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Approaches to Integrating NASA Technologies into the
Automotive Sector
SME Technology Interchange
February 19, 2014
2/20/2014
Lotus – Not Just Sports Cars
New Cutting Edge Technology Engineering Solutions
Returning to Motorsports
Variations on Lightweight Engineering
3
SME Technology Interchange Agenda
1. Industry Challenges
2. Supporting Technologies for Meeting Pending Regulations
3. Material Selection
4. Total Vehicle Mass Reduction Study – Interior Example
5. Lightweight Body Design
6. Cost Analyses
7. Potential NASA Technologies for Volume Automotive Production
8. Summary Remarks
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lotuscars.com/engineering
Industry Challenges
2/20/2014
Pending Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions Implications
•
•
•
•
54.5 mpg for cars and light-duty trucks by Model
Year 2025
CO2 = Carbon (fuel) Combusted *0.99*(44/12)
CO2 = CO2 emissions in lbs.
Fuel = weight of fuel in lbs.
Fleet average equivalent of 54.5 mpg translates
to an EPA "window sticker" combined
city/highway average of about 39 - 40 mpg
Projected consumer savings of more than $1.7
trillion at the gas pump
0.99 = oxidation factor (1% un-oxidized)
44 = molecular weight of CO2
12 = molecular weight of Carbon
16 = molecular weight of Oxygen
1 gallon of gasoline creates approx. 20 lbs CO2
1 gallon of diesel fuel creates approx. 22 lbs CO2
Estimated reduction in U.S. oil consumption of 12
billion barrels
http://www.greencarreports.com/image/100357923_54-5-mpg-cafe-standard-for-2025
•
Emissions reduced by 6 billion metric tons over
the life of the program
http://www.edmunds.com/fuel-economy/faq-new-corporate-average-fuel-economy-standards.html
http://www.greencarreports.com/image/100357923_54-5-mpg-cafe-standard-for-2025
http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/08/28/obama-administration-finalizes-historic-545-mpg-fuel-efficiency-standard
http://www.insideline.com/car-news/historic-545-mpg-still-goal-in-final-2025-cafe-rules.html
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NHTSA Fuel Economy Requirements Through 2022
•
> 60% fuel economy improvement typically required for 2025 vs. current models <40 ft 2 footprint)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CAFE_Fuel_Economy_vs_Model_Year_and_Footprint_with_20172022_Proposals.png
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NHTSA Fuel Economy Requirements: 2017 Through 2025
•
> 60% fuel economy improvement typically required for 2025 vs. current models <40 ft 2 footprint)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CAFE_Fuel_Economy_vs_Model_Year_and_Footprint_with_20172022_Proposals.png
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CAFÉ vs. EPA Fuel Economy Through 2025
•
2025 EPA FE number = CAFÉ/1.3 to 1.4 (approximate– footprint & category dependent)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_Average_Fuel_Economy
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Achieving CAFÉ Compliance – Hybrid Vehicles – C Class
50 MPG Combined EPA FE
48 MPG EPA Highway
•
2104 Toyota Prius 51/48/50 MPG – EPA (1.8L 4 cylinder 134 HP/105 ft-lbs; Electric motor: 80
HP/153 ft-lbs)
•
Exceeds 2025 CAFÉ MPG Requirement (44.8 ft2 footprint)
http://www.greencarreports.com/image/100376997_2012-toyota-ns4-plug-in-hybrid-concept
http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/bymodel/2012_Toyota_Prius.shtml
http://www.toyota.com/priusv/ebrochure/
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Achieving CAFÉ Compliance – Hybrid Vehicles – D Class
47 MPG Combined EPA FE
47 MPG EPA Highway
•
2104 Ford Fusion Hybrid eCVT 2.0L Atk. 4 cylinder 141 HP/129 ft-lbs + 88 kW AC motor + 1.4
kWh Li-Ion battery pack
•
Complies with 2025 CAFÉ Requirements (48.4 ft2 footprint)
http://www.vw.com/en/models/passat/trims-specs.s9_trimlevel_detail.suffix.html/2014-passat~2Ftdi-clean-dieselse.html#/tab=806a0bd23b081fee2df7f6140f4c74e4
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Achieving CAFÉ Compliance – Gas Engine Vehicles – B Class
37 MPG Combined EPA FE
45 MPG EPA Highway
•
2104 Ford Fiesta SFE (manual) 1.0L TDI 3 cylinder 128 HP/148 ft-lbs @ overboost
•
Meets 2021 CAFÉ MPG Requirement (39.0 ft2 footprint)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_Average_Fuel_Economy
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Achieving CAFÉ Compliance – Gas Engine Vehicles – C Class
