the detailed leaflet of the edition 2015-2017 - USI

Master of Science in Management
Understand the management
The MSc in Management is designed to provide
that are the basis
graduates, from a wide variety of backgrounds,
with the necessary tools and skills for understanding
modern management, creating the best possible start
for a successful career. The degree provides both a broad background in management as well
as the opportunity to go into more depth in selected topics by choosing electives. The programme has theoretical and practical elements, allowing students to understand the theory
while at the same time being able to apply the knowledge to practical management situations.
The goal of the course is to create an understanding of the management processes that are
the basis of organisations today. It should also help to develop the skills necessary to perform
successfully in business organisations from start-ups to multinational companies, which are
reflected in courses like Entrepreneurship and International Business. However, as most tasks in
organisations become increasingly interdisciplinary it is also important to be able to work across
traditional areas, which is another skill that is actively encouraged within the programme. This
is also reflected in the variety of different teaching methods used including lectures, case studies, group work, games and fieldwork. However, all teaching methods stress an interactive
approach or dialogue with the students.
The Faculty and the students are an international group, with education and work
experience from across the world. This further
increases learning and cultural exchanges, as
students also learn to work effectively with
people from different cultures. The degree has
two streams in the first semester. Students with a background in economics or management
will follow a set of courses which are designed to further build on these areas.
The faculty and the students
are an international group, with
education and work experience
from across the world
Students without any background in economics and management will follow a set of
courses which provide the understanding and
fundamental insight into the management
disciplines. From the second semester the two
streams will combine and continue to develop new insights into management processes.
The last semester is a unique combination of academic rigor through the writing of a thesis
and a piece of applied or consulting work – the field project – which is done in groups for a
real company.
First Degree in Economics or Management
Essentials of Corporate Finance
Organizational Behavior
Industrial Organisation
Strategic Marketing
Core Courses (21 ECTS)
Managerial Economics 2
Research Methods (Foundations)
Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice
Human Resources Management
Operations Management
Applied Statistics
Core Courses (9 ECTS)
Managerial Economic 3
Business Dynamics
Business Analytics
In groups, conduct a piece of
applied consulting work for a
real company
Capstone Work (30 ECTS)
Field Project
Total ECTS
Slight changes in the study programme may occur.
First Degree in any other Subject
Corporate Strategy
Managerial Economics 1
Organizational Behavior
Strategic Marketing
Electives (6-12 ECTS)
Entrepreneurship: Writing Business Plans
Organizational Learning
Mergers and Acquisitions
Managing Family Enterprises
Decision Making
Competitive Intelligence
International Business
Consumer Behavior
Electives (18-24 ECTS)
Project Management
Research Methods (Analytical Thinking)
Organization and Social Networks
Global Market Strategies
The Leadership Challenge
Organizational Design and Change
Data Analysis
Digital Marketing
Corporate Governance
Six Sigma
Master of Science in Management
Essentials of Corporate Finance
The course provides a framework for understanding and analyzing investment and financial
decisions of corporations. Lectures and readings provide an introduction to present value
techniques, capital budgeting, company valuation, capital structure decisions, corporate cost
of capital, initial and seasoned equity offerings.The goal is to provide students with a solid
understanding of the theories underlying the investment and financing decisions of the firm as
well as with the practical skills needed to solve real-life cases.
Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior is a course in applied behavioral science that emphasizes how problems, solutions and decision-makers interact in contexts that are both hierarchically structured,
as well as changing and uncertain. Organizational behavior brings major insights from behavioral economics, social psychology and organizational sociology to bear on a variety of issues that
are central to our capacity to understand, predict and manage companies and other complex
organizations. The course is structured in 4 main sections: Global context, Individuals, Groups,
and Organizational processes. Topics covered include theories of motivation and incentives,
individual decisions, ethics, communication, teamwork and leadership. The main objective of
this course is to help master students to develop an appreciation for the way in which these
organizational elements interrelate and work together in a global context to support corporate
strategy and organizational performance.
Industrial Organisation
The course presents an introduction to the modern theory of Industrial Organization. In most
markets the assumptions of perfect competition are not met. We will work to understand the
working of industries with limited competition and its implications both from a theoretical and
a practical point of view. Aspects considered include basic monopoly and oligopoly theory;
price competition; cartels; mergers and acquisitions. The final part of the course introduces the
main concepts used in the analysis of regulation of network industries.
