- Bendix/King

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Pilot’s Guide
KLN 900
Global Positioning System
ORS 01, 02 and 04
KLN 900 PILOT’S GUIDE
006-08796-0000
for KLN 900s with
OPERATIONAL REVISION STATUS (ORS) 01, 02, and 04
IMPORTANT: Special installation procedures must be
followed in order for the KLN 900 to be certified for IFR use.
Consult the KLN 900 Flight Manual Supplement for the
operating limitations of this unit.
For Important
Database Update
Information
See Section 2.8
i
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
ii
Rev 2
Copyright © 1999 by Honeywell Internationall Inc. All rights reserved.
N
Honeywell International Inc.
Electronic & Avionics Systems World Headquarters
Business & General Aviation Enterprise
One Technology Center
23500 West 105th Street
Olathe, KS 66061
U.S.A.
Honeywell General Information
between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. Central Time, Monday thru Friday.
Tel: (800) 347-5462 (U.S. Callers)
Tel: (913) 712-0400 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-1301 (General Information)
FAX: (913) 712-1335 (Domestic Orders)
FAX: (913) 712-1302 (International Orders)
web site: www.bendixking.com
Honeywell Customer Service & Product Support
Tel: (800) 257-0726 (U.S. Callers)
Tel: (913) 712-0600 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-1306 (Product Support)
FAX: (913) 712-1313 (Repair & Overhaul)
Honeywell Navigation Services, Mail Drop #66
Tel: (800) 247-0230 (U.S. Callers)
Tel: (913) 712-3145 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-3904
email: [email protected]
web site: www.gpsdatabase.com
Bendix/King and the Bendix/King logo are
registered trademarks of Honeywelll Inc.,
U.S. Patent & Trademark Office.
Rev. 2, January 1999, Part Number 006-08796-0000
Printed in the USA
iii
Rev 2
OPERATIONAL REVISION STATUS (ORS)
IMPORTANT
THIS KLN 900 PILOT’S GUIDE IS APPLICABLE TO KLN 900 SYSTEMS WITH THE
FOLLOWING LEVELS OF OPERATIONAL REVISION STATUS (ORS):
ORS 01, 02, or 04
This ORS level is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Turn-On page each time the KLN
900 system is turned on. While all KLN 900’s with like ORS levels have the same general operational characteristics as explained in this manual, it is still the pilot's responsibility to review the
aircraft’s KLN 900 Flight Manual Supplement for unique characteristics which may be applicable
to the aircraft’s KLN 900 installation.
EXPLANATION OF DIFFERENCES IN ORS LEVELS:
ORS 02:
Operational characteristics are similar to ORS 01 with the exception of the following
primary differences:
(1) Metric units were added, and a unit selection was added to the SET 7 page.
(2) Tandem mode was improved so that flight plan and user waypoint data would automatically
be transferred from one unit to the other.
(3) Added options to the SET 10 page which allow the user to transfer flight plan and user waypoint data to or from either a personal computer or a PCMCIA data card.
(4) The maximum number of user waypoints was increased from 500 to 1000.
(5) An option for USER-specified magnetic variation was added to the SET 2 page.
(6) ORS 02 meets B-RNAV (MNP-5) requirements per FAA AC 90-96 and JAA AMJ 20X2.
ORS 04:
Operational characteristics are similar to ORS 02 with the exception of the following
primary differences:
(1) ORS 04 meets requirements for Oceanic / Remote Operation per FAA Notice 8110.60.
(2) The ability for the KLN 900 to operate in a dual installation and to transfer flight plan and
waypoint data from one unit to another was added.
(3) RAIM and FDE availability indicators were added to the STA 2 page.
(4) A local (LCL) time zone option was added to the SET 2 page.
NOTE
ALL NAVIGATION DATA PRESENTED BOTH IN THE TEXT AND IN THE ILLUSTRATIONS OF
THIS PILOT’S GUIDE IS INTENDED FOR EXAMPLE ONLY AND, THEREFORE, IS NOT TO
BE USED FOR ACTUAL NAVIGATION.
iv
Rev 2
Revision History and Instructions
Manual
KLN 900 Pilot’s Guide
Revision
2, January 1999
Part Number
006-08796-0000
This revision is a complete manual revision and supersedes previous revision level
manuals. Superseded manuals should be discarded.
v
Rev 2
Revision History and Instructions
Manual
KLN 900 Pilot’s Guide
Revision
1, February 1998
Part Number
006-08796-0000
This revision is a complete manual revision and supersedes previous revision level
manuals. Superseded manuals should be discarded.
vi
Rev 2
INTRODUCTION
The KLN 900 is an extremely sophisticated navigational
device, capable of providing highly accurate navigation
over most parts of the world. You will be amazed at all
of the navigational and other aeronautical functions that
the unit can perform. However, you don’t need to master all of the KLN 900’s capabilities at once. In just a
short time you will be confidently using it to make your
flying duties easier and more enjoyable. You will learn
new features as you have a need or desire to learn
them and soon will establish the best way of using the
KLN 900 to meet your particular flying requirements.
As you become proficient with using the KLN 900, don’t
be tempted to rely on it as the sole means of navigation.
A good pilot never relies on just one source of navigation for either VFR or IFR flying. Cross check your position using VOR, DME, ADF, or other navigational
devices you may have in the cockpit - including your
eyes!
Don’t let the size of this Pilot’s Guide intimidate you! It
is written in plain, simple English instead of “computereeze” and it assumes you are not an experienced user
of GPS or other types of long range navigation equipment. If you are experienced, so much the better. This
Pilot’s Guide also includes hundreds of sample screen
figures and other illustrations to make your learning easier. It is designed so that you can start at the front and
progress in the order presented; however, you may
want to skip around and learn things in your own order.
There are several appendices in the back that you may
find useful from time to time.
One last thing. Don’t get so involved in learning to use
the KLN 900 that you forget to fly the aircraft. Be careful,
and remember to keep a close eye out for other aircraft.
Be sure and keep a copy of this Pilot’s Guide in the
aircraft to use as a reference. You never know when
you may have a question you’ll want to look up.
NOTE: A white border is used around data on some of
the figures in this Pilot’s Guide to indicate that the data
inside the border is flashing. An example of this is figure 3-6 where the white border around the characters
ACKNOWLEDGE? and ENT is used to indicate that
both are flashing.
I
Rev 2
PREVIEW OF OPERATION
No doubt you are going to read this entire manual just as
soon as you possibly can. But just to get an idea of how
easy the KLN 900 is to operate, the following operational
preview is presented. This operational preview assumes
that the KLN 900 has been properly installed, that the
KLN 900 was previously operational in the same general
geographical location, and that no peripheral equipment
interfaced with the KLN 900 (such as external HSIs,
CDIs, autopilots, RMIs, fuel flow systems, moving map
display, etc.) is to be used at this time. If you are using
this operational preview in flight, do so only in good VFR
conditions and only with an alternate means of navigation
available to cross-check your aircraft’s position.
1.
Push the power/brightness knob located in the
upper right corner of the unit to the “in” position.
2.
After a few seconds of warm up, the screen will
show a Turn-On page with the words SELF TEST
IN PROGRESS at the bottom of the page. Rotate
the power/brightness knob to select the desired
screen brightness. After a few seconds the TurnOn page will automatically be replaced with the Self
Test page. (Note: If the KLN 900 is being used in
the take-home mode, a Take-Home Warning page
is displayed before the Self Test page and must be
acknowledged by pressing E.) The Self Test
page is recognizable because it shows the date
and time on the right side. If the date and time are
incorrect by more than 10 minutes, refer to section
3.2 steps 6 and 7. The bottom left side of the Self
Test page must display ANNUN ON to indicate that
the KLN 900 has passed an internal self test.
displayed after the self test page has been
approved. This warning page must be acknowledged by pressing E .)
3.
A Database page is now displayed showing the
date the data base expires or the date it expired.
Press E to acknowledge the information displayed on this page.
4.
A page displaying the letters PRESENT POS at
the top will now be on the left side of the screen.
In a couple minutes or less, this page will display
the aircraft’s present position. It shows the position both in latitude/longitude and in terms of the
radial and distance from a nearby VOR. Verify
that the position is correct before proceeding.
5.
Press the D button. A page with the words
DIRECT TO is now displayed on the left.
In step 6 you will enter the ICAO identifier of the
destination airport. The identifier will have a “K”
prefix for a Continental U.S. airport, a “C” prefix
for a Canadian airport, or a “P” prefix (in many
cases) for an Alaskan airport if the identifier is all
letters. For example, LAX becomes KLAX. For
Canada and the U.S., if the airport identifier contains any numbers, then there is no prefix. For
example, TX04 is entered TX04. For other areas
of the world the airport identifier entered should be
identical to how it is charted.
In most KLN 900 installations the first two characters of the altimeter setting BARO field will be highlighted in inverse video (dark characters on a light
background) on the right side of the screen. This
area of inverse video is called the cursor. Use the
right inner knob to select the correct first two characters of the altimeter setting. Next, turn the right
outer knob one step clockwise to position the cursor over the third character of the altimeter setting.
Use the right inner knob to select the correct number. Once again turn the right outer knob one step
clockwise to position the cursor over the last character of the altimeter setting. Use the right inner
knob to complete entering the correct altimeter setting.
Turn the right outer knob clockwise to position the
cursor over the word APPROVE? if the cursor is
not there already. Press E to approve the Self
Test page. (Note: If the KLN 900 is installed for
VFR only operation, a VFR only warning page is
II
6.
Determine an airport that you would like to fly to.
Then, rotate the left inner knob until the first character of the airport identifier is displayed. Turn the
left outer knob one step clockwise to move the
flashing segment to the second character position.
Rotate the left inner knob to select the second
character of the identifier. Use this procedure to
enter the complete airport identifier.
7.
Press E. The right side will display a page
showing the identifier, name and position of the
airport just entered. Confirm that the correct airport is displayed. Press E a second time to
approve the airport data.
8.
A Navigation page is now on the right side of the
screen. It displays the distance, estimated time
en route (ETE), and bearing to your destination
airport. In addition, it displays groundspeed and a
course deviation indicator. If the left inner knob is
rotated one step counterclockwise, you will get an
enlarged Navigation page occupying the entire
screen.
Rev 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................................................i
PREVIEW OF OPERATION ............................................................................................................................................ii
CHAPTER 1 - KLN 900 SYSTEM COMPONENTS ....................................................................................................1-1
CHAPTER 2 - DATABASE ..........................................................................................................................................2-1
2.1 FUNCTIONS OF THE DATABASE ..................................................................................................................2-1
2.2 DATABASE COVERAGE AREAS AND CONTENTS .....................................................................................2-1
2.3 USE OF ICAO IDENTIFIERS ...........................................................................................................................2-3
2.4 UPDATING THE DATABASE ..........................................................................................................................2-3
2.4.1 Computer Updating Of The Database ................................................................................................2-4
2.4.2 Card Exchange Updating of the Database .........................................................................................2-7
2.5 USER DEFINED DATABASE ..........................................................................................................................2-8
2.6 UPDATING USER DEFINED WAYPOINTS AND FLIGHT PLANS.................................................................2-8
2.6.1 Computer Upating of User Data ..........................................................................................................2-8
2.6.2 Card Updating of User Data ..............................................................................................................2-10
2.7 INTERNAL MEMORY BACKUP BATTERY ..................................................................................................2-10
2.8 DATABASE UPDATE SERVICE OPTIONS ..................................................................................................2-10
CHAPTER 3 - LEVEL 1 OPERATION.........................................................................................................................3-1
3.1 COVERAGE AREA ..........................................................................................................................................3-1
3.2 TURN-ON AND SELF TEST ............................................................................................................................3-3
3.3 DISPLAY FORMAT ...........................................................................................................................................3-9
3.4 BASIC OPERATION OF PANEL CONTROLS ..............................................................................................3-11
3.4.1 Page Selection ..................................................................................................................................3-12
3.4.2 Data Entry .........................................................................................................................................3-14
3.4.3 Alternative Waypoint Data Entry Method .........................................................................................3-15
3.4.4 The Duplicate Waypoint Page ..........................................................................................................3-15
3.5 MESSAGE PAGE ...........................................................................................................................................3-16
3.6 INITIALIZATION AND TIME TO FIRST FIX ..................................................................................................3-17
3.7 SELECTING WAYPOINTS ............................................................................................................................3-20
3.7.1 Selecting Waypoints By Identifier .....................................................................................................3-20
3.7.2 Selecting Waypoints By Scanning ....................................................................................................3-21
3.7.3 “Nearest” And “Complete” Waypoint Scan Lists ..............................................................................3-22
3.7.3.1 Nearest Airports In An Emergency ...............................................................................................3-23
3.7.3.2 Continuous Display Of Nearest Airport .........................................................................................3-24
3.7.4 Selecting Waypoints By Name Or City .............................................................................................3-24
3.8 DIRECT TO OPERATION ..............................................................................................................................3-27
3.8.1 Direct To-Procedure 1 ......................................................................................................................3-28
3.8.2 Direct To-Procedure 2 ......................................................................................................................3-28
3.8.3 To Recenter The Deviation Bar ........................................................................................................3-29
3.8.4 To Proceed Direct To Another Waypoint .........................................................................................3-29
3.8.5 Cancelling Direct To Operation ........................................................................................................3-29
3.8.6 Waypoint Alerting For Direct To Operation ......................................................................................3-29
3.9 THE NAVIGATION PAGES ...........................................................................................................................3-31
3.9.1 The Navigation 1 Page (NAV 1) .......................................................................................................3-31
3.9.2 The Super NAV 1 Page ...................................................................................................................3-32
3.9.3 The Navigation 2 Page (NAV 2) .......................................................................................................3-32
3.9.4 The Navigation 3 Page (NAV 3) .......................................................................................................3-32
3.9.5 The Navigation 4 Page (NAV 4) .......................................................................................................3-34
TOC-1
Rev 2
3.9.6 The Navigation 5 Page (NAV 5) .......................................................................................................3-34
3.9.7 The Super NAV 5 Page ....................................................................................................................3-36
3.10 SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE ALERT ..............................................................................................................3-39
3.11 VIEWING THE WAYPOINT PAGES ...........................................................................................................3-42
3.11.1 Airport Pages ..................................................................................................................................3-42
3.11.2 The Airport 1 Page (APT 1) ............................................................................................................3-42
3.11.3 The Airport 2 Page (APT 2) ............................................................................................................3-43
3.11.4 The Airport 3 Page (APT 3) ............................................................................................................3-43
3.11.5 The Airport 4 Page (APT 4) ............................................................................................................3-45
3.11.6 The Airport 5 Page (APT 5) ............................................................................................................3-47
3.11.7 The Airport 6 Page (APT 6) ............................................................................................................3-48
3.11.8 The Airport 7 Page (APT 7) ............................................................................................................3-49
3.11.9 The Airport 8 Page (APT 8) ............................................................................................................3-49
3.11.10 The VOR Page .............................................................................................................................3-49
3.11.11 The NDB Page ..............................................................................................................................3-50
3.11.12 The Intersection Page (INT) .........................................................................................................3-50
3.11.13 The Supplemental Waypoint Page (SUP) ....................................................................................3-51
3.12 FREQUENCIES FOR NEAREST FLIGHT SERVICE STATIONS ..............................................................3-52
3.13 FREQUENCIES FOR AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTERS (ARTCC) ......................................3-52
3.14 VIEWING AND SETTING THE DATE AND TIME .......................................................................................3-53
3.15 ALTITUDE ALERTING .................................................................................................................................3-55
3.16 HEIGHT ABOVE AIRPORT ALERT ............................................................................................................3-58
3.17 REMOTE MOUNTED ANNUNCIATORS ....................................................................................................3-59
3.18 SAMPLE TRIP ..............................................................................................................................................3-60
3.18.1 Pre-Departure .................................................................................................................................3-60
3.18.2 Enroute ...........................................................................................................................................3-60
3.18.3 Terminal Area .................................................................................................................................3-61
CHAPTER 4 - LEVEL 2 OPERATION.........................................................................................................................4-1
4.1 CREATING AND MODIFYING FLIGHT PLANS .............................................................................................4-1
4.1.1 Creating A Flight Plan .........................................................................................................................4-2
4.1.2 Activating A Numbered Flight Plan .....................................................................................................4-3
4.1.3 Adding A Waypoint To A Flight Plan ..................................................................................................4-4
4.1.4 Deleting A Waypoint From A Flight Plan ............................................................................................4-5
4.1.5 Deleting Flight Plans ...........................................................................................................................4-5
4.1.6 Storing FPL 0 As A Numbered Flight Plan .........................................................................................4-6
4.2 OPERATING FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN .........................................................................................4-7
4.2.1 General Procedures ............................................................................................................................4-7
4.2.2 Turn Anticipation And Waypoint Alerting ............................................................................................4-8
4.2.3 Viewing The Waypoint Pages For The Active Flight Plan Waypoints ............................................4-10
4.2.4 Combining Direct To And Flight Plan Operation ..............................................................................4-10
4.2.5 The Distance/Time Pages ................................................................................................................4-11
4.2.6 The Distance/Time 1 Page (D/T 1) ...................................................................................................4-11
4.2.7 The Distance/Time 2 Page (D/T 2) ...................................................................................................4-12
4.2.8 The Distance/Time 3 Page (D/T 3) ...................................................................................................4-12
4.2.9 The Distance/Time 4 Page (D/T 4) ...................................................................................................4-13
4.3 SAMPLE TRIP ................................................................................................................................................4-15
4.3.1 Pre-Departure ...................................................................................................................................4-16
4.3.2 Enroute ..............................................................................................................................................4-16
TOC-2
Rev 2
CHAPTER 5 - LEVEL 3 OPERATION.........................................................................................................................5-1
5.1 TRIP PLANNING ..............................................................................................................................................5-1
5.1.1 The Trip Planning 0 Page (TRI 0) .......................................................................................................5-2
5.1.2 The Trip Planning 1 And Trip Planning 2 Pages (TRI 1 and TRI 2) ..................................................5-3
5.1.3 The Trip Planning 3 And Trip Planning 4 Pages (TRI 3 and TRI 4) ..................................................5-5
5.1.4 The Trip Planning 5 And Trip Planning 6 Pages (TRI 5 and TRI 6) ..................................................5-6
5.2 ADVISORY VNAV OPERATION .....................................................................................................................5-7
5.2.1 VNAV For Direct To Operation ...........................................................................................................5-7
5.2.2 VNAV For Flight Plan Operation .........................................................................................................5-9
5.2.3 VNAV From the Super NAV 5 Page ...................................................................................................5-9
5.3 CALCULATOR PAGES ..................................................................................................................................5-10
5.3.1 The Calculator 1 Page (CAL 1) ........................................................................................................5-10
5.3.2 The Calculator 2 Page (CAL 2) ........................................................................................................5-11
5.3.3 The Calculator 3 Page (CAL 3) ........................................................................................................5-12
5.3.4 The Calculator 4 Page (CAL 4) ........................................................................................................5-12
5.3.5 The Calculator 5 Page (CAL 5) ........................................................................................................5-13
5.3.6 The Calculator 6 Page (CAL 6) ........................................................................................................5-14
5.3.7 The Calculator 7 Page (CAL 7) ........................................................................................................5-15
5.4 USER-DEFINED WAYPOINTS .....................................................................................................................5-16
5.4.1 Creating An Airport User Waypoint ..................................................................................................5-16
5.4.2 Creating A VOR User Waypoint .......................................................................................................5-18
5.4.3 Creating An NDB User Waypoint .....................................................................................................5-18
5.4.4 Creating Intersection Or Supplemental User Waypoints .................................................................5-18
5.4.5 Deleting User-Defined Waypoints ....................................................................................................5-20
5.4.6 The SAVE page ...............................................................................................................................5-21
5.5 REFERENCE WAYPOINTS ..........................................................................................................................5-23
5.6 CENTER WAYPOINTS ..................................................................................................................................5-27
5.6.1 Creating Center Waypoints And Inserting Them in Flight Plans ......................................................5-27
5.6.2 Viewing the Center Waypoints After Insertion Into A Flight Plan .....................................................5-28
5.6.3 Creating Center Waypoints After Modifying A Flight Plan ...............................................................5-29
5.7 PROGRAMMING THE TURN-ON PAGE ......................................................................................................5-30
5.8 THE STATUS PAGES ....................................................................................................................................5-31
5.8.1 Determining The Status Of The GPS Signals (STA 1) ....................................................................5-31
5.8.2 Determining Estimated Position Error and RAIM/FDE Availability (STA 2) ....................................5-32
5.8.3 Determining KLN 900 Software Status (STA 3) ..............................................................................5-33
5.8.4 Determining KLN 900 Operational Time (STA 4) ............................................................................5-33
5.9 MODES OF OPERATION ..............................................................................................................................5-34
5.9.1 Selecting The Leg Mode Or The OBS Mode ...................................................................................5-34
5.9.2 The Leg Mode ...................................................................................................................................5-35
5.9.3 The OBS Mode .................................................................................................................................5-36
5.9.4 Switching From The Leg Mode To The OBS Mode .........................................................................5-38
5.9.5 Switching From The OBS Mode To The Leg Mode .........................................................................5-38
5.9.6 Going Direct-To A Waypoint While in the OBS Mode ......................................................................5-39
5.9.7 Activating a Waypoint While in the OBS Mode ................................................................................5-39
5.9.8 Changing the CDI Scale Factor ........................................................................................................5-39
5.10 THE FUEL MANAGEMENT PAGES ...........................................................................................................5-41
5.10.1 The Other 5 Page (OTH 5) .............................................................................................................5-41
5.10.2 The Other 6 Page (OTH 6) .............................................................................................................5-43
5.10.3 The Other 7 Page (OTH 7) .............................................................................................................5-43
TOC-3
Rev 2
5.10.4 The Other 8 Page (OTH 8) ............................................................................................................5-43
5.11 THE AIR DATA PAGES ..............................................................................................................................5-44
5.11.1 The Other 9 Page (OTH 9) .............................................................................................................5-45
5.11.2 The Other 10 Page (OTH 10) .........................................................................................................5-45
5.12 MAGNETIC VARIATION .............................................................................................................................5-46
5.13 OPERATION WITHOUT A DATABASE CARD ...........................................................................................5-47
5.14 USING THE TAKE-HOME MODE ...............................................................................................................5-48
5.15 CONFIGURATION DATA AND MESSAGES ..............................................................................................5-48
External Configuration Module ..................................................................................................................5-49
CHAPTER 6 - LEVEL 4 OPERATION.........................................................................................................................6-1
6.1 NON-PRECISION APPROACH OPERATIONS...............................................................................................6-1
6.1.1 Selecting An Approach ........................................................................................................................6-4
6.1.2 Interpreting What You See ..................................................................................................................6-5
6.1.3 Changing or Deleting An Approach Once Loaded Into The Flight Plan .............................................6-7
6.1.4 Example Approach: No Procedure Turn .............................................................................................6-8
6.1.5 Example Approach: Off-Airport Navaid .............................................................................................6-10
6.1.6 Example Approach: Radar Vectors ...................................................................................................6-12
6.1.7 Example Approach: On-Airport Navaid .............................................................................................6-14
6.1.8 Example Approach: DME Arc............................................................................................................6-16
6.1.9 Approach Problems and RAIM Availability Predictions (STA 5).......................................................6-19
6.2 SID/STAR PROCEDURES .............................................................................................................................6-21
6.2.1 Selecting a SID ..................................................................................................................................6-21
6.2.2 Selecting a STAR ..............................................................................................................................6-22
6.2.3 Editing a SID or STAR .......................................................................................................................6-23
6.2.4 Example of a SID Procedure .............................................................................................................6-25
6.2.5 Example of a STAR Procedure .........................................................................................................6-26
CHAPTER 7 - TANDEM OPERATION ........................................................................................................................7-1
7.1 TANDEM OPERATION .....................................................................................................................................7-1
7.1.1 Tandem Operation Failure Modes and Messages..............................................................................7-1
CHAPTER 8 - DUAL OPERATION .............................................................................................................................8-1
8.1 DUAL OPERATION...........................................................................................................................................8-1
8.1.1 Dual Installation User Data Transfer ...................................................................................................8-1
8.1.2 Dual Installation User Data Copy Error Messages .............................................................................8-1
CHAPTER 9 - OCEANIC OPERATION.......................................................................................................................9-1
9.1 PRIMARY MEANS OCEANIC/REMOTE OPERATION ...................................................................................9-1
APPENDIX A - NAVIGATIONAL TERMS...................................................................................................................A-1
APPENDIX B - MESSAGE PAGE MESSAGES.........................................................................................................B-1
APPENDIX C - STATUS LINE MESSAGES ..............................................................................................................C-1
APPENDIX D - ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................................................D-1
STATE ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................................................................D-1
CANADIAN PROVINCE ABBREVIATIONS...........................................................................................................D-1
COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................................................D-1
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER (ARTCC/FIR) ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................D-3
OTHER ABBREVIATIONS USED ON KLN 900 PAGES ......................................................................................D-6
APPENDIX E - SECONDS TO DECIMAL MINUTES ................................................................................................E-1
APPENDIX F - ACCESSORIES .................................................................................................................................F-1
PreFlight Kit Version 2.0 (PreFlight Software) ........................................................................................................F-1
PC Data Loader Kit (PC Interface Cable) ...............................................................................................................F-3
INDEX ............................................................................................................................................................................I-1
TOC-4
Rev 2
CHAPTER 1 - KLN 900 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
A basic KLN 900 system consists of a panel mounted
KLN 900 GPS sensor/navigation computer, a data base
card, and an antenna. An altitude input is required to
obtain full navigation and operational capabilities.
