Bahrain`s BAPCO 5MWp PV Grid–Connected Solar Project

advertisement‐ International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014 Bahrain’s BAPCO 5MWp PV Grid–Connected Solar Project Waheeb E. Alnaser1, Naser W. Alnaser2, Issa Batarseh3 Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P O Box 32038 Kingdom of Bahrain Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, P O Box 32038, Kingdom of Bahrain Department of Elec. Eng. and Computer Science, College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA 1;; Abstract The Kingdom of Bahrain, a Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country, recently launched a 5MW pilot PV solar electricity grid‐
connected project as part of Bahrain’s commitment to produce 5% of its total electricity output from renewable source by2020. This project was a collaborative effort between the National Oil and Gas Authority (NOGA), the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO), Petra Solar Inc., and Caspian Renewable Energy, Inc. Its launch meant that the crucial first step had been taken towards achieving the goals of diversifying resources, reducing dependence on fossil fuels, and freeing up oil for export. Owned and operated by BAPCO, the project has been established on a 10,000 m2site offered by the University of Bahrain (UoB), resulting in the largest worldwide, within a university campus. The preliminary outcome of this installation is very promising (normalized annual power production of 1.66 MWh/MW ) with an average solar electricity energy yield of nearly 2,100 kWh in June 2014. Keywords Bapco; Photovoltaic; Bahrain; Solar Electricity; Solar Radiation; BIPV; University of Bahrain Introduction
Drivers of Change: Climate and Environment In recent years, almost all GCC countries have faced challenges brought on by climate change, and have therefore been obliged to devise future plans that include projects to address these challenges. Among the GCC countries, Bahrain is perhaps the most vulnerable to the threat of rising sea levels because of its location in a low‐lying coastal zone, where most of its population and industries reside. According to Bahrain’s Second National Communication [1], which was conducted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by the Public Commission for the Protection of Marine Resources, Environment, and Wildlife in January 2012, the current built‐up and industrial areas in Bahrain account for 245 km2 of a total land area of 748 km2 (about 34%), and are located largely along the eastern coastline of Bahrain’s main island. The study shows that 11% (83 km2) of total Bahraini land will be inundated by 2050 if the sea level rises by 0.3 m., and 27% (200 km2) by 2100 if the sea level rises by 1.5 m. This is the expected scenario if there is no accelerated deglaciation. However, in the case of extreme deglaciation, 27% (199 km2) of Bahrain’s land will be inundated by 2050 if the sea level rises by 1 m, and 56% (418 km2) of the land faces inundation by 2100 if the sea level rises by 5m. Bahrain’s location is also responsible for ever‐increasing underground water salinity that endangers water supplies and causes land degradation. It is also expected that the climate change impact will lead to temperature rise and drought cycles, resulting in more frequent dust storms, which exacerbate air pollution and soil erosion. Today, Bahrain’s GHG emissions stand at an annual total of 34.9 million tons of CO2 equivalent to about 27.6 tons per capita, ranking the Kingdom 11th highest globally. The sources of more than 87% of GHG emissions come from energy related sub‐sectors, making Bahrain the second highest in the GCC after Saudi Arabia [2,3]. More than half the electricity generated (~56%) is consumed by the residential sector in Bahrain, producing 20% of the Kingdom’s total CO2 emissions. 72 International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014‐ In an effort to change the status quo, Bahrain’s political and economic leadership has wisely formulated its energy strategy to reduce CO2 emissions by investing in the renewable energy sector. Bahrain’s Energy Profile The Kingdom of Bahrain has over 3GW of electricity generating capacity, and produces more than 12 billion kWh of annual electricity, almost all of which is derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. An estimated annual energy demand growth rate of 10% means the amount of natural gas required to meet Bahrain’s energy needs will double in 10 years. With a challenging 5% average annual growth rate of gas consumption, Bahrain will need to start importing natural gas supplies to meet future power needs. Clearly, such rapidly‐growing energy needs and over‐reliance on oil and gas are not sustainable. Bahrain, like neighboring GCC states, enjoys some of the highest solar radiation levels in the world, making solar a very appealing form of renewable energy. In fact, a Gulf Research Centre report estimates that the Kingdom has the potential to generate 33 terawatt hours (TWh) per year from solar power, which is more than twice the power demand of 2013. Under these circumstances, Bahrain’s drive to promote clean renewable energy solutions for sustainable development and environmental protection is highly commendable. Here are some interesting and important energy‐related facts about Bahrain: 
Bahrain was the first Gulf state to discover oil in 1935, but is also expected to be the first country in the Middle East to run out of oil in 10‐15 years! 