Strategic Marketing
Strategic Marketing seeks to build a strategic framework of integrating business objectives, strategies, positioning and activities necessary for effective marketing implementation. The marketplace
is in a constant state of change and it is critical that marketers understand the changes taking
place and are able to develop marketing activities to pursue opportunities and minimize threats.
To provide an overview of strategic marketing while highlighting some of the recent developments and directions.
To explore the impact of marketing decisions on the economic and financial performance
of the company
To provide practical application of concepts learned to the circumstances of a marketing
strategy using simulation Markstrat3 and case studies
Future managers need a solid basis for using accounting information and performance measurement in their careers in manufacturing, marketing and sales, finance, communication,
human resources, information systems or other areas of management.
This course thus aims to explore the role of accounting information, management accounting
and performance measurement systems in supporting managers in their business decisions and
in their day-to-day activities, to perform their duties effectively and to foster their companies’
success. In fact, it is widely acknowledged that the survival of any firm depends on its capabilities to generate winning strategic ideas, to motivate its managers to implement strategies,
and to create stakeholders´ trust. In these respects, accounting and performance measurement
systems play a crucial role. On the one hand, financial statements and reporting systems serve
to record and communicate actual performance to both managers and stakeholders in a way
that fosters learning from experience, enables redirecting ineffective behaviours and supports
the generation of stakeholders´ trust. On the other hand, through strategic planning, programming and budgeting, performance targets are set, coherently with strategic and organizational
choices, and used to motivate and evaluate managers´ accountability.
Corporate Strategy
This course focuses on business strategy, examining issues central to long and short-term competitive position. We will explore a variety of conceptual frameworks and models to analyse
and gain insight into how to achieve or sustain competitive advantage. This journey starts by
analysing the impact of the internal context (resources and capabilities) on firm performance
and subsequently analysing the external environment influence on a firm´s performance. After
covering both the external and internal perspectives, we bring these concepts together to discuss firm level competitive advantage. This first part of the course focuses on single business or
business unit strategy and will take up the first ten weeks. The final weeks explore corporate
or multi-business strategy and international strategy.
Managerial Economics 1
Managerial economics is the application of microeconomic theory and methodology to prob-
Master of Science in Management
lems faced by decision makers in the private, public and not-for-profit sector. The course provides the essential tools to analyse the strategic behaviour of firms in an uncertain economic
environment defined in terms of market structure, customers behaviour, and regulation. These
tools assist managers in efficiency allocating scarce resources, planning corporate strategy, and
executing effective tactics.
Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior is a course in applied behavioral science which brings insights from
economics, psychology, and sociology to bear on a variety of issues that are central to our
capacity to understand and manage business companies and other complex organizations.
Topics covered include theories of motivation and incentives, business decisions, negotiation,
group processes, and organizational design.
Strategic Marketing
The marketplace is in a constant state of change and it is critical that marketers understand the
changes taking place and develop marketing activities to pursue opportunities and minimize
threats. Strategic Marketing seeks to build a strategic framework of integrating business objectives, strategies, positioning and activities necessary for effective marketing implementation.
Strategic marketing provides a perspective and emphasis that extends beyond the traditional
focus on managing the marketing mix.
Core Courses
Applied Statistics
This course is designed to serve as a bridge between more theoretical basis in statistics and
practical work with real, large-scale data. Although the focus is mainly on datasets relevant to
management and policy research, the skills taught in the course are broadly transferrable across
subject areas in statistical, social, and general economic frameworks. The course provides
a broad overview of the many aspects of survey research methodology including sampling,
simulation techniques, forecasting, multivariate regression. Excel is chosen as main tool of data
analysis in its standard version as well as using PHSTAT2, an add-in that makes using Excel
easier for statistical operation.
Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice
This course is addressed to students interested in exploring the challenges of entrepreneurship,
both in SMEs and in larger organizations. The course will provide an insight into the entrepreneurial process and in particular:
– The challenges of getting into business;
– The challenges of booshing the business;
– The challenges of deciding whether to re-invest or exit;
– The challenges of keeping the entrepreneurial spirit in large organizations.
The course is based on lectures, class workshops, case discussions and guest speaker conferences.