Additional system components may be added or interfaced to the KLN 900 which increase its features and
capabilities. Some of these optional components include
an external course deviation indicator (CDI) or HSI, RMI,
fuel management system, air data system, ARTEX ELS10 emergency locator transmitter (ELT), autopilot, and
external annunciators.
KLN 900 SYSTEM
N
30
W
W
24
3
W
2
2
15
S
21
SELECTED
COURSE
S
S
ı
1
ı
KI 206
EHI 40/50
AUTOPILOT
YD
ALT
HDG
ALT
HDG
GS
NAV
APR
BC
NAV
APR
BC
DN
TRIM
AP
TEST
AP
ENG
RMI
KAP 150
RN
RC
PC
3
3
OR
N
A
D
F
W
LEFT/RIGHT D-BAR
F
1
OB
ENT
N
W
2
2
NAV
MOVING
MAP
DISPLAYS
ı
ARINC 561/568
or KING SERIAL DME
SAV
RS 232
MSG
ARINC 429/419 or
RS 232 INPUT
ARINC 429 ,
RS 232
RS 232
DC, PULSE, FREQ.
S
PULL SCAN
1
NRST
1
ALT
A
D
S
HEADING
OBS
E
GRAY CODE
or DC
A
D
E
6
COMPATIBLE
FUEL
MANAGEMENT
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REQUIRED FOR ALL INSTALLATIONS
REQUIRED FOR ALL IFR APPROACH INSTALLATIONS
OPTIONAL
18/33V
EHSI
OR
6
AIRCRAFT
POWER
HSI
CSDB
SELECTED
COURSE
COMPATIBLE
EFIS SYSTEM
WPT ALERT
MESSAGE
ARTEX
ELS-10
GPS APR
KI 229
RT 1401B
WEATHER RADAR
NAV
B
KNI 582
DISTANCE
DISPLAY
REMOTE ANNUNCIATORS
GPS CRS
AIR DATA
REMOTE SWITCH/
ANNUNCIATORS
ALTITUDE ALERT AUDIO
The database card is an electronic memory containing a
vast amount of information on airports, navaids, intersections, special use airspace, and other items of value to
the pilot. The database is designed to be easily updated
by the user by using a laptop computer and Honeywell
furnished 3.5 inch diskettes or a database file that has
been downloaded from the Honeywell Internet site. The
database may also be updated by removing the obsolete
PCMCIA database card and replacing it with a current
one.
The KLN 900 DZUS mounted unit contains the GPS sensor, the navigation computer, a CRT display, and all controls required to operate the unit. It also houses the data
base card which plugs directly into the front of the unit.
1-1
Rev 2
Among the GPS Antennas that can be used with the KLN
900 are the KA 91 and KA 92. They are “patch” antennas
designed to always be mounted on the top of the aircraft.
The KLN 900 has analog outputs to drive the left-right
deviation bar of most mechanical CDIs and HSIs. In
addition, it has digital outputs to automatically drive the
course pointer and display flight plan waypoints on the
Bendix/King EHI 40 and EHI 50 electronic HSIs.
The Bendix/King KI 229 and KNI 582 RMIs may be interfaced to the KLN 900 to provide a display of magnetic
bearing to the waypoint.
KA 92 GPS Antenna
The NAV mode of the Bendix/King KFC 150, KAP 150,
KAP 150H, KAP 100, KFC 200, KAP 200, KFC 250, KFC
275, KFC 300, KFC 325, KFC 400 and KFC 500 Flight
Control Systems may be coupled to the KLN 900. Many
other autopilots may also be coupled to the KLN 900.
Actual autopilot performance and capability when coupled
to the KLN 900 may vary significantly from one autopilot
model to another. Flight Control Systems utilizing either
digital or analog roll steering signals are supported.
Some installations may require remote annunciators to be
mounted in the aircraft panel in order to indicate the status of certain KLN 900 functions. Specifically, the KLN
900 has outputs to provide annunciation for waypoint alert
and message. The KLN 900 will also interface with
Bendix/King distance indicators with King DME serial bus
or indicators using ARINC 561/568 data bus.
Certain Digiflo™ and Miniflo™ fuel management systems
manufactured by Shadin Co. Inc. as well as certain fuel
computers manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc. and
Gebe Instruments interface with the KLN 900. These
interfaces allow the pilot to view fuel related parameters
calculated by the KLN 900 such as how much fuel will be
remaining when the aircraft lands at the destination. With
certain Shadin fuel management systems it is possible to
update the fuel on board through the KLN 900. In these
cases a separate panel mounted interface to the fuel
management computer is not required.
In installations where the KLN 900 will be used for
approaches, the installations are more complicated. An
external switch/announciator is required to indicate the
approach made. Selected course is generally required to
be provided to the KLN 900 through an HSI, CDI or EFIS.
Compatible air data systems are available from
Bendix/King and Shadin Co. An air data system is capable of providing the KLN 900 with true air speed data
which is used for wind determination. Heading data from
the Bendix/King KCS 55A and some other compass systems maybe input directly into the KLN 900 for wind calculations to be fully automatic.
Altitude may be provided to the KLN 900 from an encoding altimeter or blind encoder, (either Gillham or DC altitude) or one of the air data computers mentioned above.
Altitude is used as an aid in position determination when
an insufficient number of satellites are in view. Altitude is
also used in several altitude related features such as
three dimensional special use airspace alerting, height
above airport, and altitude alerting.
1-2
Rev 2
CHAPTER 2 - DATABASE
One reason the KLN 900 is such a powerful navigation
system is because of its extensive database. A database
is an area of electronic memory used to store a large catalog of navigational and aeronautical information.
2.2 DATABASE COVERAGE AREAS AND
CONTENTS
2.1 FUNCTIONS OF THE DATABASE
The database provides two primary functions. First, it
makes pilot interface with the GPS sensor much easier.
Rather than having to manually look up and then enter
the latitude and longitude for a specific waypoint, it allows
you to merely enter a simple waypoint identifier. The
database automatically looks up and displays the latitude
and longitude associated with the identifier. It’s obvious
that the database saves a lot of tedious latitude/longitude
entry and also greatly reduces the potential for data input
mistakes.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and
Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) break the world into the
ten geographic regions shown in figure 2-1.
The KLN 900 Americas data base contains aeronautical
information for the group of ICAO regions consisting of
Canada, USA, Latin America, and South America. The
KLN 900 Atlantic data base provides information for the
ICAO regions Europe, Africa, East Europe, and Mid East.
Likewise, the Pacific data base contains information for
East Europe, Mid East, Pacific, and South Pacific. The
databases for the KLN 900 have a primary and a secondary coverage area. The primary coverage areas are
indicated in figure 2-1 and contain more detailed information. The secondary area contains less detailed information for the rest of the world.
The second function of the database is that it serves as a
very convenient means to store and easily access a vast
amount of aeronautical information. Want to know the
tower frequency or the length of the runways at a specific
airport? No need to look them up in a book - just turn a
couple knobs and display the information right on the KLN
900.
75°
75°
EUROPE
60°
60°
EAST EUR
CANADA
45°
45°
USA
30°
15°
30°
MID EAST
PACIFIC
PACIFIC
LATIN AM
0°
15°
0°
AFRICA
15°
15°
SOUTH AM
30°
45°
30°
SOUTH PAC
SOUTH PAC
60°
45°
60°
165°150° 135° 120°105° 90° 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° 0° 15° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90° 105° 120°135°150° 165°180°
Americas Data Base
coverage area
Atlantic Data Base
coverage area
Pacific Data Base
coverage area
Overlap in Pacific & Atlantic
Data Base coverage areas
Figure 2-1. KLN 900 Database Geographical Regions
NOTE: Previous database versions included an “International” coverage region that included both the
Pacific and the At lantic regions. Due to space constraints, the “International” version has been discontinued.
2-1
Rev 2
Specifically, all databases contain complete information
for all worldwide VORs, NDBs, and minimum safe altitudes (MSAs). For its primary area, the database contains public use and military airports which have any runway at least 1000 feet in length. For its secondary area,
the database also contains airports having a hard surface
runway at least 3000 feet in length. Airport communication frequencies and runway information are provided
only for airports in the primary area of the database.
Intersections, air route traffic control center data, flight
service station frequencies, and special use airspace are
also provided only for the primary area.
VORs
• Identifier
• Name
• Frequency
• DME indicator
• Class (high altitude, low altitude, terminal, undefined)
• Latitude, Longitude, and Magnetic variation
NDBs
• Identifier
• Name
• Frequency
• Latitude and Longitude
(Note - Outer Compass Locators are stored as
Intersections)
The following is a list of the KLN 900 database contents:
*AIRPORTS
• Identifier
• Name
• City, State or Country
• Type (public, private, military, or heliport)
• Latitude and Longitude
• Elevation
• Approach indicator for precision, non-precision or no
instrument approach at airport
• Radar approach/departure environment indicator
• Whether airport underlies CL B, TRSA, CL C, CTA, or
TMA
• Time relative to UTC (Zulu)
• Communication frequencies (VHF and HF):
ATIS
Clearance delivery
Tower
Ground control
Unicom
Multicom
Approach (IFR)
Departure (IFR)
Class B, Class C, TRSA, CTA, TMA (VFR)
Center (when used for approach)
Arrival
Radar
Director
Radio
ASOS (automatic surface observation system)
AWOS (automatic weather observing station)
AAS (aeronautical advisory service)
ATF (Aerodrome traffic frequency)
CTAF (common traffic advisory frequency)
MF (mandatory frequency)
Ramp control
PCL (pilot-controlled lights)
• Runway data (designation, length, surface, lighting,
traffic pattern direction)
• Airport Services (fuel, oxygen, customs, indicator for
presence of a landing fee)
• Airport Comments (user may manually enter remarks
of up to 33 characters at any 100 airports in database)
*INTERSECTIONS (low altitude, high altitude, SID/STAR,
approach, and outer markers)
• Identifier
• Latitude and Longitude
*SID/STAR/Approach Procedures
• All compatible pilot-nav SID/STAR procedures
• Non-precision approaches (except localizer, LDA
(Localizer Directional Aid), SDF (Simplified Directional
Facility)) approved for overlay use. Includes all public
GPS only approaches.
MISCELLANEOUS
• *Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCCs and FIRs)
name, boundaries and frequencies (VHF and HF)
• *Flight Service Stations (Location of points of
communication and associated frequencies - VHF
and HF), VOR used.
• Minimum Safe Altitudes
• *Special Use Airspace name and boundaries, lateral
and vertical, (Prohibited, Restricted, Warning, Alert,
MOA, Class B, TRSA, Class C, CTA, TMA)
1000 USER DEFINED WAYPOINTS
(250 waypoints for ORS 01 units)
• Identifier
• Latitude and Longitude
• Additional data depending on how user defines
waypoint:
User airports (elevation & surface of longest runway)
User VOR (frequency and magnetic variation)
User NDB (frequency)
And you think your telephone directory has a lot of
information!
* Items indicated with asterisk are included in the primary
database coverage area, but not in secondary coverage
area. The exception is that airports in primary coverage
area include those public and military bases having a runway at least 1000 feet in length. Airports in secondary
coverage area are those having a hard surface runway at
least 3000 feet in length.
2-2
Rev 2
2.3 USE OF ICAO IDENTIFIERS
2.4 UPDATING THE DATABASE
Waypoints are stored in the KLN 900 database almost
exclusively by their ICAO identifiers. ICAO is an internationally accepted reference for the data. In almost all
cases the proper ICAO identifiers may be taken directly
from Jeppesen Sanderson or government aeronautical
charts. For example, Dallas and Los Angeles VORs have
the familiar ICAO identifiers DFW and LAX, respectively.
The information stored in the database would eventually
become obsolete if there wasn’t some means to update it.
For example, navaids can move or change frequency,
new runways can be added to an airport, communication
frequencies can change, and on and on.
The database is housed in a PCMCIA card which plugs
directly into the front of the KLN 900. It is designed so
that there are two ways for the user to easily keep the
database current. The first is to electronically update the
database by means of a personal computer and a database file that has been downloaded from the Honeywell
Internet site or supplied by Honeywell on 3.5” diskettes. A
jack, mounted on the front of the KLN900, provides a
means of interfacing the KLN 900 with the computer via
an interface cable.
Please note that one area of potential confusion is airport
identifiers in the Continental United States, Alaska, and
Canada. Many airport identifiers in the database have
four letters beginning with a prefix letter that corresponds
to the geographic area in which it is located. The prefix
letter for the Continental United States is “K”. Thus, the
identifier for Dallas/Fort Worth International airport is
KDFW, not DFW. This distinguishes the airport identifier
from the VOR identifier. Likewise, the identifier for Los
Angeles International airport is KLAX while the VOR identifier is LAX. The prefix letter for Alaska is “P” and for
Canada is “C”.
The second method of database update is to remove the
old card and insert a current card. This method involves
returning the old card to Honeywell.
Every 28 days, Honeywell receives new Nav Data™
information from Jeppesen Sanderson. This information
is processed and both installed on the Honeywell Internet
site and downloaded onto diskettes and database cards.
Honeywell makes these types of update services available to you in a choice of several subscription or random
update programs. See section 2.8 of this manual for
details on these programs.
NOTE: There are several exceptions in Alaska. In many
cases, airports with three letter identifiers receive the
prefix “P”, but there are many that don’t. The most reliable
method of determining an Alaska airport identifier is to
look it up from the airport name or city. See section 3.7.4,
“Selecting Waypoints by Name or CIty”.
Not all airport identifiers receive the prefix letter. Airport
identifiers which are combinations of letters and numbers
do not receive the prefix letter. Examples of airport identifiers not using the prefix are 3C2, 7TX6, and M33.
Regardless of whether the computer method or the card
exchange method of database updating is used,
Honeywell sends the update so that it arrives prior to the
next effective date. The new update may be installed any
time prior to the effective date and the KLN 900 will use
the previous data up to the effective date and automatically begin using the new data on the effective date.
So remember, if you are entering or looking for an
airport identifier that is all letters (no numbers) then it
will begin with a “K” prefix in the Continental U.S., a
“P” in Alaska, or a “C” in Canada. If there are numbers in the identifier then a prefix is not used. For
other areas of the world the airport identifier stored in
the KLN 900 database is identical to how it is charted.
In order to get maximum utilization from the KLN 900,
Honeywell highly encourages you to update the database
on a frequent basis, if not every 28 days. It is also a matter of safety to not fly with out-of-date information.
WARNING: The accuracy of the database information is only assured if it is used before the end of the
effectivity period. Use of out-of-date database information is done entirely at the user’s own risk.
2-3
Rev 2
2.4.1 Computer Updating Of The Database
Update information is downloaded from the Honeywell
Internet site or sent to you on several 3.5” disks. In order
to use this update method you must have access to an
IBM compatible computer having a disk drive capable of
using and booting (loading) from 3.5” 1.44 megabyte high
density disks (when using 3.5” disks). This computer also
needs to have an available COM 1 or COM 2 serial port.
In addition, an interface cable that plugs into both the
computer and into the data loader jack on the front of the
KLN900 is required.
NOTE: Instructions for ordering the PC Data Loader Kit
(which includes the PC interface cable) appear in the
appendix on page F-3.
CAUTION: The database must be updated only while
the aircraft is on the ground. The KLN 900 does not
perform any navigation functions while the database
is being updated. Since a database update takes
approximately 10 minutes it is a good idea to turn off
all electrical equipment on the aircraft except for the
KLN 900 to avoid running down the aircraft battery.
NOTE: 3.5” disks can only be used to update one KLN
900, although they can update this specific unit numerous
times. The first time the disks are used in an update
operation, a unique identification code from the KLN 900
being used is uploaded to the disks. These disks may be
used in this specific KLN 900 an unlimited number of
times which could be required if you switch back and forth
between the Americas, Pacific, and Atlantic data bases
during one update cycle. These disks may not, however,
be used to update other KLN 900s. Similarly, a unique
identification code is encrypted into all database updates
downloaded from the Honeywell Internet site.
Follow these steps to update the KLN 900:
1. Plug the 9-pin female connector end of the interface
cable into a COM serial port of the computer. If the computer has COM 1 and COM 2 serial ports, either may be
used. Some computers use a 9-pin COM serial port connector while other computers use a 25-pin connector. If
the computer being used has a 9-pin connector, the interface cable connector will plug directly into the computer’s
9-pin connector. If the computer’s COM serial port uses a
25-pin connector, use a 25-pin to 9-pin adapter to adapt
the interface cable’s connector to the computer’s connector.
2. Plug the other end of the interface cable (4 conductor
male plug) into the data loader jack on the front of the
KLN 900.
NOTE: The interface cable needs to be firmly pushed into
the jack.
2-4
Rev 2
3. When updating from the Internet, download the compressed file from the Honeywell www.gpsdatabase.com
Internet site following the instructions available at the site.
Then, execute Netload.exe from a DOS prompt (not a
DOS window running under Windows). The computer
screen will display “Ready” when the computer is ready to
continue with the database update operation.
U P D A T E
D A T A
B A S E
O N
G R O U N D
O N L Y
KEY
SET 0
4. When updating from diskettes, insert Disk 1 into the
computer’s disk drive. There can be either 2 or 3 disks
used for the update so be sure the label on the outside of
the disk says “Disk 1 of 2” or “Disk 1 of 3”. Turn on the
PC and the program on the disk will automatically “boot”
(load). The computer screen will display “Ready” when
the computer is ready to continue with the database
update operation.
XXXXXXXXX
Figure 2-2
U P D A T E
D A T A
B A S E
UPDATE PUBLISHED DB
5. Turn on the KLN 900. Press E as required to
approve the Self Test and Database pages. Use the left
outer knob to select the Setup (SET) type pages and the
left inner knob to select the SET 0 page (figure 2-2).
CRSR
ent
Figure 2-3
NOTE: The Database Access Key is used for updating
the database. The Access Key must be provided before
downloading a database file from the Internet.
U P D A T E
AMERICAS
DATA BASE EXPIRES
15 AUG 99
U P D A T E ?
CRSR
ent
Figure 2-4
6. Press the left C. UPDATE PUBLISHED DB will
now be displayed as in figure 2-3.
7. Press E. The database region and the expiration
date of the database presently loaded in the KLN 900 is
displayed (figure 2-4). If the database is out-of-date the
word EXPIRES changes to EXPIRED.
U P D A T E
D A T A
B A S E
8. Press E to acknowledge the information on this
page and to continue the update procedure. The estimated load time in minutes is now displayed (figure 2-5).
E S T .
L O A D
T I M E :
6 MIN
A P P R O V E ?
CRSR
ent
Figure 2-5
2-5
Rev 2
NOTE: In steps 6, 7, and 8, repeated presses of F will
terminate the update process and bring the display back
to the original SET 0 page shown in figure 2-2.
U P D A T E
D A T A
B A S E
E R A S I N G
D A T A
B A S E
9. Press E to acknowledge the estimated load time
and begin erasing the existing database. The unit will
now display ERASING DATA BASE (figure 2-6). After
the database has been erased, loading of the new data
begins automatically. As the new data is being loaded,
the percentage of transfer is displayed (figure 2-7).
SET 0
Figure 2-6
10. Monitor the computer screen. When updating from
disks, the computer screen will display “Insert Disk 2 then
press any key to continue” when the first disk has been
loaded. Disk 1 should now be removed from the disk
drive and disk 2 should be inserted. Press any key on the
computer. The load operation will continue. If there are 3
disks the computer screen will tell you when to insert
disk 3.
U P D A T E
D A T A
B A S E
14 PERCENT COMPLETE
SET 0
Figure 2-7
11. The KLN 900 will indicate when the database update
is complete as shown in figure 2-8. The computer screen
will display the new database expiration date. You may
either turn the KLN 900 off at this point or press E to
restart the KLN 900.
U P D A T E
D A T A
B A S E
UPDATE PUBLISHED DB
COMPLETED
ACKNOWLEDGE?
CRSR
ent
12. Remove the interface cable. Turn off the computer.
The chances are small of having difficulty updating the
database but if you have a problem:
Figure 2-8
First check that the interface cable is properly connected
and that the computer is turned on. Ensure that the interface cable is firmly inserted into the jack on the front of
the KLN900. If there is a problem with the connection or
the computer the KLN 900 will display LOADER NOT
READY. When the problem is corrected this prompt is
removed and the update operation can continue from
where it left off.
If the wrong disk is inserted the computer screen will display “Incorrect Disk - please insert disk __” where the
number 2 or 3 is inserted in the blank.
If an internal test fails after the data has been loaded, the
KLN 900 will display CHECKSUM ERROR, DATA BASE
INVALID, ACKNOWLEDGE?. Press E to acknowledge. The KLN 900 will then display RETRY and EXIT.
Use the left outer knob to position the cursor over the
desired choice and press E.
There are other error messages that may be displayed. If
you have a problem that you can’t resolve, write down
any error messages to aid your Bendix/King Service
Center in identifying the problem.
2-6
Rev 2
2.4.2 Card Exchange Updating of the Database
1. To exchange the KLN 900’s database card simply
turn the unit power off and remove the card from the front
of the unit. This is accomplished by depressing the ejection button on the right side of the card (figure 2-9) and
then pulling the card straight out of the front of the KLN
900. (figure 2-10)
BRT
OFF
CRSR
CRSR
D
NAV
FPL
MODE
TRIP
OBS
ENT
CLR
NAV
DT
ACTV
REF
CTR
NRST
ALT
PULL SCAN
SAVE
MSG
Figure 2-9
2. Remove the new database card from its shipping
container. Note that the label on the card indicates which
side is up and which end to insert into the KLN 900.
Insert the new card into the front of the unit. When the
card is properly inserted, the card is flush with the front of
the KLN 900.
BRT
OFF
3. The container which was used to ship the new card
to you is used to return the old card back to Honeywell. A
return shipping label is included in the container.
Remove the backing from the label and place it in the
address position of the shipping container.
CRSR
CRSR
ENT
D
NAV
FPL
MODE
TRIP
4. Insert the old card into the container. Peel off the
protective backing from the adhesive on the end flap of
the container. Press the flap against the adhesive to seal
the container.
OBS
CLR
ALT
NAV
DT
ACTV
REF
CTR
NRST
PULL SCAN
SAVE
MSG
A
5. Please return the old card promptly by mailing immediately at any mailbox. No postage is required if mailed
from within the U.S. Users will be billed for cards not
returned and no additional cards will be sent until either
the old card or payment for the old card is received.
Figure 2-10
2-7
Rev 2
2.5 USER DEFINED DATABASE
In addition to the published database of airports, VORs,
NDBs, and intersections stored in the card, you may create up to 1000 other waypoints (250 waypoints for ORS
01 units). These waypoints may be designated by you to
be one of the four waypoint types above or as a waypoint
not falling into one of these types. In the latter case the
waypoint is called a Supplemental waypoint. Section 5.4
describes how you create a user-defined waypoint.
2.6 UPDATING USER DEFINED WAYPOINTS
AND FLIGHT PLANS
In addition to being able to create and modify userdefined waypoints and flight plans using the KLN 900, the
unit also supports the ability to upload and download this
information to a PC via the same serial data link and
cable used for updating the database. The PreFlight software program (described in appendix F) allows you to
transfer data between your computer and your KLN 900.
Thus, flight plans and waypoints can be downloaded to a
PC where PreFlight’s Flight Plan Editor can be used to
modify the data. Better yet, some of the leading manufacturers of PC-based flight planning programs, such as
Jeppesen’s MentorPlus FliteMap and Delta Technology
International’s Destination Direct, have developed versions of their programs that can be used to create flight
plans and user-defined waypoints for the KLN 900. Now,
you’ll be able to create your flight plans wherever and
whenever you want to.
NOTE: The ability to update user-defined waypoints and
flight plans applies only to ORS 02 or later units.
User-defined waypoints and flight plans can also be
copied to and from the database card which plugs into the
front of the KLN 900. This capability, along with the ability
to download this information from a PC, allows an operator to readily load a set of standard flight plans and user
waypoints into a fleet of aircraft.
2.6.1 Computer Updating of User Data
Copying user data via a PC requires the Honeywell
PreFlight software in addition to the hardware used for
computer updating of the database listed in section 2.4.1.
The PreFlight software is a Windows application.
CAUTION: The user data must be updated only while
the aircraft is on the ground. The KLN 900 does not
perform any navigation functions while the user data
is being updated.