33 MPG – Combined EPA FE
42 MPG – EPA Highway
•
2104 Chevrolet Cruze Eco (manual) 1.4L TEFI 4 cylinder 138 HP/148 ft-lbs
•
Meets 2020 CAFÉ MPG Requirement (44.8 ft2 footprint)
http://www.chevrolet.com/cruze-compact-car.html
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Achieving CAFÉ Compliance – Diesel Engine Vehicles – D Class
35 MPG Combined EPA FE
43 EPA Highway
•
2104 Volkswagen Passat SE (manual) 2.0L TDI 4cylinder 140 HP/236 ft-lbs
•
Complies with 2023 CAFÉ Requirements (47.2 ft2 footprint)
http://www.vw.com/en/models/passat/trims-specs.s9_trimlevel_detail.suffix.html/2014-passat~2Ftdi-clean-dieselse.html#/tab=806a0bd23b081fee2df7f6140f4c74e4
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Alternative Approach to Meeting 2025 NHTSA Fuel Economy Requirements
46.2 ft2 = 55 MPG
51.0 ft2 = 50 MPG
•
10% larger footprint reduces fuel Economy requirement by 5 MPG (10%) between 41 ft 2 and 55 ft2
•
5 MPG (NHTSA/CAFE) = approximately 3.6 to 3.8 MPG (EPA Sticker)
•
Every 1% larger footprint equates to a reduction of approximately 0.5 MPG (NHTSA/CAFÉ) or 0.36 to 0.38 MPG
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Industry Environment: OEM Timing to Meet 2025 Proposed FE Legislation
•
Latest complete redesigns for popular nameplates with a 30 year continuous history
•
Chevrolet Impala – 8 years; 9th gen = 2006, 10th gen = 2014
•
Honda Accord – 7 years; 8th gen = 2008, 9th gen = 2015
•
Toyota Camry – 5 years; XV40 = 2006; XV50 = 2011
•
Based on these typical redesign cycles OEM’s have a maximum of about two new vehicle iterations to meet the 2025 standards
•
Each redesign cycle must effectively increase fuel economy by about 30%
•
9th gen Impala EPA combined FE (48.2 ft2 footprint):
• 2.4L I4 with eAssist: 29 MPG
• Base 2.4L I4: 25 MPG
• 3.6L V6: 21 to 22 MPG
•
10th gen Impala (5 year design cycle – 2019) must average 29 MPG EPA Combined
•
11th gen Impala (6 year design cycle – 2025) must average 38 MPG EPA Combined
•
Fuel economy increases of 52% (base I4) and 72% required (V6) required for 2025 vs. current models
•
Fuel economy increase of 31% required for 2025 vs. most efficient 2014 model
http://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/2014-chevrolet-impala-first-drive-review
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Camry#XV40_.282006.E2.80.932011.29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_Accord_(North_America_eighth_generation)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevrolet_Impala
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Supporting Technologies for Meeting Pending Regulations
2/20/2014
Projected Powertrain Effect on Fuel Economy Through 2025
Powertrain Evolution – Three Phases of Change Required to Meet CAFE
+2 to +3% FE increase
+5% to +12% FE increase
> +12% FE increase through 2025
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Mass Reduction Affect
•
•
Direct:
•
Every 10% reduction in vehicle mass improves
fuel economy by about 6-7%
•
Reducing vehicle mass by 30% results in an 18%
to 21% MPG increase
•
Reduced fuel consumption reduces CO2
emissions
Indirect:
•
Mass de-compounding
•
Vehicle performance
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/cert/mpg/fetrends/2012/420r12001.pdf
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Other Key Factors Impacting Fuel Economy
•
Aerodynamics
•
Vehicle frontal area
•
•
•
Nissan Versa
Ford Fiesta SFE
Chevy Cruze Eco
Toyota Scion Iq
2345 lbs.
2537 lbs.
3,018 lbs.
2127 lbs.
27 MPG
37 MPG (manual)
33 MPG (manual)
37 MPG (VVT)
Tire/Wheel size/weight/friction
Engine efficiency
Transmission efficiency
MPG Delta:
+37%
+22%
+37%
Weight Delta
+8.2%
+28.7%
-9.3%
HProad=((1/2) ρ Cd Af v2 + TC*W)*v
where:
ρ = air density [lbs/ft3]
Cd = the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance [dimensionless]
•
Af = the car frontal area [ft2]
Gearing
v = car speed [ft/s]
TC = tire friction coefficient [dimensionless]
W = vehicle weight [lbs.]
Weight source: http://www.iseecars.com/cars/lightest-cars
Fuel economy source: http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/noframes/31647.shtml
Tire Rolling Resistance
Vehicle Weight
Aerodynamic force
Driving Force
Reaction Force
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Ancillary Conditions Affecting Fuel Economy
•
Driving habits
•
Extra cargo
•
100 lbs. = approx. 0.7 MPG drop on a 3000 lb,
30 MPG car
•
Tire pressures
•
Steering Alignment
•
Etc.
