Dairy Farming Times - NIDF - National Institute of Dairy Farming

January-Febrary 2013
Dear Readers,
Greetings !
In India, Dairy industry is one of the most
significant wings of food industry. India
has credit of being the largest producer as
well as the biggest consumer of milk in the
world. As per Assocham report, India's
current 127 million tonnes milk production
accounts for 16% of total global output
and is likely to reach 190 million tonnes by
Dairy Farm
Milk Production
Punjab to spend 32.86 cr under National Dairy Plan.
ITC to enter the dairy market in 14 months.
Oman looks to India for developing dairy industry in Gulf.
Giving cows human names raises milk production.
Genomics could revolutionize heifer selection methods.
New genetic technology to boost dairy cow health.
‘Cow power’ turns manure into clean energy.
Milk is considered to be a functional food
on an account of the variety of bioactive
components it contains, and in order to
retain these bioactive components,
utmost importance must be given to
proper hygiene maintenance while
processing the milk.
Current issue on "Dairy Farm Milk
Production" illustrates milk quality &
hygiene at dairy farm, collection and
processing centers. To maintain the milk
quality & hygiene, certain tests are
designed to ensure that milk products
meet set standards for composition and
Read inside to know more about Dairy
farm milk production practices and dairy
industry updates.
Happy reading.
Dairy Article
Dairy Farm-Quality Milk Production
A. Introduction to Milk Quality and Hygiene
Importance of milk in human health
The milk - as it is meant to be the first and sole food for offspring of mammals.It is an almost complete
and balanced food contains all the necessary and digestible elements for building and maintaining the
human and body. In addition it contains immuno-globulins which protect the newly born against a
number of diseases. Research has shown that milk and milk products have an immune enhancing
property as well.
Compositional quality of milk
The composition of milk is not constant, but shows a wide variation. In the first place the composition
depends on the species of cattle. But also within a species we find big differences between the breeds
and between individual cattle within a breed. The composition might even change from day to day,
depending on feeding and climate. But also during one milking the first milk differs from the last milk
Nutritional value of milk
Milk is very tasteful and is an excellent source of high quality protein, that can be digested easily. Milk
also contains lots of important vitamins and minerals. It represents one of the best natural sources of
essential amino acids for human nutrition. Moreover, milk is an outstanding source of calcium and a
good source of phosphorus. As these two elements play an essential role in building the bones and
teeth in the body.
Characteristics of milk
Milk is a yellowish-white non-transparent liquid. Fresh milk has a pleasant soft and sweet taste and
carries hardly any smell. Consumer acceptance of milk is greatly affected by its flavour. There are
several factors which may produce off-flavours and/or odours in milk. Some of the more common
causes of flavour and odour problems are:
feed and weed flavours
strong smelling plants, like wild onion or garlic
strong flavored feedstuffs such as poor quality silage
high acidity flavours
oxidized flavours, from contact with copper or exposure to sunlight
flavours from the use of chlorine, fly sprays, medications, etc.
Cow-barn flavors from dung, etc. These are found when milk is obtained from a dirty or
poorly ventilated environment or from improperly cleaned milking equipment.
Rancid flavours. These are caused by excessive agitation of milk during collection
and/or transport. Damage of the fat globules in the milk results in the presence of free fatty acids.
Bacteria in milk
The major group of bacteria in milk is the group of lactic acid bacteria. These are able to use the lactose
in the milk and to convert it into lactic acid. The most important family in this group is the Streptococcus
lactis. These multiply and grow very fast when the milk is kept at ambient temperatures after milking.
The produced lactic acid causes the natural souring of milk. The primary source of these bacteria is the
environment: air, dust, dirty equipment and operators, etc. How soon the milk turns sour depends on
the degree of contamination and on the temperature of the milk.Therefore, proper cleaning and
sanitizing procedures are essential to control the quality of milk.Cooling to a temperature of 4 ºC makes
the bacteria inactive and prevents them to grow and produce the lactic acid.
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Dairy Article
B. Milk Quality & Hygeine at farm level
The concept of clean milk production
Clean milk means raw milk from healthy cattle that has been produced and handled under hygienic
conditions. It is free from extraneous matters like dust, dirt, flies, manure, etc. Clean milk has a normal
composition, possesses a natural milk flavour, contains only a small number of harmless bacteria, is
free from hazardous chemical residues and safe for human consumption. The status of raw milk is
determined by its bacterial quality and the somatic cell count. With simple and low-cost husbandry
practices it is possible to produce milk with a count of less than 50,000 bacteria per ml.