Follow these steps to copy the KLN 900 user data:
1. Connect the hardware following the steps in paragraphs 1 and 2 of section 2.4.1.
2-8
Rev 2
2. Follow the instructions in the PreFlight User’s Manual
to install and run the transfer program on a Microsoft
Windows compatible personal computer. Then, select
the “Data Transfer” button on PreFlight’s main menu.
USER DATA COPY
COPY UNIT TO DB CARD?
COPY DB CARD TO UNIT?
COPY UNIT TO PC?
COPY PC TO UNIT?
3. Turn on the KLN 900. Press E as required to
approve the Self Test and Database pages. Use the left
outer knob to select the Setup (SET) type pages and the
left inner knob to select the SET 10 page (figure 2-11).
SET10
Figure 2-11
NOTE: If the groundspeed exceeds thirty knots, user data
copy won’t be allowed and the SET 10 page will be displayed as in figure 2-12.
4. Follow either step (a) or step (b) below:
C O P Y
U S E R
D A T A
O N
G R O U N D
O N L Y
(a) If you are copying user data from the KLN 900 to the
PC, press the “Download data from GPS unit” button on
the PC and enter a filename into which the downloaded
data will be stored and press OK. Then, on the KLN 900,
press the left C. Us the left outer knob to move the
cursor over COPY UNIT TO PC? and press E.
SET10
Figure 2-12
(b) If you are copying user data from the PC to the KLN
900, press the “Upload data to GPS unit” button on the
PC and specify the name of the file which contains the
flight plan and waypoint information to be uploaded, and
press OK. Then, on the KLN 900, press the left C.
Use the left outer knob to move the cursor over COPY
PC TO UNIT? and press E.
USER DATA COPY
IN PROGRESS...
5. The user data copy operation will begin and the screen
shown in figure 2-13 will be displayed.
SET10
6. The screen shown in figure 2-14 will be displayed upon
completion of the copy operation. Press E to acknowledge.
Figure 2-13
7. If the user data was copied from the PC to the KLN
900, the screen shown in figure 2-15 will be displayed.
The KLN 900 is reset following a transfer of user data to
the unit to enable the user data to be checked by various
functions performed during the startup sequence. Press
E to acknowledge and initiate a unit reset.
USER DATA HAS BEEN
SUCCESSFULLY
COPIED
ACKNOWLEDGE?
SET10
8. Remove the interface cable and turn off the computer
as desired.
Figure 2-14
If you have a problem copying the user data:
If there is a problem with the connection or the computer,
the KLN 900 will display LOADER NOT READY. First
check that the interface cable is properly connected and
that the computer is turned on. Ensure that the interface
cable is firmly inserted into the jack on the front of the
KLN 900. Pressing E will cancel the copy operation
and return to the initial SET 10 page.
KLN 900 WILL RESET
ITSELF TO USE NEW
USER DATA.
ACKNOWLEDGE?
SET10
If you have a problem that you can’t resolve, write down
any error messages to aid your Bendix/King Service
Center in identifying the problem.
Figure 2-15
2-9
Rev 2
2.6.2 Card Updating of User Data
to copy the user data from the unit to the card, the
KLN 900 will display DATA BASE CARD IS WRITE
PROTECTED. COPY OPERATION IS CANCELED. In
either of these cases, pressing E will cancel the copy
operation and return to the initial SET 10 page.
Copying user data to or from a database card does not
require any hardware other than the KLN 900 and the
database card. A database card that is programmed with
a regular database can be used without changing the
database contents.
Before copying data from the database card to the KLN
900, a checksum is calculated on the source data. If a
checksum error is detected, the KLN 900 will display
USER DATA ON DB CARD OR PC IS BAD. COPY
OPERATION IS CANCELED. Pressing E will cancel
the copy operation and return to the initial SET 10 page.
CAUTION: The user data must be updated only while
the aircraft is on the ground. The KLN 900 does not
perform any navigation functions while the user data
is being updated.
Follow these steps to copy the KLN 900 user data:
If you have a problem that you can’t resolve, write down
any error messages to aid your Bendix/King Service
Center in identifying the problem.
1. If user data is to be copied from a database card to the
KLN 900, turn the unit power off; remove any installed
database card as required; and insert the database card
containing the user data to be copied into the front of the
unit. (Refer to section 2.4.2 for more details on removing
and installing datacards.)
2.7 INTERNAL MEMORY BACKUP BATTERY
The KLN 900 contains an internal lithium battery that is
used to “keep-alive” the user-defined database as well as
flight plans. This battery has a typical life of three to five
years. It is highly recommended that the battery be
replaced every three years at an authorized Bendix/King
Service Center.
2. Turn on the KLN 900. Press E as required to
approve the Self Test and Database pages. Use the left
outer knob to select the Setup (SET) type pages and the
left inner knob to select the SET 10 page (figure 2-11).
NOTE: If the groundspeed exceeds thirty knots, user data
copy won’t be allowed and the SET 10 page will be displayed as in figure 2-12.
2.8 DATABASE UPDATE SERVICE OPTIONS
The following tear-out pages can be used for ordering the
Americas, Pacific, and Atlantic database update services
from Honeywell. The forms may be mailed or faxed for
your convenience.
3. Press the left C. Use the left outer knob to move the
cursor over the COPY UNIT TO DB CARD? or COPY DB
CARD TO UNIT? line as appropriate.
4. Press E. The user data copy operation will begin
and the screen shown in figure 2-13 will be displayed.
5. The screen shown in figure 2-14 will be displayed upon
completion of the copy operation. Press E to acknowledge.
6. If the user data was copied from the database card to
the unit, the screen shown in figure 2-15 will be displayed.
The KLN 900 is reset following a transfer of user data to
the unit to enable the user data to be checked by various
functions performed during the startup sequence. Note
that the active flight plan 0 will be erased upon unit reset if
the installed database card does not contain a normal
database. Press E to acknowledge and initiate a unit
reset.
If you have a problem copying the user data:
If the database card is not properly installed in the KLN
900, the unit will display DATA BASE CARD NOT PRESENT. If the database card is write protected while trying
2-10
Rev 2
KLN 900 Data Base Update Service Order Form
Consult Pricing Sheet (006-08794-0006) for Service Prices
Honeywell offers several update service
options to suit your requirements. Please
select the service desired, then fill out and
mail this order form. Credit card orders
may be faxed.
Updates from the Internet can be obtained
directly by logging onto the Honeywell
www.gpsdatabase.com Internet site and
following the instructions provided, or by
calling the telephone number below to set
up an account.
Note: Updates are current for 28 days after
effective date on diskette. If you select any
service other than the complete 13-time
service, your KLN 900 will begin alerting
you after 28 days that your data base is
out-of-date.
Please set up the service under:
Name:
Company:
Address:
City:
State:
Zip Code:
Country:
Telephone: (
FAX: (
)
)
E-mail:
Aircraft Make:
Aircraft Model:
______
Check One:
Method of Payment
Database Card Format
(available in U.S./Canada only)
Check/Money order enclosed
Diskette Format
(Laptop Computer Required. See
section 2 of KLN 900 Pilot’s Guide
for details.)
Wire Transfer:
Chase Manhattan Bank, NY
Acct #910-2-538734
Customer Number: ___________
Check Requested Data Base:
Americas Data Base
Please contact us if you do not have a customer number. (Note: Your customer number is
the first six digits of your sales order number.)
MasterCard, VISA, Discover, or
American Express
Number
Pacific Data Base
Expires
Signature
Atlantic Data Base
Check One:
Complete Update Service.
Provides 13 updates–one every 28
days for one year.
Six-time Update Service.
Provides six updates–one every 56
days for one year.
Four-time Update Service.
Provides four updates–one during
each quarter for one year.
Single Update. Provides one
update upon receipt of order.
Include applicable sales tax for your state.
Send to:
Honeywell International Inc.
Navigation Services
Mail Drop #66
23500 West 105th Street
Olathe, KS 66061
U.S.A.
Tel: (800) 247-0230 (U.S. Callers)
(913) 712-3145 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-3904
email: [email protected]
web site: www.gpsdatabase.com
N
Tape here
Fold here
NO POSTAGE
NECESSARY
IF MAILED
IN THE
UNITED STATES
BUSINESS REPLY MAIL
FIRST-CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO. 121 OLATHE, KANSAS
POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.
Navigation Services, Mail Drop #66
23500 West 105th Street
P.O. Box 1950
Olathe, KS 66051-9930
CHAPTER 3 - LEVEL 1 OPERATION
In this chapter you will learn the basic operation of the
front panel controls and then how to perform Direct To
navigation (navigating from your present position direct to
your desired location).
3.1 COVERAGE AREA
The KLN 900 was designed to provide worldwide navigation coverage from North 74° latitude to South 60° latitude
(figure 3-1). Outside this area, magnetic variation must
be manually entered as discussed in section 5.12. See
section 2.2 for the database coverage areas.
74°
74°
60°
60°
45°
45°
30°
30°
15°
15°
0°
0°
15°
15°
30°
30°
45°
45°
60°
60°
Figure 3-1 KLN 900 Navigation Coverage Area
IMPORTANT: Special installation procedures must be followed in order for the KLN 900 to be certified for IFR use.
Consult the KLN 900 Flight Manual Supplement for the operating limitations of this unit.
3-1
Rev 1
KLN 900 CONTROLS
POWER/BRIGHTNESS
ı
4.7 oq
LAX18 |
arm-«}|
159 uv
.32NM=|
ûü161^|
†ü170^|5
LEFT
CURSOR
LAX18
FITON
BRT
CRSR
LEFT
INNER
KNOB
LEFT
OUTER
KNOB
GPS
PUSH
ON
CRSR
D
CLR
ENT
OBS
ALT
NRST
RIGHT
INNER
KNOB
PULL SCAN
MSG
MESSAGE
SAVE
DIRECT
CLEAR
ENTER
TO OBS/LEG
NEAREST
ALTITUDE
MODE
AIRPORT
SELECTOR
RIGHT
CURSOR
RIGHT
OUTER
KNOB
SAVE
Figure 3-2
3-2
3.2 TURN-ON AND SELF TEST
Enough of the preliminaries. Let’s get started into actually turning the KLN 900 on and using it! Figure 3-2 will
fold out and allow you to use it as a reference as you read
this chapter, especially if you don’t have a KLN 900
immediately at hand. The steps below take a lot of words
to explain, but you will find that in actual use you will
accomplish these steps in just a few moments.
NOTE: When power is applied to the KLN 900 it always
“wakes up” in the Enroute-Leg mode. Only the EnrouteLeg mode is described in this chapter. In this mode the
KLN 900 performs great circle navigation (the shortest
distance between two points located on the earth’s surface). The course deviation output displayed on the unit’s
internal course deviation indicator (CDI) and provided to
an external HSI or CDI is five nautical miles left and right,
full-scale sensitivity. The other modes of the unit are
described in section 5.9, chapter 6, and chapter 9.
GPS
ORS 04
c1998 ALLIEDSIGNAL INC
SELF TEST IN PROGRESS
Figure 3-3
1. Turn-on the KLN 900 by pressing the power/brightness knob to the “in” position. The power/brightness
knob is located on the upper right side of the unit. It
takes just a few seconds for the screen to warm up.
DIS 34.5NM|DATE/TIME
+++++j+‚⁄++| 31 JUL 99
OBS IN 242^|08:10:03CST
OUT 315^|ALT 1100ft
RMI
130^|BARO:29.92"
ANNUN
ON| APPROVE?
enr-leg
CRSR
2. The Turn-On page will be displayed for a few seconds (figure 3-3). During this time the KLN 900 performs an extensive internal test. The ORS
(Operational Revision Status) level number in the
upper right corner of the display should match one of
the ORS levels indicated on the first page of this
Pilot’s Guide. If desired, you may program four lines
of personalized information (such as your name, the
type of aircraft, and your aircraft’s identification number) which is displayed each time the Turn-On page
is in view. The procedure for doing this is described
in section 5.7.
Figure 3-4
EXTERNAL CONFIGURATION
MODULE NOT PRESENT.
When the internal test is complete, the Turn-On page
will automatically be replaced by the Self Test page
(figure 3-4). NOTE: if the KLN 900 is being operated
without an external configuration module, the
Configuration Module page (figure 3-5) will be displayed. Simply press E to acknowledge and proceed. If the KLN 900 is operating in the take-home
mode, the Take-Home Warning page (figure 3-6) is
displayed and must be acknowledged by pressing
E. See section 5.14 for more information on the
Take-Home mode.
ACKNOWLEDGE?
Figure 3-5
WARNING:
SYSTEM IS IN TAKEHOME MODE: DO NOT
USE FOR NAVIGATION
IFR/VFR: IFR APR
ACKNOWLEDGE?
enr-leg ent
NOTE: The IFR/VFR selection shown in figure 3-6 is
available on ORS 04 and later versions of the KLN 900.
If desired, the IFR/VFR selection allows you to temporarily configure the KLN 900 for IFR APR (Approach), IFR
ENR (En route), or VFR operations.
Figure 3-6
3-3
Rev 2
3. Adjust the display brightness to the desired level by
rotating the power/brightness knob. Clockwise rotation increases brightness and counterclockwise rotation decreases brightness.
4. Verify that the data displayed on the left side of the
Self Test page is the same as is being displayed on
the appropriate equipment in the aircraft which is
interfaced to the KLN 900. If the KLN 900 is not connected to any other equipment in the aircraft, you
may skip to step 5.
The distance field (DIS) always displays 34.5 NM (or
63.9 km). If the KLN 900 is interfaced to a compatible indicator that displays DME distance, the indicator
should be displaying 34.5 nautical miles.
If the KLN 900 is interfaced with the left-right and updown deviation bar (D-Bar) of an HSI or CDI, the DBar should be half scale to the right and the vertical
deviation bar should indicate half-scale deviation up.
In some Electronic Flight Information System (EFIS)
installations the D-bar may be deflected one third of
full scale. This is due to the different CDI scale factors
that are used. The TO/FROM indicator should be
showing FROM.
If the KLN 900 is interfaced with a NAV indicator such
that the KLN 900 can "read" the selected course from
the NAV indicator, then the Omni Bearing Selection
(OBS IN) field should display the same course as on
the NAV indicator.
The OBS OUT field always displays 315 degrees and
is only applicable when the KLN 900 is interfaced
with an HSI which has a driven course pointer capable of being driven by the KLN 900. This type of HSI
is normally found in jets and turboprops. If this type
of NAV indicator is interfaced to the KLN 900, the
course pointer on the NAV indicator should be driven
to 315 degrees and both the OBS IN and OBS OUT
fields should be displaying 315 degrees.
The Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) field always displays 130 degrees. If the KLN 900 is connected to a
compatible RMI in the aircraft, the RMI should indicate a bearing to the station of 130 degrees.
If any of the above checks fail, do not use the associated equipment with the KLN 900.
5. If the KLN 900 has passed the internal self test, the
bottom left side of the Self Test page will display
ANNUN ON to indicate that the external annunciators, if installed, should all be illuminated. If instead,
a flashing TEST FAIL is displayed, recycle power to
the KLN 900. If the Self Test page still displays TEST
FAIL, the KLN 900 requires repair and should not be
used for navigation.
3-4
Rev 2
The KLN 900 needs to have the correct time, date,
and position to be able to determine which satellites
should be in view. This information is stored in the
battery backed memory of the KLN 900 so it is not
normally required to update it. If the KLN 900 has the
correct time, date, and position, then the time to first
fix will usually be just a couple of minutes or less. If
this information is not correct, then the KLN 900 will
start to look for any satellites. Eventually, the KLN
900 will find enough satellites to determine the position of the aircraft. This process can take as long as
12 minutes but will normally be around 6 minutes. It is
possible for you to update this information manually
which will allow the KLN 900 to reach a NAV ready
status much faster. To set the date and time follow
steps 6 and 7. If the date and time are correct, or
acquisition time is not important, then skip to step 8.
|DATE/TIME
| 31 JUL 99
|08:10:14CST
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
|
CRSR
Figure 3-7
6. If the date is incorrect, rotate the right outer knob
counterclockwise until the cursor is over the entire
date field (figure 3-7). Rotate the right inner knob
until the correct day of the month is displayed (figure
3-8). Then, rotate the right outer knob one step
clockwise to place the flashing part of the cursor over
the month field (figure 3-9). Rotate the right inner
knob to display the correct month (figure 3-10).
Rotate the right outer knob one step clockwise again
and use the right inner knob to select the first digit of
the correct year (Figure 3-11). Next, rotate the right
outer knob one more step clockwise and then use the
right inner knob to select the second digit of the year
(figure 3-12). When the date is correct, press E.
7.
|DATE/TIME
| 03 !!! !!
|08:10:14CST
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Figure 3-9
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 9!
|08:10:14CST
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
If it is necessary to reset the time, use the right outer
knob to position the cursor over the time zone field
(figure 3-13). Use the right inner knob to select the
desired time zone (figure 3-14). The following are the
time zones which the KLN 900 is capable of
displaying:
UTC
GST
GDT
ATS
ATD
EST
EDT
CST
CDT
MST
MDT
PST
PDT
AKS
AKD
HAS
HAD
Figure 3-11
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|08:10:14CST
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Coordinated Universal Time (Zulu, GMT)
Greenland Standard Time (UTC - 3)
Greenland Daylight Time (UTC - 2)
Atlantic Standard Time (UTC - 4)
Atlantic Daylight Time (UTC - 3)
Eastern Standard Time (UTC - 5)
Eastern Daylight Time (UTC - 4)
Central Standard Time (UTC - 6)
Central Daylight Time (UTC - 5)
Mountain Standard Time (UTC - 7)
Mountain Daylight Time (UTC - 6)
Pacific Standard Time (UTC - 8)
Pacific Daylight Time (UTC - 7)
Alaska Standard Time (UTC - 9)
Alaska Daylight Time (UTC - 8)
Hawaii Standard Time (UTC - 10)
Hawaii Daylight Time (UTC - 9)
Figure 3-13
3-5
|DATE/TIME
| 03 !!! !!
|08:10:14CST
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Figure 3-8
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG !!
|08:10:14CST
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Figure 3-10
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|08:10:14CST
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Figure 3-12
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|14:10:55UTC
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Figure 3-14
Rev 1
SST
SDT
Samoa Standard Time (UTC - 11)
Samoa Daylight Time (UTC - 10)
(Note: Local time is available only on ORS 04 and later units.)
LCL
Local Time (UTC ± offset)
You will be able to change the time zone any time you
desire on several other pages, so don’t worry if you’re not
sure which time zone to choose. UTC - Coordinated
Universal Time (also called “Zulu”) is always a good
choice. If you choose local (LCL) time, be sure to check
the SET 2 page to verify that your local time zone offset is
correct.
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|14:10:59UTC
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Once you have selected the desired time zone, turn the
right outer knob one step counterclockwise to position the
cursor over the entire time field (figure 3-15). Use the right
inner knob to select the correct hour (figure 3-16). Since
24 hour time is used, be sure to add 12 if the time is after
1:00 P.M.(2:30 P.M. becomes 14:30). Now turn the right
outer knob one step clockwise to position the flashing part
of the cursor over the first minute’s position (figure 3-17).
Turn the right inner knob to select the desired value.
Turning the right outer knob one more step clockwise positions the flashing part of the cursor over the second
minute’s position, and the right inner knob is now used to
finalize the time selection (figure 3-18). When the correct
time has been entered, press E to start the clock running. Don’t worry that you can’t update the seconds. The
KLN 900 system time will automatically be corrected very
precisely once a satellite is received.
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|16:!!:08UTC
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Figure 3-16
Figure 3-15
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|16:!!:08UTC
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|16:27:08UTC
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Figure 3-18
Figure 3-17
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|16:27:42UTC
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:29.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
8. Turn the right outer knob clockwise to position the
cursor over the first two digits of the altimeter baro set
field if the cursor is not there already (figure 3-19).
The last KLN 900 baro setting entered is displayed. If
the correct altimeter setting is displayed skip to step
10 after reading the following notes.
Figure 3-19
NOTE: The KLN 900 will use an altitude input from an
altitude encoder or air data computer. Since the altitude
from these devices is usually pressure altitude, an altimeter baro correction is required to ensure maximum accuracy. This altitude input is used for altitude related features of the KLN 900. Therefore, it is important to keep
the altimeter baro setting updated on the Self Test page
when power is first applied to the KLN 900 and on the
Altitude page each time a new baro correction is made to
the aircraft’s altimeter.
NOTE: The units of the altimeter baro setting may be
changed at a later time from inches to millibars or
hectoPascals on the SET 7 page.
NOTE: The altimeter baro set field will not be a cursor
field if the KLN 900 is interfaced to certain air data/altimeter systems which update the baro set field when the aircraft’s altimeter baro setting is updated.
3-6
Rev 2
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|16:27:53UTC
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:30.92"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
9. To enter the correct baro setting, rotate the right inner
knob to select the first two digits of the correct altimeter setting (figure 3-20). Rotate the right outer knob
one step clockwise to move the flashing cursor over
the third position. Use the right inner knob to select
the correct number. Use the right outer and inner
knobs to complete the baro setting (figure 3-21).
Now press E.
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|16:28:08UTC
|ALT 1100ft
|BARO:30.02"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
Figure 3-21
Figure 3-20
10. With the correct altimeter setting entered, the altitude
displayed on line 4 should be correct within 100 feet.
|DATE/TIME
| 03 AUG 99
|16:28:24UTC
|ALT 1200ft
|BARO:30.02"
| APPROVE?
CRSR
11. Turn the right outer knob clockwise to position the
cursor over APPROVE? if it is not there already
(figure 3-22). Press E to approve the Self Test
page. If the KLN 900 altitude alert audio is utilized in
the installation, five beeps should be heard when the
Self Test page is approved. The alert audio volume
may later be adjusted on the SET 9 page. (Note: If
the KLN 900 is installed for VFR only operation, a
VFR only warning page is displayed after the self
test page has been approved (Figure 3-23). This
warning page must be acknowledged by pressing
E .)
Figure 3-22
FOR VFR USE ONLY
ACKNOWLEDGE?
ent CRSR
12. The Database page will now be displayed with the
cursor over ACKNOWLEDGE?. Line 1 indicates the
coverage area of the database being used. If the
database is current, line 3 will show the date when
the database expires (figure 3-24).
Figure 3-23
AMERICAS
DATA BASE EXPIRES
15 AUG 99
If the database is out-of-date, line 3 shows the date
that it expired (figure 3-25). The KLN 900 will still
function with an out-of-date database; however, you
must exercise extreme caution and always verify that
the database information is correct before using information from an out-of-date database.
ACKNOWLEDGE?
enr-leg ent CRSR
Figure 3-24
Press E to acknowledge the information on the
Database page.
AMERICAS
DATA BASE EXPIRED
15 AUG 99
ALL DATA MUST BE
CONFIRMED BEFORE USE
ACKNOWLEDGE?
enr-leg ent CRSR
WARNING: The accuracy of the database information
is assured only if the database is current. Operators
using an out-of-date database do so entirely at their
own risk.
Figure 3-25
3-7
Rev 2
PRESENT POS|=KHIF
|CLR 124.10
--- ---^fr |GRND 121.60
---- -nm |TWR 126.20
- --^--.--'|APR 121.10
----^--.--'|DEP 121.10
NAV 2 enr-leg
APT 4
The NAV 2 page (present position) is now automatically
displayed on the left side of the screen and the waypoint
page for the waypoint which was active when the KLN
900 was last turned off will be displayed on the right side
(figure 3-26). If the last active waypoint was an airport,
the APT 4 page (airport communications) will be displayed. Isn’t that convenient! Almost always, the waypoint which was active when you last removed power
from the KLN 900 is the airport where you landed.
Therefore, when you get ready to depart, the airport communication frequencies for that airport will automatically
be displayed for you!
Figure 3-26
PRESENT POS|
|
OGD 122^fr|
8.2nm|
N 41^07.60'|
W111^58.30'|
NAV 2
When the NAV 2 page first appears, it is possible that the
present position will be dashed. It can take the KLN 900
several minutes to acquire the GPS satellites and to
make its initial calculation of your position. When the
KLN 900 reaches a NAV ready status and is able to navigate, the NAV 2 page will display your present position in
two ways (figure 3-27). The bottom of the page will display the aircraft’s latitude and longitude. Above the latitude/longitude position is the present position expressed
as the distance and radial from a nearby VOR. The VOR
displayed on the NAV 2 page is the nearest low or high
altitude class VOR. Terminal class VORs are not used
because many charts do not depict a compass rose
around them and verifying the displayed radial would be
difficult. Verify that the present position shown on the
NAV 2 page is correct.
Figure 3-27
NOTE: In order to reach a NAV ready status, the aircraft
must be away from obstructions blocking the GPS
antenna’s view of required satellites. If the KLN 900 fails
to reach a NAV ready status within five minutes, refer to
section 3.6, “Initialization and Time To First Fix”.
NOTE: When the KLN 900 is interfaced with certain
Shadin fuel flow computers, the KLN 900 will present the
following message after the start-up sequence:
SET FUEL ON BOARD
ON OTH 5 IF NECESSARY
Turn to section 5.10.1 for details on this operation.
3-8
Rev 2
3.3 DISPLAY FORMAT
The KLN 900 uses a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) display.
