
7
7
7
Picnicking
Running
Road cycling
Off-road cycling/ mountain biking
Sw imming outdoors
Fishing
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
Non-motorised w atersports
Off-road driving/ motorcycling
Field sports
Horse riding
Rock climbing/ caving
Snow sports
Motorised w atersports
Air sports
1
3
Other
7
9
None
0
20
27
40
60
80
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The large sample size in each of the individual SPA areas allows for separate analysis of the
2011 results on this basis. Compared to the all Wales average, activities more likely to be
undertaken in the last 4 weeks by residents of each of the areas were as follows:
North West Wales – walking (88%), wildlife watching (42%), picnicking (27%), road
cycling (20%), off-road cycling or mountain biking (14%), fishing (11%), non-motorised
watersports (6%) and fieldsports such as shooting or hunting (6%).
North East Wales – sightseeing or visiting attractions (53%), wildlife watching (38%),
fieldsports such as shooting or hunting (6%) and rock climibing or caving (4%).
Central Wales – wildlife watching (41%), fieldsports such as shooting or hunting (9%)
and off-road driving (7%).
Pembrokeshire – walking (88%), wildlife watching (40%), picnicking (26%), fishing
(10%), watersports (10%), swimming outdoors (9%), horse riding (6%) and off-road
driving or motorcycling (6%).
Swansea Bay – running (25%) and swimming outdoors (10%).
South East Wales – no activities more likely to be undertaken than national Welsh
averages.
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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2.3 Types of places visited
Visits in last 12 months
In 2011, those who had taken a visit to the outdoors in the last 12 months were asked to
provide details of all of the types of places they had visited, as shown in Figure 2.5 below.
Respondents could select more than one type of place. This question was not asked in 2008,
therefore, no comparative data is available.
Figure 2.6 Places visited in the last 12 months (2011, %)
Base: All who undertook an activity on an outdoor visit in last 12 months (2011 = 6,034)
Note: multiple responses possible
Village
79
Local park
76
Beach
76
Ot her local open space
73
Roadside pavement / t rack
73
Sea
73
Woodland/ f orest
72
Hills/ mount ains/ moorland
66
River/ lake/ canal
66
Farmland
57
Ot her coast line
55
0
20
40
60
80
10 0
As shown above, during 2011 almost four-fifths of Welsh adults had taken an outdoor visit to
a village in the last 12 months. Residents of Central Wales (87%), those living in North West
Wales (86%), those living in Pembrokeshire (85%) and those with children in their household
(82%) were more likely to have visited this type of place. In contrast, those groups less likely
to have visited this type of place included Communities First residents (70%) and people
without access to a car (64%).
Overall, 76% of Welsh adults had visited a local park in the last 12 months with a higher
proportion of those with children (92%), those under the age of 54 (83%), those living in
urban locations (81%) and women (79%) visiting this type of place. Residents of the Swansea
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Bay area were more likely than those living in any other SPA to have visited a local park
(80%).
Beaches were visited by around three-quarters of respondents in 2011 (76%) with those living
in Pembrokeshire (90%), North West Wales (87%) and Swansea (82%) more likely to have done
so, as were people with children (85%).
Most of the other types of place asked about had also been visited by more than two-thirds
of Welsh adults during the last 12 months in 2011 including 72% visiting woodland or forests.
In 2011, variations by SPA reflected the supply of places available to visit in each of the
areas with a higher proportion of residents of Central Wales having visited farmland (75%)
and/or rivers, lakes or canals (74%). Hills, mountains and moorland were more likely to be
visited by those living in the Central (76%), North West (74%) and North East (72%) SPAs,
while beaches were more likely to have been visited by those living in Pembrokeshire (90%)
and those in the North West (87%). Residents of Pembrokeshire were also more likely to have
visited coastline destinations other than beaches in the last 12 months (69%), potentially a
reflection of high levels of usage of the coastal path in that area.
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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2.4 Barriers to participation
Figure 2.7 below highlights the reasons for not visiting the outdoors given by those who had
not done so in the last 12 months.
Figure 2.7 Barriers to participation - last 12 months (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: Those who have not visited the outdoors in last 12 months (2008 – 313, 2011 = 359)
Note: multiple responses possible
29
31
27
Physical disabilit y
Ot her healt h r eason
23
14
Old age
22
10
Busy/ lack of t ime
18
2011
4
3
3
3
Bad/ poor weat her
Too dif f icult wit h disabled
2008
2
2
1
1
Too dif f icult wit h elder ly
Lack of suit able places
0
10
20
30
40
Just over half of non-participants mentioned a physical disability or other health reason
(56%), while 14% cited old age as a reason for not visiting the outdoors in 2011. Physical
disability was seen as more prohibitive amongst non-visitors than other barriers, with a
smaller proportion mentioning a lack of time (10%) and just 1% of non-visitors indicating that
they had a lack of suitable places to visit. Due to small sample sizes, differences between
the barriers in 2008 and 2011 are not statistically significant.
Figure 2.8 overleaf shows the reasons given for not visiting the outdoors in the last 4 weeks
by those who had not visited recently but had taken visits in the last 12 months in 2011.
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Figure 2.8 Barriers to participation - last 4 weeks (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: Those who have not visited the outdoor s in last 4 weeks (2008 – 459, 2011 = 408)
Note: multiple responses possible
Busy/ lack of t ime
23
Bad/ poor weat her
Ot her healt h reason
Physical disabilit y
11
3
Old age
Too dif f icult wit h children
Too dif f icult wit h disabled
1
Too dif f icult wit h elderly
1
1
Needed at home
1
Lack of suit able places
1
1
1
No one t o go wit h
Lack of suit able t ransport
1
1
Not convenient
0
31
34
19
19
7
2
3
2
2011
2
2008
2
5
1
Not enough money
15
29
3
10
20
30
40
In 2011, a lack of time was the most prominent obstacle to taking visits in the last 4 weeks
(31%), mentioned much more frequently than was the case for barriers to visiting over a 12
month period. Likewise, weather conditions had more of an impact on propensity to visit in
the last 4 weeks, with almost a quarter citing this as a reason for not visiting during this
period (23%). Physical disability, health considerations and old age were less prominent
barriers when considering reasons for not visiting in the last 4 weeks. There were no
statistically significant differences between the barriers reported in 2008 and 2011.
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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In 2011, there were variations in the barriers to taking visits in the last 4 weeks provided by
different sub-groups within the population including the following:
Too busy/ lack of time (31% overall) –more likely to be mentioned by those in paid
employment (55%).
Other health reason (19% overall) – more likely to be mentioned by those aged 75 and
over (30%), those with no academic qualifications (30%), those not in paid
employment (25%) and those with no children (21%).
Physical disability (15% overall) – mentioned by a higher proportion of those with a
household income of under £16,000 (26%), those living in Communities First areas
(25%), those who are unemployed (25%) and those with no academic qualifications
(22%).
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Section 3: Visits to the Outdoors
Those who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks were asked for further details about
their most recent visit. This section focuses on the characteristics of these visits by looking
at what people do, where they go, who they go with and why they choose to visit the
outdoors. Results have been weighted so that they are representative of the visits taken by
the Welsh adult population during the survey period.
Key findings:
In terms of the potential health benefits of outdoor recreation, in just over two-thirds
of outdoor visits taken in 2011, participants reported that the main activity was
enough to raise their breathing rate (68%) and in over half of these cases (58%) the
activity was intense enough to make the participant out of breath or to cause them to
sweat.
In terms of the main destinations of visits, the most visited types of place were
woodland/ forests (18%), local parks (12%), hills, mountains and moorland (11%) and
beaches (11%). The proportions of visits where woodland/ forests or beaches were the
main destination type were higher in 2011 than in the previous survey (increasing
from 14% to 18% and 7% to 11% respectively), while local parks and roadside
pavements or tracks were less likely to be the main destinations visited (decreasing
from 15% to 12% and 12% to 9% respectively).
The majority of the visits recorded in both surveys were taken within 5 miles of their
starting point, with an increase in the proportion of such visits during 2011 (73% in
2008 to 78% in 2011). A car was the main form of transport used in just over half of
visits (55%), an increase from 44% in 2008 despite the higher proportion of ‘close to
home’ visits.
In 2011, the most frequently provided reasons for taking visits to the outdoors were
health and exercise (26%), exercising a dog (25%), fresh air or to enjoy pleasant
weather (16%) and pleasure or enjoyment (16%). While a similar range of responses
were provided in 2008, the results are not directly comparable due to the addition of
new answer options in the 2011 survey.
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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3.1 What do people do?
All activities undertaken
Figure 3.1 overleaf shows the proportions of visits including each of the activities asked
about in the survey, regardless of whether or not this was the main activity done during the
visit.
The popularity of walking during an outdoor visit was evident in both surveys, with around
seven in ten outdoor visits including this activity (72% in 2008 and 73% in 2011). Other
activities undertaken in a smaller proportion of visits in 2011 included wildlife watching
(17%), taking children to playgrounds or other outdoor play areas (15%) and sightseeing or
visiting an attraction (13%).