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/cert/mpg/fetrends/2012/420r12001.pdf
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Light Weight Effect on Performance
•
•
Reduced Fuel Consumption
Improved braking with reduced width tires
•
Improved handling with reduced section
tires
•
Decreased acceleration times with less
horsepower
•
Lower center of gravity
•
Exige S V6
Porsche 911 Turbo
•
345 HP 3.5L S V6
500 HP 3.8L T B6
•
2,380 lbs
3,461 lbs
•
6.90 lbs/HP
6.92 lbs/HP
•
3.8s 0-60
3.5s 0-60
•
170 MPH
194 MPH
•
$75,000
$137,500
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/cert/mpg/fetrends/2012/420r12001.pdf
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Trends in Automotive Materials Utilization
2/20/2014
Material Selection
•
Process driven by material
properties and cost
•
Maximize the part performance
through the design process
•
Minimize part weight and cost
through component integration,
optimized part geometry, lower
material densities, increased use of
recycled material, reduced forming
time, and the use of smaller
presses
http://www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/physics/introduction/default.html
http://www.sae.org/servlets/dlymags/dailymag/articleImage.jsp?imgsrc=/dlymagazineimages
/11502_15025_ACT.jpg&alttxt=Top Materials in 5 years.jpg
Trends in Automotive Materials Usage
•
Lightweight metals, composites and plastics are
rated as the key materials to meeting future
mass reduction objectives for automobiles
Top Lightweighting
Technologies
•
Increased pressure on life cycle energy
consumption
•
Mandates for using and recovering vehicle
materials
Top Lightweighting
Materials for Next 5 Years
Most Beneficial Materials
in Next Ten Years
http://www.americanchemistry.com/Media/PressReleasesTranscripts/ACC-newsreleases/Plastics-Hold-Key-to-Helping-Cars-Meet-Mileage-and-Emissions-Goals.html
http://www.sae.org/servlets/dlymags/dailymag/articleImage.jsp?imgsrc=/dlymagazineimages
/11502_15025_ACT.jpg&alttxt=Top Materials in 5 years.jpg
Plastic Price Trends
•
“The amount of plastics and composites used in
vehicles increased 25 percent between MY1995
and 2007 and continues to climb.”
•
Plastic prices tend to track oil costs
•
Recycled plastics prices trend with oil prices
•
Approximately 0.4 gallons of crude oil are
required to make one pound of plastic
•
8% of world’s oil supply is used to make plastic
http://www.accuval.net/insights/industryinsights/detail.php?ID=115
http://www.livescience.com/5449-chemistry-life-plastic-cars.html
http://www.accuval.net/insights/industryinsights/detail.php?ID=140
http://sarahmosko.wordpress.com/category/waste/
Plastics Consumption/Recovery Example
Each year, an estimated 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide.
That's over one million plastic bags used per minute.
planetgreen.discovery.com/home-garden/plastic-bag-facts.html
Americans use and dispose of 100 billion plastic shopping bags each year
and at least 12 million barrels of oil are used per year in the
manufacture of those plastic grocery bags.
The Wall Street Journal
Less than 5 percent of plastic grocery bags are recycled in the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.
Plastic bags can take up to 1,000 years to break down
http://www.worldwatch.org/node/5565
The amount of petroleum used to make a plastic bag would drive a car about 115 metres.
It would take only 14 plastic bags to drive one mile!
www.sprep.org/factsheets/pdfs/plasticbags.pdf
In 2007 in the U.S., about 31 million tons, or 12.1 percent of total municipal waste, was plastic.
www.thegreenguide.com/home-garden/energy-saving/greenwashing/2
31 million tons of plastic waste were generated in 2010, representing 12.4 percent of total MSW.
http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/plastics.htm#recycle
Only 8 percent of the total plastic waste generated in 2010 was recovered for recycling.
http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/plastics.htm#recycle
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Engineering Parameters:
Materials, Manufacturing and Joining
2/20/2014
Materials Selection
•
•
Use a holistic design approach to select materials which best support the total
vehicle mass, cost, performance and infrastructure constraints
•
Choose materials based on performance, cost and mass for each specific area
•
Incorporate recycled materials into design
•
Utilize proven software
•
Consider all materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Steel
Aluminum
Magnesium
Plastics
Wood
Carbon fiber
Titanium
Ductile cast iron
Etc.
29
Use of Lightweight Materials Doesn’t Guarantee a Low Mass Vehicle
•
The Lamborghini Aventador body incorporates a carbon fiber center section with aluminum front
and rear substructures
•
The Ford Mustang Shelby GT500 has a steel body and is >200 lbs. lighter
MSRP
Curb Weight - lbs.