The display screen is divided into segments. These segments are formed by horizontal and vertical lines on the
screen. Most of the time there are five segments as
shown in figure 3-28. There are occasionally times when
there are only four segments (figure 3-29) or one large
segment (figure 3-30).
Figure 3-28
Aeronautical information (also called “data”) is presented
on the screen in the form of “pages”. A page is a presentation of specific data in an organized format. Various
page “types” are used to display related kinds of data.
For example, one page type is NAV (navigation). NAV
pages show information such as distance, groundspeed,
bearing, course, and other data relating to navigation.
Another page type is APT (airport). APT pages contain
information pertinent to a specific airport such as name,
location, elevation, runways, and communication frequencies. There are numerous page types used to display the
KLN 900’s vast capabilities.
Figure 3-29
The units of measure for displayed information can be
changed using the SET 7 page. (Refer to section 5.3.1 for
details on this page.) The altimeter barometric setting can
be set to inches of mercury (“); millibars (mB), or
hectoPascals (hP). Altitude, airport elevation, and runway
lengths can be set to feet (ft) or meters (m). Finally, distances and velocities can be set to nautical miles (nm)
and knots (kt) or kilometers (km)and kilometers/hour
(k/h). Changing any of the units of measure only effects
the information displayed on the unit. It does not effect on
any of the data output by the unit. (Metric units for distance and speed are not provided by the ORS 01 software.)
Figure 3-30
(A)
(B)
PRESENT POS|=KHIF
|CLR 124.10
OGD 122^fr|GRND 121.60
8.2nm|TWR 126.20
N 41^07.60'|APR 121.10
W111^58.30'|DEP 121.10
NAV 2 enr-leg msg APT 4
Normally, when the screen is divided into five segments,
the KLN 900 displays two pages at one time. These
pages are presented in the upper left and upper right segments of the screen. In figure 3-31 the upper left segment (A) is showing a Navigation page and the upper
right segment (B) is showing an Airport page. The lower
left segment (C) indicates which specific page is being
displayed on the left side. NAV 2 indicates that the
Navigation 2 page is being presented on the left side of
the screen. An Airport 4 page is being shown in the
upper right segment of the display (B) and is identified as
such with the APT 4 characters in the lower right segment
(D). The page identification includes a number appended
to the page type when there is more than one page for a
page type, such as in the two examples of pages shown
in figure 3-31. There is no number displayed in the page
identifier if there is only one page for a particular page
type. The VOR page identification in figure 3-32 shows
that there is only one VOR page.
(C)
(E)
(D)
Figure 3-31
| JAN D
|JACKSON
|
H
|112.60 5^E
|N 32^30.44'
|W 90^10.05'
VOR
Figure 3-32
3-9
Rev 2
| KMKC
|ATIS 120.75
|PTAX 121.90
|GRND 121.90
|TWR 133.30
|UNIC 122.95
APT[4
You might think of the page types as the chapters in a
book and the page numbers as the pages within a chapter. Just as a chapter in a book may have from one to
many pages, a KLN 900 page type may have from one to
26 pages associated with it. There are, for example, 26
Flight Plan pages (FPL0, FPL1, FPL2,...,FPL25) in the
Flight Plan type and eight Airport pages (APT 1, APT 2,
..., APT 8) in the Airport type. There is one VOR page in
the VOR type.
Figure 3-34
Figure 3-33
Figure 3-33 shows another example of an Airport 4 page.
As you have previously seen, the Airport 4 page is always
used to show airport communication frequencies. Notice
the “+” sign in the APT+4 identification. Whenever a “+”
sign is part of a page identifier there will be two or more
pages, all having the same page number, used to present
all of the required information. That is, all of the information associated with a particular page number doesn’t fit
on the page being viewed. In this case the “+” sign indicates that there are two or more APT 4 pages. Figure 334 shows the second APT 4 page for KMKC (Kansas
City Downtown airport).
| KMKC
|APR 119.00
|DEP 119.00
|
|
|
APT[4
PRESENT POS|=KHIF
|CLR 124.10
OGD 122^fr |GRND 121.60
8.2nm |TWR 126.20
N 41^07.60'|APR 121.10
W111^58.30'|DEP 121.10
NAV 2 enr-leg msg APT 4
Figure 3-35
DIS 34.5NM|DATE/TIME
+++++j+‚⁄++| 03 AUG 99
OBS IN ---^|16:28:24UTC
OUT 315^|ALT 1200ft
RMI
130^|BARO:30.02"
ANNUN
ON| APPROVE?
enr-leg ent CRSR
The lower center segment (E) of the display (figure 3-31)
is used to present four different kinds of information. The
first seven spaces of this segment indicate the mode in
which the KLN 900 is operating. In figure 3-31, ENRLEG designates the unit is in the Enroute-Leg mode of
operation. The Enroute-Leg mode is the normal mode of
operation. The OBS mode is described in section 5.9 and
the approach modes are described in chapter 6. Lastly,
the Oceanic (OCN) mode is described in chapter 9.
Figure 3-36
The last three spaces of segment (E) are usually blank
but may contain the characters MSG or ENT. The characters MSG in figure 3-35 indicate that there is a message to be viewed on the Message page - accomplished
by pressing M. The characters ENT will flash in these
spaces when it is necessary to press E to complete
various kinds of operations (figure 3-36).
; 1 KMKC
< 2 BUM
3 OSW
4 TUL
5 KTUL
|
|
|ENTER REF
|WPT: ABC
|
|
FPL 0 NO SUCH WPT REF
Segment (E) is also used as an area for displaying short
operational messages to the user called “status line messages”. These messages are displayed for approximately five seconds, then this segment returns to its previous display. An example of a status line message is
shown in figure 3-37. A complete listing of status line
messages is contained in appendix C of this Pilot’s
Guide.
Figure 3-37
3-10
Rev 2
3.4 BASIC OPERATION OF PANEL
CONTROLS
Remember that figure 3-2 is on a fold-out page that you
may want to refer to as you read this chapter.
The KLN 900 has five knobs and ten buttons which are
used to perform all operations. In general, the two concentric knobs and the cursor button (C) located on the
left side of the unit are used to select pages and enter
data on the left side of the screen. Likewise, the two concentric knobs and the cursor button on the right side of
the unit are used to select pages and enter data on the
right side of the screen.
The cursor is an area of inverse video (dark characters on
a light background) on the screen. Many pages allow you
to add, delete, or change data on the screen by first
pressing the appropriate C button (left C for left
side of screen and right C for right side) to turn the
cursor function on and bring the cursor on the screen.
The appropriate knobs are then used to enter the data.
When a cursor is on the screen, the page name normally
shown in the lower left and right segments is replaced
with a CRSR annunciation in inverse video (figure 3-38).
The cursor is over the identifier TUL. Not all pages allow
you to make data entry and therefore pressing the C
button while these pages are displayed will have no
effect.
1
2
3
4
5
KMKC
BUM
OSW
TUL
KTUL
|
|
|
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 3-38
There are times when the cursor is flashing. Figure 3-36
shows an example of how a white border is used in this
Pilot’s Guide to depict a flashing cursor (over
APPROVE?). In addition, figure 3-36 shows an example
of how a white border around normal text in this Pilot’s
Guide is used to depict normal characters flashing. The
letters ENT are flashing but are not in inverse video.
3-11
Rev 1
3.4.1 Page Selection
It’s now time for learning to select a desired page.
NOTE: The cursor function, which is controlled by the left
and right C (cursor) buttons, is not used in selecting
pages and the C buttons should not be pressed at this
time. If CRSR is annunciated in the lower left or right
segments of the display, press the left or right C button
(as appropriate) to turn the cursor function off.
The left outer knob is rotated to select one of eight page
types for the left side of the screen. These eight page
types are the following:
Page Annunciation
TRI
MODE
FPL
NAV
CAL
STA
SET
OTH
Knob Annunciation
Page Name
Page Numbers
TRIP
MODE
FPL
NAV
CALC
STAT
SETUP
OTHER
Trip Planning
Mode
Flight Plan
Navigation
Calculator
Status
Setup
Other
0-6
None
0-25
1-5
1-7
1-4*
0-9
1-4**
*There are 5 STA pages on KLN 900’s with ORS -04 or greater.
**Up to 10 pages with fuel management system and air data interfaces.
Remember that the page type for the left side is always
annunciated in the lower left segment of the screen. The
first three or four letters of the page type are always used
for annunciation on the screen TRI for TRIP, MODE for
Mode, SET for SETUP, etc. Rotating the left outer knob
clockwise selects the page type in the top-to-bottom order
shown above. Rotating the left outer knob counterclockwise selects the page type in the opposite order. The
page type selection wraps around from OTHER to TRIP;
that is, the knob has no mechanical stops.
Once you have selected the desired page type using the
left outer knob, you may select the page number by rotating the left inner knob. Let’s use an example to make
sure you understand. You are presently viewing the NAV
2 page on the left page. You wish to view the CAL 5
page. Rotating the left outer knob one step clockwise will
display the CAL page that you last viewed-we’ll say the
Calculator 1 page. Turning the left inner knob four steps
clockwise or three steps counterclockwise will bring you
to the CAL 5 page. Got it?
3-12
Rev 2
You’ve probably already figured out that the right side of
the unit operates in a similar manner to the left side.
There are, however, a couple of differences. First, the
page types are different for the right side except for NAV.
The Navigation pages are identical on both sides of the
screen. Just as on the left side, only the first three letters
of the page type are used for annunciation on the screen.
The page types for the right side are the following:
Page Annunciation
CTR
REF
ACT
D/T
NAV
APT
VOR
NDB
INT
SUP
Knob Annunciation
Page Name
Page Numbers
CTR
REF
ACTV
D/T
NAV
APT
VOR
NDB
INT
SUPL
Center Wpt.
Reference Wpt.
Active Wpt.
Distance/Time
Navigation
Airport Wpt.
VOR Wpt.
NDB Wpt.
Intersection Wpt.
Supplemental Wpt.
1-2
None
**
1-4
1-5
1-8
None
None
None
None
**Varies with the type of waypoints in the active flight
plan
The second difference from the left side is that the right
inner knob has both an “in” and an “out” position. With
the knob pushed “in” it works exactly like the inner knob
on the left side. Make sure the right inner knob is pushed
“in” for now. Later in this chapter we’ll discuss how the
right inner knob in the “out” position performs a waypoint
scan function.
NOTE: In this Pilot’s Guide the right smaller knob is
assumed to be in the “in” position unless it specifically
states that the knob should be in the “out” position.
Therefore, the words “rotate the right inner knob” mean to
turn the right inner knob while the knob is in the “in” position.
3-13
Rev 2
3.4.2 Data Entry
Now that you’ve learned how to select the desired page,
you’re ready to learn the means of entering data. It is
necessary to enter data, for example, in order to specify a
Direct To waypoint of your choice. The general procedure for entering a waypoint identifier is described below.
The Trip Planning 3 (TRI 3) page is shown in this example but the procedure is applicable to many other pages.
You need not perform these steps now since they will be
described again shortly.
KLAX -KOAK |
293nm 305^|
180kt 1:38|
FF: 00030.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 73.9|
TRI 3
KLAX -KOAK |
293nm 305^|
180kt 1:38|
FF: 00030.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 73.9|
CRSR
Figure 3-40
Figure 3-39
1. If the cursor is not positioned on the screen location
where you desire to enter the waypoint identifier (figure 3-39), press C (left C for left page or right
C for right page) to turn on the cursor function (figure 3-40).
KLAX -KOAK |
293nm 305^|
180kt 1:38|
FF: 00030.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 73.9|
CRSR
Figure 3-41
2. If required, rotate the outer knob (left outer knob for
left page or right outer knob for right page) to position
the cursor in the desired location (figure 3-41).
KLAX -K
|
293nm 305^|
180kt 1:38|
FF: 00030.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 73.9|
CRSR
Figure 3-43
3. Rotate the appropriate inner knob to select the first
character of the waypoint identifier (figure 3-42).
4. Turn the appropriate outer knob one step clockwise to
move the cursor to the second character position (figure 3-43).
5. Rotate the inner knob to select the second character
(figure 3-44).
KLAX -K
|
293nm 305^|
180kt 1:38|
FF: 00030.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 73.9|
CRSR
Figure 3-42
KLAX -KR
|
293nm 305^|
180kt 1:38|
FF: 00030.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 73.9|
CRSR
Figure 3-44
KLAX -KRNO |
$=KMYF
293nm 305^|+++++Ê+++++
180kt 1:38|DIS
360nm
FF: 00030.0|GS
180kt
RES:00025.0|ETE
2:00
F REQ 73.9|BRG
253^
CRSR enr-leg ent NAV 1
Figure 3-45
6. Use the outer and inner knobs in this manner until the
complete waypoint identifier is displayed (figure 3-45).
Note that you may not have to enter the last characters of the identifier because each time you enter a
character, the KLN 900 offers you the first identifier in
the database beginning with the characters you have
entered.
7. If ENT is flashing in the lower middle segment of the
display, then press E. This will display a waypoint
page on the right side of the screen for the waypoint
identifier you just entered (figure 3-46).
KLAX -KRNO | KRNO
293nm 305^|RENO CANNON
180kt 1:38| INTL
FF: 00030.0|CL C
RES:00025.0|N 39^29.95'
F REQ 73.9|W119^46.03'
CRSR enr-leg ent APT 1
8. Verify the waypoint information displayed, and then
press E again to approve the waypoint page. The
right side will return to the page previously displayed
(figure 3-47).
Figure 3-46
KLAX -KRNO |
$=KMYF
340nm 334^|+++++Ê+++++
180kt 1:53|DIS
360nm
FF: 00030.0|GS
180kt
RES:00025.0|ETE
2:00
F REQ 81.7|BRG
253^
CRSR enr-leg
NAV 1
Figure 3-47
3-14
Rev 2
3.4.3 Alternative Waypoint Data Entry Method
There is another method of data entry for waypoints
which you will sometimes find convenient. This method
applies when there is a page on the left side of the screen
with the cursor over a field where a waypoint is enterable.
You may fill the waypoint field on the left side by first
selecting the desired waypoint page on the right side (figure 3-48). When E is pressed, the waypoint field on
the left will contain the flashing identifier of the waypoint
that is displayed on the right side (figure 3-49). To finalize
the section, E is pressed again (figure 3-50).
P.POS-KDEN | KLAX
701nm 055^|LOS ANGELES
180kt 3:54| INTL
FF: 00030.0|CL B
RES:00025.0|N 33^56.55'
F REQ
142|W118^24.43'
CRSR enr-leg
APT 1
4
Figure 3-48
P.POS-KLAX | KLAX
701nm 055^|LOS ANGELES
180kt 3:54| INTL
FF: 00030.0|CL B
RES:00025.0|N 33^56.55'
F REQ
142|W118^24.43'
CRSR enr-leg ent APT 1
3.4.4 The Duplicate Waypoint Page
There are some waypoints in the database whose identifiers are not unique. That is, more than one waypoint has
the same identifier. When a waypoint identifier has been
entered which is not unique to a single waypoint, a
Duplicate Waypoint page appears on the left side (figure
3-52). The Duplicate Waypoint page is used to select
which of the waypoints having the same identifier is actually desired. The waypoint identifier is displayed on the
top left of the page. To the right of the identifier is the
number of waypoints in the database having the identifier.
Below the identifier is a list of the waypoint types (APT,
VOR, NDB, INT, SUP) and the associated countries
which use the identifier. To see an example of a
Duplicate Waypoint page perform the following steps:
Figure 3-49
P.POS-KLAX | KLAX
57nm 175^|LOS ANGELES
180kt 0:13| INTL
FF: 00030.0|CL B
RES:00025.0|N 33^56.55'
F REQ 34.4|W118^24.43'
CRSR enr-leg
APT 1
Figure 3-50
1. Press D
DIRECT TO: |
|
D
|
|
|
|
CRSR
2. Turn the left inner knob to select the letter “D” as a
waypoint identifier (figure 3-51). “D” is the full identifier of
several waypoints in the KLN 900 database.
3. Press E. The Duplicate Waypoint page will be displayed on the left side (figure 3-52). At the time of this
writing, there were eleven waypoints in the database having the identifier “D”. As in this example, if there are more
than four waypoints having the same identifier, only the
first four are initially shown. The list includes an NDB in
Canada, an NDB in Cuba, an NDB in the United States,
and an NDB in Libya. The cursor will be over the first
waypoint listed. They are listed with the waypoint closest
to the aircraft’s present position displayed first and the
waypoint farthest from the aircraft displayed last. To view
the rest, rotate the left outer knob clockwise. Doing so
will move the flashing cursor over waypoints two, three,
and four and then will cause the waypoint list to “scroll” so
that the other waypoints in the list may be seen. To
select the desired waypoint, move the cursor over the
appropriate choice (figure 3-53).
D
TYPE
1 NDB
2 NDB
3 NDB
4 NDB
CRSR
Figure 3-51
11|
AREA|
CAN?|
CUB?|
USA?|
LBY?|
Figure 3-52
D
TYPE
5 NDB
6 NDB
7 NDB
8 NDB
CRSR
11|
AREA|
ROM?|
FIN?|
CHN?|
VMN?|
Figure 3-53
DIRECT TO: | D
|BEIJING
D
|
|FREQ
387
|N 40^04.00'
|E116^34.50'
CRSR enr-leg ent NDB
4. Press E to view the waypoint page for the selected
waypoint (figure 3-54).
5. Press E to approve the waypoint page.
Figure 3-54
3-15
Rev 2
4
3.5 MESSAGE PAGE
Whenever the KLN 900 determines that there is a situation that requires your attention, the MSG prompt begins
flashing in inverse video at the bottom of the display just
to the right of the mode of operation (figure 3-55). A
remote message annunciator may also be installed in the
aircraft instrument panel. You should view the message
at your earliest opportunity because the unit may be alerting you to some condition of immediate concern to its
condition or to your flight. To view the message, press
M. The MSG page, which takes the whole width of the
display, will appear and show the new message (figure 356). Appendix B of this Pilot’s Guide contains a listing of
all the Message page messages and their meanings. It is
possible that several messages are displayed at one time
on the Message page. The newest message appears
first and the rest in reverse chronological order.
PRESENT POS|=KMKO
|UNIC 122.80
OKM 086^fr|CTAF 122.80
24.4nm|PCL 122.80
N 35^39.78'|CTR 127.30
W 95^22.05'|
NAV 2 enr-leg msg APT 4
Figure 3-55
INSIDE SPC USE AIRSPACE
A-564
ALRT
BELOW 2000ft
After reading the message, press M again to return to
the pages which were previously in view. If all of the
messages cannot be displayed on one Message page,
repeated presses of M will show the other messages
before returning to the pages which were previously being
viewed. Whenever a message condition exists which
requires a specific action by you, the message prompt will
remain on but not flashing.
enr-leg msg
Figure 3-56
3-16
Rev 2
3.6 INITIALIZATION AND TIME TO FIRST FIX
Since the KLN 900 stores its position and other required
parameters in memory when power to the unit is removed,
it is seldom necessary to aid the unit in reaching a NAV
ready condition. The time required from power on until the
KLN 900 determines its present position and is therefore
ready to navigate is called “time to first fix.” The time to
first fix is normally a few minutes or less. In order for the
KLN 900 to reach a NAV ready condition, it is necessary
to meet the following conditions:
1. The KLN 900’s “almanac” data must be current.
Almanac data is crude orbital information for all the
satellites and is used for initial acquisition when the
KLN 900 is first turned on. This data is stored in the
KLN 900’s non-volatile memory and is considered current for up to six months. Each satellite sends
almanac data for all satellites. Since the KLN 900 routinely updates the almanac data during normal operation, the almanac data will become out-of-date only if
the KLN 900 hasn’t been used for the previous six
months or longer. Collecting new almanac data takes
place automatically if the data is more than six months
old. If the almanac data is out-of-date and needs to be
collected, the KLN 900 will take a few minutes to
acquire your present position (usually about two minutes, but not more than 12 minutes). The Self Test
and Database pages should be approved.
2. The aircraft must be located such that the GPS
antenna has an unobstructed view of the sky so that
required satellite signals are not being blocked. If
necessary, position the aircraft away from hangars or
other obstructions.
3. It is very helpful for the KLN 900 to have the correct
time, date and position to be able to determine which
satellites should be in view. This information is stored
in the battery backed memory of the KLN 900 so it is
not normally required to update it. If the KLN 900 has
the correct time, date and position, then the time to first
fix will usually be less than two (2) minutes. If this information is not correct, then the KLN 900 will start to look
for any satellites. Eventually, the KLN 900 will find
enough satellites to determine the position of the aircraft. This process can take as long as 12 minutes. It is
possible for you to update this information manually
which will allow the KLN 900 to reach a NAV ready status much faster. To set the time and date follow steps
6 and 7 in section 3.2, “Turn-On and Self-Test.” If it is
necessary to update the position then use the following
steps. Remember, if acquisition time is not important
then it is not necessary to update the time, date or
position.
3-17
Rev 2
1. Select the Setup 1 page (SET 1) by first turning the
left outer knob to display a SET type page. Next, turn
the left inner knob until the SET 1 page is selected
(figure 3-57).
INIT POSN |
WPT:
|
N 37^39.00'|
W 97^25.97'|
0 KT 308^|
|
SET 1
2. Press the left C to bring the cursor on the page over
the WPT field (figure 3-58).
3. Use the left inner knob to enter the first character of
the identifier for the airport where you are presently
located or the identifier of a navaid or other airport
which is close to you. Remember, if you are entering
an airport identifier that is all letters (no numbers),
then it will begin with a “K” prefix in the Contiguous
U.S., a “P” in Alaska, or a “C” in Canada. If there are
numbers in the identifier then a prefix is not used.
Outside the Contiguous U.S., Alaska, and Canada,
use the airport identifiers as they are charted.
Figure 3-57
INIT POSN |
WPT:
|
N 37^39.00'|
W 97^25.97'|
0 KT 308^|
|
SET 1
Figure 3-58
4. Rotate the left outer knob one step clockwise to move
the flashing portion of the cursor to the second position and then use the left inner knob to enter the second character of the identifier.
5. Complete entering the rest of the identifier using the
left knobs in the same manner as in step 4 (figure 359).
INIT POSN |
WPT: KMKC |
N 37^39.00'|
W 97^25.97'|
0 KT 308^|
|
SET 1
6. Press E to view the waypoint page on the right side.
7. Press E again to confirm the waypoint page.
NOTE: As an alternative, you can also enter the approximate latitude and longitude of your present position
directly on the SET 1 page instead of entering a waypoint
identifier.
Figure 3-59
8. Use the left outer knob to position the cursor over
CONFIRM?, if it is not there already (figure 3-60).
INIT POSN |
WPT: KMKC |
N 39^07.40'|
W 94^35.55'|
0 KT 308^|
CONFIRM?
|
CRSR
9. Press E.
Figure 3-60
3-18
Rev 2
NOTE: The groundspeed (KT) and heading ( °) fields are
not used for actual initialization in an aircraft. However, if
the KLN 900 is in the take-home mode, entering a
groundspeed will allow the KLN 900 to “fly” along the
active flight plan (or to a direct-to waypoint) starting from
the initialization waypoint. A heading may be entered in
the initial heading field while in the take-home mode if the
one offered is not desired. If the take-home mode is
used, remember to re-initialize the KLN 900 to the aircraft’s location before reinstalling it back in the aircraft.
10.Use the left knobs to select the NAV 2 page. When
the KLN 900 reaches the NAV ready status and is
therefore able to navigate, the NAV 2 page will display
the present position. Verify that the latitude and longitude or the VOR, radial, and distance display of present position are correct.
3-19
Rev 2
3.7 SELECTING WAYPOINTS
There are five types of waypoints: airports, VORs, NDBs,
intersections, and supplemental. Waypoints in the published database (those in the cartridge) fall into one of the
first four types. Remember that you can create up to
1000 (250 for ORS 01 units) of your own waypoints which
you may designate as one of the first four types or you
may designate it as a supplemental waypoint which simply means that it is a miscellaneous waypoint that doesn’t
fit into one of the other categories.
There are three methods you may use to select a specific
waypoint for viewing. You may enter the waypoint’s identifier directly, you may scan through the waypoint identifiers in alphabetical order, or, you may enter the waypoint’s name. If the waypoint is an airport, you may also
select it by entering the city where the airport is located.
3.7.1 Selecting Waypoints By Identifier
The most direct way of selecting a specific waypoint is to
simply enter the waypoint’s identifier directly on the
appropriate waypoint page type (APT, for example). Let’s
use San Antonio International airport whose identifier is
KSAT as an example to illustrate how this is done.
| B19
|BIDDEFORD
|MUN
|
|N 43^27.84'
|W 70^28.38'
APT 1
1. Rotate the right outer knob to select the airport type
pages (APT). Rotate the right inner knob to select the
APT 1 page if it is not already in view (figure 3-61).
(Actually, the airport identifier can be entered on any
of the eight Airport pages but we’ll use the APT 1
since it displays the airport name.)
