Abd alhamed Abd alhamed

Production of Functional Kariesh Cheese by Microencapsulation of
Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15704
A.M. Abd-Elhamid
Department of Food and Dairy Science andTechnology, Faculty of
Agriculture, Damanhour University, Damanhour, 22516, Egypt
Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15704 was microencapsulated with rennet
gelation of milk proteins. Encapsulated and free Bifidobacterium adolescentis
ATCC 15704 under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and bile tolerance were
estimated. The survivability of encapsulated Bifidobacterium adolescentis
ATCC 15704 and the changes of organic acids in Kariesh cheese during 2 weeks
of cold storage were determined. The study demonstrated that microencapsulation
using rennet gelation of milk proteins increased
the survival of Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15704 in simulated gastric
conditions. Furthermore, the
results showed that, the survival of encapsulated Bifidobacterium adolescentis
ATCC 15704 in bile solution
was significantly enhanced (p<0.05) compared to the free Bifidobacterium
adolescentis ATCC 15704.
Microencapsulation protected Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15704 in
Kariesh cheese during cold storage
as compared to free Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15704. In addition, the
capsules made from rennet
gelation of milk proteins had a positive effect in organic acids during cold storage.
Key words: Bifidobacterium, bile tolerance, microencapsulation, organic acids,
Kariesh cheese
Publish in :
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 4(2): 112-117, 2012
ISSN: 2042-4876
© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012
Submitted: March 14, 2012 Accepted: March 26, 2012 Published: April 20, 2012
Abd-El-Salam, M.H., S. El-Shibiny and H.A. El-Alamy,
1984. Production of skim milk (Kareish cheese) from
ultrafiltered reconstituted milk. Egyptian J. Dairy
Sci., 12(1): 111-115.
Abou-Donia, S.A., 2008. Origin, history and
manufacturing process of Egyptian dairy products:
An overview. Alexandria J. Food Sci. Technol., 5(1):
Akalin, A.S., S. Gonc and Y. Akbas, 2002. Variation in
organic acids content during ripening of pickled
white cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 1670-1676.
Anal, A. and H. Singh, 2007. Recent advances in
microencapsulation of probiotics for industrial
applications and targeted delivery. Trends Food Sci.
Technol., 18: 240-251.
Bevilacqua, A.E. and A.N. Califano, 1989. Determination
of organic acids in dairy products by highperformance
liquid chromatography. J. Food Sci., 54:
Champagne, C.P. and P. Fustier, 2007.
Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of
bioactive compounds into foods. Curr. Opin.
Biotech., 18: 184-190.
Ding, W.K. and N.P. Shah, 2009. Effect of various
encapsulating materials on the stability of probiotic
bacteria. J. Food Sci., 74(2): 100-107.
Ekmekcioglu, G., 2002. A physiological approach for
preparing and conducting intestinal bioavailability
studies using experimental systems. Food Chem., 76:
El-Nemr, T.M., S.A. Awad, B. Gehan and J.R. Jjuuko,
2007. Utilization of oligosaccharides from sweet
lupin (Lupinus termis) as a prebiotic into kaeish
cheese analog. Proceeding of the 10th Egyptian
conference for Dairy Science and Technology, 19-21,
November 2007, 377-390, Cairo-Egypt.
Heidebach, T., P. Först and U. Kulozik, 2009.
Microencapsulation of probiotic cells by means of
rennet-gelation of milk proteins. Food Hydrocolloids,
23: 1670-1677.
Jayalalitha, V., P.R. Doria, B. Dhanalakshmi, A. Elango
and C.N. Kumar, 2011. Improving the viability of
probiotic in yoghurt through different methods of
encapsulation. Egypt. J. Dairy Sci., 39: 39-44.
Kailasapathy, K. and J. Chin, 2000. Survival and
therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with
reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and
Bifidobacterium spp. Immunol. Cell Biol., 78: 80-88
Kim, S.O. and R.W. Worobo, 2000. Characterization and
purification of a bacteriocin produced by a potential
probiotic culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus 30 SC. J.
Dairy Sci., 83: 2747-2752.