Length - inches
Width - inches
Height - inches
Adj'd Veh. Volume1 - ft3
Specific Density - lb./ft3
Engine HP
Lbs/HP
0-60 MPH - seconds
Lateral g's
Braking 70 - 0 MPH - feet
Top speed - MPH
2013 Aventador
2013 Shelby GT500
Delta
$394,000
4,085
188.2
79.9
44.7
292
14.0
691
5.9
3.0
0.95
146
217
$54,000
3,852
189.4
73.9
55.9
317
12.2
662
5.8
3.5
1.00
155
189
$340,000
233
-1.2
6.0
-11.2
-25
1.8
29
0.1
-0.5
-0.05
-9
28
1 L x W x H; Shape Factors: 0.75 - Aventador; 0.70 – Shelby GT500
Vehicle data source: manufactuers web sites
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Manufacturing Process Selection
•
•
Manufacturing process chosen based on cycle time, running costs, utilization factor, and investment
All processes considered
•
Stamping
•
Casting
• Low pressure
• Die cast
• Investment cast
• Ablation cast
• High pressure
• Thixomolding
•
Extrusion
• Impact
• Cold forming
•
High pressure forming
•
Molding
•
Ultra high speed forming
• EMP
•
Other
•
Tooling investment is a key consideration
•
Castings provide high level of component integration which reduces the part & tool count
•
Extrusion tools are typically < $20,000 vs. six figure stamping dies
•
Single sided tools offer longer term potential
•
Processes chosen to meet cycle time requirements and part cost contribution targets while minimizing material scrap rates
•
Extrusions and castings reduce tool costs and lower scrap rate vs. stampings
31
Joining Process Selection
•
Processes chosen based on strength, fatigue/durability, cost and mass for each specific attachment
•
Process selected to contribute to overall system performance, cost & mass targets
•
100% continuous joint contributes to an increase in body stiffness
•
Increase in body stiffness allows reduction in material thickness which contributes to mass savings
•
Minimize parent material property degradation (HAZ)
•
Minimizing flange width contributes to mass and cost reduction
• RSW flange is approximately 30% - 40% wider than a friction spot joint flange
•
All processes considered
•
RSW
•
Clinching
•
Mechanical fastening
•
Laser welding
•
Continuous resistance welding
•
Friction stir welding
•
Friction spot joining
•
Bonding (structural adhesives)
•
Other
•
Galvanic & Corrosion protection are key considerations
•
Material coatings chosen to meet long term durability requirements
•
Coatings selected to be compatible with joined materials and joining processes
•
Cost is a major consideration
•
Processes chosen to meet cycle time requirements
32
Total Vehicle Mass Reduction
Interior Example
2/20/2014
Lotus Phase 1 Total Vehicle Mass Optimization
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Phase 1 Example: Interior System
•
The interior systems consists of
the instrument panel, seats, soft
and hard trim, carpeting, climate
control hardware, audio,
navigation and communication
electronics, vehicle control
elements, and restraint systems
35
Interior System
•
•
•
•
•
High level of component integration
Modular systems
Electronic interfaces replace mechanical controls, i.e., transmission, parking brake
HVA/C module part of console
36
Low Mass Interior Summary BOM
• Mass reduction total: 97.8 kg (39%)
• Projected cost: 4% savings vs. baseline
System
Sub-System
Venza
Baseline
mass
% of
Interior
High
Development
Mass
High
Development
Cost
Interior
Seats
Instrument Panel|Console|Insulation
Hard Trim
Controls
Safety
HVA/C and Ducting
Closure Trim
Total
97.9
43.4
41.4
22.9
17.9
13.7
13.3
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
250.6 kg
39%
17%
17%
9%
7%
5%
5%
55.2
25.8
24.3
16.0
17.9
11.3
2.4
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
152.8 kg
94%
105%
105%
108%
100%
81%
75%
96%
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The estimated mass was 38.4% less than the baseline vehicle with a
projected piece cost factor of 103%.
Mass and Cost Analysis
The charts below are from the 2010 Lotus mass reduction study published by ICCT (link:
http://www.theicct.org/pubs/Mass_reduction_final_2010.pdf) that developed design
approaches that reduced cost and mass in non-body systems to partially offset the
added cost for the low mass BIW.
Mass and Cost Summary
Body
Closures/Fenders
Bumpers
Thermal
Electrical
Interior
Lighting
Suspension/Chassis
Glazing
Misc.
Totals:
Base CUV Powertrain Mass
Base CUV Total Mass
Baseline CUV
382.50
143.02
17.95
9.25
23.60
250.60
9.90
378.90
43.71
30.10
1289.53
410.16
1699.69
Low Mass
Mass
221.06
83.98
17.95
9.25
15.01
153.00
5
9.90
217.00
43.71
22.90
793.76
Mass
61.6%
Low Mass
Cost Factor
1.35
0.76
1.03
1.00
0.96
0.96
1.00
0.95
1.00
0.99
Wtd. Cost
103.0%
1
The above Phase 1 masses were utilized for the Phase 2 Impact Analyses
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Lightweight Multi-Material Body in White Design