Figure 3-61
2. Press the right C to bring the cursor on the screen
over the first character in the airport identifier (figure 362). The right inner knob should be pushed in the “in”
position.
| K00
|HALL
|
|
|N 32^30.97'
|W 96^14.20'
CRSR
3. Turn the right inner knob to select a “K” (figure 3-63).
You may turn the knob either clockwise or counterclockwise, the letters and numbers wrap around with a
blank character separating the “9” and the ”A”. Go
ahead and experiment a little bit.
Figure 3-63
4. Rotate the right outer knob one step clockwise to position the cursor over the second character in the airport
identifier (figure 3-64).
| KS01
|HOXIE|SHERIDAN
|
|N 39^22.17'
|W100^26.08'
CRSR
5. Use the right inner knob to select the second character, “S” (figure 3-65).
6. Use the right outer and right inner knobs in the same
manner as above to select the “A” and the “T” (figure
3-66). You are now viewing the APT 1 page for
KSAT.
Figure 3-65
| B19
|BIDDEFORD
|MUN
|
|N 43^27.84'
|W 70^28.38'
CRSR
Figure 3-62
| K00
|HALL
|
|
|N 32^30.97'
|W 96^14.20'
CRSR
Figure 3-64
| KSAT
|SAN ANTONIO
| INTL
|CL C
|N 29^32.02'
|W 98^28.19'
CRSR
Figure 3-66
7. Press the right C to remove the cursor from the
right page. The APT 2, APT 3, APT 4, APT 5, APT 6,
APT 7 and APT 8 pages may be viewed by rotating
the right inner knob.
3-20
Rev 2
Did you notice that as you entered the “K” in step 3 that
the second and third characters also changed? That is
because every time you enter a character (in this case
the “K”), the KLN 900 searches its database to offer the
first waypoint in the database which begins with the characters you have already entered. Since the KLN 900
considers numbers lower in order than letters, K00 is the
first airport identifier in the database beginning with a “K”.
Let’s do one more example to show how this database
search can save you time and effort.
For the second example let’s select Bloomington VOR
whose identifier is BMI.
1. Make sure you have turned the right cursor off from
the previous example. Now rotate the right outer knob
to display a VOR type page (figure 3-67).
| JAN D
|JACKSON
|
H
|112.60 5^E
|N 32^30.44'
|W 90^10.05'
VOR
2. Press the right C to bring the cursor on the screen
over the first character in the VOR identifier (figure 368).
3. Enter a “B” with the right inner knob (figure 3-69).
Figure 3-67
4. Use the right outer knob to position the cursor over
the second character and use the right inner knob to
select the “M” (figure 3-70). Surprise! When you
entered the “M”, the KLN 900 searched its database
for the first VOR identifier beginning with “BM” and
found BMI. You didn’t have to enter the last character. Many times you will only have to enter several
characters of the waypoint identifier and the KLN 900
will furnish the rest.
| BAC D
|BANDA ACEH
|
U
|113.40 1^W
|N 5^31.35'
|E 95^25.34'
CRSR
5. Press the right C when you are done entering data
so you can view other pages.
Figure 3-69
| JAN D
|JACKSON
|
H
|112.60 5^E
|N 32^30.44'
|W 90^10.05'
CRSR
Figure 3-68
| BMI
|BLOOMINGTON
|
L
|108.20 3^E
|N 40^28.85'
|W 88^55.87'
CRSR
Figure 3-70
3.7.2 Selecting Waypoints By Scanning
To select waypoints using the scanning method:
1. Select the desired waypoint type (APT, VOR, NDB,
INT, or SUP) on the right side by using the right outer
knob.
2. Pull the right inner knob to the "out" position.
3. Turn the right inner knob clockwise to scan through
the waypoints in alphabetical order, or counterclockwise to scan in reverse alphabetical order.
Remember that numbers are considered lower in
order than letters. Thus, the airport identifier K98
comes before KAAF.
The faster you turn the knob while scanning, the larger
the step through the waypoints. This variable rate
scanning allows you to get from one end of the list to
the other very quickly. When the knob is turned
slowly, you will go through the waypoints one at a
time.
3-21
Rev 2
3.7.3 “Nearest” And “Complete” Waypoint Scan
Lists
There are actually two waypoint scan lists for airports,
VORs, and NDBs. These two lists are the “complete” list
and the “nearest” list. The complete list contains all of the
waypoints in the database for a waypoint type (all the airports for example). The nearest list consists of the nine
nearest waypoints to your present position. Therefore, if
you are in the nearest airport list, it will contain the nine
nearest airports relative to your location. There is no
“nearest” list for intersections (INT) and supplemental
waypoints (SUP).
The nearest list is positioned in front of the complete list.
That is, you must scan backwards (turn the knob counterclockwise) through the complete list to reach the nearest
list. You will know when you have reached the nearest
list because the top right portion of the waypoint page will
flash the relative position of the waypoint to your position.
“NR1” indicates nearest (figure 3-71) while “NR 9” indicates the ninth nearest (figure 3-72). As you scan clockwise “NR 1, NR 2, NR 3,...,NR 9”, the next scan position
is the beginning of the complete list. The nearest list can
only be reached scanning backwards. It does not wrap
around after the last waypoint in the complete list.
| KHPN nr 1
|WESTCHESTER
| CO
| 6548' HRD
|L
003^t]
|
04.1nm
APT 1
| KCDW nr 9
|ESSEX CO
|
| 4553' HRD
|LPC 267^t]
|
27.7nm
APT 1
Figure 3-71
Figure 3-72
Waypoint pages displayed in the nearest list do not contain a latitude and longitude position as they do in the
complete list. Instead, the bearing and distance to the
waypoint are displayed. In addition, nearest airport pages
display the length, surface, and lighting of the longest runway. Once the nearest airport is being displayed, the
other airport pages (APT 2-APT 8) for that airport are
available for display by making sure the right inner knob
is pressed in and then turning it to select the desired airport page.
NEAREST APT|
CRITERIA |
MIN LENGTH:|
1000'|
SURFACE:
|
HRD SFT|
SET 3
The nine airports in the nearest list are the nine airports
which meet the criteria selected on the Setup 3 page
(SET 3). The SET 3 page allows you to specify what criteria you want an airport to meet before it is considered
for the nearest airport list. To specify the airport criteria:
1. Select the SET 3 page on the left side (figure 3-73).
NEAREST APT|
CRITERIA |
MIN LENGTH:|
1800'|
SURFACE:
|
HRD SFT|
CRSR
Figure 3-73
Figure 3-74
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
The cursor will appear over the minimum runway length
field.
3. Use the left inner knob to select the minimum length
runway desired for the airport to qualify for the nearest
airport list (figure 3-74). Values between 1000 feet and
5000 feet in 100 foot increments or between 300
meters and 1500 meters in 100 meter increments may
be selected.
NEAREST APT|
CRITERIA |
MIN LENGTH:|
1800'|
SURFACE:
|
HRD SFT|
CRSR
Figure 3-75
4. Rotate the left outer knob one step clockwise to position
the cursor over the runway surface criteria (figure 3-75).
3-22
Rev 2
5. Turn the left inner knob to select either HRD SFT or to
select HRD. If HRD SFT is chosen, then both hard
and soft surface runways meeting the required runway
length will be included in the nearest airport list. If
HRD is chosen, then only hard surface runways will
be included. Hard surface runways include concrete,
asphalt, pavement, tarmac, brick, bitumen, and
sealed. Soft surface runways include turf, gravel, clay,
sand, dirt, ice, steel matting, shale, and snow.
For example, if the minimum runway criteria selected is
2200 feet in length and HRD surface, then only airports
having a hard surface runway at least 2200 feet in length
will be displayed in the nearest airport list.
NOTE: The capability to display nearest airports exists
only when the KLN 900 is actually operating in the primary database coverage area. For example, if the KLN
900 contains a North American database it will not display
nearest airports while operating in Europe.
3.7.3.1 Nearest Airports In An Emergency
In the event of an emergency, a special procedure exists
to very quickly get to the beginning of the nearest airport
list:
1. Press N. The waypoint page for the nearest airport
is now displayed on the right side. The right inner
knob may now be used in the normal manner to scan
the other nearest airports (knob in the “out” position)
or to view all eight airport pages for a specific airport
(knob in the “in” position). Figure 3-71 shows an
example of a nearest APT 1 page.
3-23
Rev 2
3.7.3.2 Continuous Display Of Nearest Airport
When the nearest airport page is initially displayed, “NR
1” is displayed in the upper right hand corner of the page
to designate this airport as the nearest airport. However,
if you continue to fly along your flight plan with this page
selected, the same airport will be displayed and its position in the nearest airport list will change from NR 1 to NR
2, NR 3, NR 4 ... NR 9 until finally it won’t be in the nearest airport list at all. The reason for this is that in the
event of an actual emergency once you have determined
which airport you are heading for, you don’t want the
nearest airport list to update while you are maneuvering
or looking up data on the other airport pages for that airport.
There may be times, however, when you’re flying over
“unfriendly” terrain when you wish to always have the
nearest airport displayed on the right side of the screen
while you view another page, such as the NAV 1 page,
on the left side. The means for doing this on the KLN 900
is the following:
1. Display the nearest airport page by pressing N.
2. Press the right C.
| KHPN nr 1
|WESTCHESTER
| CO
| 6548' HRD
|L
003^t]
|
04.1nm
CRSR
3. Rotate the right outer knob clockwise to position the
cursor over “NR 1” (figure 3-76). As long as the cursor
is left in this position, this page will update so that the
nearest airport is always shown as the flight progresses.
3.7.4 Selecting Waypoints By Name Or City
When you know the identifier of the desired waypoint you
will use one of the two methods just described to select it.
However, what if you know the name but you don’t know
the identifier or your desired waypoint? You’re in luck
because the KLN 900 will allow you to enter the first few
characters of the name to help you find it in the database.
We will use a couple of examples to illustrate how this is
done. For VORs and NDBs you may use the navaid
name. For airports, you may use the airport name on the
APT 1 page or the city name (where the airport is located)
on the APT 2 page.
Figure 3-76
In this first example we want to view the information in the
KLN 900 database for Napoleon VOR (located just East
of Kansas City) but we don’t remember the identifier for it.
1. Turn the right outer knob to the VOR waypoint type.
The VOR waypoint in view is not important.
| BMI D
|BLOOMINGTON
|
|108.20 3^E
|N 40^28.85'
|W 88^55.87'
CRSR
2. Press the right C. Make sure the right inner knob is
pushed to the “in” position.
3. Rotate the right outer knob clockwise until the cursor
is over the first character in the VOR name which is
being displayed (figure 3-77).
Figure 3-77
3-24
Rev 2
4. Turn the right inner knob to display the first character
of the waypoint name, “N” in this case (figure 3-78).
|PNE
|N PHILADELP
|HIA
T
|112.00 10^W
|N 40^04.92'
|W 75^00.60'
CRSR
5. Turn the right outer knob one step clockwise and then
use the right inner knob to enter the second character,
“A” (figure 3-79).
6. Use the right outer knob and right inner knob as
before to select the third character, “P”, and fourth
character, “O” (figure 3-80). Up pops Napoleon and
its identifier, ANX!
| ABB D
|NABB
|
L
|112.40 1^E
|N 38^35.33'
|W 85^38.16'
CRSR
Figure 3-78
Figure 3-79
| ANX D
|NAPOLEON
|
L
|114.00 7^E
|N 39^05.73'
|W 94^07.72'
CRSR
Figure 3-80
7. Press the right C to turn off the cursor function so
you can view other pages.
We will now use another example to show how we may
enter a few characters and then scan through all the waypoints in the database beginning with those characters.
Let’s use this method to find the Newport News airport
located in Newport News, VA.
1. Use the right outer knob to select the airport type waypoints. If the APT 1 page is not displayed, use the
right inner knob to select the APT 1 page. The airport
displayed at this time is not important.
2. Press the right C to bring the cursor on the display.
| M01
|GEN SPAIN
|
|CL B
|N 35^12.08'
|W 90^03.09'
CRSR
3. Rotate the right outer knob to locate the cursor over
the first character in the airport name (figure 3-81).
4. Turn the right inner knob to display an “N”.
5. Use the right outer and inner knobs to enter a “E” in
the second character position and an “W” in the third
character position.
Figure 3-81
6. Rotate the right outer knob one step clockwise to
locate the cursor over the fourth character position
(figure 3-82).
You will now scan through all the airport names beginning with “NEW”.
7. Pull the right inner knob to the “out” position (figure 383).
8. Turn the right inner knob (in the “out” position) to scan
through all the airport names beginning with “NEW”.
| M72
|NEW ALBANY|UNION
|
|N 34^32.83'
|N 34^32.83'
CRSR
| M72
|NEW ALBANY|UNION
|
|N 34^32.83'
|W 89^01.45'
CRSR
Figure 3-82
Figure 3-83
There are about seventy-nine of them. Not too good
you say. We can make it a lot easier to find Newport
News if we enter another character.
9. Push the right inner knob back to the “in” position.
10.Use the right inner knob to select a “P” in the fourth
character position.
3-25
Rev 1
11.Rotate the right outer knob one more step clockwise
to position the cursor over the fifth character.
12.Pull the right inner knob to the “out” position (figure 384). Once again rotate the knob to scan through all
the airport names beginning with “NEWP”. How about
that! Now there are just a few names and Newport
News is easy to find, KPHF (figure 3-85).
To verify that this is the airport located in Newport News,
push the right inner knob to the “in” position and press the
right C, to turn off the cursor function. Select the APT 2
page for KPHF to verify that KPHF is in Newport News
(figure 3-86).
| KONP
|NEWPORT MUN
|
|
|N 44^39.82'
|W124^03.48'
CRSR
| KPHF
|NEWPORT NEW
|S
|
|N 37^07.91'
|W 76^29.58'
CRSR
Figure 3-84
Figure 3-85
| KPHF
|NEWPORT
|NEWS
VA
|ELEV
40FT
|Z-05(-04DT)
|ILS
(R)
APT 2
NOTE: This same method may be used on the APT 2
page with the name of the city where the airport is
located.
There are a few changes made to names in order to
accommodate the KLN 900 display and to make the
names easier to find.
Figure 3-86
1. Names which are too long to fit on the display are
abbreviated. The first six characters are usually
exactly correct, but the following are exceptions:
North, Northern, East, Eastern, etc. - uses N,E
Southeast, Northwest, etc. - uses SE, NW
Point - uses PT
Port - uses PT
Fort - uses FT
Saint - uses ST
General - uses GEN
Person’s name - uses initials for other than last
name unless very well known (Will Rogers
World airport)
Delete “City of” (City of Colorado Springs
Municipal)
Delete “Greater” (Greater Buffalo Intl)
Delete “The” (The Hartsfield Atlanta Intl)
2. Unless the first word is greater than eight characters,
it is usually not abbreviated.
3. Delete most punctuation such as periods and apostrophes.
4. Abbreviations for International are INTL, INT, and IN.
5. Abbreviations for Regional are REGL and REG.
3-26
Rev 2
3.8 DIRECT TO OPERATION
The D button is used to initiate Direct-To operation
(navigation from your present position direct to your destination). When D is pressed, the Direct-To page is displayed on the left side with a flashing cursor over a waypoint identifier (figure 3-87). The waypoint identifier
which appears on the Direct To page is chosen by the
KLN 900 according to the following rules:
DIRECT TO: |
|
KDEN
|
|
|
|
CRSR
1. If the Flight Plan 0 page is displayed on the left side
and the cursor is over one of the waypoint identifiers
in Flight Plan 0 when D is pressed, then that waypoint identifier will appear on the Direct To page. (You
will appreciate this feature when you learn to use flight
plans in chapter 4).
Figure 3-87
2. If the KLN 900 is displaying the Super NAV 5 page
and the right inner knob is in the “out” position when
D is pressed, then the waypoint highlighted in the
lower right hand corner of the Super NAV 5 display
will be the default waypoint. (You will also find this feature useful when operating from the active flight plan
especially during approaches).
If neither of the two previous conditions are occurring,
then:
3. If there is any waypoint page (APT 1-8 page, VOR
page, NDB page, INT page, SUP page, or ACT page)
in view on the right side when D is pressed, then
the Direct To page will contain the identifier for the
waypoint page being viewed on the right side.
If none of the previous three conditions are occurring,
then:
4. When D is pressed, the waypoint identifier for the
current active waypoint will be displayed. However, if
the active waypoint is the Missed Approach Point and
the aircraft is on the “from” side, then the KLN 900 will
display the first waypoint of the missed approach
procedure on the Direct To page.
5. If there is no Direct To waypoint and there are no waypoints in Flight Plan 0 when D is pressed, then the
Direct To page will display blanks.
All right, rules are rules, you say. But how do I perform
Direct To navigation? Since you won’t learn flight plan
operation until later, let’s see how to apply rules 3 and 4
at this time to proceed Direct To our desired destination,
Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The identifier for Wittman field in
Oshkosh is KOSH.
3-27
Rev 2
3.8.1 Direct To-Procedure 1
1. Press D. The Direct To page is displayed on the
left side (figure 3-87). The cursor will already be on
the left page. A waypoint identifier may or may not be
displayed, it doesn’t matter at this point.
DIRECT TO: |
|
K
|
|
|
|
CRSR
2. Rotate the left inner knob to select the first character
of the desired waypoint’s identifier (figure 3-88).
Remember to enter the “K”, “C”, or “P” prefix for
certain airports in North America, if required (see
section 2.3, “USE OF ICAO IDENTIFIERS”).
DIRECT TO: |
|
K
|
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 3-89
Figure 3-88
DIRECT TO: |
|
KOAJ
|
|
|
|
CRSR
3. Turn the left outer knob one step clockwise to move
the flashing portion of the cursor over the second
character position (figure 3-89).
4. Rotate the left inner knob to select the second character of the identifier (figure 3-90).
DIRECT TO: |
|
KOSH
|
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 3-91
Figure 3-90
5. Use the left outer and inner knobs as in the previous
steps until the desired identifier is completely displayed (figure 3-91).
DIRECT TO: | KOSH
|WITTMAN
KOSH
|REGL
|
|N 43^59.06'
|W 88^33.42'
CRSR enr-leg ent APT 1
6. Press E to display the waypoint page on the right
side for the selected waypoint (figure 3-92). Note: If
an incorrect identifier has been entered, you may
immediately start using the left inner knob to enter the
correct identifier.
Figure 3-92
7. Press E again to approve the displayed waypoint
page. The right side will display the NAV 1 page and
the left side will return to the page which was displayed prior to pressing D (figure 3-93). If the Direct
To was started while the NAV 1 page was shown on
the left side or the Super NAV 5 moving map page
was shown, then the left and right pages will revert to
the pages that were shown before the Direct To was
started. The selected waypoint is now the active
Direct To waypoint.
PRESENT POS|
$=KOSH
|+++++Ê+++++
LGA 045^fr|DIS
683nm
15.2nm|GS
193kt
N 41^00.03'|ETE
3:34
W 73^41.62'|BRG
303^
NAV 2 enr-leg
NAV 1
Figure 3-93
NOTE: In some cases during approach operations, the
KLN 900 presents a page asking how a waypoint is used
when the waypoint identifier is entered character by character. When this page is presented, simply choose the
desired use of the waypoint (e.g., FAF or MAHP) by moving the cursor with the left outer knob and pressing E.
Choosing the correct use of the waypoint is required to
ensure proper waypoint sequencing once the aircraft
reaches the waypoint.
PRESENT POS| KOSH
|WITTMAN
LGA 045^fr|REGL
15.2nm|
N 41^00.03'|N 43^59.06'
W 73^41.62'|W 88^33.42'
NAV 2 enr-leg
APT 1
Figure 3-94
3.8.2 Direct To-Procedure 2
1. Select the desired waypoint page on the right side
(figure 3-94) using one of the three procedures
explained in section 3.7, “SELECTING WAYPOINTS”.
DIRECT TO: | KOSH
|WITTMAN
KOSH
|REGL
|
|N 43^59.06'
|W 88^33.42'
CRSR enr-leg ent APT 1
2. Press D. The Direct To page is displayed on the
left side and it contains the desired waypoint identifier
(figure 3-95).
Figure 3-95
3-28
Rev 2
3. Press E to approve the waypoint page displayed on
the right side. The right side will now display the NAV
1 page, and the left side will return to the page which
was displayed prior to pressing D (figure 3-96). If
the Direct To was started while the NAV 1 page was
shown on the left side or the Super NAV 5 moving
map page was shown, then the left and right pages
will revert to the pages that were shown before the
Direct To was started. The selected waypoint is now
the active Direct To waypoint.
PRESENT POS|
$=KOSH
|+++++Ê+++++
LGA 045^fr|DIS
683nm
15.2nm|GS
193kt
N 41^00.03'|ETE
3:34
W 73^41.62'|BRG
303^
NAV 2 enr-leg
NAV 1
Figure 3-96
3.8.3 To Recenter The Deviation Bar
If you get off course and wish to recenter the left/right
deviation bar (D-Bar) to proceed to the same waypoint:
1. Select a non-waypoint page (NAV, D/T, REF, or CTR)
or the active waypoint page on the right side.
2. Press D. The Direct To page is displayed on the
left, containing the active waypoint identifier.
3. Press E.
NOTE: If the KLN 900 is in the approach mode and this
method is used to center the D-Bar when the missed
approach point is the active waypoint, then the approach
mode will be cancelled and the unit will revert to the
approach arm mode.
3.8.4 To Proceed Direct To Another Waypoint
You may proceed Direct To another waypoint other than
the active one by using Direct To procedure 1 or 2 at any
time.
3.8.5 Cancelling Direct To Operation
The primary reason for wanting to cancel Direct To operation is to return to flight plan operation which is described
later in section 4.2 “OPERATING FROM THE ACTIVE
FLIGHT PLAN.” To cancel Direct To operation:
1. Press D
2. Press F
3. Press E
3.8.6 Waypoint Alerting For Direct To Operation
Approximately 36 seconds prior to reaching a Direct To
waypoint, the arrow preceding the waypoint identifier on
the waypoint page for the active waypoint will begin
flashing. This arrow will also be flashing on any
Navigation page or Distance/Time (D/T) page displaying
the active waypoint identifier. On the Super NAV 5 page,
the entire waypoint identifier will start to flash. This is
called “waypoint alerting”. If an external waypoint alert
annunciator is mounted in the aircraft, this annunciator
will begin flashing at the same time.
3-29
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
3-30
Rev 2
3.9 THE NAVIGATION PAGES
As you would expect, the NAV (navigation) pages contain
information relating specifically to the KLN 900’s navigation capabilities. The KLN 900 has five NAV pages.
Unlike any other pages, these pages may be selected
and viewed on both the left and right sides of the screen.
The procedure for selecting specific pages, including the
NAV pages, was described in section 3.4.1, “Page
Selection.” This section will cover all NAV pages except
for the NAV 4 page (Vertical Navigation) which is
explained in section 5.2.
3.9.1 The Navigation 1 Page (NAV 1)
A NAV 1 page is shown in figure 3-97. A NAV 1 page
displays the following information:
KHPN =KOSH |
+++++Ê+++++|
DIS
683nm|
GS
193kt|
ETE
3:34|
BRG
303^|
NAV 1
$=KOSH |
+++++Ê+++++|
DIS
683nm|
GS
193kt|
ETE
3:34|
BRG
303^|
NAV 1
• The active navigation leg. For Direct To operation this
consists of the Direct To symbol, H, followed by the
active Direct To waypoint identifier (figure 3-97). For
the leg of a flight plan this consists of the “from” waypoint identifier and the active “to” waypoint identifier
(figure 3-98). An arrow (>) precedes the active waypoint identifier.
Figure 3-98
Figure 3-97
• A course deviation indicator (CDI) that displays left
and right deviation from the desired track. The deviation bar operates like a navigation deviation needle on
a conventional CDI or HSI. An on-course indication is
displayed when the deviation bar is centered on the
triangle in the middle of the CDI. In both modes each
dot represents one nautical mile deviation from the
desired track. Therefore, the CDI shows course deviation five nautical miles left and right of course. For
example, a deviation bar positioned two dots to the
right of the center triangle indicates that the aircraft is
two nautical miles to the left of course (figure 3-99).
The center triangle also serves as the CDI’s
TO/FROM indicator and operates in the same manner
as a conventional CDI TO/FROM indicator; an “up” triangle indicates “to” the active waypoint while a “down”
triangle (figure 3-100) indicates “from” the active waypoint. The word “FLAG” is displayed over the CDI
when the KLN 900 is not usable for navigation (figure
3-101).
KOSH
KHPN =KOSH |
+++++i+fl+++|
DIS
683nm|
GS
193kt|
ETE
3:34|
BRG
303^|
NAV 1
2N
M
KHPN
Figure 3-99
=KOSH |
+++++Ï+++++|
DIS
18nm|
GS
193kt|
ETE
:06|
BRG
123^|
NAV 1
NOTE: It is possible to change the CDI scale factor to be
0.2 nm per dot or 0.06 nm per dot. See section 5.9.8.
• Distance (DIS) to the active waypoint.