Contamination and control measures at farm level
On the farm contamination of milk can occur at the following places
Cattle shed and environment
The environment in and around the milking premises determine to a great extend the level of
contamination of the milk. If milking is done inside a shed, as is usually the case with smallholder
farmers, there is a high risk of contamination through the air and by insects, in particular flies.
The Cattle
The cattle itself is an important source of contamination. Care and management of the cattle and its
health is therefore the starting point for clean milk production. The skin of the cattle provides a large
surface for possible contamination. Dung, urine, uterine discharge, dirt, dust and hairs can pass
millions of bacteria, when it drops from the skin and udder into the milk.
Milker and milking routine
In case of hand milking, the danger of contamination coming from the milker is higher as compared to
machine milking. As the milker moves from one cattle to the next, he can transfer pathogenic
micro-organisms to all the cattle in the herd. In this way the milk can become contaminated as well,
making it unsafe for human consumption. Therefore the milker should be free from contagious
Milking equipment
All dairy utensils such as buckets, milking cans and filters should be thoroughly cleaned immediately
after use. Any milk residues on the equipment will allow microorganisms to grow rapidly. Also ancillary
equipment, including foremilk cups and udder cloths, must be cleaned and disinfected effectively.
Storage and transport
Milk should be stored in clean containers with a lid and kept in a cool and shady place where the
danger of contamination is minimal. Transport should take place in clean containers as well.Milk must
reach the Milk Collection Centre quickly, ideally within 2 - 3 hours after milking. Preferably, the milk is
cooled to 4 ºC at the MCC and kept at that temperature until it is processed.
Mastitis management
Mastitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the udder and is caused by bacteria.
The most effective measures to prevent mastitis are:
- Maintaining a consistent high standard of management and hygiene before, during and after milking
- Using a good milking technique or an adequately functioning milking machine
- Using of teat-dip with a disinfectant on all cows after every milking
- Treating all cows with evidence of clinical mastitis promptly
- Applying the somatic cell count monthly to monitor the health status of the herd
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Dairy Article
C. Milk Quality & Hygiene at Collection and Processing
Destruction of pathogenic bacteria through pasteurization or boiling
Keeping the quality of the product without significant loss of flavor, appearance,
physical and nutritive properties
Selective control of organisms which may produce unsatisfactory products.
Milk Quality Control
Milk quality control is the use of approved tests to ensure the application of approved practices,
standards and regulations concerning the milk and milk products. The tests are designed to ensure
that milk products meet set standards for composition and purity as well as accepted levels of
different micro-organisms and somatic cells.
Quality Control in the Dairy Plant
Quality control at the dairy plant includes a wide range and scope of activities which have to be carried
out regularly. The ultimate task of quality control is to provide the plant management as early as
possible with information of the previously defined quality criteria and standards at every stage of the
process. The planning and establishment of quality control for a milk plant includes the following:
The organization and staffing of the quality control system within the dairy plant. Training of the
personnel is essential.
The definition of quality standards. This has to take into account the legal requirements for raw
materials, ingredients, packaging materials, processing line and equipment, end products,
storage, handling during distribution, etc.
The laboratory and the methods of testing and analyzing the quality parameters, including
organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological methods as well as sampling methods.
The maximum/minimum limits for the quality parameters. Adequate recording and reporting
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Sector Updates
Policy Initiatives
Punjab to spend 32.86 cr under National Dairy Plan.
With a view to improving the Genetic Potential of the Livestock through Scientific Breeding and to
provide efficient and effective health cover to the Livestock of the State, the Punjab government has
chalked out an extensive work plan across the state under National Dairy Plan. Adequate steps have
been taken by the government to accelerate genetic progress, the proportion of milch animals bred
through Artificial Insemination (AI).
Government launches programme for dairy farmers.
To promote dairying as an alternative venture to agriculture, the state's dairy development department
has launched a comprehensive training programme for young dairy farmers in Punjab.The trainees are
also being educated about the different schemes of banks for extending liberal loans. In order to
facilitate the farmers adopting dairy farming, the state government has extended all technical and
financial support to them in this venture. The dairy profession was a fast-growing one and there is
excellent scope for earning better income from dairy under the present circumstances.
Scheme to set up modern dairy units in Goa.
In order to help the farmers get financial assistance from setting up modern dairy units, the directorate
of animal husbandry & veterinary services,government of Goa, runs a financial subsidy scheme to
establish such units. Animal husbandry plays a vital role in rural transformation and in providing
household nutritional security, increased income, and an employment opportunity, especially to women.