2/20/2014
Design Methodology Overview
•
Use a total vehicle, holistic approach to
mass reduction
•
Utilize a multi-material approach to
selectively use the best material for each
specific area
•
Incorporate a high level of component
integration
•
Design for low cost tooling
•
Minimize scrap material by process
selection
•
Maximize structural attributes through
continuous joining techniques
•
Steel rear structure
Evora Riv-Bonded Chassis
Evora Extruded and
Press Bent Rocker Panel
Evora Extrusion Geometries
Utilize electronics/electrical systems to
replace mechanical hardware
In-Car Active Acoustic Tailoring
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Lotus Phase 2 Multi-Material Body Structure – Exploded View
100% bonded using structural adhesive
Color Chart:
Aluminum: Silver
Magnesium: Purple
Steel: Red
Section 1
Composite: Blue
Section 2
Assembly Methodology
-Structural adhesive bonding (Henkel)
-Friction spot joining (Kawasaki)
-Rivets (Rivtec®)
-Fasteners
-Galvanic protection (Henkel)
Section 1 – Rivet: SPR (shown), Rivtek®
Section 3
Section 3 – Mechanical Fastener
(nylon washer shown)
Section 2 – Friction Spot Joint
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Phase
2 vs. Phase
BIWBody
Material
Utilization
Comparison
Multi-Material
Low 1Mass
In White
Assembly
Considerations
Assembly Methodology
-Structural adhesive bonding (Henkel)
-Friction spot joining (Kawasaki)
-Rivets (Rivtec®)
-Fasteners
-Galvanic protection (Henkel)
6.1. Quality Management Concept
BIW Plant
<$53,000,000
Assembly Line Team
Machine Operator
• Responsible for quality control of parts from
specific stations
• Follow working instructions
• Stop production in case of quality defects
Documentation
• Carry out working instructions
• Team leader = QM foreman
• Problem localization by measuring methods
• Internal communication
• Assign responsibilities
• Failure modes
• Root cause analysis
• Downtimes
• Frequency of breakdowns/
priorities
• Analysis of Continuous
Improvement Processes
QM Team
Corporate Philosophy
• Define QM
• Uniform measuring methods
• Analysis of quality assurance
• Analysis
• Statistics
• Training ( Job )
• Measuring
• Assign priorities
• Transparency of disturbing influences
• Quality controlling of the end product
• Documentation
Quality Driven Assembly Process
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BIW Flooring Selection Process
•
Criteria
•
•
•
Weight
Structural Properties
Cost
•
Material Selected:
•
Recycled PET “Sandwich”: GR PET
outer panels, PET foam inner
•
Using recycled PET (the plastic used in
water bottles) as the basis for a laminated
floor with a PET foam inner and PET outer
layers with directional glass fiber provided
a lightweight, strong, reduced cost and
electrically inert solution relative to other
materials
Americans spent $15 billion on 8 billion gallons
of bottled water in 2006.
www.articlearchives.com/chemicals/plastics-rubber-industry-plastics/220746-1.html
Only 14% of plastic water bottles are recycled.
www.inhabitat.com/2009/09/21/watershed-recycled-bottle-art-debuts-at/
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Phase 2 BIW Torsional Stiffness Model
Phase 2 BIW
Torsional Stiffness Target: 27,000 Nm/deg (BMW X5)
Phase 2 BIW Torsional Stiffness (V26): 32,900 Nm/deg
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Phase 2 Impact Modeling Loadcases
Front Impact:
FMVSS208 35mph Flat Barrier 0°
FMVSS208 25mph Flat Barrier 30°
FMVSS208 25mph 40% Offset Deformable Barrier
IIHS 6mph Centerline Bumper
IIHS 3mph 15% Offset Bumper
Side Impact:
FMVSS214 33.5mph 27° Moving Deformable Barrier
FMVSS214 20mph 75° Pole Impact (seat @ 5th %ile Female)
FMVSS214 20mph 75° Pole Impact (seat @ 50th %ile Male)
Rear Impact:
FMVSS301 50mph 70% Offset Moving Deformable Barrier
IIHS 6mph Centerline Bumper
IIHS 3mph 15% Offset Bumper
Roof Crush:
FMVSS216 Quasi Static Crush
Other:
FMVSS210 Quasi Static Seat Belt Pull
FMVSS213 Child Restraints Systems
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Cost Analyses
2/20/2014
Low Mass Body In White Mass Cost Overview – Generic Example
Low Mass CUV Body Status
• Material Cost = 4x base material
• Body weight = ½ weight of the base structure
• Carryover manufacturing process = $0 savings
• Carryover parts count = $0 savings
• Carryover joining process = $0 savings
Total cost = 2x base cost
Note: Existing infrastructure, engineering experience and
production volumes play a significant role in selecting
manufacturing and joining processes
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Lotus
ARB
LowBody
MassStatus
Body In White Cost Overview
Low
Mass
CUV
Piece Cost: +60% (+$723/unit)
- Aluminum (75%), magnesium (12%), composites (5%) & steel (8%) vs. 100% steel
- Parts count reduced by 35%
- 530 lbs.