• Groundspeed (GS)
Figure 3-100
|
++F L A G++|
DIS --.-nm|
GS
---kt|
ETE
--:--|
BRG
---^|
NAV 1
Figure 3-101
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) to the active waypoint.
• Bearing (BRG) to the active waypoint.
3-31
Rev 2
3.9.2 The Super NAV 1 Page
When the NAV 1 page is selected on both the left and
right sides at the same time, the Super NAV 1 page is
displayed (figure 3-102). The Super NAV 1 page contains
exactly the same information as the standard NAV 1 page
but spreads the data out across the entire screen making
it even easier to view. The word “FLAG” is displayed over
the CDI when the KLN 900 is not usable for navigation.
$=KOSH
DIS
GS
683nm
193kt
ETE
BRG
NAV 1 enr-leg
3:34
303^
NAV 1
Figure 3-102
3.9.3 The Navigation 2 Page (NAV 2)
The NAV 2 page in figure 3-103 displays the aircraft’s
present position in two formats. The first format is in
terms of the distance and radial from a nearby VOR.
(Although terminal VORs are in the database, they are
not used on this page since many aeronautical charts do
not display a compass rose around them for orientation
purposes). The second format is in latitude and longitude.
PRESENT POS|
|
LGA 045^fr|
15.2nm|
N 41^00.03'|
W 73^41.62'|
NAV 2
NOTE: When flying non-precision approach procedures
that contain DME arcs, the VOR/DME station that defines
the arc is always displayed on the NAV 2 page even if the
reference is a terminal VOR/DME. This occurs when the
aircraft is within 30 NM of the arc.
Figure 3-103
$=OSH |
DTK
303^|
TK
302^|
FLY L 2.7nm|
MSA 3300ft|
ESA 5500ft|
NAV 3
3.9.4 The Navigation 3 Page (NAV 3)
The NAV 3 page, such as shown in figure 3-104, displays
the following supplementary navigation information:
•
Desired track (DTK) - The great circle course between
two waypoints. Any CDI or HSI driven by the KLN
900, including the CDI displayed on the NAV 1 page,
is referenced to this DTK. You may wish to view the
navigation terminology diagram in Appendix A at this
time if you are unfamiliar with terms like desired track
and actual track.
Figure 3-104
=KOSH |
OBS
281^|
TK
302^|
FLY R 0.2nm|
MSA 3000ft|
ESA 3700ft|
NAV 3
NOTE: If the KLN 900 is in the OBS mode, the selected
course (OBS) is displayed instead of the desired track on
the NAV 3 page (figure 3-105).
•
Actual track (TK) - The aircraft’s present track over the
ground. Note: If there is insufficient velocity, the KLN
900 will display dashes (- - -) instead of the actual
track.
•
Cross track error correction - This is a text means of
indicating how far and which direction to get back on
course. It is consistent with the vertical deviation bar
displayed on the NAV 1 page. “FLY L 2.7 NM”
means fly left 2.7 nautical miles to get on course.
Figure 3-105
3-32
Rev 2
•
Minimum Safe Altitude for present position (MSA) IMPORTANT: The minimum safe altitude displayed
is the altitude defined by Jeppesen as “Grid Minimum
Off-Route Altitude (Grid MORA)”. This altitude is
derived by Jeppesen for sectors which are one degree
of latitude by one degree of longitude in size. One
degree of latitude is 60 nautical miles. One degree of
longitude is 60 nautical miles at the equator and progressively less than 60 nautical miles as one travels
away from the equator. One degree of longitude is
approximately 50 nautical miles at the southern most
parts of the U.S. and is approximately 40 nautical
miles at the northern most parts of the U.S. The MSA
altitude information is contained in the database and
is updated when the database cartridge is updated.
clear all reference points by 1000 feet in areas where
the highest reference points are 5000 feet MSL or
lower. MORA values clear all reference points by
2000 feet in areas where the highest reference points
are 5001 feet MSL or higher”. The KLN 900 displays
dashes for areas outside the database coverage area
or for areas where the Grid MORA is not defined.
•
The minimum safe altitude (MSA) provides “reference
point” clearance within these one degree latitude by
one degree longitude sectors. Jeppesen defines a
reference point as “a natural (Peak, Knoll, Hill, Etc.) or
man-made (Tower, Stack, Tank, Building, etc.)
object”. Jeppesen states the following about the Grid
Minimum Off-Route altitude: “Grid MORA values
Minimum Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA). IMPORTANT:
When the KLN 900 is in the Leg mode, the minimum
enroute safe altitude is the highest MSA sector altitude from the present position to the active waypoint,
then to the destination waypoint along the active flight
plan. See figure 3-106. When the KLN 900 is in the
OBS mode, the minimum enroute safe altitude is the
highest MSA sector altitude from the present position
to the active waypoint.
WARNING: The MSA and ESA altitudes displayed are
advisory in nature only. They should not be relied
upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain
avoidance information. Refer to current aeronautical
charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
MINIMUM ENROUTE SAFE ALTITUDE (ESA)
ESA (MSL)
MSA (MSL)
1°
LA
T.
1° LONG.
Figure 3-106
3-33
Rev 2
3.9.5 The Navigation 4 Page (NAV 4)
The NAV 4 page (figure 3-107) is used for altitude alerting
and for advisory vertical navigation (VNAV). The operation of altitude alerting is described in section 3.15 and
the operation of VNAV is described in section 5.2.
VNV
6200ft|
|
IND 6300ft|
SEL: 3500ft|
KOSH :-03nm|
ANGLE:-1.8^|
NAV 4
3.9.6 The Navigation 5 Page (NAV 5)
The NAV 5 page provides a graphical “moving map”
which displays your aircraft’s current position relative to
the active waypoint or other flight plan waypoints. In all
KLN 900 installations there are three common map orientation formats that may be selected on the NAV 5 page:
a North up (N?) display, a desired track up (DTK?) display, or an actual track up (TK?) display. In addition, if
the KLN 900 is interfaced with a source of heading in a
compatible format then a heading up (HDG?) presentation may also be selected. When the North up display is
selected, viewing the NAV 5 page is like looking at a navigation chart with North at the top. When the desired track
up display is selected, viewing the NAV 5 page is like
looking at a chart that is turned so that your course line is
always pointing up. When the actual track up display is
selected, viewing the NAV 5 page is like looking at a chart
that is turned so that the direction the aircraft is tracking
over the ground is pointing up. In a no wind condition,
actual track is identical to the aircraft’s heading.
Figure 3-107
1:KMDT
; 2:LRP
< 3:MXE
4:KPHL
5:
|
|
|
|
|
|123^
FPL 0 enr-leg
4
3
40
NAV 5
2
Figure 3-108
*
1
2
i
j
CAUTION: When using the actual track up (TK?) format it is typical for there to be a slight delay from the
time a heading change is made until the correct map
orientation is displayed. Be careful when using
either the desired track up (DTK?) display or the
actual track up (TK?) display to not think that a heading up display is being used.
3
NŸ
NAV 5
|
|
|
4 |
|
40|
Figure 3-109
In chapter 4 of this Pilot’s Guide you will learn to use flight
plan operation where the NAV 5 page really becomes
useful. When navigating using flight plan operation, the
active flight plan (FPL 0) waypoints are displayed using
the number associated with the waypoint as it appears on
the FPL 0 page (figure 3-108). Thus, the position of the
third waypoint in FPL 0, MXE, is indicated by a 3 on the
NAV 5 page. Lines connect the flight plan waypoints. An
arrow points to the active waypoint and shows the current
flight plan leg.
1
2
i
j
3
NŸ
CRSR
|
|
|
4 |
|
40|
Figure 3-110
When operating Direct To a waypoint which is not in the
active flight plan the Direct To waypoint is indicated on
the NAV 5 page by an asterisk(*) (figure 3-109).
1
To select the desired NAV 5 orientation, press the appropriate C (left C if NAV 5 page is on left side and vice
versa). The cursor will be over the map range scale (figure 3-110). Turn the appropriate outer knob one step
counterclockwise to position the cursor over the map ori-
2
i
j
NŸ
CRSR
3
|
|
|
4 |
|
40|
Figure 3-111
3-34
Rev 2
entation field (figure 3-111). Rotate the appropriate inner
knob to display N? for North up, DTK? for desired track
up (figure 3-112), TK? for actual track up (figure 3-113),
or HDG? for heading up (figure 3-114). The heading up
selection is not presented as a choice if heading is not
provided to the KLN 900. If the cursor is moved to the
map range scale using the outer knob or if the cursor is
turned off with the C button, then the DTK?, TK?, or
HDG? annunciation is replaced with the actual value.
The 123 ° displayed in the lower left corner of figure 3115 shows how the actual track angle is displayed when
the cursor is not over the map orientation field as it was in
figure 3-113.
4
4
|
|
|
|
|
40|
3
i
j
DTKŸ 2
CRSR
3
2
TKŸ
CRSR
Figure 3-112
4
If a heading input is available to the KLN 900 then heading up is usually the best map orientation to select.
Otherwise, actual track up display is usually preferred for
use in flight. However, the track up display is only usable
when the aircraft is moving 2 knots or more so the North
up display may be a good choice while operating with
very slow ground speeds.
Figure 3-113
4
|
|
|
|
|
40|
3
HDGŸ 2
CRSR
3
123^ 2
CRSR
Figure 3-114
Notice that in both the North up format and the desired
track up format, the aircraft’s position is depicted by a diamond. In the actual track up format and the heading up
format, the aircraft’s position is depicted by an aircraft
symbol.
|
|
|
|
|
40|
Figure 3-115
2
The range scale is displayed in the lower right corner of
the NAV 5 page. The range scale indicates the distance
from the aircraft’s position (the diamond or aircraft symbol) to the top of the screen. Range scale selections from
1 NM to 1000 NM or from 2 km to 1850 km may be made
by pressing the appropriate C and turning the appropriate inner knob. For example, figure 3-116 illustrates the
results of changing the range scale of the map in figure 3110 from 40 nautical miles to 15 nautical miles.
|
|
|
|
|
40|
i
j
|
|
|
|
3|
15|
NŸ
CRSR
Figure 3-116
| PTW D
|POTTSTOWN
|
L
i
j 3 4 |116.50 9^W
|N 40^13.33'
NŸ
40|W 75^33.64'
NAV 5 enr-leg
VOR
When the NAV 5 page is displayed on the left side of the
screen and any selected waypoint page is displayed on
the right side, the location of the selected waypoint is indicated by a “+” on the NAV 5 page (figure 3-117). Of
course, the display scale must be chosen which allows
the selected waypoint to be displayed.
1
2
+
Figure 3-117
3-35
Rev 2
3.9.7 The Super NAV 5 Page
Regardless of whether you ultimately learn to use just the
Direct To capabilities of the KLN 900 or whether you master all of its sophisticated features, you will definitely want
to learn how to use the Super NAV 5 page! The Super
NAV 5 page provides you with a true moving map display
of your present position and route of flight in relation to
nearby navaids and airports. The Super NAV 5 page is
displayed by selecting the NAV 5 page on both the left
and right sides at the same time (figure 3-118). As you
can see, the Super NAV 5 page has a unique format
unlike any other KLN 900 page. This is done so that you
get the maximum amount of screen dedicated to graphics
display. There are no page display indicators in the lower
left and right segments of the display to tell you the Super
NAV 5 page is being displayed. However, you will soon
learn to recognize the Super NAV 5 page by its unique
format. The mode annunciation, which normally appears
in the lower center segment of the screen, is now located
on the far left side. The message prompt is now located
in the lower left corner of the graphics display.
9.2 oq
LRP
|
xy-«} |
200 uv
áà0:03|
ûü113^|
†ü113^|60
KPHL
MXE
LRP
KMDT
Figure 3-118
The left side of the Super NAV 5 page shows the
following information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Distance to the active waypoint
The active waypoint identifier
Mode of operation
Groundspeed
*Estimated time enroute, cross track error, or VNAV
status
*Desired track, bearing to active waypoint, or radial
from active waypoint
*Actual track, bearing to active waypoint, or radial from
active waypoint
The lines above with an * in front can be configured by
the pilot to display any of the items listed. This is done by
pressing the left C and rotating the left outer knob
counterclockwise until it is over the desired line. Turn the
left inner knob to choose between items for a given line.
When all selections are complete, turn off the cursor by
pressing the left C.
The map scale is also changed by using the left cursor
button. To change the map scale, press the left C to
place the cursor over the map scale factor at the bottom
left corner of the map display. Turn the left inner knob to
select a map scale. The map scale choices are the same
as for the NAV 5 page except there is an additional
choice, AUTO, that is located between the 1 and 1000
nm (or 2 km to 1850 km) scale factors. The AUTO scale
factor will automatically choose the smallest map scale
that will display the active waypoint and, if there is one,
the waypoint after the active waypoint. Choosing the
AUTO scale factor means there is one less item for you to
worry about. This is especially helpful when conducting
non-precision approaches using the KLN 900.
3-36
Rev 2
Like the NAV 5 page, the Super NAV 5 page shows a
graphics depiction of the direct to waypoint or the waypoints making up the active flight plan. But surprise number one is that the Super NAV 5 page shows alphanumeric waypoint identifiers on the graphics display to make
orientation even easier for you.
Now surprise number two. You may elect to have nearby
VORs, NDBs, and/or airports added to the graphics display! To do so, press the right C to display a pop up
menu on the right side of the screen (figure 3-119).
Notice from the menu that a circle with a dot in the center
represents a VOR, a smaller circle represents a NDB,
and a small diamond represents an airport. The VORs,
NDBs, and airports displayed are those from the nearest
waypoint lists described in section 3.7.3, “Nearest and
Complete Waypoint Scan Lists.”
8.6 oq
LRP
|
xy-«} |
200 uv
áà0:03|
ûü113^|
†ü113^|60
VOR:OFF
NDB:OFF
APT:OFF
113^†üŸ
LRP
KMDT
Figure 3-119
When the menu is first displayed the cursor will be on the
VOR selection field. Rotate the right inner knob to display
one of the following: TLH, LH (figure 3-120), H, or OFF.
8.6 oq
LRP
|
xy-«} |
200 uv
áà0:03|
ûü113^|
†ü113^|60
TLH Terminal, low altitude, and high altitude VORs are
selected. In addition, VORs of undefined class will
be displayed. In some parts of the world VORs are
not classified into one of the three standard classes:
therefore, TLH must be selected to display these
undefined class VORs.
VOR: LH
NDB:OFF
APT:OFF
113^†üŸ
ETX
LRP
RAV
KMDT
Figure 3-120
LH Only low altitude and high altitude VORs will be displayed.
H
Only high altitude VORs will be displayed.
OFF No VORs displayed
In a like manner NDBs and/or airports may be selected
by first using the right outer knob to move the cursor over
the NDB or APT selection field and then using the right
inner knob to select ON or OFF. The example in figure
3-121 shows low and high altitude VORs as well as NDBs
having been selected. Notice that the range scale has
been changed from 60 nm to 40 nm. At most, the moving
map will display the 9 nearest VOR’s, the 9 nearest
NDB’s, the 9 nearest airports, and your active flight plan
waypoints.
AB
8.6 oq
ETX
LRP
|
xy-«} | LQX
200 uv
LRP
áà0:03|
ûü113^|
BZJ
†ü113^|40 RAV
VOR: LH
NDB: ON
APT:OFF
113^†üŸ
Figure 3-121
The map orientation can be changed by moving the cursor to the bottom line of the pop-up menu and rotating the
right inner knob. The map orientation choices are the
same as for the NAV 5 page: North up (N?), desired
track up (DTK?), actual track up (TK?), or heading up
(HDG?, if a proper source of heading is provided).
Remember that for actual track up, graphics are displayed only when the aircraft’s groundspeed is greater
than 2 knots.
AB
9.1 oq
ETX
LRP
|
xy-«} | LQX
200uv
LRP
áà0:03|
ûü113^|
BZJ
†ü113^|60 RAV
When the desired selections have been made, press the
right C to remove the menu (figure 3-122).
APG
Figure 3-122
3-37
Rev 2
The last surprise for this page is that it is possible for you
to change the active waypoint to any of the flight plan
waypoints without having to leave this very useful page.
This is done by pulling on the right inner knob to place it
in the “out” position. This will create a “window” at the
bottom right corner of the display that will initially contain
the active waypoint in reverse video (figure 3-123). The
waypoint contained in this “window” will be the default
waypoint when D is pressed. By turning the right inner
knob it is possible to scan through the waypoints of the
active flight plan. Turning the knob clockwise will scan
through the waypoints in sequence until the end of the
flight plan is reached. Turning the knob counter-clockwise
will scan through the active flight plan in reverse order
until the beginning of the flight plan is reached. Pushing
the right inner knob back to the “in” position will remove
the “window” from the graphics portion of the display. An
example of how to use this technique is presented in section 4.3.2.
AB
9.0 oq
ETX
LRP
|
xy-«} | LQX
200 uv
LRP
áà0:03|
ûü113^|
BZJ
RAV
†ü113^|40
APG
LRP
Figure 3-123
The following operational hints will make using the Super
NAV 5 more enjoyable.
•
It is easy to clutter the display with so much data that
it is unusable. Select a range scale that allows an
uncluttered presentation of the chosen VORs, NDBs,
and airports. Or, select another combination of VORs,
NDBs, and airports from the menu. Experiment and
continue to make new selections for different phases
of your trip. For example, you may find that in the
enroute part of the flight, selecting high altitude VORs
provides you with enough information; while in the terminal area, selecting a smaller range scale results in
the most informative display.
•
Press F to instantly declutter the VOR, NDB, and
airport selections from the graphics display. Flight
plan and Direct To waypoints will still be displayed.
Press F again to restore the selections.
•
While taxiing on the airport or flying in the traffic pattern, select the 1 NM or 2 NM scale to display the airport runway diagram instead of the usual airport diamond symbol. All runway designations are shown on
the 1 NM scales (figure 3-124). If the 2 NM scale is
selected, then the runway designations are shown
only for the longest runway. If your KLN 900 is not
provided a heading input you may wish to select a
North up display while the aircraft is on the airport
since an actual track up graphics presentation can
only be displayed when the aircraft is moving at least
2 knots.
355 oq
KTIK |
xy-«} |
0 uv
áà-\--|
ûü039^|
†ü---^|1
14R
i
j
KRND
32R
32L
Figure 3-124
CAUTION: The NAV 5 and Super NAV 5 pages do not
display weather, terrain, special use airspace, or
other data.
3-38
Rev 2
3.10 SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE ALERT
The KLN 900 database contains the location of areas of
special use airspace (SUA). The types of SUA areas
stored in the database and the abbreviations used to
denote these areas are the following:
Class B
Class C
Control Area (used outside USA)
Terminal Area (used outside USA)
Alert Area
Caution Area
Danger Area
Military Operations Area
Prohibited Area
Restricted Area
Training Area
Warning Area
CL B
CL C
CTA
TMA
ALRT
CAUT
DNGR
MOA
PROH
REST
TRNG
WARN
The KLN 900 will normally alert you prior to entering one
of these areas with a message prompt. When the
Message page is viewed it will display AIRSPACE
ALERT and will also display the name and type of the
special use airspace (figure 3-125). If the special use airspace is a Class B, Class C, CTA, or TMA, the message
page will also instruct you to see the Airport 4 page (airport communications) for the primary airport so that the
correct communications frequency may be determined
(figure 3-126).
AIRSPACE ALERT:
COLUMBUS FOUR
MEM CENTER
1000ft t] 18000ft
MOA
enr-leg msg
Figure 3-125
The SUA alert feature is three dimensional. The SUA
areas are stored in the KLN 900 database with regard to
altitude when the actual SUA altitude limitations are
charted in terms of mean sea level (MSL). Therefore, if
you are flying either above or below an SUA area you
won’t be inconvenienced with nuisance alert messages.
However, if the actual lower limit of a SUA is charted in
terms of an altitude above ground level (AGL), then it is
stored in the KLN 900 as all altitudes below the upper
limit of the SUA. If the actual upper limit of an SUA is
charted in terms of AGL, it is stored in the KLN 900 as
“unlimited”.
AIRSPACE ALERT:
OMAHA
CL C
SEE KOMA APT 4 PAGE
BELOW 5000FT
enr-leg msg
Figure 3-126
ALTITUDE
|
|
BARO:29.92"|
ALERT: OFF |
|
|
CRSR
Figure 3-127
If the altitude input to the KLN 900 is pressure altitude
from an altitude encoder or air data computer, then you
must manually update the KLN 900 with an altimeter setting (baro correction) in order to receive accurate SUA
alerting. You may easily update the altimeter setting
(barometric pressure) by pressing the A button to display the Altitude page (figure 3-127). The cursor will be
over the inches field if “inches” was previously selected
on the SET 7 page. If “millibars” was selected on the
SET 7 page then the cursor will be over the first two digits
of the millibar field. The left inner knob is used to change
the digits and the left outer knob is used to move the cursor to the desired position. When the altimeter setting is
complete, press A to return to the pages previously in
view.
3-39
Rev 2
stored as “cylinders” of airspace so all altitudes below the
upper limit of these areas are considered to be in the
SUA.
CAUTION: Failure to keep the altimeter baro setting
updated will result in inaccurate special use airspace
alerting. If this feature is used, it is a good idea to
update the altimeter baro setting on the ALT page
each time you make a change to an aircraft’s altimeter setting.
The message prompt for a special use airspace alert will
occur when the aircraft’s position is at a point such that a
projection of the aircraft’s existing track over the ground is
approximately 10 minutes from penetrating the outer
boundary of one of these areas. It will also occur if the
aircraft is within approximately two nautical miles of one
of these areas even if the aircraft’s projected track over
the ground won’t actually penetrate the SUA area (figure
3-128). If one of the SUA areas is penetrated, another
message will state: INSIDE SPC USE AIRSPACE.
NOTE: If there is no altitude input to the KLN 900, all altitudes will be regarded as being within the boundary of the
SUA area.
Only the outer lateral boundaries are stored for Class B,
Class C, CTA, and TMA airspace. These SUA areas are
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE ALERT
10 MIN
2 MILES
Figure 3-128
3-40
Rev 2
The SUA alert feature may be disabled (or enabled) on
the Setup 8 (SET 8) page, shown in figure 3-129. After
displaying the SET 8 page on the left side, press the left
C to turn on the left cursor function. The left inner knob
is used to display AIRSPACE ALERT ENABLE or AIRSPACE ALERT DISABLE.
AIRSPACE
ALERT
DISABLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
SET 8
If the SUA alert feature has been enabled, the KLN 900
allows you to select a vertical buffer on the SET 8 page
(figure 3-130) in order to provide an additional layer of
protection from inadvertently entering a SUA area. To
select a vertical buffer, make sure the SUA alert feature
has been enabled. Press the left C to turn on the left
cursor and then use the left outer knob to move the cursor over the first position of the vertical buffer (figure 3131). Use the left outer knob to position the cursor and
the left inner knob to select each number (figure 3-132).
The buffer may be selected in one hundred foot or ten
meter increments. After the desired selection has been
made, press the left C to turn off the cursor function.
Figure 3-129
AIRSPACE
ALERT
ENABLE
|
|
|
|
VERT BUFFER|
±00500ft|
CRSR
Figure 3-131
AIRSPACE
ALERT
ENABLE
|
|
|
|
VERT BUFFER|
±00500ft|
SET 8
Figure 3-130
AIRSPACE
ALERT
ENABLE
|
|
|
|
VERT BUFFER|
±01000ft|
CRSR
Figure 3-132
The vertical buffer serves to “stretch” the SUA area in
both directions by the selected buffer altitude. For example, let’s say you have selected a buffer of 1000 feet and
the actual SUA area exists from 5,000 feet MSL to 12,000
feet MSL. In this case you will receive SUA alert messages if you fly at any altitude between 4,000 and 13,000
feet MSL.
CAUTION: It is the pilot’s responsibility to avoid
those areas of special use airspace where ATC clearance to penetrate is required but has not been
obtained. The KLN 900’s special use airspace alert is
only a tool to assist the pilot and should never be
relied upon as the sole means of avoiding these
areas.
NOTE: Special Use Airspace alerting is disabled when in
the approach arm or approach active modes.
3-41
Rev 2
3.11 VIEWING THE WAYPOINT PAGES
You learned in section 3.7, “SELECTING WAYPOINTS”,
the different means of selecting the desired waypoint.
You will now see what information may be displayed for
each of the waypoint types (airport, VOR, NDB, intersection, and supplemental).
3.11.1 Airport Pages
There are eight airport pages (APT 1, APT 2, ..., APT 8)
for every airport in the published database. The database
primary area contains public use and military airports that
have a runway at least 1000 feet in length (see section
2.2, "Database Coverage Areas and Contents"). We will
use Orlando Executive airport to illustrate what is
contained on the airport pages.
|=KORL
|EXECUTIVE
|
|CL B
|N 28^32.71'
|W 81^19.99'
3.11.2 The Airport 1 Page (APT 1)
See figure 3-133.
•
Airport identifier. An arrow precedes the identifier if it
is the active waypoint.
•
Airport name.
