The Historic New Orleans Quarterly Vol. XXXII, NUMBER1

The Historic New Orleans
Collection Quarterly
N U M B ER 1
W I N T E R 2 0 15
THE UR S ULINE MANU S CR IP T : Spiritual Songbook
Tour THNOC’s Williams Residence and
other historic French Quarter house
museums, festively decked out for the
season, as part of the Friends of the
Cabildo’s annual holiday home tour.
The Collection invites teachers to
participate in a free workshop presented
by the Gilder Lehrman Institute of
American History and THNOC.
Saturday, March 7, 2015, 9 a.m.–3:30 p.m.
Williams Research Center, 410 Chartres
Please email Daphne L. Derven,
[email protected], to register for the
teacher/educator mailing list and to
receive more information about this event.
December 27–28, 2014, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.
718 Toulouse Street
Tickets are available through Friends of
the Cabildo, (504) 523-3939.
Stop in for tea and say hello to the staff of
the British Consulate General in Houston,
as they present their first pop-up
January 6–9, 2014, 9:30 a.m.–4:30 p.m.
533 Royal Street
See more about the symposium on page 12.
January 23–24, 2015
Hotel Monteleone, 214 Royal Street
To register, visit
/programs/symposia.html or call
(504) 523-4662.
For their ninth annual concert
collaboration, The Collection and the
Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra will
present “New Orleans and the Spanish
World,” a program celebrating the rich
cultural and musical relations between
Spain and Louisiana.
Wednesday, February 4, 2015, 7:30 p.m.
St. Louis Cathedral, 615 Pere Antoine Alley
Historian Laura D. Kelley, author of
a new book about the historical and
cultural legacy of Ireland in New
Orleans, will present a lecture, with a
book signing to follow.
Saturday, March 7, 2015, 6–8 p.m.
533 Royal Street
Join The Collection and Curator Erin M.
Greenwald for the opening of THNOC’s
newest exhibition, Purchased Lives: New
Orleans and the Domestic Slave Trade,
Friday, March 20, 2015, 6–8 p.m.
Williams Research Center, 410 Chartres
See more about the symposium on page 11.
Saturday, March 21, 2015, 8 a.m.–5 p.m.
Williams Research Center,
410 Chartres Street
Free; registration required
To reserve a seat for the program in
New Orleans, contact THNOC at
(504) 523-4662 or email [email protected]
533 Royal Street
Williams Gallery, Louisiana History Galleries, Shop, and Tours
Tuesday–Saturday, 9:30 a.m.–4:30 p.m.; Sunday, 10:30 a.m.–4:30 p.m.
400 and 410 Chartres Street
Williams Research Center, Boyd Cruise Gallery, and Laura Simon Nelson Galleries
for Louisiana Art
Tuesday–Saturday, 9:30 a.m.–4:30 p.m.
D The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Andrew Jackson: Hero of New Orleans
Through March 29, 2015
Williams Gallery, 533 Royal Street
Studio, Street, Self: Photographic Portraits
from THNOC
Presented in conjunction with PhotoNOLA 2014
Through February 28, 2015
Boyd Cruise Gallery, 410 Chartres Street
MirrorFugue: Reflections of New Orleans Pianists
Presented in conjunction with Prospect.3+ and
made possible by Phyllis M. Taylor
Through December 20
Laura Simon Nelson Galleries for Louisiana Art,
400 Chartres Street
Louisiana History Galleries
533 Royal Street
Tuesday–Saturday, 9:30 a.m.–4:30 p.m.
Sunday, 10:30 a.m.–4:30 p.m.
The Williams Residence Tour
THNOC Architectural Tour
533 Royal Street
Tuesday–Saturday, 10 and 11 a.m., 2 and 3 p.m.
Sunday, 11 a.m., 2 and 3 p.m
$5 per person
Groups of eight or more should call (504) 598-7145
for reservations or visit
Williams Residence Holiday Home and
Courtyard Tour
533 Royal Street
Through December 29, 2014
Tuesday–Saturday, 10 and 11 a.m., 2 and 3 p.m.
Sunday, 11 a.m., 2 and 3 p.m.
$5 per person; free for THNOC members
THNOC is closed December 24–25.
Recent Acquisitions in Louisiana Art, 2010–2014
January 10–May 2, 2015
Laura Simon Nelson Galleries for Louisiana Art,
400 Chartres Street
Purchased Lives: New Orleans and the Domestic
Slave Trade, 1808–1865
March 17–July 18, 2015
Boyd Cruise Gallery, 410 Chartres Street
“Le soleil heraut de sa gloire” (The herald sun
of his glory)
from the Ursuline manuscript copy of Nouvelles
poésies spirituelles et morales
1736; manuscript sheet music
History is often thought of as a one-way street, with narratives and facts presented
to the public without room for discussion. But ask any history lover, scholar, or
museum professional, and you’ll learn that collaboration and colloquy are treasured,
essential components of the history-making process.
Every year, THNOC hosts the Williams Research Center Symposium, which
brings together our curators, our audience, and history experts from around the
country to discuss the finer points and complexities of New Orleans and Gulf
South history. This promises to be a banner year for the event as we continue to
commemorate the bicentennial of the Battle of New Orleans. Those interested in
the far-reaching history of the War of 1812 and of Andrew Jackson’s impact on
this nation will have much to discuss throughout the two-day symposium, which
accompanies the current exhibition Andrew Jackson: Hero of New Orleans.
Then, in March, The Collection will cohost a daylong symposium on the
domestic slave trade. Presented in collaboration with the Library of Virginia,
based in Richmond, this exciting day of thoughtful discussion will help to launch
THNOC’s exhibition Purchased Lives: New Orleans and the Domestic Slave Trade,
1808–1865. We are honored to be fostering public dialogue on historical issues that
continue to impact our region.
In other news, I am delighted to congratulate Alfred E. Lemmon, director of
the Williams Research Center, on his recent induction into the Orden de Isabel
la Católica (Order of Isabella the Catholic), a Spanish royal order honoring those
who have contributed greatly to furthering friendship and cooperation between
Spain and the international community. Lemmon and The Collection will be
surveying New Orleans’s Spanish ties at our upcoming concert with the Louisiana
Philharmonic Orchestra. With this and all of our events, we hope to engage our
audience in the history we all share. —PRISCILLA LAWRENCE
THNOC trains its lens on photographic
Recent acquisitions in Louisiana art get a
A one-of-a-kind musical installation takes
up residence.
Louisiana’s oldest known musical artifact
becomes a book.
E V E N T S / 11
THNOC examines the history of the
domestic slave trade.
The 2015 WRC Symposium honors the
bicentennial of the Battle of New Orleans.
C O M M U N I T Y / 14
On the Job
Staff News
Become a Member
On the Scene
Focus on Philanthropy
A C Q U I S I T I O N S / 21 Acquisition Spotlight
Recent Additions
About Face
The Collection’s newest exhibition, presented in conjunction with
PhotoNOLA 2014, traces 175 years of photographic portraiture.
Studio, Street, Self: Photographic
Portraits from The Historic New Orleans
Through February 28, 2015
Boyd Cruise Gallery, 410 Chartres Street
The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Whether the purpose was documentary or expressive, capturing a human likeness with the
camera has been a longstanding role of photography. A portrait is a collaboration between
subject and photographer, one modulated by the circumstances of the setting. Each variable helps to shape the final product, giving even the most similar-looking portraits a
humanity as individual as their subjects. Studio, Street, Self: Photographic Portraits from
The Historic New Orleans Collection, now on view at the Williams Research Center’s Boyd
Cruise Gallery in conjunction with the citywide photography festival PhotoNOLA, offers
an expansive view of portrait photography as it has existed in New Orleans and its environs
for more than 175 years.
The exhibition includes photographs made both in formal studio settings and out in the
street, as well as self-portraits. A photographer’s studio offers the greatest control over the
setting and was a mainstay of early photographic practice, especially once more refined
lenses and chemistry afforded an exposure time that did not exceed the sitter’s ability to
stay still. The early studios’ posing chairs, props, and skylights later yielded to seamless
backgrounds and an arsenal of specialized lighting equipment. Street settings add an element of chance, from serendipitous juxtapositions of subject
and background to effects of light and shadow. In street photographs, the skills of the artist
intersect with surroundings that are presented rather than wholly selected. Self-portraits
are a different breed of photographic portrait, embodying an implicit process of introspection—and perhaps an element of vanity. Such portraits often literally hold a mirror up to
the subject, sometimes incorporating partially transparent or distorted reflections. Many
photographers have found the shadow self-portrait an intriguing and expressive form;
others have used a remote means of triggering the exposure, such as a timer, once they
have assumed a pose.