Lapierre, L., P. Undeland and L.J. Cox, 1992. Lithium
Chloride-Sodium Propionate Agar for the
enumeration of Bifidobacteria in fermented dairy
products. J. Dairy Sci., 75: 1192-1196.
Muthukumarasamy, P., P.W. Allan and A.R. Holley,
2006. Stability of Lactobacillus reuteri in different
types of microcapsules. J. Food Sci., 71(1): 20-24.
Olejnik, A., M. Lewandowska, M. Obarsk and W. Grajek,
2005. Tolerance of Lactobacillus and
Bifidobacterium strains to low pH, bile salts and
digestive enzymes. Topic Food Sci. Technol., 1:
Ong, L. and N.P. Shah, 2009. Probiotic Cheddar cheese:
Influence of ripening temperatures on survival of
probiotic microorganisms, cheese composition and
organic acid profiles. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 42:
Rao, A.V., N. Shiwnarain and I. Maharaj, 1989. Survival
of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium pseudolongum
in simulated gastric and intestinal juices. Can. Insti.
Sci. Technol. J., 22(4): 345-349.
Russell, T.L., R.R. Berardi, J.L. Barnett,
L.C. Dermentzoglou, K.M. Jarvenpaa, S.P. Schmaltz
and B. Dressman, 1993. Upper gastrointestinal pH in
seventy-nine healthy, elderly, North American men
and women. Pharm. Res., 10: 187-196.
Sandoval-Castilla, O., C. Labato-Calleros, H.S. Garc\aGalindo, J. Alvarez-Ram\rez and E.J. Vernon-Carter,
2010. Textural properties alginate-pectin beads and
survivability of entrapped Lactobacillus casei in
simulated gastrointestinal conditions and yoghurt.
Food Res. Int., 43: 111-117.
SAS, 2000. SAS User,s Guide.Version 4.02. Cary, NC,
SAS Inst., USA.
Scardovi, V. and L.D. Trovatelli, 1965. The fructose-6phosphate shunt as a peculiar pattern of hexose
degradation in the genus Bifidobacterium. Anal.
Microbiol. Enzymol., 15: 19-27.
Sridar, N. and K. Kailasapathy, 2003. Studies on the
effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic
microorganisms under high acid and bile conditions.
J. Food Sci. Technol., 40: 458-460
Sultana, K., G. Godward, N. Reynolds,
R. Aumugaswamy, P. Peiris and K. Kailasapathy,
2000. Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria with
alginate-starch and evaluation of survival in
simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in yoghurt.
Int. J. Food Microbiol., 62: 47-55.
Oral glucose supplementation improved semen
quality and constituents of seminal and blood
plasma of NZW buck rabbits in the subtropics
Youssef A Attia1
A E Abd El Hamid1
Fulvia Bovera2
Mohamed El-Sayed1
Department of Animal and Poultry
Production, Faculty of Agriculture,
Damanhour University, Egypt;
Department of Scienze Zootecniche
e Ispezione degli Alimenti, University
of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy
The effect of different levels of oral glucose supplementation on reproductive
performance of New Zealand white buck rabbits was studied on 12 bucks aged 6–7
randomly divided among four groups from February to September. The treatments
of supplementing drinking water with 0 (control), 2.5, 5, and 10 g of glucose/L,
Semen was collected twice weekly from April through September. Three samples
of blood and
seminal plasma were collected for each treatment during August. Semen quality,
constituents of seminal and blood plasma, and testosterone were studied. Oral
supplementation of 5 or 10 g/L of drinking water significantly increased semen
volume, sperm
motility, sperm concentration, live sperm percentage, total sperm output, and total
live sperm
output and significantly decreased abnormal sperm percentage as compared to the
group. Addition of glucose at 5 g/L water significantly increased blood plasma
total protein,
albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, and testosterone hormone compared to
the control
Keywords: rabbit, glucose, semen quality, seminal and blood plasma
Published in :
the following Dove press Journal : Open Access Animal Physiology 17
November 2010
1. Daader AH, Askar AA, Abd El-Monem UM. Influence of temperaturehumidity
index values on the performance of New Zealand White doe
rabbits. Egypt J Rab Sci. 2003;13:157–170.