Compared to 2008, outdoor visits taken in 2011 were more likely to have included wildlife
watching (11% in 2008 and 17% in 2011), visiting children’s playgrounds or other outdoor play
areas (11% and 15% respectively) and/or sightseeing or visiting an attraction (10% and 13%).
The proportions of visits including running, informal games, picnicking or swimming outdoors
were also higher in 2011 than in 2008.
Notably a larger proportion of the visits taken by people with no academic qualifications
(84%), those aged 55 and over (83%), those with a long-term illness or disability (79%), dog
owners (78%), those with a household income of under £16,000 (78%) and those with no
children (75%) included walking in 2011.
In terms of the nature of the walking undertaken, in 2011 36% of all visits involved a short
walk of less than 2 miles, 36% involved dog walking, 27% involved a long walk, hike or ramble
of at least 2 miles and 20% involved hill or mountain walking (these categories are not
mutually exclusive with respondents able to select more than one ‘type’ of walking).
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Figure 3.1 All activities undertaken in outdoors in last 4 weeks (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273; 2011 = 5,626)
Note: multiple responses possible
2008
2011
73
72
Walking
17
11
15
11
13
10
9
Wildlife watching
Visiting children's playgrounds/ taking children outdoors
Sightseeing/ visiting an attraction
Running
6
8
5
7
4
4
3
4
3
3
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
Informal games
Picnicking
Road cycling
Off-road cycling/ mountain biking
Horse riding
Swimming outdoors
Off-road driving/ motorcycling
Non-motorised watersports
Fishing
Field sports
Rock climbing/ caving
Other
2
0
36
20
40
60
80
Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Further analysis of the data has shown that the sub-groups of the population most likely to
undertake each of these specific types of walking varied in 2011 as follows:
Short walk <2 miles (37% overall) –more likely to be included on the visits taken by
those aged 75 and over (56%), those with no academic qualifications (46%), those with
a long-term illness or disability (45%), women (45%), residents of Pembrokeshire (43%)
and those not in paid employment (43%).
Dog walking (36% overall) – dog owners (65%), 35-74 year olds (42%), those taking
visits in the first 3 months of 2011 (41%) and women (39%) were more likely to have
undertaken this activity on their most recent outdoor visit.
Long walk, hike or ramble (27% overall) – undertaken on a higher proportion of the
visits taken by 35-54 year olds (32%) and those with no children (29%).
Hill/ mountain walk (20% overall) –more likely to be undertaken on visits taken by
those living in the North West of Wales (27%) and dog owners (23%).
Main activity
Those who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks were also asked to specify the single
main activity they had undertaken on their most recent visit (see Figure 3.2 overleaf). While
walking was the single main activity on just over 3 in 5 visits (62%) this was a lower
proportion than recorded in 2008 (66%). This variation suggests that visits taken in 2011 were
more likely to involve a wider variety of activities than in 2008.
The other main activities undertaken most often included visiting children’s playgrounds or
other outdoor play areas (8%), sightseeing or visiting an attraction (5%) and running (5%).
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Figure 3.2 Main activity undertaken in outdoors in last 4 weeks (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273; 2011 = 5,626)
2008
2011
62
66
Walking
8
8
Visiting children's playgrounds/ taking children outdoors
5
5
5
4
4
4
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Sightseeing/ visiting an attraction
Running
Informal games
Wildlife watching
Horse riding
Road cycling
Off-road cycling/ mountain biking
Fishing
Picnicking
Off-road driving/ motorcycling
Non-motorised watersports
Field sports
0
38
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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Table 3.1 below shows the proportions taking part in each of the main activities in 2011 by
gender and age. Cells have been highlighted in bold when a group was more likely to have
taken part in a particular activity.
Table 3.1 Main activities undertaken on most recent visit by gender and age (2011, %)
Base: All who had taken a visit to the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2011 – 5,626)
Total
Gender
Age
Male
Female
16-34
25-34
35-54
55-74
75+
Walking
62
55
68
39
49
63
75
79
Visiting children’s
playgrounds/ outdoor
play areas
8
6
10
8
12
10
4
2
Running
5
7
4
14
10
4
1
*
Sightseeing/ visiting
an attraction
5
5
5
5
7
4
5
4
Horse riding
3
1
4
8
2
3
1
-
Wildlife watching
3
3
3
1
3
2
4
6
Road cycling
2
3
1
4
3
2
1
*
Off-road cycling/
mountain biking
2
4
1
5
4
3
1
-
Fishing
2
3
*
2
2
1
1
1
Non-motorised
watersports
1
2
*
3
2
1
*
*
Field sports
1
2
*
1
-
1
1
*
Off-road driving/
motorcycling
1
1
*
1
*
1
*
1
Picnicking
1
1
1
*
2
*
1
3
* = <0.5%; - = no responses
Figures highlighted in bold are significantly higher than other sub-groups within that classification e.g. 68% of
women who walked as a main activity is significantly higher than the proportion of men who did so (55%)
This comparison highlights that, in 2011, higher proportions of men took part in running (7%),
road cycling (4%) or off-road cycling or mountain biking (4%) as their main activity, while
women were more likely to have undertaken walking (68%) or visiting children’s
playgrounds/ other outdoor play areas (10%) as their main activity. When analysed by age,
visits taken by those aged 55 and over were more likely to have walking (76%) as their main
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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activity while the main activity on visits taken by those aged 54 and under was more likely to
be a visit to a children’s playground or other outdoor play area (10%). Also those aged
between 16 and 24 were more likely than older participants to include horse riding (8%).
Other variations in the main activities included on visits in 2011 included the following:
Long-term illness or disability – visits by those with a long-term illness or disability
were more likely to have included walking (71%) as their main activity but less likely
to include most of the other activities.
Working status – visits by those not in paid employment were more likely to include
walking as a main activity (66%), while visits by people in employment were more
likely to include running (7%) or off-road cycling or mountain biking (4%).
Children – the main activity on the visits taken by people with children in their
household was more likely be visiting children’s playgrounds or other outdoor play
areas (18%).
Intensity of activity
Those who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks in 2011 were asked questions
regarding the intensity of the main activity they had undertaken.
In just over two-thirds of visits taken during 2011, respondents reported that the main
activity was enough to raise their breathing rate (68%), a figure that did not differ greatly
from the 2008 figure of 65% (not a statistically significant increase). Activity participants
under the age of 54 (72%) and those in paid employment (71%) were more likely to state
that their main activity was enough to increase their breathing rate.
Those who indicated that their main activity increased their breathing rate were then
asked if their activity caused them to be out of breath or to break into a sweat. Just over
half of these respondents indicated that this was the case (58% in 2011), a similar figure to
that recorded in 2008 (56%, not a statistically significant increase). In 2011, visits taken by
those aged 16-24 (78%) were more likely to have made the participant out of breath or
sweating.
Looking at all outdoor visits in 2011, those where running was the main activity were more
likely than the average to have caused those taking the visit to state that they had been
out of breath and/or sweating (94% of all visits). This was also the case for visits where the
main destination visited was hills, mountains or moorland (62%) or woodland/forest (51%).
Health benefits were less likely to be reported for visits where wildlife watching (13%),
sightseeing (15%) or visiting children’s playgrounds (28%) were the main activities and for
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visits where local parks (32%), other local open spaces (27%) or beaches (28%) were the
main destination.
Activity duration
Respondents were asked to specify the length of time spent undertaking their main activity
on their most recent visit to the outdoors. Over half of visits taken to the outdoors within
the last 4 weeks in 2011 involved less than 2 hours being spent on the main activity (58%),
while a further two in ten visits involved between 2 hours and 2 hours 59 minutes
undertaking the main activity (20%). The average amount of time spent undertaking the
main activity in 2011 was 2 hours and 4 minutes, less than the average in 2008, which was 2
hours and 38 minutes.
Figure 3.3 Duration undertaking main activity on most recent visit (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273, 2011 = 5,626)
0-29 minutes
2hrs-2hrs 59
Do n't kno w
2011
6
19
2008
5
22
0%
20%
30-59 minutes
3hrs - 4hrs 59
33
1hr - 1hr 59
5+ ho urs
20
35
17
40%
60%
14
8
1
12
8
1
80%
10 0 %
In 2011, visits taken by people aged 75 and over, those with no academic qualifications and
those with a long-term illness or disability were more likely to involve a time period of less
than an hour undertaking the activity (42%, 38% and 33% respectively). Conversely, the
visits taken by residents of North East Wales SPA (26%) were more likely to involve
participation in activities for 3 hours or more.
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In terms of the activities undertaken, visits where walking or running were the main
activities were more likely to involve less than 2 hours being spent on this pursuit (68% and
77% respectively) while visits involving wildlife watching (16%) or sightseeing/ visiting an
attractions (29%) were more likely to have involved 5 hours or more being spent
participating.