The total installed electricity capacity in 2012 was 3.0 GW, all coming from natural gas. 
In 2012, Bahrain generated 11.6 billion kWh of electricity and consumed 11 billion kWh. The total primary energy supply in 2012 was 9800 thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe), with 83.5% generated from natural gas and 16.5% from oil. 
Its gas reserves should last about 50 years at present rates of consumption with the risk that it is only enough to meet current demand up to year 2017! 
Bahrain’s per capita energy consumption, which is among the highest in the world, has nearly doubled during the last decade and with an annual increase of 10%, it is expected to reach 4,803 MW in 2020. 
Future domestic energy demand is on the rise spurred by a recent economic development boom, making it a challenge to fulfill future needs in a way that reduces Bahrain’s reliance on an ever diminishing commodity. Bahrain’s Vision for Renewable Energy It is clear that Bahrain’s reliance on oil and gas is not sustainable in the long run. As electricity prices generated from oil and gas continue to be subsidized, the government is recognizing the urgent need to reduce domestic energy consumption for continued energy security. Today, solar is an integral part of any energy diversification plan to reduce reliance on external sources for power generation and decrease the nation’s dependency on natural gas and oil resources. It is imperative for a strong energy portfolio to include a clear focus on increased energy efficiency, conservation, and greater reliance on renewable sources over traditional carbon‐based energy sources. Bahrain Energy Vision calls for achieving 5% of its installed capacity to be generated from renewables by 2020. Given that the country receives strong solar irradiance, its reliance on solar energy is a good strategy. It will be the first in the region to implement 5MW of distributed smart solar energy which is clean and efficient because of the use of smart grid technology. This coupled with the fact that there is limited land available for solar power plants; the flexible and highly optimized microinverter technology design approach will help meet Bahrain’s renewable energy needs without the need for large areas of land. Solar Energy Potential in Bahrain
Software estimates of solar energy potential in Bahrain, (longitude 26 N and latitude 50.8E), indicate that maximum solar yield is nearly 6.8 kWh/m2/day in summer months (June to September) and nearly 5 kWh/m2/day in winter months 73‐ International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014 (December‐ February), with an annual daily average of 6 kWh/m2/day. The expected annual insolation in Bahrain is nearly 2,180 kWh/m2 (Fig 1). This means that the daily available solar energy in Bahrain (Area of nearly 720 km2) is equal to the energy gained from 2.6 million bbl of oil or from 43.2 million m3 of natural gas, taking into consideration that each 1 bbl of oil equals 1,628.2 kWh (or 1 kWh = 0.000614 bbl of oil) and each 1 m3 NG = 10.5 kWh (or 1 kWh  0.01 m3 NG).In comparison, on June 21,2014, the actual recorded solar energy at noon in Bahrain (solar altitude of 87) ranged from 900 to 1,100 W/m2 which leads to solar energy from 11:30 am to 12:30 pm of 1 kWh/m2‐ close to the value estimated by the software. FIG. 1 SOFTWARE ESTIMATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN (LONGITUDE 50.8 E AND LATITUDE 26 N); TOP : MONTHLY AVERAGE, BOTTOM: DAILY AVERAGE Meanwhile, our actual solar radiation measurement at UoB shows that the average solar radiation in Bahrain is 5.180 kWh/m2 (Close to the estimated value, which is 6 kWh/m2) and average sunshine duration is 9.2 hrs (Fig 2) which leads to an annual average solar energy yield of 1,891 kWh/m2. This is slightly less than the estimated value obtained from the software (2,180 kWh/m2). 2
FIG.2: ACTUAL INSOLATION (INCIDENT SOLAR RADIATION) AT UNIVERSITY OF BAHRAIN ; AVERAGE SOLAR RADIATION = 5.180KWH/M AND AVERAGE SUNSHINE DURATION = 9.2 HRS. 74 International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014‐ Alnaser [4] has provided curves and tables (Fig 3, Table 1 and 2) of dynamic simulations using PV cell characteristics and meteorological conditions. These are changeable all year round. The average efficiency can be estimated by dividing the solar input and PV electricity outcome. The monthly sums of incident solar radiation on surfaces at specified tilt angle, facing south, are 16 for summer settings, 26 for fixed settings, and 36for winter settings, in Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. FIG. 3: THE AVAILABLE SOLAR ENERGY IN MANAMA, KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN [4]. TABLE 1: MONTHLY SUMS OF INSOLATION ON SURFACES AT SPECIFIED TILT ANGLE (16°FOR SUMMER SETTINGS) , 26° FOR FIXED SETTINGS, AND 36° FOR WINTER SETTINGS) FACING SOUTH, IN MANAMA, KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN [4]. 