The overall objective of this course is to make the students aware of the opportunities offered
by an entrepreneurial career, but also of the requirements of such a career, in terms of personal
preparation and process orientation.
Managerial Economics 2
This course is a laboratory of Applied Microeconomics for research in the field of Industrial
Organization. The main objective is to learn to apply microeconomic analytical tools and empirical methods to the analysis of various issues in industrial organization. Several network industries will be explored. Particular attention will be paid to the electricity and Telecom sectors.
The course will focus on the following issues: economic characteristics of natural monopoly,
institutional reforms, regulation and deregulation, corporate finance and investment analysis.
The course stresses applied aspects, which means that a set of analytical tools will be provided
for the students throughout the lectures. The applied nature of the course is achieved by turning theory into practice while discussing papers and real cases.
Human Resources Management
People are the most critical economic asset of any successful organization, and this is especially
true in service-intensive sectors such as tourism. Gaining a position of sustainable competitive
advantage requires implementing effective systems for resourcing (getting people in the right
places to do the right things), developing, and engaging human resources. Even though managers generally recognize the importance of managing human resources effectively, they often
fail to do so. This course aims to provide students with the knowledge and analytical tools
needed to design HR management systems that generate competitive value.
The course has three main learning objectives. The first is to understand the role of HR in
strategy implementation, that is, we address the question of how managers can develop HR
practices that produce the competencies and behaviors needed to implement a firm’s strategic
goals. The second objective is to examine the main HR levers through which such systems operate, e.g., recruiting, selection, training, performance appraisal, compensation and incentives.
The third objective of the course it to provide a summary and integration, illustrating how firms
have succeeded or failed at realizing the potential inherent in their human resources.
To integrate conceptual and applied material about HR, we will use a series of didactical case
studies. Each case will provide an opportunity to apply the conceptual tools discussed in class
to concrete, real-life situations and problems. To guide your analysis and case preparation, we
will include a set of study questions for each case.
Master of Science in Management
Operations Management
This course addresses the management of operations in manufacturing and service organizations. Our objective is to introduce students to concepts and techniques related to the design,
planning, control, and improvement of manufacturing and service operations. Managing
operations effectively requires both strategic and tactical skills and is one of the most critical
aspects of an organization. Effective and efficient utilization of resources by an organization
determines its success in the long run and operations management is a means to achieve this
end. This is especially true today, when we see that significant competitive advantages accrue
to firms that manage their operations effectively. The course covers topics in the areas of process analysis, inventory management, demand forecasting, capacity management, and supply
chain management. While the primary objective of this course is to familiarize students with
the basic concepts, techniques, methods, and applications of operations management, it will
provide students with an understanding of operations and the role that they play within an
Organizational Learning
This course addresses itself to students who possess at least some interest in management
theory since it will consist of the presentation of theoretical concepts and the discussion of
practical cases. As far as its content is concerned, this course aims at exploring the different
ways in which organizations learn from past experiences and change themselves accordingly.
Since decisions on important organizational changes can be undertaken successfully only if
the organizational members are willing and able to learn from prior experiences they need to
overcome their (quite natural) resistance to change. Therefore several different approaches to
organizational learning and change, as well as considerations concerning the management of
employee issues during change processes will be discussed. However, these approaches differ
considerably in addressing the subject of learning and knowledge which necessitates a clear
distinction between these concepts. Also internationalization of companies leads to opportunities for and constraints of organizational learning. The course will therefore also discuss various
approaches to the management of subsidiaries in different countries.
International Business
This course aims to form students’ knowledge in the area of International Business. Specifically
students will develop capabilities to identify, frame and understand problems related to the
management of international operations. Throughout the course issues are discussed in both
theoretical and practical terms to stimulate students to relate models and concepts with practical situations.
By the end of the course the students will be able to:
– discuss implications of globalization and cultural differences
understand the implications of operating across national borders
compare different internationalization processes
describe how firms operate in different markets
analyze different international strategies and organizational structures
evaluate and criticize different leadership and control models
describe the specificity of different functions and units within the international firm
understand the basis for the competitive advantage of international firms
Entrepreneurship: Writing Business Plans
This course offers participants the opportunity to learn to develop and evaluate business
plans. The course is built on the knowledge already acquired by a student of the Master in
Management and it simulates an entrepreneurial experience. Students are required to develop
business plans for two different start-ups: one for a manufacturing company and the other in
a services company.