2. Ahmed NA, Elfar AA, Sakr OG. Effect of buck and doe-gathering
on sexual and maternal behavior, serum E2 and P4 and reproductive
performance of NZW doe rabbits. In: Proceedings of the 4th International
Conference on Rabbit Production in Hot Climate; 2005; Sharm
El-Sheikh, Egypt. p. 169–175.
3. Ahmed SS, EL-Gendy KM, Sahan MA, Tawfeek MI, EL-Kelawy HM.
Response of rabbits to diets containing water-cress (nasturtium officianale)
as a natural feed additives. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International
Poultry Conference; 2005 Apr 4–7; Hurghada, Egypt. p. 491–505.
4. Boiti C, Chiericato GM, Filotto V, Canali C. Effect of higher
environmental temperature on plasma testosterone, cortisol, T3 and
T4 in the growing rabbits. In: Proceeding of the 5th World Rabbit
Congress; 1992; Oregon State University, Oregon, USA. p. 447–455.
5. Marai IFM, Habeeb AA, Gad AE. Tolerance of imported rabbits grown
as meat animals to hot climate and saline drinking water in the subtropical
environment of Egypt. Anim Sci. 2005;81:115–123.
6. Okab AB, El-Banna SG, Yehiti MAH. Seminal characteristics and
gonadal histochimical changes of male and female Red Baladi rabbits
throughout seasons of the year. Egypt J Rab Sci. 2004;14:1–28.
7. Koski KG, Hill FW. Evidence for a critical period during late gestation
when maternal dietary carbohydrate is essential for survival of newborn
rats. J Nutr. 1990;120:1016–1027.
8. Koski KG, Hill FW, L‫ض‬nnerdal B. Altered lactational performance in
rats fed low carbohydrate diets and its effect on growth of neonatal rat
pups. J Nut. 1990;120:1028–1036.
9. Cafantaris B. Update of vitamin C application in poultry. 1990; 4th
Symposium Rovigypt Poultry Seminar.
10. Boiti C, Castellini C, Besenfelder U, et al. Guidelines for the handling
of rabbit bucks and semen. World Rab Sci. 2005;13:71–91.
11. Snedecor GW, Cochran GW. Statistical Methods. 6th ed. Ames: Iowa
State University Press; 1982.
12. Duncan DB. Multiple range and multiple F-tests. Biometrics. 1955;11:
13. Attia YA, Burke WH, Yamani KA, Jensen LS. Energy allotments and
reproductive performance of broiler breeders. 1. Males. Poul Sci. 1995;
14. Hotzel MJ, Walkden-Brown SW, Blackberry MA, Martin GB. The
effect of nutrition on testicular growth in mature Merino rams involves
mechanisms that are independent of changes in GnRH pulse frequency.
J Endocr. 1995;147:75–85.
15. Brown BW. A review of nutritional influences on reproduction in boars,
bulls and rams. Reprod Nut Develop. 1994;342:89–114.
16. Martin GB, Walkden-Brown SW. Nutritional influences on reproduction
in mature male sheep and goats. J Reprod Fert Supply. 1995;49:
17. Moran ET Jr. Effect of post hatch glucose on poults fed and fasted
during yolk sac depletion. Poul Sci. 1989;68:1141–1147.
18. Engku EA, Zahan A, Forbes JM. Growth, food intake and energy
balance of layer and broiler chickens offered glucose in the drinking
water and the effect of dietary protein content. Br Poult Sci. 1989;30:
19. Rigau T, Rivera M, Palomo MJ, et al. Differential effects of glucose and
fructose on hexose metabolism in dog spermatozoa. Reprod. 2002;123:
20. Bramwell RK, McDaniel CD, Burke WH, Howarth B. Influence of
male broiler breeder dietary energy intake on reproduction and progeny
growth. Poult Sci. 1996;75:767–775.
21. Attia YA, Yamani KA, Bruke WH. Daily energy allotments and
reproductive performance of broiler breeder males. Poult Sci. 1993;72:
22. Hay MF, Morales E, Soong R. Effect of maternal treatment with various
agents on early embryonic development in the rabbit. In: Proceedings of
the 5th International Congress on Animal Reproduction and Artificial
Insemination; 1984; Trento, Italy. Rome: FAO. p. 309.
