pollution in the open oceans

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REPORTS AND STUDIES
79
POLLUTION IN THE OPEN
OCEANS: A REVIEW OF
ASSESSMENTS AND
RELATED STUDIES
UN
UNEP
United Nations
FAO Educational, Scientific and
UNESCO
Cultural Organisation
Intergovernmental
Oceanographic
Commission
IOC
UNIDO
WMO
IMO
IAEA
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REPORTS AND STUDIES
79
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POLLUTION IN THE OPEN
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2V[OQ$&7$(WS[QKI$LZ$5QXLKJIb*JWT1QI$KQD1QYQT$c
Topic
Ocean Sector
Res.
Templates
Papers
completed
NA
SA
NP
SP
NI
SI
Global
Assessments
Reviews
Ocean acidification
0
0
0
0
0
0
19
12
0
7
4
CO2 and SO2 from Ships
0
0
0
0
0
0
29
15
1
13
3
Atm. N
13
7
7
2
2
2
6
0
7
23
10
Atm. Fe, P, Co
22
11
10
3
3
2
8
0
9
41
18
Atm. Zn
10
4
2
2
2
1
0
0
0
16
9
Debris
3
3
7
3
2
3
11
0
4
25
13
28
13
10
3
1
2
8
0
4
46
50
VOCs
7
2
6
3
7
5
8
2
0
26
28
Ship-based inputs
- Operational discharges
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
0
0
3
- Oilspills
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
0
1
4
- Chemical spills
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
- Heavy
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
1
1
4
- PAH
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
0
1
4
- NOx
0
0
1
1
0
0
8
1
0
9
3
- VOCs
1
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
0
1
3
Shipwrecks
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
0
1
1
Offshore E & P
3
0
0
0
0
0
5
3
1
1
5
Noise
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
7
3
4
Natural seeps
2
0
0
0
0
0
5
3
1
1
5
Heavy metals
NA- North Atlantic Ocean; SA- South Atlantic Ocean; NP- North Pacific Ocean; SP- South Pacific Ocean; NI- North Indian Ocean; SI- South Indian Ocean
* Where several substances are addressed in the same report, a template may be recorded more than once in this table.
9a$0(.B__ENAB!(A!(N`*(B.*!(BF*,!T(,(^*aA*I(BD(,++*++-*!N+(,!H(^*_,N*H(+NEHA*+(
)*+,-.(^$:"4#(012(+#L2/$%(!(YX
2V[OQ$G7$#XQM$LRQVM$VIIQIISQMJ$OVMTIRVXQ$LDQKD1QY
Geographic coverage a
Extent
Adequacy
Data
reliability b
Data
relevance c
CO2 (inputs)
XX
XX
XXX
XXX
XX
XX
XX
XX
SO2
X
X
X
X
X
X
XX
XX
Heavy metals
- Hg
X
XX
XX
XX
X
XXX
XXX
XX
- Pb, As, Cd, Ni, Cu
X
X
XX
X
X
XX
XXX
XX
VOCs
X
X
XX
X
X
XX
XXX
XX
Debris
X
XXX
XX
XXX
X
X
XXX
XXX
Nutrients
-N
XX
XX
XXX
XXX
XX
XXX
XX
XX
- Fe, Co, P
XX
XX
XXX
X
XX
XX
XX
XX
- Zn
X
X
XXX
X
X
XX
XXX
XXX
Noise
X
X
XXX
X
X
XX
XX
X
Oil
- spills from ships
XXX
XXX
XX
XXX
XX
XX
XXX
XXX
- op. discharges
XX
XX
XX
XX
X
XX
XXX
XX
- exploration and production
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XXX
XX
- shipwrecks
XXX
XXX
XXX
XX
X
XX
XXX
XXX
- natural seeps
XXX
XXX
XXX
XX
X
XX
XXX
XXX
- PAHs (exhaust)
X
X
X
X
X
X
XXX
XX
Chemical, spills
X
X
X
X
X
X
XXX
XX
Chemical, expl. and prod.
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XXX
XX
Sewage
X
XXX
XX
XXX
X
XXX
XXX
XXX
Ballast water
X
XXX
XX
XX
X
XX
XX
XXX
Dumping of waste
XX
XXX
XX
XXX
-
-
XXX
XXX
POPs and PBTs
X
X
XX
XX
X
XXX
XXX
XX
CFCs
XX
XX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
Topic
Sampling
Adequacy of Knowledge
regularity d methodology e of effects f
Overall
position g
Rating scheme: Good: XXX; Moderate: XX; Poor: X
a Geographic coverage: Relates a) to the relative distributions of existing information across the 6 ocean basins (Chapter 1) and b) to the adequacy of this coverage
for purposes of regular assessments (levels, impacts, significance) of the substances concerned in the open ocean.
b Data reliability: An estimate of the relative accuracy and precision of data published in peer-reviewed scientific literature.
c Data relevance: An evaluation of the utility and value of the data for purposes of assessing ocean health.
d Sampling regularity: A determination of the adequacy of sampling regimes (frequency, timing, sample replicates etc.) used to date for purposes of decadal
assessments of status &trends.
e Adequacy of methodology: An indication of the suitability of currently available methodologies (sampling, analysis, data processing, evaluation and interpretation
etc.), for generating data needed for assessment purposes i.e. the requirement for research and development.
f Knowledge of effects: The general level of scientific understanding with regard to the effects of a substance on marine life, marine ecosystems and human
health.
g Overall position: An indication of the current state-of-the-art with regard to investigating the substances (and related processes) in the open ocean and thus the
potential for use of these capabilities (and data products) for ocean assessment purposes.