In an age of endless photo streams and selfies, accessible from one’s pocket and
disseminated with the tap of a finger, Studio, Street, Self honors a more deliberate pace
of documentation, inviting viewers to study the lives and artistry behind the faces in
photographs. — JOHN H. LAWRENCE
A. Idelle Gatling, Gospel Singer, New Orleans
1971; gelatin silver print
by Luke Fontana
© Luke Fontana, 2009.0088.3
B. Everette Maddox
ca. 1982; gelatin silver print
by Dale Milford
gift of Ralph Adamo, Henry Lee Staples, and
William S. Maddox, 94-19-L.1
C. Alice Aldige, holding Elizabeth Eustis, detail
1913; matte collodion print
by Eugene O’Connor
gift of Elizabeth Eustis, 1987.45.17
D. Reverend Scie, Greater Little Zion Missionary
Baptist Church, Holy Cross
2011; photoprint
by Stephen Wilkes
gift of Stephen and Bette Wilkes, 2011.0195.24
E. Johnny Donnels in his studio
ca. 1990; chromogenic Type C print
gift of Joan T. Donnels, 2010.0068.3.1
F. Constance Reynolds Green and brother
Jack M. Green
1953; gelatin silver print
gift of Joe Wilkins, 2013.0294
Winter 2015 3
Fresh Finds
The Laura Simon Nelson Galleries turn two years old and celebrate with the
opening of Recent Acquisitions in Louisiana Art, 2010–2014.
Recent Acquisitions in Louisiana Art,
January 10–May 2, 2015
Laura Simon Nelson Galleries for
Louisiana Art, 400 Chartres Street
The Historic New Orleans Collection is celebrating four years of recent acquisitions
and two years of its newest exhibition space, the Laura Simon Nelson Galleries, with
an exhibition of Louisiana art spanning two centuries and featuring more than 50
artworks, including paintings and decorative-arts pieces. The earliest paintings date to
the 1790s, and the most recent to 2003, so the show in its entirety displays major artistic trends from the past 200 years. Paintings include rural landscapes and city scenes,
dock scenes, still lifes, genre scenes, and both full-size and miniature portraits. Among
the well-known artists showcased are Jacques Amans, Charles Bird King, François
Bernard, George Peter Alexander Healy, William Henry Buck, Joseph Jefferson, Joseph
Rusling Meeker, Paul Poincy, Ellsworth Woodward, William Woodward, Paul Ninas,
Leonard Flettrich, Wayman Adams, Clarence Millet, Douglas Bourgeois, Simon
Gunning, and William Tolliver. Together the works display the rich fabric of the
cultural history of Louisiana. —JUDITH H. BONNER
A. Cotton Pickers in the Field
between 1983 and 1990; oil and oil pastel
on Masonite
by William Tolliver, painter
acquisition made possible by the Boyd
Cruise Fund, 2010.0097.1
B. Playground—New Orleans
between 1939 and 1943; oil on canvas
by Clarence Millet, painter
C. Commodore John Dandridge Henley
between 1853 and 1858; oil on canvas
by Charles Bird King, attributed painter,
after an original by John Wesley Jarvis
D. Portrait of Nell Pomeroy O’Brien
ca. 1938; oil on canvas
by Louis F. Raynaud, painter
E. Sardines
2003; oil on canvas
by Simon Gunning, painter
gift of John and Dorothy Clemmer,
The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Winter 2015 5
Play Her Piano
In a satellite exhibition of the art biennial Prospect.3, an installation by New Orleans
artist Xiao Xiao brings contemporary art and musical magic to The Collection.
MirrorFugue: Ref lections of
New Orleans Pianists
Presented in conjunction with
Prospect.3+ and made possible
by Phyllis M. Taylor
Through December 20
Laura Simon Nelson Galleries for
Louisiana Art, 400 Chartres Street
A. Xiao Xiao
B. Allen Toussaint
C. Jon Cleary
All images courtesy of JonGunnar Gylfason
The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
For the first time since opening in 2012, The Collection’s Laura Simon Nelson Galleries
for Louisiana Art will host a multimedia installation, one that combines music, art, and
technology into one invitingly interactive experience. For 10 days this December, New
Orleans artist Xiao Xiao will present MirrorFugue: Reflections of New Orleans Pianists, an
installation centered on a player piano outfitted with a screen and projector. A satellite
exhibition of the New Orleans art biennial Prospect.3, MirrorFugue features the music of
legendary pianists Jon Cleary and Allen Toussaint, preserved digitally on the player piano,
as well as video projections of Cleary and Toussaint at rest and in performance. The piano
will play the recorded performances, and the projections of the musicians will appear on
the instrument as ghostly reflections, merging past and present into one musical moment.
Xiao Xiao, who is currently working toward a doctoral degree at the Tangible Media
Group of MIT’s Media Lab, was inspired by the changing nature of musical consumption
and performance in the 21st century. Xiao Xiao has worked to understand these changes
and present new, interactive, and emotionally resonant avenues for enjoying music, while
simultaneously exploring and expanding audiences’ interactions with computers.
“These days, we think of music in its purest form as distilled, disembodied sound,”
said Xiao Xiao, “but historically music could only have been experienced live, channeled
through the bodies of performers, felt in the bodies of audiences.”
MirrorFugue—which takes its name from a baroque
contrapuntal form that mirrors itself, like a palindrome—
allows viewers multiple angles for experiencing the installation.
For Xiao Xiao, the “VIP seat” is the piano bench. Here a
visitor can sit and watch a piece of music being performed—
not only through the movement of the player piano keys
but also through the superimposed image of the musician.
For the brave, Xiao Xiao suggests playing a duet with Allen
Toussaint or following the fingers and hands of Jon Cleary
as he moves through classics of the New Orleans canon. In
B addition to Toussaint and Cleary, pianists Ron Markham and
Nick Sanders also recorded for MirrorFugue and will take their
virtual turns at the piano over the course of the installation.
This exhibition marks both Xiao Xiao’s and the piece’s
hometown premiere.
“Xiao Xiao’s work provides an outstanding opportunity to
once again participate in the Prospect New Orleans biennial
while showcasing the Laura Simon Nelson Galleries for
Louisiana Art as a prime venue for the exhibition of art in
the French Quarter,” said THNOC Deputy Director Daniel
Hammer. “Xiao Xiao’s installation beautifully marries that goal
with another of THNOC’s missions, to preserve and present
C aspects of the city’s musical heritage.” —ERIC SEIFERTH
Coastal Woodwards Go Inland
The following are holdings that have appeared outside The Collection, either
on loan to other institutions or reproduced in noteworthy media projects.
The Collection loaned 15 items to the Alexandria Museum of Art for the upcoming exhibition Ellsworth
and William Woodward: Impressions of the Southland, on view March 6–May 23, 2015.
Reference Assistant Matt Farah assisted Pat
O’Brien’s and the New Orleans Convention and
Visitors Bureau in developing a signature cocktail
to commemorate the Battle of New Orleans
bicentennial. The drink, called the Battle Crye,
is a riff on the Roffignac, a classic cocktail that
Farah helped the mixologists find in Famous New
Orleans Drinks and How to Mix ’Em, a 1934 book
by Stanley Clisby Arthur. The Battle Crye debuted
at the legendary French Quarter bar in October
and will be available through 2015.
Grand Isle
1911; watercolor on paper
by Ellsworth Woodward, painter
Laura Simon Nelson Collection, n101109.1.22
Ocean Springs, Miss.
1890; oil on canvas
by William Woodward, painter
gift of Laura Simon Nelson, 2005.0350.4
One item from The Collection will be exhibited
at the Cabildo by the Louisiana State Museum
for its upcoming exhibition “Dirty Shirts” to
Buccaneers: The Battle of New Orleans in
American Culture, which will run from January 9,
2015, to January 8, 2016.
Certificate from the Grand Army of the Republic
proclaiming Jordan Noble to be a veteran of
good character
The Old State Capitol Museum in Baton
Rouge has a new exhibition, Etiquette
and the History of Social Stationery, on
view through December 20, featuring 30
objects on loan from The Collection.
Adele McCall calling card
1886; satin ribbon on card
Famous New Orleans Drinks and How to Mix ’Em
by Stanley Clisby Arthur
New Orleans: Harmanson, 1937
gift of Ralph M. Pons, 76-1172-RL.1
Senior Curator/Oral Historian Mark Cave has
been working with WWNO-FM to create a series
of radio segments based on interview excerpts
from the New Orleans Life Story Project. The
series, NOLA Life Stories, debuted in April and
has featured notable New Orleanians such as
Leona Tate, one of the grade-school girls who
first integrated New Orleans public schools,
in 1960; John Mecom Jr., the first owner of the
New Orleans Saints; and K&B drugstore owner,
Sydney Besthoff.