Part tooling: -60% (-$233/unit)
- Castings and extrusions provide high level of component integration
- Extensive use of castings and extrusions contributed to reduced tooling costs by a factor 3
Assembly: -37% (-$251/unit)
- Lower cost joining technologies
- Friction spot joining, structural adhesive bonding
- Contributes to reduced material thickness
- 35% fewer parts to assemble
Cost offset: $484
67% of piece cost offset by using lower cost tools, parts integration (reduces parts count and the
number of tools) and joining processes
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Lotus ARB Low Mass Body In White Amortization Cost Analysis
Low
Mass CUV Body Status
New body assembly plant cost: $53,000,000 ($0 for baseline – existing plant)
BIW Cost with costs1 amortized over 3 years (60,000/yr.): $3,469 (+118% vs. $2,940 baseline)
Estimated Cost delta: $529
Assembled BIW with costs2 fully amortized (60,000/yr.): $3,098 (108% vs. $2,869 baseline)
Cost delta: $229
1 Tooling and plant costs for Lotus ARB BIW, tooling only cost for baseline
2 Tooling and plant costs fully amortized for both Lotus ARB BIW and baseline
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BIW Cost Offset Sensitivity Analysis
37% mass reduced BIW (Phase 2 study)
+118%/108% BIW cost factors (w/without BIW plant cost)
40% mass reduced non-BIW systems (Phase 1 study)
Cost parity for all non-body systems less powertrain
Cost Factor
Cost
Weighting
Factor
Complete body
118.00%
18.00%
21.24%
Non-body
100.00%
82.00%
100.00%
Totals
Cost Differential
Weighted
Cost Factor
Cost Factor
Cost
Weighting
Factor
Complete body
108.00%
18.00%
19.44%
82.00%
Non-body
100.00%
82.00%
82.00%
103.24%
Totals
100.00%
101.44%
3.24%
Includes BIW Assembly Plant Cost Amortization
(3 years)
Cost Differential
Weighted
Cost Factor
1.44%
BIW Assembly Plant Cost Fully Amortized
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Estimated Costs (ROM) For a Current Production Vehicle
Using Lightweight Materials
2/20/2014
Cost
and
System
Comparison:
2014 vs. 2013 Corvette
Low
Mass
CUV
Body Status
2014 Corvette
2013 Corvette
Engine
455 HP 6.2L LT1 (New)
430 HP 6.2L LS3 (c/o)
Transmission
7 speed (manual - New)
6 speed (manual – c/o)
Fuel Economy
17/29 MPG (30 MPG in Eco mode)
16/26 MPG
Interior
All New
c/o
Body/Chassis
All New (aluminum chassis, CF roof & hood)
c/o
MSRP
$51,000* (+2.8%)
$49,600
*assumes amortizing $52,000,000 new chassis assembly plant cost
http://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/2014-chevrolet-corvette-stingray-z51-road-test-review
http://www.chevrolet.com/new-2014-corvette/
http://www.chevrolet.com/corvette-sports-car.html
http
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2014
Chassis
2013 Corvette Chassis
LowCorvette
Mass CUV
Bodyvs.Status
2014 Corvette Aluminum Chassis
Material
Mass:
Stiffness (torsion):
Stampings
Extrusions
Castings
Hydroform
2014 Corvette (Base)
2013 Corvette (Base)
Aluminum
374 lbs. (-99 lbs., -21%)
+57%
76
38
10
3
Steel
473 lbs.
base
http://gmauthority.com/blog/2013/01/deep-dive-the-light-yet-stiff-frame-of-the-2014-chevy-corvette-stingray/
http://www.web-cars.com/corvette/2014-5.php
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Estimated
System Cost Increase Analysis - ROM
Low
Mass2014
CUVCorvette
Body Status
Invoice1
$47,405
Invoice Cost Delta vs. 2013 Model
$1,301 (($47,405/$51,000)* $1,400)
Estimated OEM Cost Increase
$868 ($1,301/1.52)
Estimated Powertrain Contribution
Estimated Interior Contribution
Estimated Chassis Contribution
Estimated Closures Contribution
Remaining System Contributions
$200
$191
$156
$87
$234
Total
$868 (100%)
(23%)
(22%)
(18%)
(10%)
(27%)
1 http://www.kbb.com/chevrolet/corvette/2014-chevrolet-corvette/stingray/?vehicleid=390308&intent=buy-new
2 Rogozhin et al, 2009 – RPE study
Phase 1 ICCT Study
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Affect of Vehicle Weight Reduction on Cost Per Pound of Vehicle Weight
Cost - MSRP - $
Curb Weight - lbs.
Cost/lb.
Relative Cost/lb. vs. Baseline
Baseline Vehicle
Lightweight Vehicle
30,000
4,000
7.5
100%
30,000
3,000
10
133%
Added Budget per lb. - %
33%
Assumes lighweight vehicle is identical dimensionally and volumetrically to baseline
•
Making a vehicle lighter can allow a higher $/lb cost for materials without impacting the MSRP
•
A lighter weight vehicle can have a higher $/lb cost and still be competitive
55
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Key Technologies Needed to Assist Automotive
Manufacturers to Meet Pending CAFÉ Fuel Economy
Regulations
2/20/2014
Opportunity Areas for NASA Technologies
•
Mass reduction - Structure
•
•
•
Material selection
Joining processes
Manufacturing processes
•
Aerodynamics
•
Tire/Wheel size/weight/friction
•
Engine efficiency
•
Engine weight
•
Transmission efficiency
•
Gears
•