75‐ International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014 TABLE 2: MONTHLY SUMS OF EXTRACTED ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM PV PANELS AT DIFFERENT TILT ANGLES (16, 26 AND 36) INSTALLED IN MANAMA, KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN [4]. The incident solar power on surfaces with different tilt angles (16, 26 and 36) facing south was estimated, and is presented in Tables 1 and 2. It was anticipated in several research papers that the south tilt angle of panels (in the northern hemisphere) equal to the latitude of the location will lead to better gain of solar electricity [5]. These two tables confirm this point. The solar yearly gain for a south‐facing surface tilted at an angle equal to Bahrain's latitude, (26N) is 1,811.3 kWh, while for a tilt of 0 (flat) it is 1,705.2 kWh. For a tilt of Φ + 10(winter setting), it is 1,787.1 kWh, and for a tilt of Φ ‐ 10 (summer setting) 1,799.2 kWh. Therefore, fixing the PV panels facing south and tilted to 26(fixed throughout the year), as is the case in the BAPCO solar project, leads to the highest solar electricity production. On the other hand, solar electricity from PV tilted at an angle equal to Bahrain’s latitude (26N), and facing south, will annually yield 279.2 kW/m2, and in a flat position yield 262.5 kW/m2.For summer settings (16) the yield is277.8 kW/m2 (better than a flat position) and for winter settings (36) the yield is 275 kW/m2. This issue is of great importance when it comes to adopting the Building of Integrated PV (BIPV) systems [6]. BAPCO Pilot Project -Phase One: 5MW
The BAPCO PV Pilot project delivers5MW of distributed Photovoltaic (PV) solar systems based on technology developed by the US based Petra Solar Inc. The project was designed, constructed, and successfully deployed to generate in excess of 8,300 MWh of clean solar energy annually. It will present an energy‐offset of 67,000 mcf of natural gas and a savings about 7,200 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year. The solar installation extends across the following three locations covering an area of more than 34 km2 in the Kingdom of Bahrain: Site Name Installation Type Awali Town Carports 1.51 MW Solar Trees 240 kW Street Light Poles 48 kW Ground Mount 501 kW BAPCO Refinery Car Ports 2.7 MW TOTAL 5.0 MW University of Bahrain 76 Installation Size International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014‐ Figures 4 and 5 demonstrate the attractive appearance of PV panels mounted on carports and street light poles in Awali town. FIG.4: PV PANELS MOUNTED ON CARPORTS IN AWALI TOWN, KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN FIG.5: PV panels mounted on street light poles in Awali town, Kingdom of Bahrain. 77‐ International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014 BAPCO PV installations utilize one of the industry’s most advanced micro‐inverter technologies to create a wireless smart‐
grid network, providing critical system‐wide intelligent monitoring and control. The advanced technologies enable the highest levels of overall system uptime, performance, and yield, throughout its lifespan of over 25 years.In fact, Bahrain is the first country in the MENA region to integrate and monitor a highly distributed system into a single PV power plant. As the project proceeds with its evaluation and hand‐over stage, it is being viewed as a world‐class showcase and a cornerstone of the global campaign for the use of clean and sustainable energy sources. The following are the salient features of this state‐of‐the‐art project: 
The first and largest distributed smart solar installation in the MENA region employing Petra Solar Systems’ smart micro‐inverter technology. It is the only installation that provides monitoring and control for every single solar panel in the installation. 
Highly distributed and highly redundant energy harvest architecture ensures no single point of system failure, and offers significant performance advantage resulting from maximum power generation from every single PV panel. 
Leverages existing assets (car shades) to provide shading as well as clean power. 