23. Kamuro H, Kodaira H, Shun-Ichi A, Ogawa R. Experimental study of
efficacy and optimal dose of intraoperative glucose in rabbits under
general anesthesia. J Anesthesia. 1996;10:140–143.
24. Kamuro H, Komorita N, Ogawa R. Optimal dose and duration of glucose
administration during fasting period preceding surgery in rabbits.
J Anesthesia. 2000;141:19–23.
25. Attia YA, Badawy NA. Effect of dietary energy levels on reproductive
performance, semen quality and offspring growth of two local chicken
breed males. Egyptian Poult Sci J. 1996;16:69–86.
26. Rubio JM, Hallford DM, Hawkins DE. Effect of glucose administration
during the oestrous cycle on serum hormone profiles, MRNA for
steriodogenic enzymes and breeding performance of Ewes. J Anim Sci.
27. Matsuno AY, Esrey KL, Perrault H, Koski K. Low intensity exercise and
varying proportions of dietary glucose and fat modify milk and mammary
gland composition and pup growth. J Nut. 1999;129:1167–1175.
28. Atta AM. Performance of broilers administrated with D-glucose during
the post-hatch period. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria
University. 2001.
Effect of phytase with
or without multienzyme supplementation on performance and nutrient
digestibility of young broiler chicks fed mash or crumble diets
Youssef A. Attia,1,2Walid S. El-Tahawy,2
Abd El-Hamid E. Abd El-Hamid,2
Saber S. Hassan,2Antonino Nizza,3
Mahmoud I. El-Kelaway2
Arid Land Agriculture Department,
King Abudlaziz University, Jeddah,
Saudi Arabia
Department of Animal and Poultry
Production, Damanhour University, Egypt
Dipartimento di ScienzeZootecniche
eIspezionedegliAlimenti, Università
di Napoli Federico II, Italy
A total of 210 unsexed 1-day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were wing banded
and randomly distributed among 30 cages of 7 birds per cage keeping equal initial
BW during days 1-20 of age. A factorial design (2×3) was used in which
there were two feed forms (mash vscrumble diet) and three enzyme treatments
(unsupplemented, phytas,e, phytase plus multienzyme).
Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 7 chicks per replicate. Body weight
(BW), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fed chicks
were significantly improved when the crumble diet was administered.
However, feed intake of chicks fed on the crumble feeds was significantly lower
than those fed the mash diet. Digestibility of ether extract and crude fiber was
significantly greater in groups fed the crumble diet than those fed the mash
diet. Enzyme supplementation significantly and similarly increased growth and
production index, and improved FCR. Also greater digestibility of crude protein
and crude ash was observed but growth during days 8-14 of age and crude fibre
digestibility were significantly greater in chicks receiving themultienzyme plus
phytase supplement than those receiving phytase alone.
Crumble feed supplemented with multienzyme resulted in the highest performance
and nutrient digestibility of broilers during days 1-20 of age.
Key words: Broilers, Form of feeds, Enzymes,Phytase, Digestibility.
Published in :Italian Journal of Animal Science 2012; 11:e56
References :
Abudabos, M.A., 2012. Phytate phosphorus utilization
and intestinal phytase activity in
laying hens. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 11:e8.
Adeyemi, O.A., Eruvbetine, D., Oguntona, T.,
Dipeolu, M., Agunbiade, J.A., 2008.
Feeding broiler chicken with diets containing
whole cassava root meal fermented
with rumen filtrate. Arch. Zootec.
AI-Harthi, M.A., 2006. Impact of supplemental
feed enzymes, condiments mixture or
their combination on broiler performance,
nutrients digestibility and plasma constituents.
Int. J. Poultry Sci. 5:764-771.
Amerah, A.M., Ravindran, V., Lentle, R.G.,
Thomas, D.G., 2007. Feed particle size:
Implications on the digestion and performance
of poultry. World.Poultry Sci. J.
AOAC, 1995.Official methods of analysis. 16th
ed., Association of Official Analytical
Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.