Oral history interview with Leona Tate
conducted by Mark Cave, THNOC oral historian
gift of Leona Tate, 2013.0050
The Ellender Memorial Library at Nicholls
State University reproduced more than 50
images from The Collection for the library’s
upcoming exhibition Changing America: The
Emancipation Proclamation, 1863, and the March
on Washington, 1963. The exhibition is part of
the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition
Service (SITES).
School integration Christmas cards and letters
gift of Leona Washington, 90-76-L
Winter 2015 7
Putting on Airs
THNOC’s newest book revives a 278-year-old collection of spiritual songs, bringing
the music of early French Louisiana to life.
French Baroque Music of New Orleans:
Songs from the Ursuline Convent (1736)
Musique française baroque à la NouvelleOrléans: Recueil d’airs spirituels des
Ursulines (1736)
edited by Alfred E. Lemmon, with essays in
English by Jennifer Gipson, Andrew Justice,
Alfred E. Lemmon, and Mark McKnight and
in French by Jean Duron
In 1754, the Ursuline nuns of New Orleans received a gift from France: a manuscript copy
of the popular music volume Nouvelles poésies spirituelles et morales (New spiritual and moral
poetry). The so-called Ursuline manuscript, copied by hand and illustrated in 1736, is the
oldest known musical document in Louisiana history, and now, The Historic New Orleans
Collection is proud to present it in book form for the first time. In November THNOC
released French Baroque Music of New Orleans: Spiritual Songs from the Ursuline Convent
(1736), edited by Alfred E. Lemmon, director of the Williams Research Center. It features a
full-color facsimile of the Ursuline manuscript, accompanied by in-depth scholarly essays in
English and French, making it the first THNOC title classified as both a book and a musical
The manuscript came to The Collection in 1998, when THNOC acquired the vast
archives of the Ursuline convent and school, which date to the city’s earliest days. The tidy
volume, its dimensions no bigger than a sheet of paper, sits on permanent display in the
Louisiana History Galleries. As Lemmon writes in his essay for French Baroque Music of
New Orleans, scant evidence remains of musical activity from early New Orleans, and what
little there is refers mostly to military proceedings and musicians employed at St. Louis
Cathedral. The city’s first opera house eventually brought European music to a wide audience, but not until 1796, making the Ursuline manuscript “an important record of the early
reach of European music in the New World,” Lemmon writes. “[It] provides strong documentary evidence of the musical environment of the young colony.”
The Historic New Orleans Collection, 2014
$110, softcover, 296 pages, 255-page
full-color facsimile
ISBN: 978-0-917860-65-2
The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Sacred Parody
The manuscript started its journey in 1730 Paris. There, a group of music publishers based
in the Latin Quarter “decided to publish a volume of contrafacta—spiritual texts set to
fashionable tunes by the most famous composers of the last half century,” writes Jean
Duron, whose French introduction to French Baroque Music of New Orleans is summarized
in English in the volume. “They were intended to ‘peuvent plaire indifferemment à tout le
monde’ (be enjoyed by everybody), especially virtuous young ladies, nuns, and missionaries.”
The practice of retrofitting popular music with moral lessons and spiritual, rather than
secular, lyrics was called sacred parody, and it was part of a broader trend in western Europe
throughout the early to mid-18th century. Unlike the modern conception of “parody,”
this kind of parody was not intended to be humorous: instead, the word implied an appropriation of existing music for a new textual usage. Sacred parodies had been common in
Renaissance music; a “parody mass” recycled music from an earlier use and set it to relevant
texts according to the Christian calendar. The definition of “parody” would begin to shift
toward the comedic later in the 18th century, but the concept remained the same: take an
existing piece of music and fuse it with new poetic elements.
The target audience for the contrafacta were people of piety, such as the Ursuline nuns
and missionaries; children, such as the nuns’ boarding students in New Orleans; and,
especially in Europe, upper-class women. As Mark McKnight writes in his essay for French
Baroque Music of New Orleans, in prerevolutionary France, popular opinion held that aristocratic women “were prone to leading frivolous lives or engaging in immoral behavior.”
Changing the lyrics took the “danger” out of the songs, while the melodies preserved an
element of pleasure. Using popular tunes as a hook, contrafacta could serve as “a powerful tool for the edification of the faithful,” writes Jennifer Gipson, whose essay in the book
focuses on the songs’ lyrical transformations from secular to sacred.
A. Endpaper
from the Ursuline manuscript copy of Nouvelles
poésies spirituelles et morales
1736; manuscript sheet music
B. “Amour de Dieu” (God’s love)
from the Ursuline manuscript copy of Nouvelles
poésies spirituelles et morales
1736; manuscript sheet music
Making the Manuscript
The contrafacta were first published in 1730, with the full title Nouvelles poésies spirituelles
et morales sur les plus beaux airs de la musique françoise et italienne avec la basse (New spiritual and moral poetry set to the most beautiful French and Italian airs with figured bass).
The collection proved successful, and subsequent printings included additional recueils
(volumes) of songs, with the final edition, published in 1737, featuring eight volumes.
Sometime during Lent 1736, the copyist of the Ursuline manuscript, a female scribe
known only as C.D., transcribed the first four volumes. As was the custom, she added
creative flourishes to the manuscript, including illustrations around the song titles and
in the margins. In 1754, a mysterious donor, known only as Monsieur Nicollet, sent the
manuscript version of Nouvelles poésies to the Ursuline nuns in New Orleans, where it has
remained ever since.
Winter 2015 9
C. “La Colère” (Anger)
from the Ursuline manuscript copy of
Nouvelles poésies spirituelles et morales
1736; manuscript sheet music
D. Frontispiece, third volume
from the Ursuline manuscript copy of
Nouvelles poésies spirituelles et morales
1736; manuscript sheet music
E. Table of contents, fourth volume
from the Ursuline manuscript copy of
Nouvelles poésies spirituelles et morales
1736; manuscript sheet music
In all published versions of Nouvelles poésies, as well as in the Ursuline manuscript, each volume is divided into five categories: Praises of God; Mysteries of Our
Lord, Jesus Christ; Virtues; Vices; and the Four Ends of Man. A table of contents is
appended at the end of each volume, and the copyist took it upon herself to highlight
in red ink all the chansons morales (moral songs). These moral songs were often light
and pleasurable, “useful for certain ‘occasions when the others might seem perhaps
too serious,’” Gipson writes in her essay, quoting from the original preface of Nouvelles
poésies spirituelles et morales, which C.D. included in her transcription. “The combination of pleasure and utility is key,” Gipson explains, “for the qualification ‘moral’
does not indicate a more pious text. In 18th-century lexicon, ‘moral’ could refer to the
investigation of human nature.”
The tables of contents also credit the composers of the melodies, making the lists a
who’s who of the French and Italian baroque (1600–1750), including François Couperin,
Jean-Baptiste Lully, and Louis-Nicolas Clérambault. In the manuscript’s preface,
Clérambault is credited with setting the figured bass (a single bass-clef note with numerical symbols indicating how it should be played, much like today’s chord charts and lead
sheets). Source material for the melodies includes André Campra’s 1714 cantata Silène
and the André Campra–Henry Desmarest collaboration Iphigénie en Tauride (1704).
French Baroque Music of New Orleans is intended to serve researchers, performers,
and lovers of baroque music and colonial Louisiana history. The Ursuline manuscript’s
294 musical works are reproduced in a beautiful full-color, full-size facsimile, and the
accompanying essays—four in English with French summaries and one in French with
an English summary—illuminate the object’s poetic, musical, historical, and bibliographic contexts. A suggested compendium to the volume is Le Concert Lorrain’s
2001 recording of selections from the Ursuline manuscript, Manuscrit des Ursulines de
la Nouvelle-Orléans: Baroque Music in New Orleans, which is available at The Shop at
The Collection. Listening to the ensemble’s crystalline voices and following along with
the original score, one can imagine the Ursuline nuns and their students singing both
for God and for pleasure, in a young city whose musical history was just beginning.
10 The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
To Be Sold
In a first-time collaboration with the Library of Virginia, The Collection will
cohost a daylong, simulcast symposium about the domestic slave trade.
To Be Sold: The American Slave Trade
from Virginia to New Orleans
In 1808, America abolished the international slave trade, ending the export of people
from the African continent to the Americas, but the domestic slave trade—the buying
and selling of human chattel within the US—continued until the close of the Civil War,
in 1865. During this 57-year period, an estimated 750,000 enslaved men, women, and
children were forcibly moved from the upper to the lower South.
In the spring of 2015, The Historic New Orleans Collection will join the Library of
Virginia, based in Richmond, and the Midlo Center for New Orleans Studies at the
University of New Orleans to explore this topic through two exhibitions and a unique
collaborative symposium. “To Be Sold: The American Slave Trade from Virginia to New
Orleans” will take place in both Richmond and New Orleans, on Saturday, March 21,
2015. Morning sessions will be held in Richmond and simulcast in New Orleans, while
afternoon sessions will be held in New Orleans at THNOC’s Williams Research Center
and simulcast in Richmond. Participants at both locations will be able to engage in live
discussions with attendees and presenters at both sites.