Business plan, business planning, entrepreneurship and strategic management Market analysis and marketing planning Market forecast Competitive analysis Product system design and
competitive advantage creation and defence Firm structure design Organisation design Make,
Buy and connect decisions Competitive - advantage based alliances Financial simulation How
to evaluate the business plan.
Managing Family Enterprises
Why are some organizations more successful than others in dynamic markets - i.e., markets in
which the competitive landscape shifts quickly and unexpectedly, and change must be promoted to survive? In other terms, in the competitive process, why do some organizations fail while
others succeed? These are some of the central questions of the strategic management field
of research and practice. This course aims at addressing strategic management issues within a
family business context. The family enterprise is a predominant form of business organization
which plays a crucial role in today´s economy and social well-being. It is estimated that family
organizations, in various nations around the world, account for 65% to 90% of all businesses
and there is great evidence that this phenomenon will grow over time.
Our objective is to strengthen students´ awareness of the significance, diversity, and complexity of family businesses; to develop their understanding of the distinctive advantages of and
unique challenges facing family businesses; to enhance their ability to understand perspectives
of different stakeholders in family firms and develop strategic solutions to improve family business performance; and to apply their business skills to address an issue or problem facing an
existing family business.
Practical implications for family business management are offered. In particular, effective
resource management, including knowledge management and resource shedding, is central to
enable a family organization to have a sustainable competitive advantage over time. However,
since feelings and emotions are very intense in family firms, family involvement in the business
strongly influences resource-management processes in positive and negative ways.
Master of Science in Management
Today´s world is one of rapid change -technological, social, economic and political.
Organisations, large or small, must respond to these changes in order to survive. The most successful organisations, however, are those which exploit and even create change. This course
aims to expose students to the importance of linking creativity and innovation to strategy. It
provides the tools and techniques that enable entry level managers to assist in the development, implementation and management of technology strategy and innovation at the business
and corporate levels, in order to meet the competitive challenges of the knowledge-driven
world economy.
Decision Making
The course is a general introduction to modeling in the social sciences and to decision making.
Main topics include individual decision making under risk and uncertainty, learning, and diffusion. The teaching method will be a mix of lectures and class exercises. The class requires a
basic knowledge of mathematics.
Mergers and Acquisitions
The course in centered on the strategic management of M&A. The course will address the following issues.
1. Strategic analysis to support M&A decisions and process.
2. Structure and management of an M&A deal.
3. Strategic challenges of post merger integration process.
The course is based on case discussion and in-class assignment.
Competitive Intelligence
Competitive intelligence is the continuous monitoring of rival’s business models and performances and the analysis of competitive dynamics evolution in a certain industry. Information
collected through competitive intelligence activities are used by top management to support
strategic decision making.
The course in centered on techniques and tools to support competitive intelligence analysis.
The course is based on case discussion and group-works on empirical issues.
Consumer Behaviour
The starting point for this course is that consumers define themselves by what they buy, and,
vice versa, they buy based on how they define themselves. We build on cognitive and social
psychology to understand better the processes underlying this conundrum. We do this primarily
to influence what consumers buy, so as to make informed decisions as marketers in a business
(for profit) context. The emphasis is on linking deep theoretical insight with practical application, and as such the course provides both the tools and the context for exercising these tools.
Core Courses
Business Dynamics
Business Dynamics helps participants learn to use system dynamics tools and techniques so that
they can begin to develop a dynamic view of strategy. Participants are taken through every
phase from strategy development to implementation. Teaching will include methods ranging
from traditional lectures to workshops and case studies. Frequent group work sessions will offer
plenty of opportunities for learning from peers as well. By the end of the course, students will
have a better understanding of the complexities of dynamic strategy and will be familiar with
the best and latest tools for strategy design and implementation.
The course content covers feedback mapping, archetypes, and building and using simulation
models. The emphasis will be on developing the skills to create simulation models of business
situations to help managers make better decisions when faced with uncertainty. Material will
be distributed when needed.