Variations in the time spent on the main activity were also evident by the main destination
visited in 2011. Over a quarter of visits to local parks involved only 30 to 59 minutes being
spent on the main activity, while 44% of visits where woodland/forests were the main
destination involved 1 hour to 1 hour and 59 minutes being spent on the main activity.
Under 2 hours was spent undertaking the main activity on eight in ten visits where a
roadside pavement or track was the main destination visited (80%) while higher proportions
of visits where hills/ mountains/ moorland (48%) and other coastline (38%) were the main
destination involved the main activity being undertaken for 3 hours or more.
3.2 Where do people go?
Survey respondents were asked to specify all of the type of places included in their most
recent visit to the outdoors and, if they had been to more than one place during this visits,
to then specify the single main type of place visited (see Figure 3.4 overleaf).
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Figure 3.4 below shows the full range of locations included in the visits taken by the Welsh
adult population.
Figure 3.4 Locations visited on most recent outdoor visit (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273; 2011 = 5,626)
Note: multiple responses possible
2008
2011
55
Roadside pavement/ track
41
51
Woodland or forest
36
50
Other local open space
34
44
Hills/ mountain/ moorland
33
43
Village
30
40
Farmland
26
38
Local park
33
35
River/ lake/ canal
29
28
Beach
20
26
Sea
15
18
Other coastline
18
2
Other
6
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
The most frequently visited location in 2011 was a roadside pavement or track (55% of
visits). This type of place was more likely to be included on visits taken by residents of the
top 10% least deprived areas (63%), those between the ages of 16 and 34 (61%), women (59%)
and those living in South East Wales (60%) or Swansea Bay (60%).
In 2011 51% of outdoor visits included time spent in a woodland. This type of location was
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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more likely to be included in the visits taken by those living in North East Wales (60%), dog
owners (56%), those living in rural areas (56%) and people with no long-term illness or
disability (53%).
The third most frequently visited location in 2011 was an ‘other local open space’, featured
on 50% of all visits. Higher than average proportions of the visits taken by those living in
urban areas (53%) included this type of place.
Comparing the types of places visited by residents of each of the SPA areas, there are a
number of other variations in 2011:
Farmland –more likely to be included on visits taken by residents of Central Wales
(56%).
Local park –more likely to be included on visits taken by those living in the South East
(45%) and Swansea Bay (41%).
Beach - more likely to be included on visits taken by residents of North West Wales
(48%), Pembrokshire (45%) and Swansea Bay (38%).
Sea – visits taken by residents of North West Wales (42%) and Pembrokeshire (41%)
were more likely to include this type of destination.
Village –more likely to be included on visits taken by residents of Pembrokeshire
(48%), North West Wales (48%) and Swansea Bay (46%).
Comparing the profile of types of place included in visits during 2008 and 2011, it is notable
that respondents generally indicated that they had included a wider range of types of place
in their visits resulting in increased proportions for nearly every destination category. Most
notably, higher proportions of visits were recorded as including roadside pavements or tracks
(41% in 2008, 55% in 2011), woodlands or forests (36% and 51% respectively) and other local
open spaces (34% and 50%). These changes may partly relate to differences in how
respondents answered the question in 2011 with respondents typically providing a larger
range of responses to this question in the most recent survey. However, with the exception
of farmland and local parks, the order of places visited remained the same in 2011 as that
recorded in 2008 (in 2008 local parks were the equal fourth most likely type of place to be
included in visits but this ranking decreased to eighth in 2011. Over the same period
farmland increased from being seventh most visited type of place in 2008 to sixth in 2011).
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Main destination
Respondents were also asked which of the types of locations visited was their single main
destination on their most recent visit, as shown in Figure 3.5 overleaf. In this context, the
largest proportions of visits had woodland or forest as their main destination in 2011 (18%),
followed by local parks (12%), hills/ mountains/ moorland (11%) and beaches (11%).
Between 2008 and 2011, there were increases in the proportions of visits with woodland or
forests (14% in 2008 to 18% in 2011) or beaches (7% to 11%) as the main destination but
decreases in the proportions of visits with local parks (15% to 12%) or roadside pavements or
tracks (12% to 9%) as the main visit destination.
Comparing the main destination on visits taken by different population groups, variations in
2011 included the following:
Woodland/ forest (18% overall) –more likely to have been the main destination on
visits taken by dog owners (22%), those living in rural areas (21%) and those in paid
employment (20%).
Local park (12% overall) –more likely to be the main destination on visits taken by
those with children (19%), 25 to 34 year olds (18%), those living in South East Wales
(17%) and those living in urban areas (16%).
In terms of SPA area, higher proportions of visits taken by residents of Central Wales (19%)
and Pembrokeshire (15%) had farmland as their main destination. Beaches were more likely
to be the main visit destination for those living in Pembrokeshire (19%) and North West
Wales (19%), while higher proportions of the visits taken by residents of North West Wales,
Pembrokshire and Swasea Bay (8% each) had other coastline locations as their main
destination in 2011.
In both 2008 and 2011, for the vast majority of respondents, the main outdoors destination
visited was located in Wales (96% and 97% respectively).
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Figure 3.5 Main location visited on most recent visit (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273; 2011 = 5,626)
2008
2011
18
Woodland or forest
14
12
Local park
15
11
Hills/ mountain/ moorland
11
11
Beach
7
10
Farmland
8
9
Roadside pavement/ track
12
8
Other local open space
8
8
River/ lake/ canal
8
5
Village
5
5
Other coastline
6
2
Sea
2
2
Other
5
0
5
10
15
20
Further analysis regarding the main types of place visited according to the main activities
undertaken illustrates a number of statistically variations (note that sample size limitations
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Wales Outdoor Recreation Survey 2011
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mean that statistically significant variations can only be identified for the higher
participation activities). Most notably visits where wildlife watching was the main activity
were more likely than the overall average to have farmland as the main destination visited
(25% and 10% respectively) while visits where running was the main activity were more likely
than the overall average to have been taken on roadside pavements or tracks (19% v 9%) or
in a mountain/hill or moorland destination (21% v 11%).
Figure 3.6 Type of roadside pavement/ track visited (2011, %)
Base: All who had visited a roadside pavement/ track as main destination (2011 = 2,822)
Pavement in t own/ cit y/ village
Pavement in count ryside
Grass verge in t own/ cit y/ village
Track/ grass verge in count ryside
Walking/ running/ riding on road it self
Ot her
10
2
42
28
8
10
In the 2011 survey, a new question was added to the survey asking those who had stated that
a roadside pavement or track was their main destination to provide more details. As shown
above, the vast majority of roadside pavements or tracks visited (as a main destination)
were pavements in towns, cities or villages (42%), one in ten visits were on a grass verge in a
town, city or village while an equal proportion of visits involved walking, running or riding on
the road itself (10% each).
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Visit details
Those who visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks were asked to estimate the distance
travelled to their main destination (one way rather than total distance travelled), as shown
in Figure 3.7 below.
Figure 3.7 Distance travelled on most recent visit (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273, 2011 = 5,626)
<1 mile
Ov er 10-20 miles
2 0 11
1-5 miles
Ov er 20-50 miles
46
2008
32
43
0%
20%
Ov er 5-10 miles
Ov er 50 miles
40%
8
30
9
60%
80%
6
7
5 3
7
4
100%
Over two-fifths of visits in both 2008 and 2011 were taken within a mile of the visit start
point, be it the respondent’s home, workplace or holiday accommodation (43% in 2008, 46%
in 2011), while around three in ten of visits (30% in 2008; 32% in 2011) were taken between 1
and 5 miles from the starting point.
Between 2008 and 2011, the proportion of visits taken within 5 miles of the starting point
increased from 73% to 78%.
In 2011, visits more likely to be taken within a mile of the start point included those by
people with no car access (56%), those taken between January and March (53%), those taken
by dog owners (51%) and those taken by frequent visitors (51%).
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Figure 3.8 below shows the main modes of transport used on visits to the outdoors. While
just over half of visits in 2011 involved the use of a car (55%), around a third involved
walking as a mode of transport (35%). Smaller proportions of visits included the use of public
transport (4%) or a bicycle or mountain bike (3%).
Comparing the 2008 and 2011 results, a higher proportion of visits taken in the more recent
period involved a journey by car while a correspondingly lower proportion were taken on
foot.
Figure 3.8 Main mode of transport on most recent visit (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: Those who have not visited the outdoors in last 4 weeks and travelled 0.5 miles or more
(2008 – 4,745, 2011 =4,153)
55
Car
44
35
On f oot / walking
46
4
4
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
Public t r anspor t
Bicycle/ mount ain bike
Hor seback
Coach - t r ip/ pr ivat e
Ot her
0
2011
2008
10
20
30
40
50
60
In 2011, visits taken by those living in Central Wales (64%), those living in rural areas (62%)
and those in paid employment (60%) were more likely to have involved a journey by car.
Walking was the main mode of transport on a higher proportion of the visits taken by women
(39%) and those with a household income of £15,599 or less (42%).