The day will include a series of panel discussions with experts from across the country, as well as two keynote presentations, one in New Orleans and one in Richmond.
The Richmond panelists include Charles B. Dew, Williams College; Alexandra Finley,
doctoral candidate from the College of William and Mary; Robert Nelson, University of
Richmond; Scott Nesbit, University of Richmond; Calvin Schermerhorn, Arizona State
University; and Phillip Troutman, George Washington University. Maurie McInnis of
the University of Virginia and curator of the exhibition at the Library of Virginia will
moderate the talks there.
The New Orleans panelists include Edward E. Baptist,
Cornell University; Stephanie Jones-Rogers, University of
California–Berkeley; Lawrence N. Powell, Tulane University;
and Adam Rothman, Georgetown University. Walter Johnson
of Harvard University will serve as the moderator in New
Thanks to funding from the National Endowment for the
Humanities, participants will be able to attend the event free
of charge. Due to limited seating, registration is required.
Overflow seating at the New Orleans program will be available
at the Louisiana Supreme Court, 400 Royal Street.
Both the Library of Virginia and The Historic New
Orleans Collection will have exhibitions exploring the topic
of the domestic slave trade. LVA’s display, To Be Sold, opened
October 27 and will remain on view through May 30, 2015.
THNOC’s exhibition Purchased Lives: New Orleans and the
Domestic Slave Trade, 1808–1865, opens March 17, 2015, and
will remain on view through July 18. —TERESA DEVLIN
Saturday, March 21, 2015
Williams Research Center, 410 Chartres
Free; registration required
To reserve a seat, contact THNOC at
(504) 523-4662 or email [email protected]
Sale of Estates, Pictures and Slaves in
the Rotunda, New Orleans
from The Slave States of America
1842; engraving with watercolor
by William Henry Brooke, engraver
Winter 2015 11
20th Annual Williams Research
Center Symposium
“Forgotten Conflicts: Indians,
Andrew Jackson, and the War of 1812
in the South”
January 23–24, 2015
Hotel Monteleone, 214 Royal Street
To register, visit
/symposia.html or call
(504) 523-4662.
Speakers and Topics
Andrew Jackson: Hero or Despot?
Matthew Warshauer
Central Connecticut State University
The Battle of New Orleans and
American Identity
Jason Wiese
The Historic New Orleans Collection
The Creek War
Kathryn Braund
Auburn University
The Slaves’ Gamble for Freedom:
Choosing Sides during the Battle
of New Orleans
Gene Allen Smith
Texas Christian University
A Battle Too Far? Britain, the War of 1812,
and the Gulf Coast
Andrew Lambert
King’s College, London
Women and the Battle of New Orleans
Patricia Brady
Independent scholar
Beauty and Booty: Myths of the Battle
of New Orleans
Donald R. Hickey
Wayne State College
For additional information call
(504) 523-4662 or visit
12 The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
A Battle’s Birthday
As the Battle of New Orleans turns 200, the Williams Research Center Symposium
prepares to survey the War of 1812’s impact, then and now.
On the occasion of the bicentennial of its culminating battle, The Historic New Orleans
Collection is excited to revisit the War of 1812, which pitted a young American republic against the established military might of Great Britain. On Friday, January 23, and
Saturday, January 24, The Collection will explore the war’s impact on the Gulf South and
Louisiana during the 20th annual Williams Research Center Symposium, titled “Forgotten
Conflicts: Indians, Andrew Jackson, and the War of 1812 in the South.” A keynote lecture
on Friday evening will explore the life and career of Andrew Jackson. Among the subjects
to be addressed at the all-day program on Saturday are the Creek War of 1813–14, the
experiences of women and people of color during the War of 1812, the British perspective
on the Gulf campaign, and the famous Battle of New Orleans.
Though not well known in today’s mainstream culture, the battle and General Jackson
were favorite subjects of historians, storytellers, and artists through much of the 19th
century, when the anniversary of Jackson’s conclusive victory on January 8, 1815, was
celebrated throughout the United States as a patriotic holiday. The mechanisms of cultural
memory are especially evident in early printed illustrations of the battle. Some artists relied
on secondhand accounts of the clash between British and American troops at Chalmette,
below New Orleans. As a result, erroneous details—such as an American defensive rampart
constructed entirely of cotton bales—were conveyed to a mass audience that was unable to
judge the accuracy of the presentation. John Landis’s 1840 lithograph Battle of New Orleans
is an excellent example of a popular and dramatic view that perpetuated misconceptions
about the battle and its participants.
One of the earliest views of the Battle of New Orleans, produced by an artist who
witnessed it firsthand, is an 1818 aquatint engraving that was produced in France by artist
Jean-Hyacinthe Laclotte (1765–1828) and engraver Philibert-Louis Debucourt (1755–1832).
Laclotte was a French architect, engineer, and painter active in New Orleans between 1807
and 1815. In 1810, Laclotte partnered with fellow engineer and architect Arsène Lacarrière
Latour (1778–1837), who would later serve as Jackson’s chief engineer during the Battle of
New Orleans. Laclotte volunteered as an engineer in the Louisiana Militia, and was apparently
able to make sketches of the battle while it was in progress on the morning of January 8, 1815.
Laclotte later created a painting based on his sketches; the original is in the collection of the
New Orleans Museum of Art. In 1815 or 1816, recognizing the public demand for views of
the famous battle, Laclotte made a detailed drawing of his painting to serve as a reference for
a skilled engraver. He proceeded to Paris and commissioned Debucourt to engrave the printing plate. After a series of delays, Laclotte returned to the United States early in 1818 with
the plate and copies of the engraving, printed in France and destined for an eager American
The title of Laclotte’s view—Defeat of the British Army, 12,000 Strong, under the Command
of Sir Edward Packenham . . . —printed in English and French, emphasizes the American
rout of the larger British force led by Major General Sir Edward Pakenham. Perhaps this was
a jab by a patriotic Frenchman at the British army, which had recently vanquished Napoleon
Bonaparte at Waterloo. Whatever the case, Laclotte provides the viewer with a great deal of
information about the Battle of New Orleans, including the disposition of Jackson’s active
troops and reserves behind the defensive American breastwork along the Rodriguez Canal, as
well as the positions of the attacking British troops and artillery batteries. Debris, including
entire trees, can be seen floating down the Mississippi River in the foreground, near which
British troops overrun an advanced American redoubt on Jackson’s riverside flank. The
outcome of the battle, as frozen in this moment, is still very much undecided.
One curious detail of this print can be seen in the lower left corner, near a collection of
boats anchored in the river. Two shirtless men of color are wading in the river, in water up
to their chests, and their arms are outstretched as if beseeching the oncoming British troops
for aid. The lack of clothing suggests they may be intended to represent slaves; three additional men of color stand a short distance away, gesturing either toward the men in the river
or the battle raging nearby. These minute details, hardly noticeable in the larger scene, may
be Laclotte’s subtle reference to the fears of New Orleans’s civil and military establishment
that British agents intended to incite the local enslaved population to rise up against their
American masters.
Landis’s and Laclotte’s printed views of the Battle of New Orleans—and many others from
diverse artists and publishers—can be studied up close at the Williams Research Center, and
anyone interested in the battle is invited to join in celebrating its bicentennial at the WRC
symposium. —JASON WIESE
A. Battle of New Orleans
1840; hand-colored lithograph
by John Landis, draftsman
B. Defeat of the British Army, 12,000
Strong, under the Command of Sir Edward
Packenham . . .
1818; aquatint engraving with watercolor
by Jean-Hyacinthe Laclotte, artist;
Philibert-Louis Debucourt, engraver
bequest of Boyd Cruise and Harold Schilke,
C. Detail, lower left corner, Defeat of the
British Army . . .
Winter 2015 13
Jennifer Rebuck
POSITION: Associate registrar, on staff since 2010
ASSIGNMENT: Accession a donation into The Collection’s holdings
When the exhibition Recent Acquisitions
in Louisiana Art, 2010–2014 debuts this
January, it will feature a silver tilting
water service manufactured by Meriden
Britannia Company. The set was offered
for donation in the spring by Collection
enthusiasts John and Polly Hernandez.
John Hernandez inherited the service
from his grandparents, Adima and Laura
Blanchard, who received it as a wedding
gift in 1898. The water service includes
a porcelain-lined pitcher inscribed “B /
Jan 26, ’98,” two water goblets with “B”
monogram and acanthus design, a drip
pan, and a stand. It is called a “tilting”
service because the pitcher hangs in the
stand. The service was approved by our
acquisitions committee and board of
directors, clearing the way for the object
to be acquired. But before the service
could formally join our holdings at The
Collection, it had to complete its journey
from the Hernandezes’ private collection,
in Baton Rouge, to our institutional one.