Business Analytics
This course will show you how to analyze a surprisingly wide array of business planning and
decision problems using spreadsheet models. In the modeling approach, we seek to describe
the essential structure of a decision problem in terms of objectives, decision variables, uncertainties, outcomes, choice criteria, and feasibility. Powerful and easy to use spreadsheet tools
have been developed to assist in this process. Those covered here include: (1) Optimization
tools (e.g. Solver add-in): for extracting maximum value from resources and activities; exploring complex combinations of possibilities to achieve desired goals; (2) Decision Analysis tools
(e.g. TreePlan add-in): for designing strategic plans in the presence of uncertainties; valuing risk
reduction opportunities; (3) Simulation tools (e.g. Crystal Ball add-in): for valuing and managing
complex portfolios of risks and real options.
Modeling will be approached as a conceptual and analytical activity to help managers deepen
their understanding of the issues they face, identify intelligence gaps, overcome limitations in
judgment, and gain insights in the trade-offs inherent among competing solutions to a problem. The material is approached from a managerial rather than technical perspective, that is,
with a focus on how to apply decision technology, and how to interpret the results for guiding
management action.
Managerial Economics 3
The Course is separated into two parts. The first part presents Data Envelopment Analysis
(DEA) a quantitative method which allows to evaluate firms’ efficiency and to understand how
to increase it. Practical lectures using a DEA solver software will be provided. The second part
Master of Science in Management
focuses on advanced managerial practices and on their welfare implications identified through
antitrust policy.
Organization and Social Networks
This course introduces the conceptual and practical tools that define the field of social network
analysis. Some of the main analytical areas discussed include blockmodeling, multidimensional
scaling, community detection, and statistical testing of network hypotheses. Substantive topics
covered include how networks affect attitudes, preferences and behavior of people in organizations. By the end of the course, students acquire the basic skills needed to map out networks of
social, economic and communication relations, diagnose features of networks that might help
or hinder individual or team performance, and be able to recognize and describe the main features of network structure. Contemporary network research is unique in that its methodological tools derive directly from practical as well as theoretical concerns. For this reason, class time
is allocated equally to methodological and substantive issues, with each substantive topic tied
to specific analytical strategies. The course is based on a mix of lectures, workshops, hands-on
computer exercises, and interactive examples of analysis of actual and simulated network data.
Project Management
Why do so many projects fail? Why do so many others fail to produce lasting results? Why do
so many projects suffer from cost and time overruns? How can firms identify and design highleverage policies to improve project performance?
Due to high cost and time overruns of most projects, however, many organisations struggle to
meet customer needs and market potential. Effective project management can provide managers with the appropriate methods and tools to improve their projects. In this course, we will
cover three important aspects of project management:
– The theory, methods and quantitative tools used to effectively plan, organise, and control
– Efficient management methods revealed through practice and research; and
– Hands-on, practical project management knowledge from optimisation and simulation
Global Market Strategies
The course is aimed at enhancing student’s abilities to develop strategies for competing in the
global business environment. During the course, students will develop the analytical skills necessary for a leadership role by cultivating the ability to make insightful recommendations about
how businesses do and can compete globally.
Challenging Leadership
This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and analytical capabilities needed to practice leadership in modern organisations. It explores the nature of leadership
in terms of how individuals effectively build agreement to shared goals and courses of action
and facilitate organisational movement toward the achievement of these goals. In particular,
we highlight theory and research that accounts for how leaders acquire and exercise social
influence in a manner that contributes to their credibility and the motivation of their followers.
We make note of individual differences in leader behaviour and examine in what instances
situations determine the salience of these differences. The emphasis of the course will be on
application of theory, comparing and contrasting ideas, self-reflection, and self-discovery of
one’s own leadership potential and strengths.
Data Analysis
The goal of the course is to make students familiar with statistical data analysis - the art of
examining, summarising and drawing conclusions from data. This includes the organisation
of a coherent database and its use to produce statistical summaries and inference. Statistical
software is essential in this respect. It lets the researchers focus on thinking about problems
rather than being engaged with computational details. The course introduces students to the
use of the SPSS statistical software. The software environment is explored from the data entry
to the handling of the SPSS output. The course builds on students´ knowledge of introductory
level statistics, such as frequency, distribution and correlation and introduces new topics like
hypothesis testing on means, percentage and regression, multiple regression, logistic regression, factor analysis and cluster analysis.