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As well as recording the time spent undertaking their main activity (see Figure 3.3), those
who visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks were asked how long their most recent visit
lasted in total, as shown in Table 3.3 below.
Table 3.3 Total duration of most recent visit (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had taken a visit to the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273; 2011 – 5,626)
2008*
2011
0 - 29 mins
3
2
30 – 59 mins
13
12
1hr – 1hr 59 mins
25
26
2hrs – 2hrs 59 mins
19
19
3hrs – 3hrs 59 mins
12
10
4hrs – 5 hrs 59 mins
13
15
More than 6hrs
15
15
Don’t know
1
1
100
100
Total
* Percentages equal more than 100% due to rounding
While four in ten visits taken in 2011 were under 2 hours in duration (40%), an equal
proportion lasted for 3 hours or more. The average total visit duration was 4 hours and 26
minutes, shorter than that recorded in 2008 (5 hours and 18 minutes).
While 14% of all visits in 2011 lasted less than an hour, those visits taken by people with no
academic qualifications (25%), those aged 75 and over (20%), those with a long-term illness
or disability (18%) and frequent visitors (17%) were more likely to be of this duration.
In contrast, while 30% of all visits in 2011 lasted 4 hours or more, visits of this duration were
more likely to be taken by people aged 16-24 (39%), infrequent visitors (39%), those who did
not own a dog (37%) and men (35%).
When analysed by main activity and main destination, while 40% of all visits lasted less than
2 hours, those which featured running as a main activity and those taken to a roadside
pavement or track were more likely to be in this shorter duration band (73% and 61%
respectively). Conversely, while 41% of all visits lasted 3 hours or more, those which
included sightseeing as a main activity, those taken to coastline other than a beach and
those with hills, mountains or moorland as a main destination were more likely to be in this
longer duration band (91%, 70% and 63% respectively).
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3.3 Who do people go with?
Party composition
As shown in Figure 3.9 below, almost half of the visits in 2011 were taken with family
members (46%), a higher proportion than in 2008 (41%). 36% of visits in 2011 were taken
alone, 19% were taken with friends and 5% were taken as part of an organised group.
Figure 3.9 Party composition (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had taken a visit to the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273, 2011 =5,626)
Note: Multiple responses possible
36
Alone
39
46
Wit h f amily
41
19
Wit h f r iends
2011
21
2008
5
Or ganised gr oup
4
0
10
20
30
40
50
Some variations in the party compositions of visits taken by different population groups in
2011 included the following:
Alone (36% of visits overall) – more likely to be visits taken by those aged 55 and over
(46%), dog owners (43%), frequent visitors (42%) and people with no children (40%).
With family (46% of visits overall) – a higher proportion of the visits taken by people
in the 25 to 54 age group (55%), infrequent visitors (54%), women (52%) and those who
did not own a dog (50%) were with other family members.
With friends (19% of visits overall) – more likely to involve visits taken by 16 to 24
year olds (39%), infrequent visitors (23%), those who did not own a dog (22%) and
those with no children (21%).
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As shown in Table 3.4 below, around a quarter of visits taken in 2011 involved a party of two
people (27%). A similar proportion of visits had a party of between 3 and 5 members (27%),
while around one in ten involved a larger party of 6 or more people (11%). The mean party
size did not vary greatly between the two surveys (3.4 in 2008, 3.7 in 2011, not a
statistically significant variation).
Table 3.4 Number of people in party (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had taken a visit to the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273; 2011 – 5,626)
2008*
2011
1
39
36
2
30
27
3
11
12
4-5
10
15
6-9
4
6
10+
5
5
3.4
3.7
Mean
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Children in party
In 2011, 28% of outdoor visits included children in the party, a similar proportion to that
recorded in 2008.
Figure 3.10 Number of children in party on most recent visit (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had taken a visit to the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273, 2011 =5,626)
72
75
None
11
11
9
1
2
7
5
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
4- 5
6- 9
10+
0
2011
2008
20
40
60
80
During 2011 children were more likely to have been in the party on visits taken by those
aged 25-54 (39%), those with any academic qualifications (39%), infrequent visitors (34%),
women (32%), those in paid employment (31%) and those who took visits in the spring and
summer months from April to September (31%).
Dogs on visit
In both 2008 and 2011, a dog or dogs were taken on around two-fifths of outdoor visits (38%
and 40% respectively). In 2011, dogs were more likely to be taken on visits taken by the most
frequent visitors (50%), those aged between 35 and 74 (47%) and those living in North East
Wales (48%) or Central Wales (47%).
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In terms of the types of place visited, visits where farmland or woodland/forestry was the
main destination were more likely to be taken with a dog or dogs (59% and 53% of visits
respectively).
3.4 Why do they go?
In addition to understanding the characteristics of visits to the outdoors, a key area of
interest is the motivations for visiting the outdoors. As shown in Figure 3.11 (overleaf), the
most frequently mentioned motivations in 2011 were health or exercise (26% of visits)
and/or walking the dog (25% of visits), followed by fresh air/ pleasant weather (16% of visits)
and for pleasure or enjoyment (16% of visits). During 2011 there were some variations in the
reasons for visiting the outdoors amongst different demographic groups:
Health/ exercise (26% of visits overall) – more likely to be a motivation on visits taken
by 55 to 74 year olds (32%) and men (30%).
Exercise a dog (25% of visits overall) – the motivation for almost half (47%) of the
visits taken by dog owners.
Fresh air/ pleasant weather (16% of visits overall) – more likely to be a motivation on
visits taken by infrequent visitors (21%), people with children (20%), those who took
visits between April and June (20%) and women (18%).
Pleasure/ enjoyment (16% overall) – more likely to be a motivation on the visits taken
by residents of the Swansea Bay SPA (20%), those educated to degree level or above
(19%) and infrequent visitors (19%).
To enjoy/ participate in a hobby (8% overall) – more likely to be the motivation
amongst male participants (11%) and in visits taken in the fourth quarter of the year
(11%).
Enjoy scenery/ wildlife (7% overall) –more likely to be a motivation on those visits
taken by people aged 75 and over (19%).
Relax/unwind (3% overall) –more likely to motivate visits taken by 25 to 34 year olds
(9%).
To get somewhere (4% overall) - more likely to motivate those people who are not in
paid employment and those who live in Communities First areas (9% each).
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Figure 3.11 Motivations for visiting the outdoors on most recent visit (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All who had visited the outdoors in the last 4 weeks (2008 – 5,273; 2011 = 5,626)
Note: multiple responses possible
2008
2011
26
Health/ exercise
36
25
26
Exercise a dog
16
Fresh air/ enjoy pleasant
weather
22
16
Pleasure/ enjoyment*
8
Enjoy/ participate in hobby
20
7
Enjoy scenery/ wildlife
9
7
Entertain children
8
5
5
Spend time with family
4
Get somewhere*
3
Relax/ unwind
7
2
Spend time with friends
5
1
Learn about the outdoors
2
1
Peace/ quiet
2
1
Achieve something
5
Challenge myself
2
0
10
20
* Codes not included in 2008.
55
30
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Health or exercise and exercising a dog were also the most frequently mentioned
motivations for visits in 2008 (36% and 26% respectively). However, it is notable that in the
2011 survey, lower proportions of respondents selected each of the motivations that were
featured in both the 2011 and 2008 surveys. This variation may, in part, be related to the
addition of two new answer codes in 2011 (‘for pleasure/enjoyment’ and ‘to get
somewhere’).
Variations in motivations were evident by the main activity and main destination visited in
2011 (note that sample size limitations mean that statistically significant variations can only
be identified for the higher participation activities and most visited types of place). Some of
the most notable variations included the following:
Fresh air/ pleasant weather (16%) - more likely to be a motivation on visits where
visiting children’s playgrounds or other outdoor areas (27%) or walking (18%) were the
main activities undertaken and on visits where a beach (25%) or a local park (23%)
were the main destinations visited.
Health/ exercise (26% overall) – more likely to be a motivation on visits where running
(80%) or walking (28%) were the main activities undertaken.
Exercise a dog (25% overall) - more likely to be a motivation on visits where walking
(38%) was the main activity undertaken and on visits where a woodland/ forest (34%)
or farmland (32%) were the main destinations visited.
Pleasure/ enjoyment (16% overall) - more likely to be a motivation on visits where
sightseeing/ visiting an attraction (29%) was the main activity undertaken and on visits
where hills/ mountains/ moorland (25%) or other coastline areas (31%) were the main
destinations visited.
Enjoy scenery and wildlife (7% overall) - more likely to be a motivation on visits
where wildlife watching (39%) or sightseeing/ visiting an attraction (12%) were the
main activities undertaken and where hills/ mountains/ moorland were the main
destinations visited (16%).
Entertain children (7% overall) - more likely to be a motivation on visits where visiting
children’s playgrounds or other outdoor areas (51%) was the main activity undertaken
and a local park was the main destination visited (23%).