Every year THNOC accepts thousands
of items into its ever-growing permanent
collection. As one of the associate registrars on staff, my job entails accessioning
and processing the curatorial items
donated or purchased into our holdings.
In 2013 The Collection received 133
curatorial donations or purchases comprising over 6,000 items, many of which
I had a hand in processing. Curatorial
14 The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
objects—defined as paintings, textiles,
prints, drawings, and three-dimensional
objects, such as furniture, silver, and
ceramics—make up one of the main
divisions of our holdings, the other two
being manuscripts and library items. The
Collection’s curators propose items to
accession to the acquisitions committee in
a monthly report, including a summary of
why these works are historically or artistically important. In the case of the water
service, our curators were interested in its
legacy as a wedding gift, because it represents the union of two important Louisiana
families, the Blanchards and the Truxillos,
both of whom owned several plantations
in Assumption Parish. In addition, the
Connecticut-based Meriden Britannia
Company was a major producer of silverplated wares throughout the 19th century.
Once an acquisition is approved, accessioning it begins with physically acquiring
the piece and then transferring legal title,
or formal ownership, to the museum. Since
the Hernandezes were unable to bring
the service to New Orleans, we used our
climate-controlled van to safely transport
the service to The Collection. I accompanied our new curator of decorative arts,
Lydia Blackmore, and preparator Kara B.
LeBeouf on the trip. The Hernandezes were
very gracious in opening their home and
showing off many of their other antiques,
including fine pieces of furniture and
porcelain. It is always rewarding to view an
object in its home and have the opportunity
to hear about its history. Lydia, Kara, and
I worked together to note the condition
of the item, take pictures, and wrap the
Silver tilting water service with two goblets
1898; silver plate and porcelain
by Meriden Britannia Company, silversmith
gift of John H. and Polly Hernandez, 2014.0261.1
New Staff
Emily Hindin, scanning technician. Rachel
Cockrill, Jean Cranmer, Karin Curley,
Melissa Daigle, Jeff Diez, Wayne Gordon,
and Linda Potter, volunteers.
Albert Dumas Jr. is now a docent as well as
a receptionist. Rebecca Smith is now head
of reader services.
silver in tissue, ethafoam—a protective,
lightweight material used to protect fragile
items—and acid-free boxes before returning to New Orleans.
When the service arrived at The
Collection I finalized accessioning it by
documenting, or registering, the object
into our collection. I created a record in
our collections management system and
assigned a unique accession number to
the acquisition. An object record includes
not only a description of the item but also
its dimensions, provenance, location, and
insurance value.
Once the object had been accessioned, I
undertook its initial care and processing by
marking the silver service with its accession
number. To start, I evaluated the piece to
locate a less-noticeable area for the marking and then determined the best materials
to use. For the silver I chose the “Acryloid
Sandwich” method, which entails applying
a small amount of B-72, a clear liquid that
acts as a barrier layer, to the object. Once
the first layer dries we write the assigned
accession number on top of the base coat
with an archival marking pen. Finally a
top coat of B-67 is applied to encapsulate
the number and ensure that it will not
wear off, so that the museum piece can
easily be identified. I then worked with our
photography department to shoot images
of each piece. These photographs will be
available to THNOC staff, via our collections management system, as well as to
the public, via our online catalog. Last,
I evaluated best standards and practices
for storage of the service. The individual
Alfred E. Lemmon, director of the
Williams Research Center, was inducted
into the prestigious Orden de Isabel la
Católica (Order of Isabella the Catholic), a
royal order honoring special champions of
Spanish history and culture.
In the Community
Daniel Hammer, deputy director, has
joined the board of directors of the Vieux
Carré Commission Foundation.
John H. Lawrence, director of museum
programs, has been appointed to the Tulane
Master of Preservation Studies Preservation
Advisory Group.
Kate Bruce Carter, associate registrar,
was elected secretary of the Southeastern
Registrars Association.
Mark Cave, oral historian and senior
curator, was named to the editorial board
of Transaction Publishers’ Memory and
Narrative Series.
pieces (urn, stand, tray, and goblets) were
wrapped in tissue and then in silver cloth
before being stored in our vault.
The job of collections care never stops,
as we will continue to monitor the condition and storage environment of the
service. In this case, the service will not be
sitting out of sight for long, as our registrar for exhibitions and our preparation
team will determine how best to display
the service for the upcoming exhibition.
Although the journey of bringing the
service to The Collection is over, I know I
will be busy caring for many more objects
as The Collection continues expanding its
Alfred E. Lemmon
Winter 2015 15
The Laussat Society
As The Historic New Orleans Collection’s
first member organization, the Laussat
Society plays an important role in fulfilling the institution’s mission to preserve
the history and culture of New Orleans,
Louisiana, and the Gulf South. Established
in 2003 with a charter membership of 51
people, the group has grown tremendously
over the past decade and has paved the
way for expanded involvement in The
Collection, said Jack Pruitt, director of
development and community relations.
“This year we are proud to report that
we have a record number of members,”
Pruitt said. “We are truly grateful for their
invaluable financial support.”
“Laussat members are incredibly
supportive of the history of New Orleans,
the history of Louisiana,” added E.
Alexandra Stafford, THNOC board
member and chair of the society since
The society was named for Pierre
Clément Laussat (1756–1835), who acted
as Napoleon Bonaparte’s representative in
Louisiana. It was Laussat who formally
accepted possession of the colony from
Spain in a retrocession ceremony on
November 30, 1803. When the United
States bought Louisiana, Laussat represented France in the colony’s formal
transfer, on December 20, 1803. The
Historic New Orleans Collection holds
Laussat’s personal papers, which he smartly
helped to preserve by sprinkling them
with cayenne pepper, to ward off pests.
The documents sat in canvas bags in the
Laussat family chateau for more than a
century, until they were discovered by a
researcher in 1973.
The Laussat Society sponsors a specific
THNOC project every year, which is
announced at an annual gala for Laussat
and Bienville Circle members. “The
16 The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Laussat Society’s generous gifts are
designated toward the support of The
Collection’s ongoing Louisiana-artist
educational initiatives and toward the
support of our extensive art holdings;
our comprehensive archives on individual artists, arts organizations, and
art institutions; and renowned series of
Louisiana-artist biographies,” Pruitt said.
The society has sponsored the publication of THNOC books, such as In Search
of Julien Hudson: Free Artist of Color
in Pre–Civil War New Orleans and A
Company Man: The Remarkable FrenchAtlantic Voyage of a Clerk for the Company
of the Indies, and the acquisition of
artworks, such as a portrait of Marie Althée
Joséphine d’Aquin de Puech by Jean Joseph
Vaudechamp. “Some of our most important
projects at The Collection are made possible through the generosity of members,”
Pruitt said.
In June, Laussat and Bienville members
were treated to an intimate showing of
recent acquisitions, wherein THNOC
curators selected their favorite new and
noteworthy items to present. “The curators could talk to people face-to-face about
their favorite objects, why they think they’re
important,” Stafford said. “People loved it.
It’s a great way for Laussat members to see
what all goes on here at The Collection. We
hope to offer more and more fun opportunities like that.”
At the 2014 Laussat Society Gala,
held November 18 at the home of Julie
Breitmeyer, board president Drew Jardine,
Stafford, and Lydia Blackmore, curator
of decorative arts, presented this year’s
sponsorship—a mahogany sofa by John
and Joseph W. Meeks. The Meeks brothers
were active cabinet and furniture makers in
both New York and New Orleans during
the mid-19th century, and the piece, which
sports its original New Orleans label, is
an important addition to The Collection’s
Louisiana History Galleries.
“This beautiful sofa is one of our selective
purchases of top-notch Louisiana furniture,”
Stafford said. “Because [each Laussat donation] is $1,000, we want to put it to good
use. We tell the members, ‘This is what your
funds helped us to preserve for study and
enjoyment.’” —MOLLY REID
Laussat Gala hostess Julie Breitmeyer (center left) with her daughter, Ashley Nelson (left), Laussat Society
chair E. Alexandra Stafford (center right), and Executive Director Priscilla Lawrence (right)
Giving Thanks
At the 2014 Laussat Gala, held November 18 at
the home of Julie Breitmeyer, THNOC honored
Laussat Society and Bienville Circle members.