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80°N
40°N
0°
40°S
80°S
50°E
150°E
110°W
10°W
[The Team has examined all the white areas, except those with hatching. Areas within 200m depth contour are indicated in blue]
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Vector
CO2
Atmosphere, Shipping
SO2
Atmosphere, Shipping
VOCs
Atmosphere, Shipping
Nutrients
Fe, N, P, Zn, Co
Atmosphere
POPs, PBTs, CFCs
Atmosphere
PAH
Atmosphere, Shipping
Heavy metals
Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Ni, Cu
Atmosphere
Particles
Shipping
NOx
Shipping
Oil
Accidental spills
Operational discharges
Wrecks
Exploration and production
Natural seeps
Shipping etc.
Chemicals
Accidental spills
Exploration and production
Shipping
Sewage
Shipping
Marine debris
Mainland sources, Shipping
Ballast water
Shipping
Noise
Shipping/Military/Research
Dumped waste
Shipping
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Locations of Measurements
Lead
Mercury
Cadmium
Arsenic
Nickel
Copper
Total, All Regions
39 (76%)
13 (25%)
25 (49%)
19 (37%)
27 (53%)
29 (57%)
North Atlantic
15 (54%)
6 (21%)
9 (32%)
4 (14%)
9 (32%)
11 (39%)
South Atlantic
10 (77%)
3 (23%)
6 (46%)
1 (8%)
8 (62%
8 (62%)
North Pacific
7 (64%)
0 (0%)
6 (55%)
6 (55%)
4 (36%)
5 (45%)
South Pacific
3 (75%)
0 (0%)
1 (33%)
2 (67%)
2 (67%)
2 (67%)
North Indian
1 (100%)
0 (0%)
0 (0%)
1 (100%)
1 (100%)
0 (0%)
South Indian
1 (50%)
0 (0%)
1 (50%)
1 (50%)
1 (50%)
1 (50%)
Global Ocean*
2 (22%)
4 (44%)
2 (22%)
4 (44%)
2 (22%)
2 (22%)
* Most of these papers made estimates for the global ocean but did not give details for specific geographical regions.
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304/$#5( "9( /12L%#4/0;( :4"7$%%$%'( N?$( /1:L#( "9( 702>/L>(
#"(#?$(0#>"%:?$4$(94">(%L7?(10#L40;(%"L47$%(0%(74L%#0;(
P$0#?$4/18( 012( #?$( "7$01( /#%$;9( 04$( 7"1%/2$4$2( #"( 6$(
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Pb concentration in seawater, pmol/kg and
Pb concentration in the atmosphere, 10-10g/m3
180
Marine dissolved Pb
Atmospheric Pb
160
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140
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Organism
Photosynthetic
Carbonate form
Habitat
Coccolithophores
Yes
Calcite
Planktonic
Macro-algae*
Yes
Aragonite or calcite
Benthic
Foramenifera
Some
Calcite
Benthic
No
Calcite
Planktonic
Yes (in symbiosis)
Aragonite
Benthic
No
Aragonite
Benthic
Pteropods
No
Aragonite
Planktonic
Non-pteropod molluscs*
No
Aragonite or calcite
Benthic or planktonic
Echinoderms
No
Mg-calcite
Benthic
Crustaceans*
No
Calcite
Benthic or planktonic
Corals: warm water
Cold water
* Not all members of this group are calcified.
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International Assessment
Participation
POPs
Arctic Marine Assessment
Program
Arctic – circumpolar (Arctic Ocean, Arctic marginal seas, Arctic
territories of the eight Arctic countries) (north of 60° N but
also including relevant marine areas south of this latitude, e.g.
Hudson Bay
aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin,
DDT, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene,
HCB, PCB and PCDD/PCDF
Background Air Monitoring of
POPs in East Asian Countries
Cambodia, Indonesia, Korea (Republic of), Japan, Mongolia,
Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin,
DDT, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene,
HCB, and PCBs
European Air Pollution
Monitoring Programme
(EMEP)
Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, Great Britain,
Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden.