Dairy sector in UP set to get a boost.
The dairy sector in Uttar Pradesh is set to get a boost following the inclusion of the state in the National
Dairy Plan (NDP) of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB). The scheme includes activities such
as progeny testing, pedigree selection, strengthening of semen stations, balanced ration programme
and fodder development proposals.
Phillaur asks Centre to boost animal husbandry sector.
Punjab is a major milk producing State in the country with an annual milk production of 95.51 lakh tons
during the year 2011-12. It contributes about 9 % of the total milk production of the country though it
has less than 2% of total cattle and buffalo population of the country. The per capita availability of milk
in Punjab is 944 gms which is highest in the country.So Animal Husbandry is contributing about 13% of
the state GDP.
Government may appease dairy farmers with sops.
Karnataka government is toying with an idea of increasing incentives being given to dairy farmers so that
it can defer taking any decision on hiking Nandini milk price.
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Sector Updates
Policy Initiatives
New Zealand to provide Myanmar’s dairy cattle breeding development.
The government of New Zealand will provide 60 million New Zealand Dollar for the development of
Myanmar’s dairy cattle breeding, according to Myanmar Livestock Federation. Livestock Breeding
and Veterinary Department will implement the project for dairy cattle breeding development with the
aid from New Zealand.
Govt to provide 50% VAT rebate on dairy products.
Bowing down to pressure from big dairy producers, the government has decided to provide 50 percent
Value Added Tax (VAT) rebate on sales of dairy products. We have recently decided to provide 50
percent VAT rebate on sales of dairy products as per the recommendation of the Ministry of Agriculture
Development (MoAD) so that local dairies can strengthen their capacity and compete with Indian dairy
products VAT concession will help us bring down our production cost, making our products more
competitive in the domestic market.
Harper Government Supports Canadian Dairy Farmers.
Government is proud to support innovative projects like this one that strengthen the dairy industry in
Canada.This investment will help farmers increase their competitiveness through better management of
their herds and improved animal health on their farms.
Govt plans to bring long term dairy strategy.
The government is preparing a long-term strategy to initiate a white revolution in the country. The plan
will address policies and programmes for the next 20 years and will be enforced from next fiscal year.
New Zealand government assures safety of country's dairy products.
The New Zealand government assured all consumers that all New Zealand dairy products are safe in the
wake of reside of dicyandiamide (DCD)found in milk produced in the country.DCD is not used directly in
or on food in New Zealand. It is a product used on pastures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and
the leaching of nitrogen into waterways.
Pak dairy sector offers trade opportunities to Australia.
Australian High Commiss-ioner Peter Heyward addressing a dairy and livestock industry reception
praised Pakistan’s dairy companies for their significant expansion over the past six years based on
herds of cows imported from Australia.
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Sector Updates
Business & Markets
Karnataka 11th in milk production.
Karnataka ranks 11th in overall milk production in the country though the State is the second largest
milk producer in the cooperative sector after Gujarat.While Amul in Gujarat procures over 1.25 crore
kg milk daily, Karnataka Milk Federation (KMF) procures on an average 50 lakh kg milk daily.
Hi-tech milk dairy proposed for Mysore.
Mysore will soon have a hi-tech and massive dairy on the lines of Mega Dairy in Bangalore. With this, the
proposed dairy will be able handle eight lakh litres of milk daily, which can be expanded up to 10 lakh
litres. It is going to be a fully computerized plant with hi-tech features.
ITC to enter the dairy market in 14 months.
ITC started the dairy business as part of its integrated animal husbandry programme, the firm's
corporate social responsibility initiative (CSR). It is now in the process of taking it to the next level.
Landmark Group ventures into Modern Dairy Industry.
Landmark Group recently entered into the fast growing premium milk segment under the brand name
“WhollyCow” by setting up a fully automated hi-tech dairy farm over 120 acres of land near Sohna,
MYA Launches Dairy Brand MILK ROUTE in Bangalore.
The brand's ideals stand for Consumer Wellness through milk based nutrient intake and Rural
Transformation by improving the rural economy through responsible sourcing of milk from dairy farmers.
Mother Dairy plans to set up production facility in south.
Mother Dairy was expanding its ice-cream market and would be completing its national footprint in
2013-14.Thereafter, in about two years’ time, expect to occupy the top position in the estimated Rs
1,800-crore ice-cream and frozen desserts market in the country.
NDDB unveils National Dairy Plan in eight states of India.