A. Jim and Kay Orth and Drew Jardine
B. Phyllis M. Taylor
C. George and Fran Villere
D. Gregory Smith, Earl Bonnie, and Lee Floyd
E. David and Catherine Edwards
F. Penny O’Krepki, Bonnie Roult, Ann Bailey,
and Marla Garvey
G. Mary Jane and Jim Becker
H. Mary Lou Ochsner and Hunter and Lynne
I. George Young and Paul Leaman
J. Ellen Ball, Robert Marks, Dorothy Ball, Lee
Adler, and Mac Ball
K. Andrew and Crickett Lapeyre and Lydia
Winter 2015 17
Become a Member
All members of The Collection enjoy the following benefits for one full year:
• complimentary admission to all permanent tours and rotating exhibitions
• special invitations to events, trips, receptions, and exhibition previews
• complimentary admission to the Concerts in the Courtyard series
• a 10 percent discount at The Shop at The Collection
• a subscription to The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Visit and click the Support Us link or complete the enclosed envelope and
return it with your gift.
Founder Individual $35
Founder Family
$65 Full membership benefits
Family memberships are for one or two
adults and any children under 18 all residing
in a single household, or for one member
and a guest.
Merieult Society
Full membership benefits plus:
• a special gift
Mahalia Society
Full membership benefits plus:
• a special gift
• private, guided tours (by appointment)
Jackson Society
Full membership benefits plus:
• a special gift
• private, guided tours (by appointment)
• free admission to all evening lectures
Laussat Society
Full membership benefits plus:
• a special gift
• private, guided tours (by appointment)
• free admission to all evening lectures
• invitation to annual gala
Bienville Circle
Full membership benefits plus:
• a special gift
• private, guided tours (by appointment)
• free admission to all evening lectures
• invitation to annual gala
• lunch with the executive director
18 The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Members enjoy a preview of the new exhibition Andrew Jackson: Hero of New Orleans in November.
Members of the Merieult, Mahalia, Jackson, and Laussat Societies and the Bienville Circle receive reciprocal
benefits at other leading museums through the North American Reciprocal Museum (NARM) program.
These benefits include free member admission, discounts on concert and lecture tickets, and discounts at
the shops of participating museums. Visit for more information.
July–September 2014
The Historic New Orleans Collection is honored to recognize and
thank the following individuals and organizations for their financial
and material donations.
Brigid Brown and Steven
Lillie Petit Gallagher
Darlene H. Johnson
Patricia Galloway and Peter
Dorothy C. Johnson
Marleen K. and Timothy F.
M. Bruce Gaynor
Carol and Russ Brown
Department of the Army, New
Orleans District, Corps of
Patricia Alexander and Jean
Paul Lagarde
Stephen B. Browne
Nathalie H. Dessens
Jim Gershey and Dan Gunther
Ann Maylie Bruce
Douglas G. Dike
Nanette A. Gibbs
Dr. Gerald “Gery” A.
Anderson II
Jeanne F. Bruno
Dr. and Mrs. Michael P. Dolan
Dr. Louis and Janie Glade
Jennie and James O. Bryant
Joan and Robert Doolittle
Stratton Bull
Warren Duffour
Mr. and Mrs. J. Malcolm
Sharren H. Burns
Claudia Dumestre
Gerry Call
Brooke H. Duncan
Salvador B. Camacho
Mr. and Mrs. Brooke H.
Duncan III
Frederick Adinolfi
Rev. and Mrs. Warwick
Aiken Jr.
Mrs. James Anderson Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Charles F. Genre
Ann Reiley Jones
George E. Jordan
John Karel
Mr. and Mrs. James L. Kelly
Dr. Nina M. Kelly
Judith R. and Richard Kennedy
Marilyn and Jim Kitto
Knights of Babylon
Dr. Cassandra L. Knobloch
Wayne E. Gordon
Clarisse Ansel Krauss
Abbye and Steve Gorin
Judith A. Kron
Robert S. Greene
Dr. Colby H. Kullman
Erin M. Greenwald
Kathleen Kurtz
Pamela and Homer J. Dupuy
Robert Grier Sr.
Mary and Alvin LaCoste
The Honorable and Mrs.
R. Duval Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Guertin
Jenny and Barry L. LaCour
Jonathan Carter
Becky and Jerry Guillot
Mark Cave
Ninette A. Edmiston
Andreas Hablutzel
Mr. and Mrs. Louis A.
Lanaux Jr.
Georgia D. Chadwick
Robert D. Edmundson
Carol V. Hall
Miriam Childs
Emily Taylor Elliott and
Charles Elliott
Patricia and George B. Hall Jr.
Mrs. William K. Christovich
Jacquelyn Brechtel Clarkson
Kurt D. Engelhardt
Jack Belsom
Ellen Barnett Cleary
Michelle Benoit and Glen Pitre
College of DuPage Library
Barbara Epstein and Kevin
Roberta and Steve Berrien
Christine and Allan B. Colley
Malinda and William Blevins
Beth Colon
Julie Eshelman-Lee and
Felix Lee
David A. Bohn
Conerly Floral
Deborah and Glenn Estapa
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas
Bonner Jr.
Barry J. Cooper Jr. and Stuart
H. Smith
John Exnicios
Ruth Boulet and Bill Kerins
Bonnie Lee Corban
Melinda and Wayne Bourgeois
Country Roads Magazine
Anne S. Bradburn
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Cox Jr.
Michelle Braverman
Adele Q. Cressy
Elizabeth H. Brazelton
Matthew Anderson IV
Priscilla Anne Anderson
Royd Anderson
Antoine’s Restaurant
Pamela D. Arceneaux
Louis J. Aubert
Vickie Bartels
Ronald Alan Bartlett
Didi Battle
Claudia Colomb Becker and
Charles J. Becker
Dr. and Mrs. Keith Cangelosi
Janet F. and Robert J. Carr
Eron H. Epstein
Suellen A. Eyre
Audrey B. Ezzo
Charlotte K. Fanz, on behalf
of the Keller Family
Arthur Hardy
Timothy Harlan
Sandy and Paul M. Haygood
Mr. and Mrs. John H.
Dr. and Mrs. Gordon Buck
Mr. and Mrs. Clay C.
LeGrande Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John H.
Justice Harry T. Lemmon
and Judge Mary Ann Vial
The Honorable Stephen A.
Joan L. Lennox
Volney Hill
Marcia and Howard Hirsch
Robert Hodes
Linda Kay Hoff, PhD
Susan K. Hoskins
Paul Cretini
Federal Emergency
Management Agency
Lee Ann W. and T. C. “Flash”
Virginia Hogan Brazil and
J. G. Brazil
Pam Crutchfield
Rien T. Fertel
Dr. and Mrs. Walter H. Daniels
Rillius Paul Fitch III
Hunt Institute for Botanical
Mrs. Philip Breitmeyer II
Joe Darby
Francella S. Flurry
Esther Brewer
Dr. Cason de la Houssaye
Judy and John Foren
Dr. James Briggs
Clifford H. Decamp
Lisa Brooking and Bennett
K. Davis
Darren Denham
Mr. and Mrs. John P. Leonard
Nancy Lewis and Jeremiah
Lightner Museum
Ariane Livaudais
Rockwell Livingston
Ellen R. Lizarraga
Lynn A. and Juan J. Lizárraga
Cesar Lombana
Rita Lynn Jackson
Dr. and Mrs. Alfredo Lopez
Dr. and Mrs. Trent James
Henri M. Louapre
Fred W. Todd Living Trust
Mr. and Mrs. R. Andrew
Louisiana Philharmonic
Mr. and Mrs. Richard S.
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony N.
Norah and Charles M. Lovell
Winter 2015 19
Irene and Tom Lutkewitte
William Monsted
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Pincus
Dona L. Smith
Ninette Webster
Betty N. Lyons
Gilda H. Moore
Ms. Murray Pitts
Jane L. and David V. Snyder
Nora Wetzel
Sheila and Richard
Geraldine Murphy
Ralph Pokluda
Karen Snyder
Harriet H. Murrell
Rev. Fred J. Powell III
Patricia and Edwin Soulier
Mr. and Mrs. Robert J.
Whann III
Astrid C. Mussiett
Jane and Ron Powell
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Navarre
Premium Parking
Rosalie C. and James L.
Neal Auction Company Inc.
Albinas Prizgintas
John T. Magill
Ann Maier
Cindy and Fulvio Manto
John Marshall
Kevin Martinez
Carol and Richard McAdoo
Mary Ellen McAuliffee
Mrs. E. Howard McCaleb
Dr. and Mrs. William McCall Jr.
New Orleans Convention &
Visitors Bureau
New Orleans Tourism
Marketing Corporation
Grace and Kenneth E.
Lt. Col. Donald E. Pusch
Cynthia S. Putnam
Jennifer Quezergue
A. Elizabeth and Vincent Reade
Louis Magne Reese, PhD
Catherine White
Walter H. White III
E. Alexandra Stafford
Catherine A. Whitney
Bill Stegelmeyer
Jimmie C. Wickham
Louise Hitchcock Stephaich
Elizabeth Williams
Patricia and Phineas Stevens
Pam and Ron Williams
Irma M. Stiegler
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Wilson
Micki Beth Stiller
Gaylord Wilson
Margot Stouse
Lisa H. and Peter A. Wilson
Martha and Philip Sullivan
Lorraine H. Wise
Sandie McCarthy-Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry K.