It is fully compliant with BAPCO’s stringent specifications and safety requirements. More than 500,000 safe working hours are achieved. Delivering Positive Social and Economic Results This pilot project will provide job opportunities in terms of trained PV installers, engineers, and research experts in the renewable energy sector since, through the pilot phase of the initiative, many engineers and technicians have been trained on smart solar technologies and have gained experience and knowledge necessary to help them secure high‐end jobs in this rapidly growing industry. The project also offers the prospect of developing a smart solar industry in Bahrain, as it presents an ideal opportunity to create employment in a progressive nation by tapping into the abilities of a generation of innovative Bahraini youth and experts, who will help transform the current scourge of rising unemployment into an era of new career opportunities in the renewable energy sector. The result would be focused and specialized education, and the export of modern technologies and capabilities. The “Let Bahrain Shine “ initiative will enhance R&D in different areas such as power electronics and smart grids, and bring Bahrain one step closer to building a smart energy industry through joint research & development and knowledge transfer to Bahrainis. Given the high quality educational system in engineering, science, and technology, Bahrain has the potential to become a regional hub for advanced smart energy technologies, including solar and smart grid, with the possibility of exports to neighboring countries. This pilot project will accelerate Bahrain’s creation of high‐tech construction and operational capabilities in smart solar energy systems. Since renewable energy can easily reach and benefit remote areas where regular electricity grids do not exist, it could potentially help micro‐businesses, farming, local industries and individual entrepreneurs and thereby raise the standard of living of millions. The Dynamics of PV‐Pricing The past five years have seen major shifts in PV market dynamics that include increased PV panel supply, major market shifts across Europe, aggressive world‐wide adoption of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), rising PV penetration, and the deployment of new conversion and smart‐technologies. The resulting effect on pricing has been dramatic. Since PV costs are dynamically changing over time, today’s pricing is heavily dependent on project size, system configurations, PV cell and inverter technology, installation types, and the level of intelligence that is included with the system’s monitoring and control capabilities. BAPCO pilot project is a showcase for integrating intelligent PV systems at a final deployment cost of US$ 5 million/MW. Given all the financial benefits and the prices of 2011, the project has a highly positive Net Present Value (NPV) and a very attractive payback window of 7 years. 78 International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014‐ The additional financial benefits of this pilot project include a saving of $26 million over the project’s life span, due to the energy‐offset of 67,000 Mcf (million cubic feet) of natural gas, a reduction in power distribution losses, and an offset of peaking generation as solar reduces the demand peak. In comparison with various projects completed within the last five years throughout the GCC, BAPCO’s pilot project demonstrates definite competitiveness. In this period, six solar projects in the GCC totaling 32.8 MW had an average cost of US$5.5million/MW. Of the six projects, only BAPCO’s current project consists of mixed types of installations using wired, intelligent, microinverter technology. PV Solar Installations in the Region There are only a few large‐scale PV installations in the GCC countries. The largest is located in Aramco, Saudi Arabia (10.5 MWp), and was installed in December 2012, followed by Masdar City, UAE (10MWp) which was installed in 2009. The BAPCO project is thus the third largest installed field in the GCC region (5MWp) and was completed on 24 June 2014. Table 3 shows PV installations in the GCC region with cost per solar Watt. The results of Bapco project is based, herein, on actual data from February 2014 to 30 September 2014. TABLE 3 PV INSTALLATION ON IN GCC REGION WITH COST PER SOLAR WATT Worldwide Standards for Measuring System Yield The commonly accepted worldwide standard for measuring solar system power generation is based on the total nameplate rating of the PV panels, or DC peak capacity. For example, a 5MW PV power installation like the BAPCO pilot project generates 5MW of DC peak power under standard test conditions (25°C). The generated DC power is then converted to AC power via DC‐to‐AC inverters. Unlike conventional power generation plants that operate at fixed AC power levels, the output AC power yield of PV power plants is less than the DC peak nameplate rating because of a number of factors which may include: 
PV Module mismatch‐PV module mismatch results from slight manufacturing variations, where modules of the same designated power are not identical. As a result, the PV modules will not generate identical power throughout their installed lifetime. In addition, other factors such as exposure to shading, moisture, temperature variation, and dirt accumulation over time also contribute to reduced power generation. 
Orientation ‐The orientation of the PV panel towards the sun affects the total exposure to sunlight and as a result the total amount of generated power. 
Temperature ‐ Higher temperatures reduce the output power of PV modules. Typically, PV modules DC power drops by 0.5% for every degree rise above 25°C. 79‐ International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014 
Dirt/Soiling ‐This is an issue that can be minimal or severe depending on location. Dust, wildlife droppings, leaves, and other particulate matter in the air all play a part. 