European air monitoring program on POPs is support of the
1979 Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution. Some monitoring sites are located in coastal areas.
chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, DDT,
heptachlor, HCB, PCB
Global Atmospheric Passive
Sampling Study
Several sites in Africa (5), South East Asia, Australia (6),
Antarctica (1), Central and South America (11), Europe (9),
and North America (1)
aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin,
DDT, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene,
HCB, PCB and PCDD/PCDF
)*+,-.(^$:"4#(012(+#L2/$%(!(YX
.B__ENAB!(A!(N`*(B.*!(BF*,!T(,(^*aA*I(BD(,++*++-*!N+(,!H(^*_,N*H(+NEHA*+$0(?9
N?$4$(?03$(6$$1(1"(0%%$%%>$1#%("9(0#>"%:?$4/7(/1:L#%(
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/1/#/0#$2( ^$8/"10;;5( W0%$2( ,%%$%%>$1#( "9( .$4%/%#$1#(
N"=/7( +L6%#017$%( @^W,.N+J( :4"d$7#( P0%( 2$%/81$2( #"(
80#?$4( 20#0( 012( 0%%$%%( #?$( %"L47$%C( $13/4"1>$1#0;(
7"17$1#40#/"1%C( #401%G6"L12045( >"3$>$1#( 012( $99$7#%(
"9( %">$( "9( #?$( 06"3$( %L6%#017$%( @E!*.C( M[[OJ'( N?$(
4$:"4#("9(#?/%(:4"d$7#(9"4(#?$(.07/9/7(4$8/"1(/12/70#$%(#?0#(
20#0( "1( #?$%$( %L6%#017$%( /1( #?$( 0#>"%:?$4$( 04$( 3$45(
%7047$'(`"P$3$4C("#?$4(4$8/"10;(4$:"4#%(%L7?(0%(#?0#(9"4(
#?$(,1#047#/7( /12/70#$( #?0#( L%$9L;( 20#0( 04$( 030/;06;$( "1(
2$:"%/#/"1("9(.B.%'(
2V[OQ$C7$/#/I$VMT$/G2I$IQOQRJQT$[P$JUQ$)'$ZLK$
KQD1QY$LZ$JUQ1K$K1I]$ROVII1Z1RVJ1LMI
State of evaluation
Total: 127
Classified as PBT
23
Classified as PBT and POP
3, including DDT
Still under investigation
30
Pending
8
Not PBT not POP
63
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Region1
Estimated Oil Content of Shipwrecks
Minimum
Maximum
North Atlantic Ocean
951,000 tonnes
7.5 million tonnes
South Atlantic Ocean
165,000 tonnes
0.5 million tonnes
North Pacific Ocean
221,000 tonnes
1.7 million tonnes
South Pacific Ocean
521,000 tonnes
4.2 million tonnes
Indian Ocean
264,000 tonnes
2.2 million tonnes
1 Regional boundaries, as applied in the Michel et al. (2005) study, were used
to estimate the approximate values for the ocean regions established for the
Assessment of Assessments.
(Based on Michel et al. 2005)
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&(()3$9E$2&*F$2)&"$")"G)5*
Name
Expertise
Contact details
Dr. R. Boelens (chairman)
Marine assessments
Castlelough
Portroe, Nenagh
Co. Tipperary
Ireland
[email protected]
Dr. A. Baker
Atmospheric input of nutrients to surface ocean waters
School of Environmental Sciences
University of East Anglia
Norwich NR4 7TJ
United Kingdom
[email protected]
Dr. D. C. E. Bakker
Marine carbon cycle
School of Environmental Sciences
University of East Anglia
Norwich NR4 7TJ
United Kingdom
[email protected]
Dr. C. T. Bowmer
Marine toxicology, chemical hazards
Vice-chairman of GESAMP
TNO Chemistry
Postbus 360
NL-3700-AJ Zeist
The Netherlands
[email protected]
Prof. R. A. Duce
Atmospheric and marine chemistry, air/sea exchange
Texas A&M University
Department of Oceanography
Room 906, O&M Building
College Station, Texas 77843-3146
USA
[email protected]
Mr. F. Haag
GESAMP Officer, coordinator
International Maritime Organization
4 Albert Embankment
London SE1 7SR
United Kingdom
[email protected]
Mr. N. Perera
Junior Scientist
5/5 Huludagoda Road
Mount Lavinia
Sri Lanka
[email protected]
Dr. D. Schmidt Etkin
Ship-based pollution
Environmental Research Consulting
41 Croft Lane
Cortlandt Manor
NY 10567-1160
USA
[email protected]
AH$0(.B__ENAB!(A!(N`*(B.*!(BF*,!T(,(^*aA*I(BD(,++*++-*!N+(,!H(^*_,N*H(+NEHA*+(
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&(()3$:E$5)%)5)(+)*
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8A$0(.B__ENAB!(A!(N`*(B.*!(BF*,!T(,(^*aA*I(BD(,++*++-*!N+(,!H(^*_,N*H(+NEHA*+(
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Science for Sustainable Oceans
ISBN: 978-92-807-2996-2
Job No.: DEW/1130/NA
IOC/INF-1228
ISSN: 1020–4873
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