Spend time with family (5% overall) – more likely to be a motivation on visits where
sightseeing/ visiting attractions (16%) or visiting children’s playgrounds or other
outdoor areas (15%) were the main activities undertaken and on visits where a local
park was the main destination visited (9%).
Relax/ unwind (3% overall) - more likely to be a motivation on visits where running
(14%) was the main activity undertaken and on visits where hills/ mountains/
moorland were the main destinations visited (10%).
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Section 4: Future Participation
In addition to assessing current behaviour, the survey looked at latent demand for visiting
the outdoors more often. This section includes results relating to latent demand for visiting
places and undertaking specific activities, as well as the barriers that have prevented
respondents from taking part or visiting as often as they would like.
Key findings:
During 2011, six in ten members of the adult population in Wales stated that they
would like to visit the outdoors more often (60%), the same proportion as recorded in
2008.
Around a quarter of Welsh adults (26%) would like to visit beaches more often, 17%
would like to visit hills, mountains or moorland and 13% would like to visit other
coastal areas or a woodland/ forest. In terms of activities, 30% of Welsh adults would
like to take part in walking more often, 8% would like to take part in off-road cycling
and 6% would like to do more road cycling or sightseeing.
A lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier to participating more often
in 2011, mentioned by around a third of respondents (32%). Notably this reason was
less likely to be provided as a barrier than was the case in 2008 (39%).
Poor weather was also given as a reason for not participating - mentioned by 11% of
adults in 2011, a lower proportion than in 2008 (20%). The higher proportion of
respondents providing this as a reason in 2008 may have been influenced by the heavy
flooding experienced by parts of Wales that year.
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4.1 Latent demand
Latent demand - overall
Overall six in ten Welsh adults would like to visit the outdoors for recreation more often, an
equal proportion to that recorded in 2008 (60%). Those more likely to be interested in
visiting the outdoors more often included infrequent visitors (67%), 16 to 54 year olds (67%),
people with children (66%), those with a household income of £31,200 or more (66%) and
those educated to degree level or above (63%).
In contrast, a lower than average proportion of people who were already frequent visitors
(43%), dog owners (56%), people aged 55 and over (49%), those living in rural areas (51%) and
those living in Central Wales or Pembrokeshire (52% and 53%) expressed interest in visiting
the outdoors more often.
Latent demand - activities
In addition to being the most frequently undertaken activity amongst those who visit the
outdoors, walking was also the activity that the highest proportion of respondents would like
to do more often (30% in 2011). This activity was more likely to be of interest to people
educated to degree level or above (37% would like to walk more often), those aged 35 to 54
(36%), women (35%), those in paid employment (35%) and people who do not own a dog
(34%).
Other variations in demand to take part more often in different activities included:
Off-road cycling/ mountain biking (8% overall) – more likely to be of interest to those
with a household income of over £50,000 (17%), those with children (13%), 16 to 54
year olds (12%), those in paid employment (12%) and infrequent visitors (10%).
Sightseeing/ visiting an attraction (6% overall) - more likely to be of interest to those
with a long-term illness or disability (8%) and those who have not visited the outdoors
in the last 4 weeks (9%).
Road cycling (6% overall) - more likely to be of interest to those with a household
income of over £50,000 (12%), those with children (9%), those aged 16 to 54 (8%),
those educated to degree level or above (9%), those in paid employment (8%) and
residents of the Swansea Bay and North West Wales SPAs (9% and 8% respectively).
Informal games such as frisbee or golf (5% overall) - more likely to be of interest to
those aged 16 to 24 (12%).
Watersports (5% overall) - more likely to be of interest to those living in
Pembrokeshire (10%) and Swansea Bay SPAs (8%).
Running (4% overall) - more likely to be of interest to those aged 16-34 (8%).
Swimming outdoors (3% overall) - more likely to be of interest to those living in the
Swansea Bay SPA (5%).
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Rock climbing/ caving (2% overall) - more likely to be of interest to those aged 16 to
34 (5%).
Figure 4.1 Activities would like to undertake more often in outdoors (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All respondents (2008 – 6,045; 2011 = 6,393)
Note: multiple responses possible
2008
2011
30
Walking
34
8
7
6
8
6
7
5
Off-road cycling/ mountain biking
Sightseeing/ visiting an attraction
Road cycling
Informal games*
5
6
4
3
3
3
3
5
2
2
2
3
2
3
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
7
Watersports
Running
Fishing
Swimming outdoors
Wildlife watching
Horse riding
Rock climbing/ caving
Visiting children's playgrounds/ taking children outdoors
Picnicking
Off-road driving/ motorcycling
Field sports
Snowsports
Air sports
Other
33
No answer/ don't know
28
0
*Not included in 2008
59
10
20
30
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Latent demand – places
As shown in Figure 4.2 overleaf, just over a quarter of respondents in 2011 indicated that
they would like to visit beaches more often than they currently do (26%). Those more likely
to mention this type of destination included those with children (35%), those aged 16 to 54
(34%), women (31%), dog owners (29%) and residents of South East Wales (29%).
In 2011, the second most frequently mentioned type of place that residents of Wales would
like to visit more often was hills, mountains and moorland (17%). This category was more
likely to be selected as an appealing destination by those educated to degree level or above
(26%), residents of North West and North East Wales (25% and 21% respectively), those with a
household income of £31,200 or above (25%), men (21%) and those aged 35 to 54 (21%).
Other variations in interest to visit in future by location in 2011 included:
Woodland/ forest (13% overall) – more likely to be of interest to those with children
(18%), dog owners (15%), 16 to 54 year olds (15%), those in paid employment (15%).
Other coastline (13% overall) - more likely to be of interest to those residents in the
top 10% least deprived areas (17%), those in paid employment (17%), 35 to 54 year
olds (16%) and those who do not own a dog (15%).
Sea (11% overall) - more likely to be of interest to those living in North East Wales
(15%).
River/ lake/ canal (7% overall) – also more likely to be of interest to those living in
North East Wales (11%).
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Figure 4.2 Places would like to visit more often (2011, %)
Base: All respondents (2011 = 6,393)
Note: multiple responses possible
26
Beach
17
Hills/ mountain/ moorland
Woodland or forest
13
Other coastline
13
11
Sea
7
River/ lake/ canal
5
Local park
Farmland
4
Other local open space
4
Historic sites
4
3
Village
Roadside pavement/ track
2
Gardens
2
5
Other
28
None
0
5
10
61
15
20
25
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4.2 Barriers to increasing participation
It is important to understand the reasons that may prevent an increase in outdoor visits.
Figure 4.3 (overleaf) outlines the barriers selected by respondents for not participating in
activities as much as they would have liked. The most frequently mentioned barrier in 2011
was being too busy/ a lack of time. Around a third of respondents cited this barrier (32%), a
lower proportion than did so in 2008 (39%). The proportions mentioning a number of the
other reasons also decreased, particularly references to poor weather (20% in 2008, 11% in
2011)1.
Those more likely to have mentioned being busy or a lack of time as a barrier in 2011
included those in paid employment (49%), those with a household income of £31,200 or more
(47%), those between the ages of 35 and 54 (46%), those educated to degree level or above
(42%), those with children (40%) and men (36%).
Other variations in references made to the other main barriers in 2011 included the
following:
Bad/ poor weather (11% overall) – more likely to be mentioned by those interviewed
between January and March (16%), 16 to 24 year olds (15%), infrequent visitors (13%),
residents of Pembrokeshire SPA (13%) and those with children (13%).
Other health reasons (7% overall) – mentioned as a barrier by 18% of people with a
long-term illness or disability. Also more likely to be given as a reason for not
increasing participation by those with a household income of £15,199 or less (12%),
those aged 55 and over (12%), those with no academic qualifications (11%), those with
no access to a car (11%) and those not in paid employment (11%).
Disability (4% overall) - cited as a barrier by 12% of those with a long-term illness or
disability and a larger proportion of those with a household income of £15,199 or less
(9%), those without access to a car (8%) and those aged 55 or over (7%).
Lack of suitable places to go (4% overall) - more likely to be cited as a barrier by
those living in Swansea Bay SPA (6%).
1
As there was no variation in the question wording or the way in which it was asked, it would appear that on
average fewer barriers were mentioned by individual respondents than was the case in 2008.
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Figure 4.3 Barriers to increased participation in outdoor activities (2008 & 2011, %)
Base: All respondents (2008 – 6,045; 2011 = 6,393)
Note: multiple responses possible
2008
2011
32
Always too busy/ lack of time
39
11
Bad/ poor weather
20
7
Other health reason
12
4
Physical disability
6
2
Too difficult - children
2
2
Old age
6
1
Too difficult - elderly
1
Not interested
1
1
No particular reason
9
0
10
20
63
30
40
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Section 5: Conclusions
The 2011 Welsh Outdoor Recreation Survey provides valuable insights into the Welsh adult
population’s participation in outdoor recreation, the variations between demographic groups
and also by geography. By providing comparable results to those from the 2008 survey, it is
possible to identify changes over this period and some potential emerging trends. Some of
the key insights are summarised below:
The vast majority of the Welsh adult population continued to take part in outdoor
recreation on at least an infrequent basis in 2011. The average proportions recorded
taking visits in the 12 months and last 4 weeks prior to interview have remained at
consistent levels to those recorded in 2008 (95% in last 12 months, 88% in last 4
weeks). The general frequency of participation also remained at similar levels
between 2008 and 2011, with just over a quarter of adults (27%) visiting the outdoors
‘frequently’ in 2011.