Attia, Y.A., 2003. Performance, carcass characteristics,
meat quality and plasma constituents
of meat type drakes fed diets containing
different levels of lysine with or
without a microbial phytase. Arch. Anim.
Nutr. 66:39-48.
Attia, Y.A., Abd El-Rahman, S.A., Qota, E.M.A.,
2001. Effects of microbial phytase with or
without cell-wall splitting enzymes on the
performance of broilers fed suboptimum
levels of dietary protein and metabolisable
energy. Egypt. Poultry Sci. J. 21:521-547.
Attia, Y.A., Al-Harthi, M.A., El-Deek, A.A.,
2003a. Nutritive value of undehulled sunflower
meal as affected by multienzymes
supplementation to broiler diets. Arch.
Geflugelk. 67:97-106.
Attia, Y.A., Qota, E.M.A., Aggoor, F.A.M., Kies,
A.K., 2003b. Value for rice bran, its maximal
utilisation and its upgrading by phytase
and other enzymes and diet-formulation
based on available amino acids in the
diet for broilers. Arch. Geflugelk. 67:157166.
Attia, Y.A., Qota, E.M., Zeweil, H.S., Bovera, F.,
Abd Al-Hamid, A.E., Sahledom, M.D., 2012.
Effect of different dietary concentration of
inorganic and organic copper on growth
performance and lipid metabolism of
whitePekin male ducks. Brit. Poultry Sci.
Attia, Y.A, Tag El-Din, A.E, Zeweil, H.S., Hussein,
A.S., Qota, E.S., Arafat, M.A., 2008. The
effect of supplementation of enzyme on laying
and reproductive performance in
Japanese quail hens fed Nigella seed meal.
J. Poultry Sci. 45:110-115.
Cerrate, S., Wang, Z., Coto, C., Yan, F., Waldroup,
P.W., 2009. Effect of pellet diameter in broiler
starter diets on subsequent performance.
J. Appl. Poultry Res. 18:590-597.
Choct, M., 2006. Enzymes for the feed industry:
past, present and future. World. Poultry
Sci. J. 62:5-15.
Choct, M., Annison, G., 1990. Anti-nutritive
activity of wheat pentosans in broiler
diets. Brit. Poultry Sci. 31:811-821.
Choi, J.H., So, B.S., Ryu, K.S., Kang, S.L., 1986.
Effects of pelleted or crumbled diets on the
performance and the development of the
digestive organs of broilers. Poultry Sci.
Cowieson, A.J., Acamovic, T., Berford, M.R.,
2003. Supplementation of diets containing
pea meal with exogenous enzymes: effect
on weight gain, feed conversion, nutrient
digestibility and gross morphology of the
gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler
chicks. Brit. Poultry Sci. 44:427-437.
Cowieson, A.J., Singh D.N., Adeola, O., 2006.
Prediction of ingredient quality and the
effect of a combination of xylanase, amylase,
protease and phytase in the diets of
broiler chicks. 2. Energy and nutrient utilisation.
Brit. Poultry Sci. 47:490-500.
Cutlip, S.E., Hott, J.M., Buchanan, N.P., Rack, A.L., Latshaw, J.D., Moritz, J.S.,
2008. The
effect of steam-conditioning practices on
pellet quality and growing broiler nutritional
value. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 17:249-261.
Deaton, J.W., 1992. The effect of meal feeding
on small intestine weight. Poultry Sci. 71:
Dozier, W.A., Behnke, K.C., Gehring, C.K.,
Branton, S.L., 2010. Effects of feed form on
growth performance and processing yields
of broiler chickens during a 42-day production
period. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 19:219-226.
Engberg, R.M., Hedemann, M.S., Jensen, B.B.,
2002. The influence of grinding and pelleting
of feed on the microbial composition
and activity in the digestive tract of broiler
chickens. Brit. Poultry Sci. 43:569-579.
Ghazalah, A.A., Abd EI-Gawad, A.H., Soliman,
M.S., Youssef, Amany, W., 2005. Effect of
enzyme preparation on performance of
broilers fed corn-soybean meal based
diets. Egypt. Poultry Sci. J. 25:295-316.
Hubbard SAS, 1999. Broiler Management Guide.
Available from: http://www.hubbardbreeders.