•
If the airport underlies the outer boundary of a Class B
or C airspace, CTA (Control Area - used outside
USA), or TMA (Terminal Area - used outside USA),
the letters CL B, CL C, CTA, or TMA, respectively,
will appear on the left side of this line. Note that there
is no altitude information applied to this criteria.
Figure 3-133
In addition, if the airport is a military airport the letters
MILTRY will appear on the right side of this line. If the
airport is a private airport the letters PRIVAT will
appear on the right side of the line. HELIPT will
appear when heliports are displayed.
•
|=KORL nr 1
|EXECUTIVE
|
| 5998' HRD
|L
132^t]
|
03.1nm
The latitude and longitude of the airport reference
point (the “official” location of the airport).
As shown in figure 3-134, the APT 1 page has a different
format when it is displayed as one of the nine nearest airports (see section 3.7.3 “Nearest And Complete Waypoint
Scan List” and section 3.7.3.1 “Nearest Airports In An
Emergency”.
•
To the right of the airport identifier are the letters “NR”
followed by a number designating the nearest airport
(NR 1), second nearest airport (NR 2), etc. to the aircraft’s present position.
•
The length, surface, and lighting of the longest runway.
•
The bearing and distance to the airport.
Figure 3-134
3-42
Rev 2
3.11.3 The Airport 2 Page (APT 2)
See figure 3-135.
•
Airport identifier. An arrow precedes the identifier if it
is the active waypoint.
•
The city where the airport is located.
•
The state if the airport is located in the United States,
the Province if located in Canada, or the country outside the United States and Canada. A listing of the
abbreviations used for States, Provinces, and countries is contained in Appendix D.
•
Airport elevation. The elevation is rounded to the
nearest 10 feet or nearest meter.
•
Time in relationship to UTC (Zulu). Z-05, for example,
indicates local standard time is five hours behind UTC
time. If the airport is located in an area which
observes daylight savings time, the information in
parentheses shows the daylight savings time in relationship to UTC.
•
Instrument approach information.
|=KORL
|ORLANDO FL
|
|ELV
110ft
|Z-05(-04DT)
|ILS
(R)
APT 2
Figure 3-135
ILS
- airport has an ILS (instrument landing
system) approach.
MLS
- airport has an MLS (microwave landing
system) approach.
ILS/MLS - airport has ILS and MLS approaches.
NP APR - airport has a non-precision approach
and no ILS or MLS.
NO APR - airport does not have an instrument
approach.
•
The symbol (R) designates that the airport is serviced
by an Approach/Departure control facility having radar
capability. If you are on an instrument flight plan, you
know whether to expect vectors to the final approach
course or whether you will have to do your own transition. If you are VFR, you know whether or not the
Approach/Departure control is capable of providing
separation advisories.
3.11.4 The Airport 3 Page (APT 3)
The function of the APT 3 page is to display runway information for the selected airport. For many airports the first
APT 3 page depicts a North up runway diagram for the
airport as shown in figure 3-136 for KORL.
|
|
|
|
|
|
NOTE: This runway diagram is present only for those airports where Jeppesen’s data contains the position of the
runway thresholds.
13
25
07
31
APT[3
Figure 3-136
3-43
Rev 2
The primary APT 3 page (figure 3-137) follows the runway diagram. Runway designation, lighting, and types of
surface for up to five runways are displayed in order of
length, beginning with the longest. Since there are many
times when all of an airport’s runway information does not
fit on one page, additional APT 3 pages are used to display the data. Remember that a “+” inserted between the
page type and the number (APT+3 in this case) is used to
indicate that there is more than one Airport 3 page.
•
Airport identifier. An arrow precedes the identifier if it
is the active waypoint.
•
The letters “RT” followed by a runway designation
indicate that the runway normally has a right hand
traffic pattern. In figure 3-137, RT 25 31 designates
that runways 25 and 31 have a right hand traffic pattern.
•
Runway number designation for both ends of the runway.
•
Runway lighting availability.
L
- runway lighting sunset to sunrise
LPC - runway lighting is pilot controlled
LPT - runway lighting is part-time or onrequest
-blank indicates no runway lighting
Runway length.
•
•
|=KORL
| RT 25 31
|07 /25 L
| 5998' HRD
|13 /31 L
| 4638' HRD
APT[3
Figure 3-137
Runway surface:
HRD - hard surface (includes asphalt,
concrete, pavement, sealed, tarmac, brick,
and bitumen)
TRF - turf
GRV - gravel
CLY - clay
SND - sand
DRT - dirt
ICE - ice
MAT - steel matting
SHL - shale
SNW - snow
- Blank indicates runway surface
type is unknown.
In the event that there is no runway information for an
airport, the following message is displayed on the APT 3
page:
RUNWAY DATA NOT AVAILABLE
3-44
Rev 2
3.11.5 The Airport 4 Page (APT 4)
See figure 3-138
|=KORL
|ATIS*127.25
|CLR *118.05
|GRND*121.40
|TWR *118.70
|CTAF*118.70
APT[4
The APT 4 page is used to display communication frequencies for the selected airport.
•
Airport identifier. An arrow precedes the identifier if it
is the active waypoint.
•
Frequencies for:
ATIS - automatic terminal information service
PTAX - pre-taxi clearance
CLR - clearance delivery
GRND - ground control
RAMP - ramp/taxi control
TWR - tower
UNIC - unicom
MCOM - multicom
CTAF - common traffic advisory frequency
RDO - radio
MF
- mandatory frequency
ATF
- aerodrome traffic frequency
AFIS - aerodrome flight information service
CL B - Class B airspace (VFR frequency)
CL C - Class C airspace (VFR frequency)
TRSA - terminal radar service area (VFR
frequency)
CTA - control area (VFR frequency used out
side USA)
TMA - terminal area (VFR frequency used
outside USA)
APR - approach control
DEP - departure control
CTR - center (when center is used for
approach/departure control)
ARVL - arrival
RDR - radar-only frequency
DIR
- director (approach control/radar)
ASOS - automated surface observation system
AWOS - automatic weather observing station
AAS - aeronautical advisory service
PCL - pilot controlled lighting
Figure 3-138
In addition to the standard VHF frequencies shown in figure 3-138, HF frequencies are shown at airports that utilize “high frequency” communications that fall in the 2000
kHz to 30,000 kHz frequency band. These are typically
used in remote areas of the world. One way to tell HF
frequencies is that they do not contain a decimal point. A
display of 6547 would indicate a frequency of 6,547 kHz.
Airports which have numerous communication frequencies will have multiple Airport 4 pages indicated by
APT+4.
Part-time operation, such as for a control tower, is indicated with an * to the left of a frequency.
3-45
Rev 2
The frequencies associated with CL B, CL C, TRSA,
CTA, or TMA are VFR frequencies. Airports which have
one of these categories of frequencies also have APR
and DEP which are IFR frequencies.
|=KORL
|APR 121.10
| REF: KMCO
| 311^- 60^
| BEL 5500ft
|
APT[4
Where required, APR, DEP, CL B, CL C, TRSA, CTA,
and TMA frequencies are sectorized. That is, a frequency may be used only within a certain range of radials
from a designated reference location. The format for displaying the sectorization is to show the frequency first, followed by the identifier of the associated reference point,
followed next by the associated altitude restrictions. For
example, figure 3-139 shows that the Orlando approach
control frequency 121.10 MHz is used between the 311°
radial and the 60° radial from KMCO (Orlando
International airport) for altitudes at and below 5500 feet.
Figure 3-139
NOTE: When an altitude restriction is shown on the
Airport 4 page, the abbreviation BEL means at and below
the specified altitude. Likewise, the abbreviation ABV
means at and above the specified altitude. Thus, ABV
4000FT means at and above 4000 feet and BEL 3999ft
means at and below 3999 feet.
In a few cases, APR, DEP, CL B, CL C, TRSA, CTA, and
TMA frequencies are sectorized such that the restriction
cannot be displayed on a single page. When this occurs
the following message is displayed on the APT 4 page:
TEXT OF FREQUENCY USAGE NOT DISPLAYED
There are also some airports in the database for which no
communications information is available. The following
message is then displayed on the APT 4 page:
COMM FREQ DATA NOT AVAILABLE
3-46
Rev 2
3.11.6 The Airport 5 Page (APT 5)
The Airport 5 page is used to store and display userentered remarks. These remarks might include information on lodging, dining, airport services, phone numbers,
or anything else you desire to record for later use. Up to
100 airports may contain these remarks. A remark may
contain up to three lines of eleven characters each.
Letters, numbers, hyphens, and spaces may be used in
the remark. To enter a remark:
•
Select the APT 5 page for the desired airport (figure
3-140).
•
Press the right C .
•
Rotate the right outer knob until the cursor fills the
entire third line of the screen (figure 3-141).
•
Use the right inner knob to select the first character of
the remark.
•
Use the right outer knob to move the flashing portion
of the cursor to the second cursor position, and then
use the right inner knob to select the second character.
•
Use the right outer and inner knobs to select the rest
of the first line of the remark (figure 3-142).
•
Press E to approve the first line. The cursor will
move to the next line (figure 3-143).
•
Use the above procedure to select the characters for
the second and third lines of the remark. Press E
to individually approve each line of the remark.
•
Press the right C to turn the right cursor function off
(figure 3-144).
|=KORL
|REMARKS:
|
|
|
|
APT 5
Figure 3-140
|=KORL
|REMARKS:
| BESTJET!!
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 3-142
|=KORL
|REMARKS:
| BESTJET
| MOTEL 407
| 123-4567
|
APT 5
The Other 4 page (OTH 4) includes a listing of all airports
whose APT 5 pages contain remarks (figure 3-145). To
delete a previously entered airport remark, select the
Other 4 page, position the left cursor over the desired airport identifier, press F, and then press E. If there are
more than five airports with remarks, you will have to use
the left outer knob to scroll the cursor down the list on the
Other 4 page to find the desired airport identifier.
Figure 3-144
3-47
|=KORL
|REMARKS:
|
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 3-141
|=KORL
|REMARKS:
| BESTJET
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 3-143
APTS W/RMKS|
KCOS
|
KDEN
|
KORL
|
KHPN
|
M39
|
OTH 4
Figure 3-145
Rev 2
3.11.7 The Airport 6 Page (APT 6)
The APT 6 page shows aeronautical services available for
the selected airport. These services include customs, fuel,
and oxygen availability as well as an indicator to denote
the presence of a landing fee. Refer to figure 3-146.
•
|=KORL
|
|100 JET
|
|NO OXYGEN
|NO FEE INFO
APT 6
Customs information is displayed as follows:
CUSTOMS-FULL Customs facilities are available
without restriction
NO CUSTOMS No customs facilities are
available
CUSTMS-PR
Customs facilities are available
but require prior request or
permission for use
CUSTMS-REST Customs facilities are available
on a restricted basis, check
with the airport before planning
to use
CUSTMS-ADCS Customs are available for
private aircraft arriving to the
U.S. from Canada or Mexico.
Advance notice of arrival to
customs officers is to be
included in the flight plan
transmitted to an FAA facility.
This code is used when this is
the only type customs facility
available. The FAA term for
the service is “ADCUS”.
(blank)
Blank line indicates that customs
information is not available in the
database.
•
The following fuel types are displayed:
80
80 octane
100
100 octane
100LL
100 octane, low-lead
MOGAS
Automotive fuel
JET
Jet fuel (any type jet fuel qualifies)
NO FUEL
No fuel available
•
If there are no oxygen services available at the
selected airport, the fifth line will display NO OXYGEN.
If any type of oxygen service is available, the fifth line
will read OX and the rest of the line will display the specific oxygen service:
H
high-pressure
HB
high-pressure bottled
L
low-pressure
LB
low-pressure bottled
ALL
all of the above oxygen
services are available
•
The sixth line of the APT 6 page denotes the presence
of a landing fee:
LANDING FEE The airport has a landing fee
NO LDG FEE
The airport does not have a
landing fee
NO FEE INFO
Jeppesen does not have any
information on whether
or not there is a landing fee for
this airport
Figure 3-146
3-48
Rev 2
3.11.8 The Airport 7 Page (APT 7)
The APT 7 page shows the Standard Instrument
Departure (SID) and Standard Terminal Arrival Route
(STAR) procedures that are available for the selected airport. If both SID and STAR procedures are available then
there will be two APT 7 pages indicated by APT+7 (figure
3-147). If there are no SID or STAR procedures in the
database then this page will be as shown in figure 3-148.
The details of this page are presented in section 6.2.
3.11.9 The Airport 8 Page (APT 8)
The APT 8 page shows the non-precision approaches that
are available for the selected airport (figure 3-149). There
is only one APT 8 page. If there are no approaches for
this airport in the database then this page will be as shown
in figure 3-150.
The details of this page are presented in section 6.1.
•
The letter D appears following the VOR identifier if the
VOR has DME capability.
•
The name of the VOR.
•
The class of VOR:
T - terminal
L - low altitude
H - high altitude
U - undefined
•
The VOR frequency (MHz).
•
The published magnetic variation of the VOR.
•
The latitude and longitude of the VOR.
=KFNL IAP
1 NDB 33
2 RNAV 15
3 RNAV 33
4 VOR-A
KLCG IAP
NO APROACH
FOR THIS
AIRPORT
IN DATABASE
|=BUJ D
|BLUE RIDGE
|
L
|114.90 8^E
|N 33^16.99'
|W 96^21.89'
VOR
3.11.10 The VOR Page
The VOR page shown in figure 3-151 for Blue Ridge VOR
is used to illustrate the contents of a VOR page.
VOR identifier. An arrow precedes the identifier if it is
the active waypoint.
=KFNL
NO SID/STAR
FOR THIS
AIRPORT
IN DATABASE
APT 8
Figure 3-149
NOTE: If the KLN 900 is not installed to support nonprecision approaches, then the APT 8 page will not be
displayed.
•
KLAX
SELECT STAR
1 CIVET4
2 DOWNE4
3 FIM6
12 VISTA1
APT+7
Figure 3-147
Figure 3-151
APT 7
Figure 3-148
APT 8
Figure 3-150
| ADM D nr 1
|ARDMORE
|
H
|116.70 9^E
|
318^t]
|
32.6nm
VOR
Figure 3-152
As you learned in section 3.7.3, “Nearest And Complete
Waypoint Scan Lists”, you may display the nearest nine
VORs to the aircraft’s present position. When a VOR
page is displayed as part of the nearest VOR list, the latitude and longitude is replaced with the bearing and distance to the VOR (figure 3-152).
3-49
Rev 2
3.11.11 The NDB Page
The NDB page shown in figure 3-153 for Ottawa NDB is
used to illustrate the contents of an NDB page.
•
NDB identifier. An arrow precedes the identifier if it is
the active waypoint.
•
The name of the NDB.
•
The NDB frequency (kHz).
•
The latitude and longitude of the NDB.
|=OWI
|OTTAWA
|
|FREQ
251
|N 38^32.55'
|W 95^15.26'
NDB
Figure 3-153
There is also a nearest NDB scan list as explained in section 3.7.3. When a NDB page is displayed as one of the
nearest NDBs the latitude and longitude are replaced with
the bearing and distance to the NDB (figure 3-154).
3.11.12 The Intersection Page (INT)
The Intersection page contains the named low altitude,
high altitude, approach, and SID/STAR intersections as
well as outer markers and outer compass locators. The
Intersection page for KENZY outer compass locator (figure 3-155) is used as an example of what is displayed on
the Intersection page:
•
The intersection, outer marker, or outer compass locator name.
•
The location of the intersection, outer marker, or outer
compass locator expressed in terms of a radial and
distance from a nearby VOR. The KLN 900 chooses
the closest VOR. Note that it takes a few seconds for
the VOR ident, radial, and distance to be calculated
and displayed.
•
The latitude and longitude of the intersection, outer
marker, or outer compass locator.
| DNI
nr 1
|DENISON
|
|FREQ
341
|
055^t]
|
06.5nm
NDB
Figure 3-154
|=KENZY
|REF: MKC
|RAD: 152.2^
|DIS: 3.7nm
|N 39^13.25'
|W 94^33.84'
INT
Figure 3-155
You may also enter the identifier of another nearby waypoint in the REF field, and the page will compute and display the radial and distance from the nearby waypoint to
the intersection. This information is not stored with the
Intersection page and is lost when leaving the page. To
calculate the radial and distance from a nearby waypoint:
1. Display the desired Intersection page.
2. Press the right C to turn on the right cursor function.
3-50
Rev 2
3. Rotate the right outer knob until the cursor is positioned over the identifier adjacent to REF (figure 3156).
|=KENZY
|REF: MKC
|RAD: 152.2^
|DIS: 3.7nm
|N 39^13.25'
|W 94^33.84'
CRSR
4. Use the right inner and outer knobs to select the
desired identifier (figure 3-157).
5. Press E to display the waypoint page for the identifier just entered.
Figure 3-156
6. Press E to approve the waypoint page. The
Intersection page is displayed with the computed
radial and distance (figure 3-158).
3.11.13 The Supplemental Waypoint Page (SUP)
Supplemental waypoints are user-defined waypoints that
have not been defined specifically as an airport, VOR,
NDB, or intersection. The procedure for creating
supplemental waypoints is explained in section 5.4.4.
Supplemental waypoints also include Air Route Traffic
Control Center (ARTCC) “Center” waypoints and
“Reference” waypoints which you will learn to create later
in chapter 5. Figure 3-159 shows an example of a typical
Supplemental Waypoint page. The following information
is displayed on a Supplemental waypoint page:
The name or identifier of the supplemental waypoint.
•
The position of the supplemental waypoint expressed
in terms of a radial and distance from a nearby VOR.
•
Figure 3-157
|=KENZY
|REF: RIS
|RAD: 009.0^
|DIS: 6.2nm
|N 39^13.25'
|W 94^33.84'
CRSR
7. Press the right C to turn off the right cursor
function.
•
|=KENZY
|REF: RIS
|RAD: 152.2^
|DIS: 3.7nm
|N 39^13.25'
|W 94^33.84'
CRSR
Figure 3-158
| KAUSI
|REF: AUS
|RAD: 41.4^
|DIS: 09.1nm
|N 30^23.90'
|W 94^34.30'
SUP
Figure 3-159
The latitude and longitude of the supplemental
waypoint.
In addition, you may enter the identifier of another nearby
waypoint in the REF field and the page will compute and
display the radial and distance from the nearby waypoint
to the supplemental waypoint. The procedure for doing
this is identical to that just explained above for an intersection waypoint. This radial and distance information is
not stored with the Supplemental Waypoint page and is
lost when leaving the page.
3-51
Rev 2
3.12 FREQUENCIES FOR NEAREST FLIGHT
SERVICE STATIONS
The KLN 900 stores in its database the locations of Flight
Service Stations (FSS) and their remote communications
sites. In addition, the KLN 900 determines which two of
these FSS points of communication are closest to your
present location. What a convenience for you! Next time
you want to file a flight plan from the air or contact a FSS
for some other reason, you can easily use the KLN 900 to
determine a suitable FSS and the appropriate frequency.
NOTE: In some areas of the world the KLN 900 provides
the location of the nearest point of communication with a
facility providing information (INF) or radio (RDO) services.
AUSTIN FSS |
|
122.20|
122.55|
|
|
OTH[1
Select the Other 1 page (OTH 1) on the left side to view
two of the nearest points of communication with Flight
Service Stations. There will normally be two OTH 1
pages, one for each of the two points of contact. The
name of the FSS is at the top of the page. There can be
from one to four frequencies included for a point of contact (figure 3-160). Remember that in the U.S. the frequency 122.00 MHz is used for “Flight Watch” and the
frequency 123.60 MHz is used for Aeronautical Advisory
Service. As you know, it is often possible to communicate with a FSS by transmitting on 122.10 MHz and listening on the VOR frequency. In cases like this, the OTH
1 page displays the frequencies to use for transmit and
receive and also the VOR name through which you are
communicating (figure 3-161).
Figure 3-160
FT DODGE
FSS
OMAHA VOR
|
|
|
|
122.10|
116.30|
TX
REC
OTH[1
Figure 3-161
In some parts of the world, high frequency (HF) communications are used for these services. HF frequencies are
displayed on the OTH 1 page where appropriate.
Remember, you can easily recognize HF frequencies
because they do not have a decimal point.
3.13 FREQUENCIES FOR AIR ROUTE
TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTERS
(ARTCC)
The KLN 900 also stores in its database the low altitude
boundaries of each of the ARTCC “Centers”. The KLN
900 determines the proper Center to contact and the
appropriate frequencies to use for the aircraft’s present
position. The Other 2 page (OTH 2) is used to display
this information to you (figure 3-162). Next time you wish
to obtain VFR flight following or communicate with Center
for any reason, you have a quick way to get a frequency
for establishing contact! Appendix D contains a listing of
Center abbreviations used on the OTH 2 page.
LOS ANGELES|
CTR
|
118.55|
132.85|
|
|
OTH 2
Figure 3-162
NOTE: Frequencies for Area Control Centers are displayed on the OTH 2 page for some areas of the world.
3-52
Rev 2
3.14 VIEWING AND SETTING THE DATE
AND TIME
The KLN 900 system time and date should seldom, if
ever, require updating because they are automatically
updated when at least one satellite is received. In
addition, the KLN 900 contains an internal battery
powered calendar clock to keep system time and date
when the unit is not being used. You will normally check
to make sure the KLN 900 is set to the correct time and
date shortly after you turn the unit on while you verify the
Self Test Page. You can, however, also check the time
and date on the Setup 2 page (SET 2) anytime you
desire. There are several pages as well as some internal
functions of the KLN 900, such as magnetic variation and
proper use of database information, that depend on
having the proper time and date.
DATE/TIME |
02 AUG 99 |
21:22:04UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
SET 2
NOTE: You will not be able to update the time or date if
the KLN 900 is receiving a time and date from a satellite.
If it is required to set the date:
1. Select the SET 2 page on the left side (figure 3-163).
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
The cursor will be over the entire date (figure 3-164).
Figure 3-163
3. Rotate the left inner knob to select the correct day of
the month (figure 3-165).
DATE/TIME |
11 !!! !!|
21:23:04UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
4. Turn the left outer knob one step clockwise to position
the flashing part of the cursor over the month field
(middle three dashes).
5. Rotate the left inner knob to select the correct month
(figure 3-166).
Figure 3-165
DATE/TIME |
02 AUG 99|
21:23:04UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
Figure 3-164
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP !!|
21:23:04UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
Figure 3-166
6. Turn the left outer knob one step clockwise to position
the flashing part of the cursor over the first position of
the year field (second dash from right).
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 9!|
|
21:23:04UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
7. Use the left inner knob to select the correct ten’s digit
of the year (figure 3-167).
(Note: Enter “00” for year 2000, “01” for year 2001,
and so on.)
8. Turn the left outer knob one step clockwise to position
the flashing part of the cursor over the remaining
position in the year field.
Figure 3-167
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
21:23:04UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
Figure 3-168
9. Use the left inner knob to complete the year.
10.Press E to start the KLN 900 using the new date
(figure 3-168).
3-53
Rev 2
If it is required to set the time:
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
21:23:04UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
1. Turn the left knobs until the SET 2 page is visible on
the left side.
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function if it
is not on already.
Figure 3-169
3. Use the left outer knob to position the cursor over the
time zone (figure 3-169).
4. Use the left inner knob to change the time zone, if
desired (figure 3-170). A listing of the time zones and
their abbreviations is contained in section 3.2.
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
16:23:04LCL|
UTC:+06:30|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
Figure 3-171A
NOTE: ORS 04 and later versions of the KLN 900
allow you to enter your own local time zone offset from
UTC on the SET 2 page. To do so, select the local
(LCL) time zone (figure 3-171A). Then, on the next
line, enter the local time zone offset from UTC from
+12 hours 30 minutes to -12 hours 30 minutes with
either :30 or :00 as the minutes offset (figure 3-171B).
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
16:23:04CDT|
CENTRAL DAY|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
Figure 3-170
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
16:23:04LCL|
UTC:+06:30|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
Figure 3-171B
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
16:23:04CDT|
CENTRAL DAY|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
Figure 3-172
5. Turn the left outer knob one step counterclockwise to
position the cursor over the time (figure 3-172).
6. Rotate the left inner knob to select the correct hour
(figure 3-173A). Remember, the KLN 900 uses 24
hour time. If it is 1:00 P.M. or later, add 12 hours (for
example, 2:30 P.M. becomes 14:30).
7. Turn the left outer knob one step clockwise to position
the flashing part of the cursor over the first minute’s
position, and then use the left inner knob to select the
correct value (figure 3-173B).
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
18: :04CDT|
CENTRAL DAY|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
8. Turn the left outer knob one step clockwise again to
position the flashing part of the cursor over the
remaining minute’s position, and then use the left
inner knob to complete the time selection.
Figure 3-173A
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
18:3!:04CDT|
CENTRAL DAY|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
Figure 3-173B
9. Press E to start the clock running (figure 3-174).
10.Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
DATE/TIME |
11 SEP 99|
18:37:04CDT|
CENTRAL DAY|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
12^E|
CRSR
NOTE: The SET 2 page has a different format for ORS 01
units; however, the same steps are followed to set the date
or time.