The small proportion of the population who have not taken visits to the outdoors for a
year or more indicated that physical considerations (disability, other health concerns
and old age) prevented participation while those who have not taken visits in the
shorter term (last 4 weeks) are more likely to cite time constraints and/or poor
weather as reasons for not participating in 2011. A similar range and relative
importance of such barriers were identified in both the 2008 and 2011 surveys.
While the proportion of the population taking visits and the frequency that these visits
are taken has remained similar between 2008 and 2011, the survey results suggest
that those people who visit the outdoors tend to be participating in a greater range of
activities and visiting more places during the trips they take. Most notably, increases
were recorded in the proportions undertaking wildlife watching, visiting children’s
playgrounds and sightseeing or visiting an attraction. Reflecting these findings, while
the majority of visits included walking as the main activity, the proportion that did so
decreased between 2008 and 2011. Other activities were more likely to feature as the
main activity in 2011 than was the case in the previous survey.
In terms of the types of places visited, between 2008 and 2011 when respondents
were asked to focus on the main destination visited, increases were recorded in the
share of visits where woodland/ forests or beaches were the main place visited, while
a lower share of visits had roadside pavements or tracks or local parks as their main
destination.
Between the two surveys, there has been an increase in the proportions of visits taken
within 5 miles of the visit start point (73% in 2008 to 78% in 2011). Potentially related
to this greater volume of ‘closer to home’ visits, the average visit duration and
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average amount of time spent undertaking outdoor activities was less than in 2008 (4
hours and 26 minutes in total of which 2 hours and 4 minutes spent doing outdoor
activity compared to 5 hours and 18 minutes and 2 hours and 38 minutes in 2008).
However, despite this indication that more visits are being taken ‘close to home’,
there has been an increase in use of the car as a main mode of transport and a
decrease in walking.
The proportion of visits delivering health benefits has not varied greatly over time. Six
in ten of those who visited in the last 4 weeks in 2011 indicated that their main
activity was enough to raise their breathing rate in both years. Around half of those
who stated that their breathing rate was affected by their main activity also indicated
that it was enough to cause them to be out of breath or to sweat. Health and exercise
continues to be the most frequently provided reason for taking visits.
Latent demand for visiting the outdoors more often than at present also remained at
the same levels as recorded in 2008, with six in ten members of the adult population
in Wales expressing an interest in visiting more often than they currently do. The
activity of most potential interest continues to be walking (30% would like to do more
in 2011) while the places of most interest were beaches (26% would like to visit
more), hills, mountains and moorland (17%), woodland/forests (13%) and other types
of coastline (13%).
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Appendix 1: Survey questionnaire
Good morning/afternoon/evening, my name is [INTERVIEWER NAME] from TNS Research
International, an independent research agency and we are carrying out a survey on
behalf of the Countryside Council for Wales and Forestry Commission Wales about
leisure/free time spent in the outdoors. This important study will be used to help
improve use of and access to the outdoors in Wales.
The responses you provide will be held, together with your details, by the Countryside
Council for Wales and the Forestry Commission. This data will be used for research
purposes only. The interview will take around 15 minutes.
In this survey we are interested in leisure visits and excursions to the outdoors of any
length. These visits may have been made from your home or during holidays.
By outdoors, we mean open spaces anywhere in the countryside or in towns and cities,
including your local neighbourhood, paths, woodland, parks and farmland. Visits may
have involved any informal outdoor recreation, including both active or passive pursuits.
PART 1
VISITS IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS
The next few questions are about visits to the outdoors you have made during the last 12
months.
ASK ALL
Q1a Which of the following activities have you undertaken at least once during visits to
the outdoors in the last 12 months?
multicode
Walking
Road cycling
Off-road cycling or mountain biking
Horse riding
Fishing
Rock climbing or caving
Motorised watersports
Other watersports
Swimming outdoors
Snowsports
Field sports (shooting/hunting)
Air sports (hang gliding/ballooning)
Wildlife watching
Running
Sightseeing or visiting an attraction
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Off-road driving or motorcycling
Picnicking (as a significant part of the activity)
Visiting children’s playgrounds/taking children to play areas outdoors
Informal games (e.g.Frisbee or golf) - specify
Other outdoor activities - specify
None of these
ASK ALL
Q1b During the summer months, from April to September, how often on average have
you visited the outdoors?
single code only.
single code
More than once per day
Once a day
Several times a week
Once a week
Once or twice a month
Once or twice
Never
Don’t know do not read out
ASK ALL
Q1c And during the winter months from October to March, how often on average have
you visited the outdoors?
single code.
Once a day
Several times a week
Once a week
Once or twice a month
Once or twice
Never
Don’t know do not read out
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PART 2
VISITS IN THE LAST 4 WEEKS
ASK ALL WHO MENTION AT LEAST ONE ACTIVITY AT Q1A. OTHERS GO TO Q16A.
The next few questions are about visits to the outdoors you have made during the last 4
weeks.
Q2 Which of the following activities have you undertaken at least once during visits to
the outdoors in the last 4 weeks?
Walking
Road cycling
Off-road cycling or mountain biking
Horse riding
Fishing
Rock climbing or caving
Motorised watersports
Other watersports
Swimming outdoors
Snowsports
Field sports (shooting/hunting)
Air sports (hang gliding/ballooning)
Wildlife watching
Running
Sightseeing or visiting an attraction
Off-road driving or motorcycling
Picnicking (as a significant part of the activity)
Visiting children’s playgrounds/taking children to play areas outdoors
Informal games (e.g.Frisbee or golf) - specify
Other outdoor activities - specify
None of these
ASK Q3A OF ALL WHO MENTION AT LEAST ONE ACTIVITY AT Q2. OTHERS GO TO Q16.
Q3a How many visits to the outdoors have you made in the last 4 weeks? You may have
made more than one visit each day.
enter number of visits
type in
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Q3b And how many of these visits were to outdoor places in Wales in the last 4 weeks?
enter number of visits
type in
PART 3
MOST RECENT VISIT
ASK ALL WHO MENTION AT LEAST ONE ACTIVITY AT Q2. OTHERS GO TO Q16A.
I’d like to ask you some questions about your most recent visit to the outdoors in the last
four weeks.
Q4a Which of the activities that you said you have done in the last 4 weeks, did you
undertake on your most recent visit to the outdoors? You said that you
did……INTERVIEWER READ OUT ACTIVITY/ACTIVITIES BELOW
CATI TO ROUTE ALL ACTIVITIES MENTIONED AT Q2
Q4b Thinking about [insert activity from Q4a] did this involve…?
Q4B REPEATED FOR EACH ACTIVITY MENTIONED AT Q4A AND APPROPRIATE SUBCATEGORIES ATTACHED.
Multicode.
Walking
Dog walking
A short walk/stroll – less than 2 miles/1 hour
A long walk, hike or ramble in lowland areas – at least 2 miles/1 hour
Hill or mountain walking
Other walking - specify
Road cycling
A short cycle – less than 1 hour
A long cycle – at least 1 hour
Other road cycling - specify
Off-road cycling or mountain biking
Cycling or mountain biking on purpose built single track
Cycling or mountain biking on off-road trails such as bridleways
Cycling/mountain biking on off road cycle paths, forest tracks and green lanes
Cycling/mountain biking off tracks and trails
Other cycling or mountain biking - specify
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Horse riding
Trekking or hacking on bridleways
Trekking or hacking on forest tracks
Trekking or hacking on specific horse trails
Riding in an enclosed designated area (e.g. field, arena)
On-road carriage driving
Off-road carriage driving
Other horse riding or pony trekking - specify
Fishing
Sea angling from shore
Sea angling from a boat
Course fishing
Game fishing
Other fishing - specify
Rock climbing or caving
Rock climbing
Caving or potholing
Bouldering
Other - specify
Motorised watersports
Water skiing
Jet skiing/biking
Power boating
Other - specify
Other watersports
Diving
Snorkelling
Sailing
Yachting
Rowing/paddle boat
Surfing/body-boarding
Canoeing/kayaking
Other non-motorised watersports - specify
Swimming outdoors
Swimming in the sea
Swimming in a river or lake
Swimming in an outdoor pool or paddling pool
Other - specify
Snowsports
Skiing
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Snowboarding
Using a dry ski slope
Other snowsports - specify
Fieldsports
Shooting
Stalking
Other - specify
Air sports
Flying
Microlites
Plane gliding
Para-gliding
Hang-gliding
Ballooning
Other air sports - specify
Wildlife watching
Bird watching
Other wildlife watching - specify
Running
Jogging
Fell running
Orienteering
Other - specify
Sightseeing or visiting an attraction
Sightseeing by car
Sightseeing on a bus or coach trip
Sightseeing on a train
Visiting a historic attraction
Visiting a zoo
Visiting a theme park or amusement park
Other sightseeing or attractions - specify
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Off-road driving or motorcycling
Off-road motorcycling on greenlanes
Off-road motorcycling on forest tracks
Off-road driving on greenlanes
Off-road driving on forest tracks
Using an enclosed off-road vehicle facility
Other - specify
Visiting children’s playground/taking children to play areas outdoors
A traditional children’s playground
An outdoor adventure play area
Other - specify
ASK Q4C OF ALL WHO MENTION MORE THAN ONE ACTIVITY AT Q4A. OTHERS GO TO Q5.