Shading ‐Shading caused by nearby structures or objects also reduce the amount of solar power generated. 
DC to AC conversion efficiency‐The power conversion from DC to AC involves certain factors that may also reduce the total generated AC power. The primary metric for solar generation is the aggregate kWh (of GWh) that the solar power plant produces throughout the year. This is the key metric for any solar power plant worldwide. Financing of solar power plants is always based on the total kWh generated annually and not the peak AC power of the plant. In fact, the performance of all solar PV installations in the GCC region have been measured using the annual kWh (GWh) generated. Petra’s Smart Solar Implementation One of the aspects that distinguish the BAPACO 5MW pilot project from other similar ventures is the deployment of Petra’s smart solar technology which utilizes an innovative, panel level DC/AC microinverter that converts the generated DC power from each individual panel into grid compatible AC power [7,8,9]. Compared to standard string based inverter solutions, Petra’s smart solar technology has many unique advantages such as: 
Per panel maximum power point tracking (MPPT): This allows each microinverter to extract the maximum available power from every individual PV panel and typically yields in excess of 15% more energy production than conventional string systems. 
Per panel monitoring and diagnostics: Having a single microinverter connected to each PV panel allows for unprecedented panel level monitoring and diagnostics, where system operators can gather generation information from each individual panel as well as identify issues down to the panel level. This can result in lower O&M costs since PV module cleaning frequency can be optimized based on panel data as well as higher uptime. 
Enhanced Safety: The use of microinverters eliminates the hazardous high voltage strings that are typical in string‐based systems, thus eliminating potential shock hazards. This is a major safety benefit especially in easily accessible installations such as car shades, ground mounts, and rooftops. Preliminarily Results of UoB Solar PV Field
The installed 0.5 MW of Solar PV electricity at the University of Bahrain shown in Fig6 consists of the following: FIG.6: 0.5 MW SOLAR PV POLYCRYSTALLINE PHOTOVOLTAIC GROUND‐MOUNTED, SOLAR‐GRID MODULES DEPLOYED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BAHRAIN ‐ PART OF 5MW BAPCO PILOT PROJECT IN THE KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN. 80 International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014‐ 
2,088 solar panels 
8 rows with 261 PV panels per row 
Each panel has the dimension of 1640 mm x 992 mm x 35 mm, and weight of 18.2 kg. 
Each panel generates maximum of 240W under standard test conditions. 
Typical panel I‐V values: I=7.95 A; V=30.2 V. 
Cost per Watt= USD 5 
Total PV area 3,400 m2 The expected extracted solar electricity fed to the national grid annually is nearly 280 kWh/m2 x 3,400 m2 which is 952,000 kWh. This is enough to power 30 houses, each consuming about 3,000 kWh per month, which is the typical household consumption rate in Bahrain. Table 3 shows that production of Bapco project is comparable to other projects in the GCC counties with normalized annual power production of 1.66 MWh/MW. The average daily extracted solar electricity in Bahrain is highest in June at 3,026 kWh and in lowest in December at 1,865 kWh. However, our records show that the daily average of extracted solar electricity from the UoB PV field in June is about 2,100 kWh as shown in Fig.7, which is less than the estimated theoretically assumed efficiency of 15% for PV Cells. This loss of efficiency may be attributed to the following: 1‐
Since completion of operations the panels were not deliberately cleaned since installation until this date, leading to an expected loss of at least 40% of the solar gain. (The meteorological data shows that it rained only two days over the year, on March 15 and on April 2, 2014, with 2.7 mm and 0.5 mm of rain, respectively. 2‐ The dusty storm and the aerosols in Bahrain’s sky were more frequent this year ,compared to previous years, causing more than usual diffused solar radiation than normally measured in Bahrain , i.e. 30% diffused and 70 direct solar radiation [10]. Assuming that a turbid day is one with horizontal visibility of less than 8 km, the meteorological data in Bahrain shows that in 2014 there were 73 dusty days as shown in table 4. This resulted in a reduction of 10% of the useful solar radiation for solar electricity production in Bahrain. TABLE 4: NUMBER OF TURBID DAYS IN 2014 IN THE KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN Month No. of Days February 14 March 20 April 13 May 16 June 10 Total 73 FIG.7: MONITORING DISPLAY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BAHRAIN’S PV SOLAR FIELD SOLAR ELECTRICITY IN 24 JUNE 2014 (2,114 KWH). THE PANELS WERE NOT CLEANED SINCE COMPLETION OF INSTALLATION IN FEBRUARY 2014. 