Corporate Governance
This course is meant to cover the major areas of corporate governance, including an overview
of key corporate governance matters; the duties and responsibilities of directors, including
non-executives; the evolution of corporate law; executive pay; earnings management; the
significance of institutional investors for corporate governance; the legal control of insiders;
and takeover bids. An important goal will be to familiarize students with the economic environment, legal rules and challenges of corporate governance reform. Emphasis will be given
to the contemporary debates over the failure of boards to protect the interests of minority
shareholders, the limitations of executive compensation policies, and the declining importance
of the market for corporate control to restrain managers. The course will encourage students
to use various analytical tools to deal with key governance issues that face managers, directors,
and investors.
Master of Science in Management
USI University of Lugano
The negotiation process is a part of every manager’s day-to-day activities with people inside
and outside the organization, people whose cooperation is essential to attain your goals. These
negotiation sessions will focus on understanding and developing negotiation as an essential
managerial skill.
The course focuses on Elements of a Negotiation Model, Principles of Negotiation and Process
of Negotiation.
Course objectives
During the module, we will concentrate on trying to attain the following objectives:
– To improve your ability to negotiate in competitive as well as collaborative situations.
– To increase your level of awareness of the negotiation process.
– To become familiar with specific concepts and principles that will enhance your negotiation
– To reflect on your personal style and the impact it has on others.
– Introduction to the negotiation model
– Principles and process of negotiation
– The Competitive-Collaborative tension in negotiations: Co-opetition
– Integrating competitive & collaborative strategies
– Developing creative solutions for negotiation
wide collection of tools that can be used in the different phases of a Lean Six Sigma project.
We will review most of them according to the use made in the different phases: D (Define) M
(Measure) A (Analyze) I (Improve) C (Control).
Digital Marketing
This course is designed as an introduction to the rapidly evolving world of marketing in new
media. It blends conceptual frameworks and theory with an applied perspective. The topics
of the course include marketing strategies related to digital marketing, planning of digital
marketing activities, monitoring of digital marketing activities and metrics, online advertising,
consumer engagement and online communities, and basic social network insight and analytics.
The objectives of this lecture will be met through lectures, text readings, practical exercises,
and in-class discussions.
Six Sigma
Six Sigma is a methodology and a collection of a plenty of useful tools driven by understanding
the customers needs and the disciplined use of facts, data, and statistical analysis to improve
and reinvent organizational processes. We will learn goals and key principles for Lean Six Sigma
business excellence and explore the Lean Six Sigma huge list of tools. The goal of this course is:
to build your understanding of process improvement methods; to develop skills and some initial
practice using the Six Sigma tools; to discuss and receive initial overview on how to use new
skills and tools in your working life. After the initial overview we will dive into core concepts and
principles that guide the planning and delivery of a Lean Six Sigma Project. Six Sigma has a very
Applied Social Entrepreurship
Social innovations include ideas, concepts, processes and organizations that focus on societal
needs. Social entrepreneurship can be understood as the process of identifying and starting
a new business venture to address a pressing public and societal need. This course starts by
exposing students to pressing societal needs, then introduces them to the concepts and techniques associated with human centered design for social innovation. Through a combination
of methods, such as ideation, prototyping and applied business modeling, students learn and
design robust and sustainable startups. Social entrepreneurship draws on many subjects and
requires a multi-disciplinary approach, and a number of possible topics could be covered in
class, emphasis will be placed on practical tools that can help the creation and setup of social
Master of Science in Management
Master of Science in Economics, Major in Management
This programme is entirely held in English.
Bachelor’s degree granted by a recognised university.
Further information for applicants graduating from a University of Applied Sciences is available
Applicants whose first degree was not taught in English, are required to at least have earned
a B2 certificate according to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages or
an equivalent level of another proficiency certificate – e.g. TOEFL, IELTS.
Please refer to page 8 for the equivalency table.
USI Università della Svizzera italiana
Study Advisory Service
Tel. +41 58 666 4795
[email protected]
Detailed course descriptions are available on:
Master in Management opened my eyes on the world, not
“ The
least thanks to the undoubtedly highly qualified and very helpful
professors. Moreover the team assignments that are an important
part of many lectures allow you to be in contact with students
that come from all around the world. This is a great opportunity
for anybody who strives for an international career.
Andrea Caspani, student