Q4c And which would you say was the main activity you did on your most recent visit to
the outdoors?
CATI TO ROUTE ACTIVITIES MENTIONED AT Q4A
Q5 During this visit, how long did you spend [MAIN ACTIVITY] in the outdoors?
type in hours and mins
Hrs
Mins
Don’t know
Q6 was the effort you put into [MAIN ACTIVITY] enough to…?
a) make you raise your breathing rate?
single code only
single code
Yes
No
Don’t know
ASK IF YES (CODE 1) AT Q6A. OTHERS GO TO Q7A
b) make you out of breath or sweat?
single code only
single code
Yes
No
Don’t know
Q7a Which of the following, if any, best describes the types of places you visited on your
most recent visit to the outdoors?
multicode.
Woodland or forest
Farmland
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Local park
Other local open space
Roadside pavement/track
Hills, mountains or moorland
River, lake or canal
Beach
Sea
Other coastline
Village
Other - specify
ASK Q7B IF MORE THAN ONE PLACE SELECTED AT Q7A
Q7b Which of these was the main place you visited?
if respondent is unsure:
For example, the place you spent the longest amount of time in.
single code
INSERT PLACES VISITED AT Q7A.
Q7c And was this place in Wales?
Yes
No
Don’t know
ASK Q7D OF THOSE WHO VISITED A ‘ROADSIDE PAVEMENT/TRACK’ AT Q7A. OTHERS GO
TO Q8
Q7d You mentioned that you visited a roadside pavement or track. Which of the
following best describes this pavement or track?
single code. if more than one given, ask for main one used
A roadside pavement in a town, city or village
A roadside track or grass verge in a town, city or village
A roadside pavement in the countryside
A roadside track or grass verge in the countryside
Was walking/running/riding on the road itself
Other
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INTERVIEWER NOTE: IF RESPONDENT ASKS:
- BY PAVEMENT WE MEAN A PATH WITH A SURFACE SUCH AS CONCRETE OR TARMAC.
- BY TRACK WE MEAN UNSURFACED E.G. GRAVEL, GRASS, ETC.
Q8 Approximately how far, in miles, did you travel to reach this place? By that I mean
the one way journey to the place visited.
if respondent is unsure, ask for an estimate.
if activity was undertaken from home/workplace/overnight accommodation with no travel
to start point, type in 0.
if place visited was less than 1 mile away, type in 0.5.
type in number
ASK ALL WHO ENTER >=0.5 AT Q8. OTHERS GO TO Q10.
Q9 What was the main mode of transport you used to reach this place on your most
recent visit to the outdoors?
do not prompt. single code
if not on list code as other and type in verbatim.
Car/van
Train
Public bus/coach
Coach trip/private coach
Motorcycle/scooter
Bicycle/mountain bike
On foot/walking
On horseback
Boat (sail or motor)
Taxi
Other - specify Don’t know do not read out
Q10 How long did your visit last altogether – that is from the time you left your
home/workplace/overnight accommodation to when you returned?
type in hours and mins
Hrs
Mins
Don’t know
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Q11 Which of the following, if any, best describes who accompanied you when you went
or did [MAIN ACTIVITY] on your most recent visit to the outdoors?
multicode ok. if not on list, code as other and type in verbatim.
No one, I went on my own. GO TO Q14
I went with my family
I went with my friends
I went as part of an organised group
Other - specify
ASK ALL WHO WENT WITH OTHERS AT Q11. OTHERS GO TO Q14.
Q12 And how many people, including yourself, were on this visit?
type in number
ASK ALL WHO WENT WITH OTHERS AT Q11. OTHERS GO TO Q14.
Q13 And how many, if any, of these people were aged under 16 years?
type in number of children
Don’t know
Q14 Were you accompanied by a dog on your most recent visit to the outdoors?
Yes
No
Don’t know
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Q15 What reasons, if any, best describe why you made this visit to the outdoors to go
[MAIN ACTIVITY]?
code all mentioned. if not on list, code as other and write in verbatim
To spend time with family
To spend time with friends
To learn something about the outdoors
For fresh air or to enjoy pleasant weather
For health or exercise
For peace and quiet
To relax and unwind
To exercise your dog
To enjoy scenery and wildlife
To entertain children
To challenge myself
To achieve something
To enjoy/participate in my hobby
For pleasure/enjoyment
To get somewhere (e.g. walking to work/shops)
For other reasons - SPECIFY
Don’t know do not read out
PART 4
GENERAL QUESTIONS
ASK ALL WHO HAVE MADE NO VISITS TO THE OUTDOORS IN THE LAST FOUR WEEKS (CODE
21, ‘NONE OF THESE’ AT Q2)
Q16. For what reasons, if any, have you not made any visits to the outdoors in the last
four weeks?
do not read out. code all mentioned. if not on list, code as other and write in verbatim.
Always too busy / lack of time
No-one to look after matters at home while I am away
Too difficult with children
Too difficult with elderly
Too difficult with disabled
Bad / poor weather
Physical disability
Pregnant
Old age
Other health reason
Lack of information on where to go / Don’t know where to go
Lack of suitable places to go
Prefer to go to other places
Prefer to do other leisure activities
Wouldn’t enjoy it
Prevented or discouraged by land owners / managers
Nervous or uneasy about what might happen (eg Personal safety, getting lost)
Not enough money / can’t afford it
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No-one to go with
Don’t feel like I fit in / belong / am welcome
Lack of suitable means of transport / getting there
Dislike travelling
Not convenient
Not interested
No particular reason
Other - specify
Don’t know – do not read out
ASK ALL WHO HAVE MADE NO VISITS TO THE OUTDOORS IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS (CODE
21, ‘NONE OF THESE’ AT Q1D)
Q16a. For what reasons, if any, have you not made any visits to the outdoors in the last
12 months?
do not read out. code all mentioned. if not on list, code as other and write in verbatim.
Always too busy / lack of time
No-one to look after matters at home while I am away
Too difficult with children
Too difficult with elderly
Too difficult with disabled
Bad / poor weather
Physical disability
Pregnant
Old age
Other health reason
Lack of information on where to go / Don’t know where to go
Lack of suitable places to go
Prefer to go to other places
Prefer to do other leisure activities
Wouldn’t enjoy it
Prevented or discouraged by land owners / managers
Nervous or uneasy about what might happen (e.g. Personal safety, getting lost)
Not enough money / can’t afford it
No-one to go with
Don’t feel like I fit in / belong / am welcome
Lack of suitable means of transport / getting there
Dislike travelling
Not convenient
Not interested
No particular reason
Other - specify
Don’t know – do not read out
ASK ALL
Q17. Would you like to visit the outdoors more often than you do at the moment?
single code
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Yes
No
Don’t know
ASK ALL
Q18. Which activities, if any, would you like to do, or do more often than you do at the
moment in the outdoors?
do not read out but code answers appropriately. if not on list, code other and type in
verbatim.
Walking
Road cycling
Off-road cycling or mountain biking
Horse riding
Fishing
Rock climbing or caving
Motorised watersports
Other watersports
Swimming outdoors
Snowsports
Field sports (shooting / hunting)
Air sports (hang gliding / ballooning)
Wildlife watching
Running
Sightseeing or visiting an attraction
Off-road driving or motorcycling
Picnicking (as a significant part of the activity)
Visiting children’s playgrounds / taking children to play areas outdoors
Informal games (e.g. Frisbee or golf) - specify
Other outdoor activities - specify
Don’t know – do not read out
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Q19 What, if anything, has stopped you from taking part in these activities or doing
these activities more often during the last 12 months?
do not read out but code answers appropriately. if not on list, code other and type in
verbatim.