81‐ International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014 Economic Impacts of the BAPCO 5MW Pilot Project It is expected that the project will attract direct investments of USD 9.0 million in local companies serving as subcontractors. It will also lead to the creation of Bahraini expertise in solar technology, construction, and operations through employment and training of local staff and thus generate green jobs and green investments. Furthermore, since Bahrain is committed to producing 5% of its electricity from renewable sources, i.e. 300 MW out of a total 6,000 MW, the country will have to produce 1,500,000 solar panels of 200W each from 2015 to 2030 (15 years).This means that Bahrain must produce 100,000 PV panels annually, or about 274 panels daily. If one person can work on 3 panels a day, at least 90 well qualified engineers will need to be employed for these ‘green jobs’. So, the potential and need to establish a production line that caters to the requirements of Bahrain and other GCC countries is promising, especially that Qatar is committed to using PV systems in its World Cup 2022 facilities, including the stadiums, to as great an extent as possible. Manufacturing other components for the generation of solar electricity is also a conceivable future possibility. Conclusion
These are exciting times for the solar industry as we see significant improvements in both performance and pricing, largely driven by an increase in global demands and investments in R&D. The Kingdom of Bahrain has demonstrated great sustainable energy leadership by launching this innovative pilot project and has thus become a successful beneficiary of the solar technology revolution that is sweeping across this region and many other parts of the world. Petra Solar Inc. has successfully designed, developed and installed the 5 MW DC peak PV power plant, which is expected to generate in excess of 8,300 MWh of clean renewable energy. In real terms, this capacity will present an energy offset of 67,000 Mcf of natural gas and a saving of 7,200 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year. The solar electricity produced by the 500 kW PV system connected to the grid offers an encouraging outlook. In June 2014, even when panels were covered in dust and not clean, production was close to the theoretically estimated output of 2,100 kWh per day with normalized annual power production of 1.66 MWh/MW. Such results promise a bright future for solar power generation. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors thanks Bapco (Bahrain) , Petra Solar and Caspian Renewable Energy (USA) for their ultimate cooperation in making information available to the authors. Special appreciation is extended to Dr Nasser Kutkut for offering his technical assistance. REFERENCES [1]
Public Commission for the Protection of Marine Resources, Environment, and Wildlife; Bahrain’s Second National Communication ‐ under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, January 2012 [2]‐are‐the‐advantages‐of‐ac‐solar‐pv/ [3]
Kjaer, S. B., Pedersen, J. K. and Blaabjerg, F. “A review of single‐phase grid‐connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Industry Applications 41, no. 5 (2005) 1292‐1306. [4]
Alnaser, Naser .” Utilisation of Solar and Wind Energy in Buildings in the Kingdom of Bahrain: A Step Towards Sustainable Building Construction.”, PhD Diss., University of Reading ,UK.2009. [5]
Tiwari, G.N. Solar Energy: Fundamentals, Design, Modeling and Applications, England, UK. Alpha Science International Ltd., Pangbourne , 2002 [6]
Alnaser, N.W., Flanagan, R. and Alnaser, W.E. “Potential of Making – Over to Sustainable Buildings in the Kingdom of Bahrain” Energy and Buildings 40 (2008), 1304–23. 82 International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014‐ [7]
Bower,W. Thomas, M. and Ruby, D. “Alternating Current Photovoltaic Building Block,” United States Patent no. 6,750,391, June 2004. [8]
Kjaer, S.B. Pedersen, J. K. and Blaabjerg, F. “A review of single‐phase grid‐connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, 41, no. 5, (2005) 1292‐1306. [9]
Deline,C.(2012)‘Photovoltaic Shading Test bed for Module‐Level Power Electronics’, Technical Report, NREL/TP‐5200‐54876, May 2012. [10] Alnaser, W.E. “Empirical Correlation for Total and Diffuse Radiation in Bahrain”. Energy14, no.7, (1989) 409‐14. Waheeb Alnaser , Bahrain, 4 May 1959. He is a professor in Applied Physics at the University of Bahrain since 1997. He has BSc from King Saud University , Suadi Arabia, in Physics – education (1979) ,MSc from Aston University at Birmingham in Physical Methods of Analysis (1982) and PhD from University of Kent at Canterbury in Material Physics (1986) . He is Chartered in Physics and a Fellow at Institute of Physics, UK. He had been appointed as a chairman of Physics (4 years) , establish and found the deanship of scientific research