Colette C. and Sean P.
Ralph McDonald II
John T. O’Connor
Matthew Rivenburgh
Dr. and Mrs. Michael Sullivan
Russell P. Wolfe
Mr. and Mrs. Terry McFillen
Patricia H. Ogden, Esq. and
John W. DeMarco, Esq.
Lewis Rogers
Olga and Gary Teplitsky
Kyla M. Titus
World Trade Center of New
Errol J. Olivier
Dr. Marianne and Sheldon L.
Middleton O’Malley-Keyes
Bill Ross
Kay M. and James E. Orth
Dr. James M. “Mike” and Paula
Betty Ann Fox McGee
Jack B. McGuire
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E.
McHale Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Lamar McMillin
ORX Exploration Inc.
Michael Melancon
Mary Cleland Owen and C. B.
Dr. Ross Mestayer and
Sandy Cyr
Dierdre Miano and Michael
Leo Michiels
Ira J. Middleberg
Mearline Madline Rutt
Elizabeth G. Schenthal
Kurt Owens
Craig Schexnayder
Lawrence Paddock
Joel Larkin Schmiegel
Lynne Robertson Parker
Dr. and Mrs. Coleman S.
Patio Planters
June B. Peay
Victoria Miller and Nancie
W. Smith
Lorraine and Neal Pendleton
David C. Miner
Dr. and Mrs. H. Gunther
Mr. and Mrs. David Yoakley
Drs. Sylvia J. and John
Schneller III
Katherine Troendle
Thomas Robert Trubiano
Clifford S. Wright
Sally Simmons Zarinski
Eugenia Uhl and David Rebeck
Mary Ann Valentino
Belkys Verdin
Daniel Vogel
Dr. Mark Waggenspack
John E. Walker
Stella Walsh and Dennis
Coleman Warner
Carol R. Selvey
Gregory Waselkov
Dr. and Mrs. David Earl
Cookie and Kyle Waters
John Webster
Lori and Steve Skoog
Tribute Gifts
Tribute gifts are given in memory or in honor
of a loved one.
Donations are used to purchase books that will be marked with a
commemorative bookplate.
Janie Bories in honor of Joan Lennox
Mrs. William K. Christovich in memory of Joseph Matthew Rault Jr.—The BP Oil Spill
edited by David M. Haugen (Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2012)
Hersh and Fern Cohen in honor of Fred Smith
Mrs. William K. Christovich in memory Mary Jane Fenner
Mrs. William K. Christovich in honor of Joan Lennox
Mrs. William K. Christovich in memory of Richard E. O’Krepki
Linda and Richard Friedman in honor of Joan Lennox
Linda and Richard Friedman in honor Molly St. Paul
Louise C. Hoffman (Nola I-Club) in honor of Jessica Dorman
International PBX Telecommunicators in honor of John T. Magill
Dr. Florence M. Jumonville in honor of Joan Lennox
Elsa and Cole Schneider in honor of Joan Lennox
Myra Soboloff in honor of Joan Lennox
Dr. Elizabeth Eustis Wheeler in memory of Jane Eustis Suydam
20 The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Mrs. William K. Christovich in memory of Mary S. Fitzpatrick—Coming Home to New
Orleans: Neighborhood Rebuilding after Katrina by Karl F. Seidman (New York: Oxford
University Press, 2013)
The board of directors and staff of The Historic New Orleans Collection in memory of
Richard E. O’Krepki—Gentlemen’s Blood: A History of Dueling from Swords at Dawn to
Pistols at Dusk by Barbara Holland (New York: Bloomsbury, 2003)
The board of directors and staff of The Historic New Orleans Collection in memory of
Walker Young Ronaldson Jr.—Painters and Paintings in the Early American South by
Carolyn J. Weekley (Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in association
with Yale University Press, 2013)
Related Holdings
Royes Fernandez Papers
96-92-L, 2013.0203
Note to George Balanchine from Royes Fernandez
gift of Jeanne F. Bruno, 2013.0203.4
Royes Fernandez and
Jeanne Fernandez Bruno
1944 or 1945; photoprint
gift of Jeanne F. Bruno,
George Pierre Blanchin
ca. 1920–29; photoprint
gift of Jeanne F. Bruno, 2013.0305.1
Lives in Motion
Fernandez, Blanchin, and Pemberton Family Papers, Addition
gift of Jeanne F. Bruno, 2014.0322
Siblings Royes Fernandez (1929–1980)
and Jeanne Fernandez Bruno (b. 1926)
both studied ballet in New Orleans with
Lelia Haller, the first American première
danseuse of the Paris Opera Ballet, and
both brother and sister became instrumental to the dance world, though in very
different ways. Bruno danced through the
1940s for Lelia Haller’s New Orleans Opera
House Association, and in the 1950s she
starred in many dance productions for the
Crescent City Concerts Association at the
Municipal Auditorium and acted in the
occasional play at Le Petit Theatre. In the
1970s Bruno served as program director of
Dance Residencies in Louisiana, a division
of the Louisiana State Arts Council, and she
has since been instrumental in many other
local and regional arts organizations, such
as the National Association of Regional
Ballet, Symphony Volunteers, New Orleans
Center for Creative Arts, Young Audiences,
and Delta Festival Ballet.
Fernandez went on to study at the
School of American Ballet in New York.
After his high school graduation, in 1946,
he joined the corps de ballet of the famed
Original Ballet Russe, earlier known as
Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo. He then
worked as a principal dancer for the touring company Markova-Dolin
Ballet before becoming a
soloist with the American
Ballet Theater, a post he kept
until his retirement, in 1973.
During his time with ABT,
Fernandez toured extensively, with performances
Interior view of the French Opera House
from La Favorite: Opera in Four Acts
1890; wood engraving
acquisition made possible by the Clarisse Claiborne
Grima Fund, 92-48-L.78.320
Emanuel Paul Fernandez
1916; photoprint
gift of Jeanne F. Bruno, 2014.0322.2
Winter 2015 21
in places ranging from Spain to the
USSR. He toured Latin America with
the Alicia Alonso Ballet Company before
the Cuban Revolution and with Margot
Fonteyn for her 1963 world tour, with
stops in Israel, Egypt, Japan, and more.
Fernandez is considered to be the first
American premier danseur, known for
his elegance and exceptional technique.
At the height of his career, he danced
the role of Prince Siegfried in American
Ballet Theater’s full-length premiere of
Swan Lake in 1967.
It’s not a surprise that both Bruno
and Fernandez were dedicated to the
performing arts. Though their father,
Emanuel Paul Fernandez (1887–1949),
was a jeweler for Adler’s, he was also a
ballroom dance instructor who taught
out of their Uptown home. Their mother,
Françoise Fernandez, was entre-nched
in the performing arts through her
families, the Blanchins and Pembertons.
Grandfather George Pierre Casimir
Blanchin (1860–1924) was an engineer
of railroad bridges and a noted violinist. He performed with the New Orleans
Symphony Orchestra and was the director
of the Tudor Orchestra and the Dauphine
Theatre Orchestra. Françoise’s uncle, John
Peter Pemberton, was a respected artist
who studied under William Woodward
at Tulane University and later went on
to teach drawing at both Tulane and
Newcomb College. Pemberton was also
a pianist, and his brother Gilbert was a
manager of the French Opera House.
Within the papers of the Fernandez,
Blanchin, and Pemberton families are
glimpses of the rich performing-arts
culture of 19th- and 20th-century
New Orleans. The collection includes
photographs of family members, documents relating to Blanchin and Giraug,
a liquor-import firm founded by Pierre
Charles Blanchin (1810–1874), and
correspondence from Adler’s regarding
Emanuel Fernandez. An important artifact is George Blanchin’s wooden music
stand, which he used at the French Opera
House. The family papers complement an
existing acquisition, the Royes Fernandez
Collection (MSS 545). —NINA BOZAK
22 The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Vaudeville, Venus, and Cartes de Visite
building was destroyed by fire, and the lot
has remained undeveloped.
Casmier J. Blanda recently donated a
small, fragile broadside announcing scheduled entertainment at the Dreamland for
Friday, November 3, 1922. Leading the bill
is Watch Your Step, a silent drama starring
the versatile Patsy Ruth Miller (1904–1995)
and popular leading man Cullen Landis
(1896–1975) in “A Picture That Shatters
All Speed Limits for Thrills.” The film was
released in February 1922. The accompanying short, Red Hot Rivals, “The Comedy
with a Million Laughs,” starred Lee Moran
(1888–1961) and was released in May 1922.