Jafarnejad, S., Farkhoy, M., Sadegh, M.,
Bahonar, A.R., 2010. Effect of crumble-pellet
and mash diets with different levels of
dietary protein and energy on the performance
of broilers at the end of the third
week. Vet. Med. Int. 2010: Article 328123.
Available from: http://www.hindawi.com/
Jahan, M.S., Asaduzzaman, M., Sarkar, A.K.,
2006. Performance of broiler fed on mash,
pellet and crumble. Int. J. Poultry Sci. 5:
Kavitha, R.B., Desai, J., Deepika R., Radha krishna, P.M., 2003. Effect of supplementation
of enzymes for non-starch polysaccharides
in corn soya diet in broilers. Indian J.
Anim. Nutr. 20:63-69.
McKinney, L.J., Teeter, R.G., 2004. Predicting
effective caloric value of nonnutritive factors:
I. Pellet quality and II. Prediction of
consequential formulation dead zones.
Poultry Sci. 83:1165-1174.
Mendes, A.A., Polity, E.S., Garcia, E.A., Sartori,
J.R., 1995. Effect of ground of pelleted
diets on performance and carcass yield of
broiler chicken. Riv. Zoot. Vet. 7:31-40.
Nir, I., Hillel, R., Ptichi, I., Shefet, G., 1995.
Effect of particle size on performance. 3.
Grinding pelleting interactions. Poultry
Sci. 74:771-783.
Nourmohammadi, R., Hosseini, S.M., Farhangfar,
H., Bashtani, M., 2012. Effect of citric acid
and microbial phytase enzyme on ileal digestibility
of some nutrients in broiler chicks fed
corn-soybean meal diets. Ital. J. Anim. Sci.
Parsons, A.S., Buchanan, N.P., Blemings, K.P.,
Wilson, M.E., Moritz, J.S., 2006. Effect of
corn particle size and pellet texture on
broiler performance in the growing phase.
J. Appl. Poultry Res. 15:245-255.
Reece, F.N., Lott, B.D., Deaton, J.N., 1984. The
effects of feed form, protein profile, energy
level and gender on broiler performance in
warm, 26.7°C environment. Poultry Sci.
SAS, 2002.SAS/STAT Software, ver. 9. SAS Inst.
Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Shirzadi, H., Moravej, H., Shivazad, M., 2008.
Comparison of the effects of different
kinds of NSP enzymes on the performance,
water intake, litter moisture and jejunal
digesta viscosity of broilers fed barleybased
diet. J. Food Agr. Environ. 7:615-619.
Skinner-Noble, D.O., McKinney, L.J., Teeter,
R.G., 2005. Predicting effective caloric
value of nonnutritive factors: III. Feed form
affects broiler performance by modifying
behavior patterns. Poultry Sci. 84:403-411.
Svihus, B., Klovstad, K.H., Perez, V., Zimonja,
O., Sahlstrom, S., Schuller, R.B., 2004.
Physical and nutritional effects of pelleting
of broiler chicken diets made from
wheat ground to different coarsenesses by
the use of roller mill and hammer mill.
Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 117:281-293.
Tufarelli, V., Dario, M., Laudadio, V., 2011. Feed
intake in guinea fowl, layer hen and
pheasant as influenced by particle size of
pelleted diets. Int. J. Poultry Sci. 10:238240.
Vande, G.H., Schrijver, R., 1988. Expansion and
pelleting of starter grower and finishers
diets: effects on nitrogen retention, ileal
and total tract digestibility of protein phosphorus
and calcium and in vitro protein
quality. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech. 72:303-318.
Yang, J., Benyamin, B., McEvoy, B.P., Gordon,
S., Henders, A.K., Nyholt, D.R., Madden,
P.A., Heath, A.C., Martin, N.G., Mont gomery, G.W., Goddard, M.E., Visscher,
P.M., 2010. Common NSPs explain a large
proportion of the heritability for human
height. Nat. Genet. 42:565-569.
Zanella, I., Sakomura, N.K., Silversides, F.G.,
Fiqueirdo, A., Pack, M., 1999. Effect of
enzyme supplementation of broiler diets
based on corn and soybeans. Poultry Sci.