appointed as a dean for the scientific research(2 years), dean of college of science (6 years). Currently, he is Vice President for Planning and Development at University of Bahrain. He published more than 120 refereed articles, written nearly 40 books and written nearly 5 Chapters in refereed books. He is afounder for Journal of Arab Association for Basic and Applied Sciences (JAABUS)in 2002. Ex‐ Editor – in – Cheif of JAABUS ( currently managing Editor), member of Editorial Board of many International Journals. Keynote speaker in many international Conferences in Renewable energy and Environmental Sciences . He has been chairman for Arab Section at the International Solar Energy Society (Germany) since 1994‐up to date‐and president for the International Energy Foundation for Middle East. He is member and co‐ founder of many local, regional and international committees. He was the president of the Permanent Arab Renewable Energy Committee at Arab League (Tunis) and make high contribution in producing Arab Solar Atlas and Arab Wind Atlas. Also did a BSc programme in Renewable Energy for ISESCO (Morocco). Prof. Alnaser had received many awards at local, Arab and Islamic level, among these is Shuman Prize for Youth Scientist (Jordon) , ISESCO Prize for Physics Research (Morocco) , The State Prize for Pioneer Community Achievement (Kingdom of Bahrain), University of Bahrain Prize for Best Researcher , University of Bahrain Prize for Best Community Service (Kingdom of Bahrain) and Crown Prince Prize for Scientific Research ,Kingdom of Bahrain. Naser Alnaser, Bahrain, 13 Jan 1982 He is an assistance Professor in Architectural Engineering at the University of Bahrain since September 2010. He holds of BSc in Architectural Engineering from University of Bahrain (2004), MSc in Construction Management Engineering (Distinction) from University of Reading,UK (2005) and PhD in Sustainable Building Construction at University of Reading (2009). Appointed an assistant professor at Ahliya University, Kingdom of Bahrain (2010), Assistant professor at College of Applied Sciences (2010‐2013), Assistant Professor at College of Engineering, department of Architecture (2014‐ up to date). He had published 13 International refereed papers and written two chapters in Architectural Sustainable Buildings and Constructions. He had served an architect at the Project & Maintenance Directorate, Royal Court, and Kingdom of Bahrain (2005 ‐2009). He had been a speaker for many local and regional conferences in Sustainable Buildings and Building Integrated Photovoltaic. He taught several courses in architecture, construction management and applied sciences for engineers in different colleges. He had participated in many conferences in Renewable Energy and sustainable buildings. He attended LEED AP exams at New York, USA, in 2009 and he scored 140 points. He is an active member at ISES, Arab Section, Germany and Bahrain Engineering Society. He had been invited for special sessions in ASHRAE meetings, New York, USA. He had won Silver Medal in General School Competition in Scientific Research oral presentation Bronze medal in General School Competition in Scientific Research poster presentation in April 1997. Dr Alnaser won many prizes in scientific competition during his education. He won The British Chevening Scholarship for Master Degree in Construction Management at University of Reading in 2004. 83‐ International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems Volume 1, 2014 Issa Batarseh, Jordon, 1961 Issa Batarseh received his B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1983, '85 and '90, respectively. He was a visiting Assistant Professor at Purdue University Calumet, before joining the University of Central Florida in 1991. He is a fellow of IEEE, AAAS, and IEE. He has been very active with IEEE Orlando Section, and the IEEE Power Electronics Society. He is a registered professional engineer in Florida. Currently, He was on half‐time professional development leave from the University of Central Florida (UCF) and President of Princess Sumaya University for Technology in Amman, Jordan. His research includes the analysis and design of high frequency DC‐AC inverters, resonant DC‐DC converter topologies and control of PWM and resonant converters. His team have published more than 300 journal and conference papers. He has also published a textbook entitled “Power Electronic Circuits” with John Wiley & Sons. He has supervised 26 Ph.D. Dissertations, 39 MS Theses, and 13 Undergraduate Honor Theses. More than 20 U.S. patents and licenses were granted to commercial products. Prof Batarseh received many International Prizes and Awards. He is a co‐founder for two start‐up companies: Advanced Power Electronics Corp. (APECOR) and Petra Solar. His power electronics research focuses on the development of advanced systems for solar energy conversion to improve cost, power density, efficiency and performance. 84