Vaudeville is represented on the bill by the
presence of two routines, The Mistress of
the World and Saved by Wireless, as well
as mention of the Dreamland Concert
Orchestra. Admission is listed as ten cents
and seventeen cents for seating on the main
floor and five and ten cents for the balcony.
Dreamland Theatre Broadside
Located at 900 Elysian Fields Avenue on
the uptown-riverside corner of Burgundy
Street, the Dreamland Theatre originally
opened in November 1903 as the Elysium
Theatre. It was renamed Dreamland in
1922 and continued to operate as a neighborhood theater, one of dozens throughout
the New Orleans area, until 1965, when
it was purchased by entrepreneur Arthur
Barnett. He renamed it the Paris Theatre
and presented adult movies. Subsequent
owners continued operating the Paris as
an adult theater during the 1970s and ’80s
until it closed, in 1987. Two years later, the
Moreau Plantation Records
Records from the Moreau Plantation, near
Torras in Pointe Coupee Parish, provide
a glimpse into the daily operations of a
5,000-acre Louisiana cotton plantation
about which little original documentation
has survived. Consisting of two ledgers and
a copybook, the records date from 1896
through 1902, when George Keller Sr.
(1858–1915) owned the property. Keller’s
son, George Keller Jr., was stepfather to
Marie Corinne Morrison Claiborne, later
known as congresswoman Lindy Boggs
(1916–2013). Boggs spent part of her childhood at Moreau Plantation.
The ledger includes bills of lading, from
between 1896 and 1899, which document
goods Keller shipped to New Orleans
aboard the steamboats Camden, Ouachita,
Teche, America, and Warren. The copybook
includes Keller’s business correspondence,
and the plantation-store ledger lists charges
for goods ranging from foodstuffs to beer
and cash withdrawals.
Not much is known about the Moreau
property before its ownership by the Keller
family. According to Pointe Coupee historian Brian J. Costello, the plantation’s part
of the parish was not settled until about the
1840s. “The [parish] was largely un-leveed
and uninhabitable until the late antebellum period,” Costello said in an email.
Therefore, if anyone lived in the plantation
before the Moreau family, it likely would
not have been any earlier than the 1850s.
Moreau Plantation was destroyed by fire on
the night of November 8, 1930.
The Moreau Plantation records, a gift
of the Keller family, complement other
plantation-related holdings, including the
Libby and Blouin Ltd. sugar-plantation
records (99-108-L) and the Tilden Plantation records (93-32-L). —M. L. EICHHORN
Krewe of Venus Film Reels
The Krewe of Venus was the first female
Carnival krewe in New Orleans to present
a parade, staging its inaugural pageant on
Sunday, February 23, 1941, with the theme
“Goddesses.” This seminal krewe continued to parade through 1992, celebrating
more than 50 years of Carnival before
On Sunday, February 24, 1952, Venus
presented a parade with the theme
“Enchantments of the Forest.” The parade,
Oral History Interview with
Robert W. Grier Sr.
ball, and supper dance were all captured
on approximately 1,200 feet of color
16-millimeter film, without sound. The
Collection acquired the four film reels, a
gift of Louis Magne Reese, earlier this year
and has already begun digitizing them
for posterity. Various title cards scattered
throughout the reels identify individual
scenes and people shown. DeSylva-Dyer,
“the Original White Uniformed Photographers,” is credited with producing and
editing the film.
The scene opens with images of costumed
women leaving the den and boarding floats
titled Frogs, Elves, Streams, and Fairies, to
name but a few. The motion picture continues with the actual parade, the camera
capturing the action from fixed positions
along the route, where crowds eagerly catch
beads thrown to them by krewe members.
After the parade, the women are shown
disembarking from their floats, and then the
movie transitions to the Venus ball.
The ball footage illustrates the court’s
procession and grand march around the
Municipal Auditorium. Court members
wave to the seated audience before ascending to the stage. Snippets of the tableau—a
theatrical interlude illustrating the theme
of the ball—and scenes of dancing are also
shown. The film concludes with krewe
members and ball guests proceeding into
the supper dance, where the queen toasts the
room and guests make merry. —LISSA CAPO
Early this past summer, Senior Curator
and Oral Historian Mark Cave traveled to
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to conduct an
interview with Robert “Bobby” Grier. As
the first black football player to participate
in the Sugar Bowl, Grier took on a meaningful role in the desegregation of American
sporting events. Grier, star fullback and
linebacker for the University of Pittsburgh
Panthers, took the field at Tulane Stadium
on January 2, 1956, against the segregated
Yellow Jackets from Georgia Tech. The
game was played after much controversy,
stoked most notably by Georgia governor
Marvin Griffin’s December 1955 telegram
to the Georgia state board of regents urging
them to forbid athletic teams from playing
in games against desegregated teams or in
desegregated stadiums.
Despite the political controversy, Grier
remembers his experience in New Orleans
graciously. In the oral history, he describes
how he was unable to attend some social
events surrounding the Sugar Bowl because
of his race but that administration and
students at Dillard University arranged
parties for him to attend. Grier recalls a
banquet at the St. Charles Hotel during
which he shared his meal with several
Georgia Tech players. Although protests
Winter 2015 23
in the decade. Other interesting subjects
include Louise and Pierre Rost, owners of
Destrehan Plantation in St. Charles Parish;
John Slidell and his wife, Mathilde; LouisNapoléon Bonaparte, or Napoleon III, and
his wife, Eugénie de Montijo; Confederate
general Thomas Johnson “Stonewall”
Jackson; and Jefferson Davis. Only a few of
the dozens of photographs are unidentified.
The carte de visite—a photographic
calling card, also called a CDV—was
popularized in France beginning in 1854.
against Grier’s participation in the Sugar
The format took off in the US in 1859 and
Bowl are well documented elsewhere, in this was in widespread use throughout the Civil
oral history Grier focuses on the positive.
War. Cartes de visite were made possible
He discusses the scrapbook he keeps full of
in part through technical advancements
letters received from supporters and says he in photography, including cameras with
wasn’t fazed by the politics. He just wanted multiple lenses and the availability of albuto play football and do his best.
men printing paper, which could reproduce
Bobby Grier’s interview and many other
fine details of a portrait even in small sizes.
oral histories are available to the public at the —JOHN H. LAWRENCE AND MOLLY REID
Williams Research Center. —REBECCA SMITH
The Historic New Orleans
Collection Quarterly
Molly Reid
Jessica Dorman
Keely Merritt
Alison Cody Design
The Historic New Orleans Collection is a
nonprofit institution dedicated to preserving
the distinctive history and culture of New
Orleans and the Gulf South. Founded in
1966 through the Kemper and Leila Williams
Foundation, The Collection operates as a
museum, research center, and publisher in
the heart of the French Quarter.
George Eustis Carte-de-Visite Album
This album of 189 cartes de visite and one
snapshot contains portraits of the family,
friends, and associates of George Eustis Jr.
(1828–1872), a New Orleans–born dignitary who served as secretary to John Slidell
(1793–1871), a jurist, legislator, and diplomat sent to France to garner support for the
Confederacy. Eustis, Slidell, and another
envoy, James M. Mason (1798–1871), were
captured by the US navy in the November
1861 Trent Affair, so named for the British
ship they were aboard en route to England
and France. The men were imprisoned at
Fort Warren, in Boston, until their release
at the end of 1861. Eustis emigrated permanently to France after the Civil War, living
in Paris with his wife, Louise Corcoran, and
their three children.
The carte-de-visite album presents a
visual connection between the Louisiana
Confederates in France and their Parisian
demimonde. The inscription on the album,
made by a French manufacturer, indicates
that assembly began in 1861. Certain
photographs, including one of Judah P.
Benjamin in his British attorney’s robes
and wig, could only have been made later
24 The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly
Mrs. William K. Christovich, Chair
Drew Jardine, President
John Kallenborn, Vice President
John E. Walker
E. Alexandra Stafford
Hilton S. Bell
Bonnie Boyd
Fred M. Smith, Emeritus and
Immediate Past President
Priscilla Lawrence
533 Royal Street & 410 Chartres Street
New Orleans, Louisiana 70130
(504) 523-4662 | [email protected]
ISSN 0886-2109
©2014 The Historic New Orleans Collection
1930; gelatin silver print
by George Ernst Durr
gift of Kris Pottharst, 2011.0299.5.53
Kemper and Leila Williams Foundation
533 Royal Street
New Orleans, Louisiana 70130
Silk magnolias in bloom
New Orleans native Kathy Schorr paints on silk using
a technique called the gutta resist method. The design
is drawn with gutta, a rubber-based substance that
penetrates the silk to prevent the dye colors from
bleeding into each other, giving the finished piece a
stained-glass effect.
Magnolia scarf, $180
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