Lubrication
Weight source: http://www.iseecars.com/cars/lightest-cars
Fuel economy source: http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/noframes/31647.shtml
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NASA Technologies with Potential Automotive Applications
2/20/2014
NASA Developed Materials/Composites
33’ Diameter
Heavy Lift
Launch
Vehicle
Components
Fiber Reinforced Foam
Core (FRF)Structure
FRF Sandwich vs. Honeycomb
Sandwich:
• Payload shroud 14 % lighter
• Interstage 7.7% lighter
• Beamless core intertank 14%
lighter
Courtesy of NASA Glenn
59
Sizing Capability for FRF Sandwich Panels Developed by NASA
•
Fiber Reinforced Foam (FRF) structural concept
•
Composite facesheets
•
Foam core with composite webs
• Choice of elastic foundation stiffness (K) enables desired amount of
conservatism vs. FEA analysis for local buckling
1/16 th Section
of 33’ Barrel
•
Concept is out-of-autoclave – significant cost savings
•
New sizing capability developed and implemented into the
HyperSizer Structural Sizing Software
•
Sizes facesheet materials/layups/thicknesses, web
material/layup/thickness, foam material, web spacing, and panel
height
•
Considers composite strength, foam shear strength, core
crushing, core shear crimping, panel buckling, facesheet
wrinkling, and web/facesheet local buckling failure modes
•
Local buckling most challenging and most important failure mode
– foam supports facesheets and webs against local buckling
•
Developed buckling with elastic foundation method shown to be
conservative vs. FEM, validated vs. experiment:
• New capability used in ACT project sizing of 33’ diameter heavy lift
vehicle shroud, interstage, and intertank
Courtesy of NASA Glenn
Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites
•
Investigating effects of a variety of
nanoscale fillers on properties of
polymers
– Organically modified clays
– Functionalized graphene
sheets
– Carbon nanotubes
– Carbon nanofibers
•
Potential applications:
– Cryotanks – reduced permeability
– Fan containment – improved
toughness
– High temperature engine structures
– improved thermal & mechanical
properties
Lebron-Colon, Miller, Gintert
Collaborations with: U of Akron, Princeton, Northwestern, MSU, Clark Atlanta U
Courtesy of NASA Glenn
61
Cross-linked Polyimide Aerogels
•
100% organic backbone
•
2 to 5 times stronger than polymer reinforced aerogels at
similar density
2D Graph 1
•
Same low thermal conductivity
Polyimide
0.24 g/cm3
30
•
•
Stress, MPa
Can be manufactured in a
flexible form with excellent
tensile properties
Epoxy reinforced
0.23 g/cm3
20
10
Good heat resistance up to 400oC
2D Graph 2
0
0
20
40
100
300
400
500
Weight retained %
95
90
85
300oC
80
400oC
75
70
0
200
400
35
5,000,000
30
4,500,000
20
15
BAX 760 torr
BAX 0.01 torr
ODA 760 torr
ODA 0.01 torr
10
5
3,500,000
3,000,000
2,500,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
500,000
0
20
600
o
800
1000
80
4,000,000
25
0
500oC
65
60
Strain, %
True Stress (Pa)
Thermal Conductivity, mW/m-K
40
60
100
140
180
220
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
True strain (mm/mm)
o
Test temperature, C
Temperature ( C)
Guo, Meador, et al, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2011, 3 (2), pp 546–552
Courtesy of NASA Glenn
62
Possible Automotive Applications of Polyimide and Polymer Reinforced
Aerogels
•
Light weight sandwich structures
•
•
Thermal insulation
•
•
•
Aerogel core material with density from 0.1 to 0.3 g/cm3 can significantly reduce weight
Aerogels out-perform polymer foam and other conventional insulation by a factor of 2-5
Lower thermal conductivity means less thickness of insulation required
Acoustic and vibration damping


Preliminary results indicate that aerogels absorb vibration
Tailored pore sizes and high porosity may provide acoustic damping
Courtesy of NASA Glenn
63
NASA Manufacturing Support
2/20/2014
Additive Manufacturing Experience
•
AM, e.g., fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA) and direct metal laser
sintering (DMLS) are processes being used to make aerospace and medical parts
•
NASA’s Juno satellite uses functional AM parts, titanium alloy waveguide support brackets,
supplied by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Corp
•
AM production has helped aerospace manufacturers reduce part counts and the weight of
components, e.g., GE Aviation’s AM fuel nozzle for the LEAP jet engine reduced parts count from
18 to 1
•
Jet engine manufacturer Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, Conn., recently announced that AM parts
are in use on the PurePower turbine engines that power some of the new C series jets built by
Bombardier Inc.
•
Aerojet Rocketdyne makes a rocket engine fuel injector nozzle via AM, and verified its capabilities
through a series of tests at NASA’s Glenn Research Center.