Always too busy / lack of time
No-one to look after matters at home while I am away
Too difficult with children
Too difficult with elderly
Too difficult with disabled
Bad / poor weather
Physical disability
Pregnant
Old age
Other health reason
Lack of information on where to go / Don’t know where to go
Lack of suitable places to go
Prefer to go to other places
Prefer to do other leisure activities
Wouldn’t enjoy it
Prevented or discouraged by land owners / managers
Nervous or uneasy about what might happen (eg Personal safety, getting lost)
Not enough money / can’t afford it
No-one to go with
Don’t feel like I fit in / belong / am welcome
Lack of suitable means of transport / getting there
Dislike travelling
Not convenient
Not interested
No particular reason
Other - specify
Don’t know
IF RESPONDENT MADE NO VISITS TO OUTDOORS IN LAST 12 MONTHS (CODE 21, ‘NONE OF
THESE’ AT Q1D) SKIP TO Q21
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Q20 Next, thinking again about the outdoor leisure visits you have taken in the last 12
months, which of the following places, if any, have you visited at least once?
read out list. code places visited in last 12 months
Woodland or forest
Farmland
Local park
Other local open space
Roadside pavement/track
Hills, mountains or moorland
River, lake or canal
Beach
Sea
Other coastline
Village
Other - specify
None of these
ASK ALL
Q21 Thinking now about the future, which types of outdoor places, if any, would you
like to visit or visit more often than you do at the moment?
do not read out but code answers appropriately. if not on list, code other and type in
verbatim.
Woodland or forest
Farmland
Local park
Other local open space
Roadside pavement/track
Hills, mountains or moorland
River, lake or canal
Beach
Sea
Other coastline
Village
Historic sites (e.g. castles)
Gardens
Other - specify
None of these
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DEMOGRAPHICS
I’d like to finish by asking you a few questions about you and your household.
D1. Gender
Male
Female
D2. How old are you?
type in
enter years of age
Refused
[ASK D3 IF D2 = REFUSED]
D3.Then can you tell me which age band you fall into?
single code.
16 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 to 74
75 to 84
85+
Refused
D4. Which of these ethnic groups do you consider you belong to?
single code
White
Mixed
Asian, Asian Welsh or Asian British
Black, Black Welsh or Black British
Chinese or other ethnic group
Refused
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IF 1 (WHITE) ASK:
And which of these ethnic groups do you consider you belong to?
if respondents says ‘England or English’, ‘Scotland or Scottish’ or any part of these countries
e.g. cornwall, bristol etc, code as ‘other british’.
if respondent ways ‘Wales or Welsh, Code as white – welsh.
Welsh
Other British
Irish
Any other white background – specify
IF 2 (MIXED) ASK:
And which of these ethnic groups do you consider you belong to?
White and Black Caribbean
White and Black African
White and Asian
Any Other Mixed background – specify
IF 3 (ASIAN, ASIAN WELSH OR ASIAN BRITISH) ASK:
And which of these ethnic groups do you consider you belong to?
Indian
Pakistani
Bangladeshi
Any other Asian background – specify
IF 4 (BLACK, BLACK WELSH OR BLACK BRITISH) ASK:
And which of these ethnic groups do you consider you belong to?
Caribbean
African
Any other Black background – specify
IF 5 (CHINESE OR OTHER ETHNIC GROUP) ASK:
And which of these ethnic groups do you consider you belong to?
Chinese
Any other ethnic group – specify
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D5. What is the highest qualification you have obtained up to now?
do not read out. use examples to code into appropriate category. probe for as much detail
Not yet finished school – no qualifications
Never went to school
Higher Education & professional/vocational equivalents
Degree or Degree equivalent, and above
Higher degree and postgraduate qualifications
First degree (including B.Ed.)
Postgraduate Diplomas and Certificates (including PGCE)
Professional qualifications at degree level e.g. graduate member of professional institute,
chartered accountant or surveyor
NVQ or SVQ level 4 or 5
Other Higher Education below degree level
Diplomas in higher education & other higher education qualifications
HNC, HND, Higher level BTEC
Teaching qualifications for schools or further education (below Degree level standard)
Nursing, or other medical qualifications not covered above (below Degree level standard)
RSA higher diploma
A levels, vocational level 3 & equivalents
A level or equivalent
AS level
SCE Higher, Scottish Certificate Sixth Year Studies or equivalent
NVQ or SVQ level 3
GNVQ Advanced or GSVQ level 3
OND, ONC, BTEC National, SCOTVEC National Certificate
City & Guilds advanced craft, Part III (& other names)
RSA advanced diploma
Trade Apprenticeships
GCSE/O Level grade A*-C (5 or more), vocational level 2 & equivalents
NVQ or SVQ level 2, GNVQ intermediate or GSVQ level 2
RSA Diploma, City & Guilds Craft or Part II (& other names)
BTEC, SCOTVEC first or general diploma
Et level or GCSE grade A-C, SCE Standard or Ordinary grades 1-3
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GCSE/O Level grade (less than 5 A*-C), other qualifications at level 1 and below
NVQ or SVQ level 1, GNVQ Foundation level, GSVQ level 1
GCSE or O level below grade C, SCE Standard or Ordinary below grade 3
CSE below grade 1, BTEC, SCOTVEC first or general certificate
SCOTVEC modules, RSA Stage I, II, or III, City and Guilds part 1 Junior certificate
Other qualifications – specify
Other vocational or professional or foreign qualifications
No qualifications
D6. Is there a car or van normally available for use by you or any members of your
household? Include any provided by employers if normally available for private use by
you or members of household
Yes
No
ASK IF D6 = 1
D7. Is there a bicycle normally available for use by you?
single code
Yes
No
D8. Do you, or another member of your household currently own or care for a dog?
single code
Yes
No
D9. Do you have a long-standing illness, disability or infirmity? By longstanding I mean
anything that has troubled you over a long period of time or that is likely to affect you
over a period of time.
Yes
No
ASK D10 IF D9 = YES
D10. Does this illness or disability limit your activities in any way?
Yes
No
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ASK ALL
D11. Do you care for, or help to care for, a relative or friend who has a long term
limiting illness or disability, including problems due to old age?
single code
Yes
No
D12. Do you have any children under the age of 16, for whose care and/or support you
are responsible?
single code
Yes
No
D13. What is your current working status?
do not read out but prompt from list as required. Single code
1.Working full-time (30+ hours per week)
2.Working part-time (9 to 29 hours per week)
3.Unemployed – less than 12 months
4.Unemployed (long term) – more than 12 months
5.Not working – retired
6.Not working – looking after house/children
7.Not working – long term sick or disabled
8.Student – in full-time education
9.Student – in part-time education
10.Other
11.Refused
IF D13 = 4. NS-SEC CODE = L14
IF D13 = 8. NS-SEC CODE = L15
IF D13 = REF. NS-SEC CODE = L17
ASK IF D13 = 6, 7, 9
D14a. Have you ever worked?
Yes
No
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If D14a = 2. NS-SEC CODE = L14
Occupation of Respondent
ask about current job if working full/part-time or previous job if not working but have had
a job (including retired)
D15A. What does [did] the firm/organisation you work [worked] for mainly make or do
(at the place where you work [worked])?
describe fully – probe manufacturing or processing or distributing etc and main goods
produced, materials used, wholesale or retail etc
D15B. What is [was] your (main) job?
D15C. What do [did] you mainly do in your job?
check special qualifications/training needed to do the job
D15D. Are [were] you working as an employee or are you self-employed?
single code. nb this is based on respondent’s own assessment of their employment statues in
their main job
Employee ASK D15E
Self-employed GO TO D15F
ASK ALL WHO SAY EMPLOYEE (CODE 1) AT QD15D
D15E. In your job do [did] you have any formal responsibility for supervising the work of
other employees?
single code only. nb do not include supervisors of children (e.g. teachers, nannies or
childminders), animals or people who supervise security of buildings only (e.g. caretakers or
security guards)
Yes
No
ASK ALL WHO SAY SELF-EMPLOYED (CODE 2) AT QD15D
D15F. Aere [were] you working on your own or do [did] you have employees?
On own/with partner(s), but no employees
With employees
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ASK ALL
D16. Are you the CHIEF INCOME EARNER, that is the person with the highest income,
whether from employment, self-employment, a pension or government benefits?
Yes
No
Don’t know
Refused
D17. We want to know if income affects people’s ability to participate in various leisure
activities. Is your total household income, that is income from all sources, before tax and
other deductions above or below £26,000?
if respondent says higher, ask whether income is above or below £42,000 then read out
remaining possible income bands.
if respondent says lower, then asked whether income is above or below £15,600 then read
out remaining possible income bands.
single code
Up to £5,199
£5,200 to £10,399
£10,400 to £15,599
£15,600 to £20,799
£20,800 to £25,999
£26,000 to £31,199
£31,200 to £36,399
£36,400 to £41,999
£42,000 to £45,999
£46,000 to £49,999
£50,000 to £79,999
£80,000 to £99,999
£100,000 or more
Refused
Don’t know
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PART 5
RECONTACT QUESTIONS
RC1. Would you be willing to be re-contacted by telephone at some point in the future,
regarding your visits to the outdoors, by the Countryside Council for Wales, the Forestry
Commission or a research company working on their behalf?
Yes
No
ASK RC2 IF RC1 = YES
RC2. Can I please ask for your name?
type in name
ENTER NAME
Thank you on behalf of TNS Research International, the Countryside Council for Wales
and Forestry Commission Wales.
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