The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) of India has unveiled the first phase of the National Dairy
Plan (NDP) in eight states of the country, including Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra to increase milk production.
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Sector Updates
Business & Markets
Oman looks to India for developing dairy industry in Gulf.
The Sultanate of Oman is seeking help of India, world's largest milk producer, to develop dairy
industry in the Gulf. With a view to strengthen co-operation in the field of dairying in Oman, the
delegation held discussions with NDDB chairman Amrita Patel.
Dairy proteins will be ‘major pillar of growth’ in 2013 - Volac
Dairy proteins will be a “major pillar of growth” in 2013 as consumers seek out more convenient ways
to consume protein, British dairy nutrition giant Volac has claimed.
a2 Milk UK aiming to reproduce Australian success.
a2 Milk UK is confident that it will mirror the achievements of its Australian counterpart by claiming a
share of the UK mainstream fresh milk market – despite only launching its first products in the country
three months ago.
Emerging market demand will drive EU dairy exports to 2022 – EC report
Emerging market demand for dairy products is expected to continue to drive European Union (EU)
exports and sustain commodity prices in coming years, a European Commission (EC) report has
Karmacharya Group to set up Rs 150m dairy plant in Bhaktapur.
Pokhara-based Karmacharya Group is investing Rs 150 million to set up a milk processing and
packaging plant in Bhakatpur. According to the company, the hi-tech plant will have the capacity of
processing up to 36,000 liters of milk per day.
The ultimate in dairy processing from GEA.
For many years GEA Process Engineering and GEA Westfalia Separator Group have led the world in
dairy processing technology. Separators and decanters from GEA Westfalia Separator enable dairies to
efficiently clarify, skim and standardize milk and process a wide range of dairy products.
First Milk ups farmer capital to fund added-value dairy future.
British dairy processor First Milk is increasing the amount of capital that its farmer members are
required invest in the business, in an attempt to speed up the growth of its added-value dairy interests.
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Sector Updates
Research & Technology
Giving cows human names raises milk production.
Scientists say that giving a cow a name and constantly handling her as a human being including giving
a personal touch can increase milk yield by up to 284 liters.
Genomics could revolutionize heifer selection methods.
Heifers are a new horizon for herd improvement with genomic testing.a first-calf heifer needs to perform
as a productive member of the herd for more than one lactation to compensate for the cost of raising
New genetic technology to boost dairy cow health.
New genetic technology will help reduce disease levels because sires can now be tested for their
immune response, with the best ones chosen in order to pass their genes on to their daughters.
New breeding technique enhances calves.
The high Australian dollar is assisting a farmer on the New South Wales far south coast to breed dairy
cows. New breeding technique enhances calves.It is really exciting to get some heifers on the ground
and increase our genetic value through our cows from overseas countries where their cattle in Canada
and America are the best in the world.
Look at milk records to assess the effectiveness of cow rations.
DRY cow and fresh cow management is the foundation for a successful lactationEvery herd’s immediate
key objectives should be to minimise health disorders, at calving and immediately post calving, and
maximise production and reproduction. However, until you get into the 2013 forages, two major checks
will be required - nutrition and environment management.
Cows Fed Flaxseed Produce More Nutritious Dairy Products.
Dairy cows that are fed flaxseed produce more nutritious milk, according to a new study by Oregon
State University. The study found that feeding cows up to six pounds of extruded flaxseed improved the
fat profile without negatively affecting the production and texture of the milk and other dairy products.
Improved immune response with MINTREX leads to healthier animals.
Cows fed MINTREX were able to generate an elevated antibody response to a pathogen, which better
enabled them to fight infection.
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Sector Updates
Research & Technology
Technology can help ranches' reproductive efficiency.
Aggressively tracking and managing the reproductive capacity of bulls and replacement heifers can
bolster a cattle operation's long-term economic health, Tools such as measuring reproductive tract
scores and synchronizing heifers' estrus cycles can help producers get the most out of calving season.
proper nutrition for heifers will maximize their productivity.
Critical dairy cow fertility focus of new study.
Fertility is a critical component of efficient dairy production.Failure to attain and maintain a timely
pregnancy is a major reason for production loss in dairy herds. Consequences of low fertility include a
reduced percentage of cows at the early stages of lactation, increments in insemination costs,
premature culling and delayed genetic progress. The study will involve collection of DNA from cows at
dairies in five states, together with establishing phenotypes for multiple fertility traits. Researchers will
be looking at variables such as time from calving to conception, embryo mortality and uterine health to
determine if some areas in the genome are different in the "high" and "low" fertility cow populations.
