Practical Guidelines : Links & Resources : 1. Solar Photovoltaic’s must be designed in accordance with CSA Standard; CAN/CSA C6121508 - Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval (Adopted IEC 61215:2005, second edition, 2005-04), CAN/CSA C61646-2 - Thin film terrestrial PV modules - Design qualification and type approval ULC ORD C1703-1 PV Module Safety Standard, CAN/CSA F382-M89 (R2004) – Characterization of Storage Batteries for Photovoltaic Systems Canadian Solar Industry Association 3. They must be installed and maintained in accordance with CanSIA (Canadian solar Industry Association) standards and by persons registered/ certified with Solar BC to carry out this work. www.photovoltaics.sustainablesources.com 4. Where systems are not yet CSA certified, a detailed engineers drawing has to be reviewed against the CSA standard and stamped by an independent engineer. PHOTOVOLTAIC http://www.cansia.ca SOLAR PANELS Natural Resources Canada www.canmetenergy-canmetenergie.nrcanrncan.gc.ca/eng/renewables GUIDELINES Solar Panels Plus—product resources www.solarpanelsplus.com INSPECTIONS—BUILDING Photovoltaic Systems—Sustainable Resources Solar BC www.solarbc.ca Photovoltaic Array www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaic_array 5. Your contractor should contact the municipality to find out if there are any site specific requirements for an installation of solar panels being proposed other than applicable permits. REQUIRED PERMITS Building permit Electrical permit Community Development Department 141 West 14th Street North Vancouver, BC V7M 1H9 Tel: 604.983.7355 Fax: 604.985.0576 INSPECTIONS—BUILDING Information Handout # Revised Feb. 2010 www.cnv.org Solar Panels - Photvoltaic A photovoltaic array is a linked collection of photovoltaic modules, which are in turn made of multiple interconnected solar cells. Photovoltaic systems use these cells to convert solar radiation into direct current electricity via the photovoltaic effect. The cell consists of one or two layers of a semi-conducting material. When light shines on the cell it creates an electric field across the layers, causing electricity to flow. Most PV arrays use an inverter to convert the DC power produced by the modules into alternating current that can plug into the existing infrastructure to power lights, motors, and other loads. The greater the intensity of the light, the greater the flow of electricity is. A photovoltaic system therefore does not need bright direct sunlight in order to operate only daylight. Therefore it also generate electricity on cloudy days. Solar arrays are typically measured by the peak electrical power they produce, in watts, kilowatts, or even megawatts. The most popular type of solar PV system for homes and businesses in developed areas is for connection to the local electricity network also known as a ‘parallel’ system. This allows any excess power produced to feed the electricity grid and to sell it to the utility ( BC Hydro rebates 1c/kw to consumer while Ontario rebates range between 60-80c/kw). Electricity can then be imported back from the network when there is no sun. . In remote settings such as mountainous areas, islands, or other places where a power grid is unavailable or can be intermittent, solar arrays can be used as the sole source of electricity, usually by charging a storage battery Accounting for clouds, and the fact that most of the world is not on the equator, and that the sun sets in the evening, the correct measure of solar power is insolation – the average number of kilowatt-hours per square meter per day. For the weather and latitudes of the United States, Canada and Europe, typical insolation ranges from 4kWh/m²/day in northern climes to 6.5 kWh/m²/day in the sunniest regions. Typical solar panels have an average efficiency of 12%, with the best commercially available panels at 20% +. A photovoltaic installation in the southern latitudes may expect to produce 1 kWh/m²/day and somewhat less here in BC. BC is very similar to Germany in terms of # of hours of daylight and other climatic conditions and Germany has had the greatest public response/uptake of all solar energy technologies. A typical "150 watt" solar panel is about a square meter in size. Such a panel may be expected to produce 1 kWh every day, on average, after taking into account the weather and the latitude. There are several ways to mount panels— fixed, fixed with adjustable tilt angles, manual, passive or active tracking. All these approaches can be placed on the ground, roof or wall except for some active trackers which are pole mounted. Fixed mounts are the least costly and should be of suitable metal construction as they outlive the best wood assemblies available. They should also be tilted to the correct azimuth, quite often at 45 degrees, to maximize the efficiency throughout the year. Batteries are the best method of storing energy from a PV system for the periods when the sun is not shining and is generally not used for a grid connected system. Solar Ready Homes A Solar Ready home must meet six basic requirements for the installation of solar energy systems: • a roof location of suitable size, pitch and orientation • labeled conduits from the mechanical room to the attic • extra plumbing valves and fittings on the water heater • an electrical outlet at the planned solar tank location • construction plans that indicate the future component locations • a vertical service shaft shall extend from the service room, which contains the service water heater, to the attic space, consisting of at least two 50 mm PVC pipes, capped at both ends, and having at least a 20° angle. A Solar Ready home has features installed now that will make it possible to install solar energy systems later.