Above information from SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 | MICROmanufacturing (article courtesy of NASA)
65
NASA Aerodynamics Expertise
2/20/2014
NASA + Aerodynamics
NACA duct (U.S. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics)
•
Developed in 1945 and still used today in racing and high performance cars
NASA has more wind tunnels than any other group, including OEMs
“Outside the Box” Thinking
• NASA Ames Dryden-1 (AD-1) oblique wing pivoted 60 degrees
• Reduced drag
• Reduced fuel consumption
Decades of sub-sonic experience
http://www.nasa.gov/aero/thinking_obliquely.html
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-are-wind-tunnels-k4.html
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NASA Software/Controls Expertise
2/20/2014
Utilizing NASA Software to Improve Passenger Car Fuel Economy
•
Chevrolet Cruze Eco (manual) rated at 42
MPG hwy averaged 64 MPG for 9,500 miles
•
Achieved by a skilled team experienced in
optimizing fuel economy
•
High MPG record accomplished by using
predictive driving techniques based on road
grades
•
NASA developed topology mapping software
for low altitude/mountainous terrain flights
•
Combining NASA mapping software with
unique Lotus algorithms to directly/indirectly
control vehicle speed based on road
conditions can potentially improve fuel
economy (details are confidential)
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Utilize NASA Software/Hardware for Proximity Sensing
Accident Avoidance Technologies:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Smart Cruise Control
Lane Departure Warning
Active Braking Systems
Active Steering System
Active Throttle Control
Autonomous Control
NASA Existing Software:
• Rapid I/O data handling, sensing and assessing the dynamic
environment and providing feedback to control systems
• 354,000,0000 miles in 8.5 months (approx. 57,000 MPH average)
• 1.7 x 10-8 % (0.000000017%) error for Curiosity Mars landing
• 13,200 MPH entering Mars atmosphere to 0 MPH in 81 miles
http://www.space.com/16503-photos-mars-science-laboratory-curiosity-landing-guide.html
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/26/nasa-mars-curiosity-launc_n_1113995.html
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Other Automotive Areas with Potential To Utilize NASA Technologies
Power Transmission Technologies
• Gearsets
• Lubrication
• Coatings
Solar
Efficient Energy Collection
• Run fan to exhaust hot air from cabin to reduce interior temperature
• Reduced fuel consumption during cool down due to reduced compressor load
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Potential Powertrain Application for NASA Technology
•
Automotive Turbochargers
•
248,000 RPM
•
Temperature extremes: -40 F to 1,400+ F
•
Unique impeller designs for:
•
•
Hot gas side
Ambient air side
•
Sophisitcated metalurgy
•
Demanding bearing requirements:
•
•
Lubrication
Cooling
•
•
Continental turbocharger for Ford 1.0L 3 cylinder gas engine
•
123 HP
•
148 lb. ft.. (peak)
Other major turbocharger suppliers include BorgWarner and Honeywell
http://wardsauto.com/suppliers/continental-charging-after-turbochargers
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NASA Software with Potential Automotive Applications
2/20/2014
Improve Reliability
Trade Performance/Cost
Reduce Engineering Costs
Increase Competitiveness
Plug and Play
Composite Analysis ImMAC Suite
Fiber Interface Matrix
Analyze and Visualize Failure
Where it Actually Occurs
Legacy Commercial FEA Models
Turbo charge your FE Analysis With Aerospace-Grade
ImMAC Composite Toolset
74
MAC/GMC is an Evolving Anisotropic Thermoelastic Inelastic and
Damage Constitutive Model
Macro-level Constitutive Equations
Micro-level Field Equations (subcell)
MAC/GMC Analysis Spans Multiple Scales
MAC/GMC stand-alone
Hyper-MAC called from within HyperSizer
FEAMAC called from within ABAQUS (MAC/GMC v4.0)
MAC/GMC: Core Analysis Engine for the ImMAC Suite
MAC/GMC Version 4.Z (5/2013)
Capabilities/Features
• Library of applied loading options
• Library of composite repeating unit cells
Applications: MMCs, PMCs, CMCs, Smart
Materials
Dec, 2012
– Continuous, discontinuous, & user-definable architectures
• Library of constitutive models
– Elastic & inelastic (isotropic and anisotropic)
– User-definable
• Library of fiber and matrix material properties
• Library of failure, damage, and lifing capabilities
−
−
−
−
−
−
Elastic allowables; static failure analysis
Weak interface modeling
Fiber breakage (Curtin model)
Fatigue damage lifing
Progressive failure/damage (crack band models)
Stochastic (CARES)
• Mesh Objective Handshaking
• Automatic yield/damage/failure surface generation
• Laminate analysis (symmetric and non-symmetric)
− Utilizes GMC to model nonlinear ply behavior
> 130 Customers:
50 Universities; 70 industrial companies, 11
Gov’t labs have signed software use agreements
since 1995.
With an additional fifteen foreign requests
• Smart material analysis: composite & laminate
− SMA, piezo-electro-magnetic materials
• Ultra-efficient standard GMC micromechanics model
• State of the art High-Fidelity GMC micromechanics models
• Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells micromechanics
Availability: Free to U.S. Citizens
Web page address:
www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/LPB/mac
Summary Remarks
•
By using an holistic, total vehicle approach to mass reduction there is potential to utilize more
expensive, ultra high performance materials and constructions in volume production
automobiles and trucks
•
There is potential to utilize high performance NASA developed materials in a cost effective
manner on future volume production automobiles
•
There is potential to use NASA developed software to assist automobile manufacturers in
improving vehicle fuel economy and active vehicle control systems
•
There is potential to use NASA developed software to predict advanced composite material
behavior to assist the automotive industry in introducing new materials into automotive
production
•
Plastics recycling technology may be an opportunity area for NASA to assist in reducing
material cost
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lotuscars.com/engineering
Thank You
Please reply to:
Job title:
Telephone:
Email:
Website:
Gregory E. Peterson
Senior Technical Specialist
586-698-1933
[email protected]
lotuscars.com/engineering
UNITED KINGDOM
USA
CHINA
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Hethel, Norwich
Ann Arbor
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Phone +44 (0) 1953 608423
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