New treatment regime helps in battle against calf cryptosporidiosis.
The parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is invisible to the naked eye, but its negative effect
on calf health can be dramatic.If left unchecked, the infectious organism will cause severe diarrhoea,
with some farms experiencing high levels of calf mortality.
Special Research Report on China’s Dairy Farms 2013.
The Report elaborates on the status quo of scaled dairy farming and farms across China and of 15 major
producing provinces and regions in a systematic manner.
Opportunities to improve health management and avoid residues.
Employees work hard to keep your cows healthy and productive, to provide them with the best care
when they are sick and to avoid mistakes that could lead to violative drug residues.Complete medical
treatment records as described in the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance include: animal identification; date(s)
of treatment; drug given and dosage given; route of administration used; and milk withdrawal time.
Calves and cleanliness a vital health relationship.
Raising healthy calves is a challenging and rewarding job. Calf raisers are responsible for the dairy
herd's future, the next generation of milk cows. Minimizing death and disease losses in the calf herd can
save hundreds of dollars per replacement animal raised.Just rinsing a nursing bottle rather than cleaning
it thoroughly is very tempting. We figure that all the “germs” can be killed with a good soak with bleach.
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Sector Updates
Best Practices
Fonterra opens solar power milk centre.
New Zealand dairy giant Fonterra has opened Sri Lanka's first solar powered milk chilling centre.The
solar panel installation at Hanwella chilling centre allows to conserve energy and minimise our
environmental footprint.The Hanwella-based facility, which officially opened and has been designed to
conserve around 22,000 kW per year. The centre,features 32 solar panels with a 3.24 kW capacity, is
one of nine Fonterra chilling centres, located across five districts - Colombo, Nuwara Eliya, Kurunegala,
Puttalam and Matale.
Mayfield Dairy plant reduces total energy intensity 11.4 percent
In a positive step toward improving energy efficiency, local Athens Dean Foods plant Mayfield Dairy has
met the requirements for the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency's “ENERGY STAR Challenge for
Industry” by reducing its energy intensity by 11.4 percent.
Wisconsin company plans to convert dairy waste to electricity.
A company in Turtle Lake, Wisconsin, is building a new facility that will convert food and dairy waste to
energy.The facility is expected to generate enough energy to power about 3,000 homes.
‘Cow power’ turns manure into clean energy.
Farms across the northeast have begun employing an intricate scientific process, using cow manure as
a fuel source, that creates enough power to sustain a large dairy operation in Maine, produces
clean-burning gas from cow manure and food waste and, in the process, generates enough electricity
to power 800 area homes.
Nation's largest dairy cooperative using manure gas to power truck fleet.
A natural gas fueling station powered by cow manure from one of the nation's largest dairy cooperatives
has opened in northwestern Indiana. The stations will fuel 42 milk delivery trucks owned by Fair Oaks
Farms, a dairy cooperative of 10 farms housing about 35,000 cows. Those trucks deliver milk to three
Kroger grocery store dairies serving 560 retail stores in eight states.
Alltech now offers on-farm support program.
Alltech has been providing nutritional solutions to dairy producers across Wisconsin. We understand
that in order for your animals to perform at their peak potential, management is also a key component.
Regardless of the size of your farm or business, training plays an important role in its success.
Dairy Farming Times | Jan - Feb 2013
Forthcoming Dairy Event
Dairy Show 2013
International Exhibition Conference & Live Animal Display
Dairy Show is a premier annual event on animal husbandry and dairy development. The event a
combination of tradeshow , conference and live animal display is held in Hyderabad in India.
Objective of the event is to provide knowledge to farmers and dairy entrepreneurs about methods in
animal rearing & dairy processing.The event will expose best practices, government / institutional
assistance, various schemes and international tie-ups.
The second edition of dairyshow will be a complete dairy event which will focus on strengthening the
entire dairy chain starting from animal rearing to milk & valued added milk products.
Event will be a gateway to exploring Indian Dairy sector
Launch introduce products, equipments and technologies
Networking of 150 exhibitors and 80,000 visitors
Separate pavilions on dairy farming and dairy processing
Live Animal Display
Explore national international tie-ups
Gather information on setting up of dairy ventures
Export of value added dairy products from India
March 22-24,2013
HITEX Exhibition Centre, Hyderabad
Visitor Profile
Agri / Dairy Farmers
Research and product development
Dairy processing
Service providers for dairy processing industry
Feed Production
Chambers of commerce and cooperatives
NGOs, Development Agencies
Associations and government agencies – Press
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