Figure 3-174
3-54
Rev 2
3.15 ALTITUDE ALERTING
If your aircraft does not already have an altitude alerting
capability you may wish to use the KLN 900’s capability of
assisting you with altitude management during your flying.
Altitude alerting allows you to select a target altitude and it
then provides you with an aural alarm 1000 feet prior to
reaching the selected altitude, another aural alarm upon
reaching the selected altitude, and another aural alarm if
you deviate from the selected altitude.
ALTITUDE
|VNV INACTV
|
BARO:30.13"|IND 09000ft
ALERT: OFF|SEL:05500ft
|KMKC :-00nm
|ANGLE:-1.3^
CRSR enr-leg
CRSR
Figure 3-175
NOTE: The altitude alerting function of the KLN 900 does
not meet FAR Part 91 for turbojet-powered civil airplanes.
To use the altitude alerting:
ALTITUDE
|VNV INACTV
|
BARO:30.09"|IND 09000ft
ALERT: OFF|SEL:05500ft
|KMKC :-00nm
|ANGLE:-1.3^
CRSR enr-leg
CRSR
Figure 3-176
1. Press A. The Altitude page will be displayed on the
left with the cursor over the first two digits of the altimeter baro set field. The NAV 4 page will be displayed on
the right with the cursor over the first digit of the
selected altitude field (figure 3-175).
NOTE: The altimeter baro set units may be changed from
inches to millibars to hectoPascals on the SET 7 page.
When a DC Altitude source is used, the BARO Set Field is
dashed.
ALTITUDE
|VNV INACTV
|
BARO:30.09"|IND 09000ft
ALERT: OFF|SEL:05500ft
|KMKC :-00nm
|ANGLE:-1.3^
CRSR enr-leg
CRSR
Figure 3-177
2. Use the left knobs to update the altimeter BARO setting
if required. There are three cursor positions. Use the
left outer knob to move the cursor and the left inner
knob to change digits (figure 3-176). With the proper
altimeter baro setting, the indicated altitude (IND) on the
right should be the same as the aircraft’s actual altimeter.
NOTE: There may be some difference (less than 100 feet)
between the indicated altitude (IND) and the aircraft’s
actual altitude if the altitude input to the KLN 900 is from an
altitude encoder because these encoders only provide altitude in 100 foot increments. When DC altimeters are used,
display increments of 200 feet are possible.
ALTITUDE
|VNV INACTV
|
BARO:30.09"|IND 09000ft
ALERT: ON =|SEL:05500ft
WARN:±300ft|KMKC :-00nm
|ANGLE:-1.3^
CRSR enr-leg
CRSR
3. Turn the left outer knob one step clockwise to position
the cursor over the ALERT: field (figure 3-177). If OFF
is displayed, turn the left inner knob to select ON (figure
3-178). When alerting is enabled, an arrow to the right
of ON points to the selected altitude on the right side of
the screen.
Figure 3-178
ALTITUDE
|VNV INACTV
|
BARO:30.09"|IND 09000ft
ALERT: ON =|SEL:05500ft
WARN:±300ft|KMKC :-00nm
|ANGLE:-1.5^
CRSR enr-leg
CRSR
4. Select a warn altitude by using the left outer knob to
position the cursor over the WARN: field (figure 3-179).
Use the left inner knob to select the desired warn altitude. It is selectable in one hundred foot increments
from 200 feet up to 900 feet or in ten meter increments
from 60 meters up to 270 meters. Normally, you will
use the same warn altitude all the time so you only
have to enter this the first time you use altitude alerting.
The recommended warn altitude is 300 feet (or 90
meters).
Figure 3-179
3-55
Rev 2
5. Enter the selected altitude one digit at a time in the SEL
field of the NAV 4 page by using the right outer knob to
position the cursor over the desired digit and the right
inner knob to change the digits until the entire selected
altitude is displayed (figure 3-180).
ALTITUDE
|VNV INACTV
|
BARO:30.09"|IND 09000ft
ALERT: ON =|SEL:04000ft
WARN:±300ft|KMKC :-00nm
|ANGLE:-0.0^
CRSR enr-leg
CRSR
Only the selected altitude field (SEL) and the indicated altitude (IND) of the NAV 4 page are used for altitude alerting.
The rest of the NAV 4 page is used for vertical navigation
which is described in section 5.2.
Figure 3-180
6. Press A to return to the previously displayed pages.
7. The aural alarm activates as follows:
• 1000 feet prior to reaching the selected altitude three short tones
• Upon reaching the selected altitude - two short
tones
• Deviating above or below the selected altitude by
more than the warn altitude - four short tones.
NOTE: Due to the resolution of the altitude input, it may be
necessary to descend slightly below or climb slightly above
the selected altitude before the two tones are activated
indicating that the selected altitude has been reached. This
selected altitude alert must be activated to arm the system
for providing the altitude deviation alert. When a DC altitude source is used, the resolution of the altitude input is
reduced and the usability of advisory VNAV is reduced.
The KLN 900 can provide the aural alarm tones in either of
two ways: it may be connected to an audio input of an
audio amplifier contained in an audio panel so that the
aural alarm is heard through the aircraft’s speaker and
headphones. Or the KLN 900 may be interfaced with an
external tone generator installed in the aircraft.
In order to use altitude alerting, the KLN 900 must have an
altitude input. If the altitude input is from an altitude
encoder or from an air data computer not having a baro
altitude output, then it will be necessary for you to manually
input the proper altimeter setting in order to get accurate
alerting. Remember, the altitude coming from an encoder
is pressure altitude and must be corrected with the proper
altimeter setting to convert to actual altitude. This altimeter
setting is easily accomplished by entering the altimeter
baro setting on the Altitude page. Press A to display the
Altitude page. Use the left knobs to enter the altimeter
baro setting. Press A again to return to the pages previously being displayed. It’s so easy you have no excuses
for not keeping the baro setting updated!
3-56
Rev 2
CAUTION: The altitude alerting feature will only be
accurate if the altimeter baro correction is kept
updated. If altitude alerting is used, it is a good idea to
update the altimeter baro set on the ALT page each
time you make a change to the aircraft’s altimeter setting.
ALTITUDE
ALERT
VOLUME:
02
|
|
|
|
|
|
SET 9
The volume of the aural alarm tone is changeable on the
SET 9 page (figure 3-181). Press the left C to activate
the left cursor and use the left inner and outer knobs to
select a desired volume between 00 and 99. Increasing
numbers increases the volume.
Figure 3-181
NOTE: The altitude alerting and height above airport features can be disabled in the KLN 900 configuration module
during installation so that these features are not selectable
by the pilot. When this has been done the SET 5, SET 9,
and Altitude pages display OFF and cannot be changed. In
addition, the SET 5 and SET 9 pages display the following :
FEATURE DISABLED.
3-57
Rev 2
3.16 HEIGHT ABOVE AIRPORT ALERT
HT ABOVE |
APT ALERT |
ON
|
|
APT ELEV |
[ 800ft |
SET 5
The height above airport alert feature can provide you a
means of knowing when you are at traffic pattern altitude
or when you are at a fixed height above the airport where
you might perform any repetitive duty.
The height above airport feature works as follows: You
enable/disable this feature and select an offset height on
the SET 5 page (figure 3-182). When the height above
airport alert is enabled, the KLN 900 creates a 5 nm
radius cylinder of airspace centered on an airport. This
airport is any airport that is a Direct To waypoint or is the
“TO” waypoint in the active flight plan. The height of the
cylinder above the airport is the offset height you select
on the SET 5 page. The KLN 900 adds this offset height
to the elevation stored in the database for the airport.
The KLN 900 compares the aircraft’s position relative to
the cylinder and notifies you with an aural alert when the
aircraft first penetrates the cylinder (figure 3-183). The
alert consists of a short tone, followed by a long tone, followed by a short tone.
Figure 3-182
Airport elevation
plus selected offset height
5 NM
Figure 3-183
To enable or disable the height above airport alert, press
the left C. Use the left outer knob to position the cursor
over the enable/disable field. Turn the left inner knob to
select ON or OFF as desired. To select the offset height,
use the left outer knob to position the cursor over the offset field (figure 3-184). Turn the left inner knob to select
an offset between 800 feet and 2000 feet or between 240
meters and 610 meters. Press the left C to turn the
cursor off.
HT ABOVE |
APT ALERT |
ON
|
|
APT ELEV |
[ 800ft |
CRSR
Figure 3-184
WARNING: The height above airport alert feature
does not serve the same function as a radar altimeter. It does not provide any warning about the aircraft’s actual height above the airport’s surrounding
terrain.
3-58
Rev 2
The alert tone is provided in the same way as described
in section 3.15, “Altitude Alerting”. The volume is
adjustable on the SET 9 page.
In order to use the height above airport alert, an altitude
input must be provided to the KLN 900. If the altitude
input to the KLN 900 is pressure altitude such as from an
altitude encoder or air data computer, then the altitude
must be corrected with the proper altimeter baro setting.
This is accomplished on the ALT page as described in
section 3.15, “Altitude Alerting.”
CAUTION: The height above airport alert feature will
only be accurate if the altimeter baro correction is
correct. If the height above airport alert feature is
enabled, it is a good idea to update the altimeter baro
set on the ALT page each time you make a change to
the aircraft’s altimeter setting.
NOTE: The altitude alerting and height above airport features can be disabled in the KLN 900 configuration module
during installation so that these features are not selectable
by the pilot. When this has been done the SET 5, SET 9,
and Altitude pages display OFF and cannot be changed. In
addition, the SET 5 and SET 9 pages display the following :
FEATURE DISABLED.
3.17 REMOTE MOUNTED ANNUNCIATORS
The KLN 900 has outputs capable of driving two remote
annunciator lights: waypoint alert and message.
Although these annunciators are optional, it is desirable
to have them mounted in the pilot’s normal scan area so
that these annunciators are easily seen. A typical
annunciator is shown in figure 3-185; however, actual
annunciation abbreviations and configurations may be different.
WPT
MSG
Figure 3-185
In addition, there may be a NAV/GPS switch/annunciator
to switch a CDI or HSI navigation source between the
KLN 900 and a VOR/ILS system; a GPS APR
switch/annunciator which allows display and control of the
approach modes (see section 6.1) and a GPS CRS
switch/annunciator which allows changing between Leg
and OBS modes (see section 5.9.1).
The remote waypoint alert annunciator is on whenever
waypoint alerting is occurring. See sections 3.8.6 and
4.2.2.
The remote message annunciator is on whenever the
message prompt is on. See section 3.5.
3-59
Rev 2
3.18 SAMPLE TRIP
9. Press E again to approve the waypoint page. The
NAV 1 page is now displayed on the right side of the
screen while the NAV 2 page returns to the left side.
The NAV 1 page indicates it is 384 nautical miles to
Austin and that the bearing is 225 degrees. After
take-off, the NAV 1 page will also display groundspeed and estimated time enroute.
Just to make sure you are ready to use the KLN 900 for
navigation, let’s go through a sample trip to illustrate
many of the features you have learned to use in this section of the Pilot’s Guide. Our trip will be from Adams field
(KLIT) in Little Rock, Arkansas to Mueller Municipal airport (KAUS) in Austin, Texas. The weather is perfect and
you decide to make the trip VFR and fly direct to Austin.
10.You now decide to view the Super NAV 1 page.
Rotate the left inner knob to select the NAV 1 page.
3.18.1 Pre-Departure
1. Apply power to the KLN 900 by pushing the
power/brightness knob to the “in” position.
3.18.2 Enroute
1. You depart from runway 36 at Little Rock and are told
to “maintain runway heading”. After several radar vectors for traffic avoidance you are finally cleared on
course. The D-Bar indicates that the radar vectors
have taken you north of the original course and you
decide to proceed Direct To Austin from your present
position. To recenter the D-Bar, press D, and then
press E.
2. When the screen warms up, adjust the brightness to
the desired level by rotating the power/brightness
knob.
3. Verify that the information on the Self Test page is correct, including the time and date. Enter the altimeter
baro setting. Position the cursor over APPROVE?
and press E to approve the Self Test page.
2. In order to determine the minimum enroute safe altitude (ESA) for the flight you view the NAV 3 page. It
indicates an ESA of 4300 feet for the trip and minimum safe altitude for your present position of 3400
feet.
4. Read the Database page. Acknowledge the
Database page by pressing E.
5. A blank NAV 2 page is now displayed on the left side
on the screen. The APT 4 page for Adams field
(KLIT), which shows the communications frequencies,
is now displayed on the right side of the screen since
KLIT was the active waypoint when you last removed
power from the KLN 900. The APT 4 page indicates
that the ATIS frequency is 125.65 MHz, the pre-taxi
clearance delivery frequency is 118.95 MHz, the
ground control frequency is 121.90 MHz, and the
tower frequency is 118.70 MHz. After listening to
ATIS, you contact clearance delivery for your clearance out of the Little Rock Class C airspace. Next,
you give ground control a call and receive your taxi
clearance.
3. After departure control has directed “squawk 1200,
frequency change approved”, you decide it would be a
good idea to obtain VFR flight following. To obtain the
frequency for Center, select the Other 2 page (OTH
2). It indicates that for your position, you should be
able to contact Memphis Center on 118.85 MHz.
4. You’ve only flown about 100 nautical miles, but you
begin wondering where you would go if an engine
suddenly started running rough. You decide to use
the KLN 900 to determine where the nearest airports
are from your present location. To view the nearest
airports press N. The nearest airport is Hope
Municipal (M18) which is eight nautical miles from
your position on a bearing to the airport of 11 degrees.
You now rotate the right inner knob to view the other
APT pages for Hope Municipal. You learn, for example, that it is located in Hope, Arkansas, and has two
hard surface runways that are each 5500 feet in
length. By pulling the right inner knob to the “out”
position, you may now scan clockwise through the
remaining eight airports in the nearest airport list.
6. By this time the KLN 900 has reached a NAV ready
status. You know this because the NAV 2 page is
now showing a valid present position, in this case 3.8
nautical miles on the 320 degree radial from Little
Rock (LIT) VOR.
7. Press D to bring up the Direct To page on the left
side. Use the two left knobs to enter the identifier of
Mueller Municipal airport (KAUS) by using the left
inner knob to select the characters and the left outer
knob to move the flashing part of the cursor to the
desired cursor location.
5. For the majority of the enroute portion of the flight you
select, the Super NAV 5 page’s moving map display.
You do this by selecting NAV 5 on both sides of the
screen. Pressing the right C brings up the waypoint
display menu on the right side of the screen. You
then use the right knobs to select APT: ON so that
nearby airports are shown on the moving map display.
8. Press E to bring up the APT 1 waypoint page for
Mueller Municipal airport on the right side.
3-60
Rev 2
While the display menu is displayed, select the track
up map orientation (TK) as well. Pressing the right
C again removes the menu from the screen. You
select the 30 nm range scale on the left side using the
left C and left knobs. You also decide to display
ETE, DTK, and TK on the left side of the map display
by using the left knobs.
6. Since it is a good idea to not rely on just one navigation source, you decide to cross check the KLN 900
position against other equipment in the aircraft. The
NAV 2 page indicates you are presently located on the
Texarkana (TXK) VOR 68 degree radial at a distance
of 19 nautical miles. By tuning your Navigation
Receiver and DME to TXK, you are able to confirm
that this is the correct position.
3.18.3 Terminal Area
1. About 50 nautical miles from Austin’s Mueller airport
you start preparing for your arrival. Viewing the APT 4
page for KAUS you determine that the ATIS frequency is 119.20 MHz and tower is 121.00 MHz.
2. A few minutes later, the message prompt begins flashing. When you press M, the message page
advises: AIRSPACE ALERT - AUSTIN CL C - SEE
KAUS APT 4 PAGE BELOW 4600 FT. The Special
Use Airspace Alert feature has determined that you
are within 10 minutes of penetrating the Austin Class
C airspace. When you view the APT 4 page, you see
that the Class C airspace frequencies are sectorized.
You determine from the APT 4 page that the proper
frequency to use is 124.90 MHz since you are
Northeast of Austin and 124.90 MHz is the appropriate
frequency to use from 3 degrees to 170 degrees.
3. After you call Austin approach control for clearance
into the Class C airspace, you view the rest of the
APT pages for KAUS to determine the field elevation
and available runways. The first APT 3 page shows
you a runway diagram for the airport.
4. After landing, the KLN 900 is turned off either by
pulling the power/brightness switch to the “out” position or with the avionics master switch if one is
installed.
3-61
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
3-62
Rev 2
CHAPTER 4 - LEVEL 2 OPERATION
In this chapter you will learn to create and use flight plans.
A flight plan is an organized listing of waypoints defining
your route of flight.
flying is done VFR or IFR. Other advantages of creating
flight plans are: (1) the entire route of flight for an upcoming trip can be created and stored prior to departure; and
(2) the routes for frequently made trips need to be created
just once and may then be recalled as required for later
use. Using the KLN 900 only for Direct To operation
would be like flying a retractable gear aircraft with the gear
down all the time — you’re just not getting the most out of
your equipment!
You may feel that you learned all you need to know in
chapter 3 about operating the KLN 900, since you can use
the Direct To operation to fly anywhere you want to go.
However, you would be selling yourself and the KLN 900
short if you stop there. Using the unit’s flight plan capabilities provides more information and, in some respects,
reduces your enroute workload regardless of whether your
4.1 CREATING AND MODIFYING FLIGHT
PLANS
•
The following rules and considerations apply to KLN 900
flight plans:
•
The KLN 900 is capable of storing in its memory 25
flight plans plus an active flight plan.
•
Each of the flight plans may contain up to 30 waypoints. These waypoints may consist of any combination of published waypoints from the database or user
created waypoints.
•
The flight plans are numbered 0 through 25 (FPL 0,
FPL 1, FPL 2, ..., FPL 25).
•
The active flight plan is always FPL 0. The standard
procedure is to create a flight plan in one of the flight
plans numbered as FPL 1, FPL 2, FPL 3,..., or FPL
25. When one of these numbered flight plans is activated, it is copied to FPL 0, the active flight plan. This
Pilot’s Guide will refer to FPL 0 as the “active flight
plan” and FPL 1 through FPL 25 as the “numbered
flight plans.” If desired, a flight plan can be created
directly in the active flight plan. This avoids creating
the flight plan in a numbered flight plan and then having to activate it. The disadvantage is that if a numbered flight plan is subsequently made active (i.e.
copied to FPL 0), the one programmed directly into
FPL 0 will be lost.
•
Modifications may be made to FPL 0 without affecting
the way it is stored as a numbered flight plan.
•
Unless Direct To operation is being used, the active
flight plan (FPL 0) must contain at least two waypoints. Otherwise, the KLN 900 system will be
flagged (i.e. The KLN 900’s navigation features will be
inoperable).
The KLN900 (ORS 02 and later) can be configured to
lock any number of the first consecutively numbered
flight plans. A locked flight plan cannot be modified or
deleted. Creating locked flight plans is useful to standardize operations for fleets.
NOTE: Waypoints in locked flight plans will not have a”:”
between the waypoint number and identifier indicating
that the waypoint can’t be edited. An “FPL LOCKED”
scratch pad message will be generated if an attempt is
made to modify or delete a locked flight plan.
4-1
Rev 2
4.1.1 Creating A Flight Plan
A flight plan for a flight from Lakefront airport in New
Orleans, LA. to St. Petersburg/Clearwater, FL.
International airport will be used as an example of how to
create a flight plan. The waypoints making up the flight
plan are: KNEW (Lakefront airport), GPT (Gulfport VOR),
SJI (Semmes VOR), CEW (Crestview VOR), MAI
(Marianna VOR), TLH (Tallahassee VOR), CTY (Cross
City VOR), and KPIE (St. Petersburg/Clearwater
International airport. To create the flight plan:
USE? INVRT?|
1:KMKC
|
2:BUM
|
3:OSW
|
4:TUL
|
6:KRVS
|
FPL 8
LOAD FPL 0?|
1:
|
|
|
|
|
FPL 4
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
1. Rotate the left outer knob to select the flight plan
(FPL) type pages (figure 4-1).
2. Turn the left inner knob to select a flight plan page
(preferably other than FPL 0) which does not contain
a flight plan (figure 4-2). If all of the flight plan pages
contain flight plans, refer to section 4.1.5, “Deleting
Flight Plans.”
LOAD FPL 0?|
1:
|
|
|
|
|
CRSR
3. Press the left C to turn on the cursor function for the
left page (figure 4-3).
LOAD INVRT?|
1:K
|
2:
|
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 4-3
NOTE: The KLN 900 flight plan operation is designed so
that the first waypoint in the flight plan should always be
the departure point. Remember to enter the “K”, “P”, or
“C” prefix for certain airports in the United States, Alaska,
or Canada. See section 2.3, “USE OF ICAO IDENTIFIERS.”
Figure 4-4
LOAD INVRT?|
1:KNEW
|
2:
|
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 4-5
4. Use the left inner knob to select the first character of
the departure waypoint identifier (figure 4-4).
5. Turn the left outer knob one step clockwise to move
the flashing portion of the cursor over the second
character position, and then use the left inner knob to
select the desired character.
6. Use the above procedure to select the entire identifier
for the first waypoint (figure 4-5).
USE? INVRT?| KNEW
1:KNEW
|LAKEFRONT
2:
|
| CL C
|N 30^02.53'
|W 90^01.69'
CRSR|enr-leg ent|APT 1
7. Press E. A waypoint confirmation page for the
identifier just entered will be displayed on the right
side (figure 4-6). If a mistake was made and the
wrong waypoint identifier was entered, press F and
begin again. If a mistake was not made but the waypoint identifier just entered isn’t in the database, a
page allowing creation of a user defined waypoint will
appear on the right side. Refer to section 5.4, “USERDEFINED WAYPOINTS”, for instruction on how to
define a user created waypoint.
Figure 4-6
USE? INVRT?|
1:KNEW
|
2:
|
|
|
|
CRSR
8. Press E again to approve the waypoint page being
displayed. The cursor will move to the second waypoint position (figure 4-7).
NOTE: A small number of waypoints are stored in the
database as “fly-over” waypoints. These waypoints are
associated with SID/STAR procedures. “Fly-over” means
Figure 4-7
4-2
Rev 2
that, for some reason, the governing agencies have
decided that it is important to fly directly over the waypoint
instead of being able to “cut the corner” by using turn
anticipation (see section 4.2.2). In these cases the KLN
900 will present a waypoint type identification page
(Figure 4-7a). Simply select the way in which the waypoint is intended to be used with the left outer knob and
press E. If the SID/STAR choice is selected, the KLN
900 will disable turn anticipation for that waypoint (if previously enabled). The KLN 900 will enable turn anticipation
after the waypoint has been passed (if turn anticipation
was previously enabled). If en route is selected, then normal turn anticipation occurs.
SWR
| SWR D
TYPE WPT |SQUAW
|VALLEY
L
1 EN ROUTE?|113.20 16^E
2 SID/STAR?|N 39^10.82'
|W120^16.18'
CRSR|enr-leg ent|VOR
Figure 4-7a
9. Use the same procedure to enter the rest of the waypoints in the flight plan (figure 4-8). If the flight plan
consists of five or more waypoints, the waypoints will
automatically scroll as necessary to allow entry of the
next waypoint.
4:CEW
5:MAI
6:TLH
7:CTY
8:KPIE
9:
CRSR
Figure 4-8
10.When all of the waypoints have been entered in the
flight plan, the left outer knob may be rotated to move
the cursor up and down and manually “scroll” through
the waypoints making up this flight plan. This is useful
if the flight plan contains six or more waypoints since
not all of the waypoints can be displayed at one time.
When the left outer knob is rotated to the full counterclockwise position, the cursor will be positioned over
USE? (figure 4-9). If there are more than five waypoints in the flight plan, the first four waypoints will
then be displayed followed by the last waypoint in the
flight plan. Rotate the left outer knob to move the cursor and manually scroll to see the missing intermediate waypoints.
|
|
|
|
|
|
USE? INVRT?|
1:KNEW
|
2:GPT
|
3:SJI
|
4:CEW
|
8:KPIE
|
CRSR
Figure 4-9
11.Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
Additional flight plans may now be created in the
same manner.
USE? INVRT?|
1:KNEW
|
2:GPT
|
3:SJI
|
4:CEW
|
8:KPIE
|
FPL 4
4.1.2 Activating A Numbered Flight Plan
To activate one of the previously created numbered flight
plans:
1. Use the left outer knob to select the flight plan (FPL)
type pages.
Figure 4-10
2. Rotate the left inner knob to select the desired flight
plan (FPL 1, FPL 2, ... , or FPL 25) as shown in figure
4-10.
USE? INVRT?|
1:KNEW
|
2:GPT
|
3:SJI
|
4:CEW
|
8:KPIE
|
CRSR
3. Press the left C to enable the left cursor function.
The cursor will appear over USE? (figure 4-11). If you
haven’t left the numbered flight plan page since creating this flight plan, rotate the left outer knob all the way
counterclockwise to position the cursor over USE?
Figure 4-11
4-3
Rev 2
4. Press E to activate the flight plan and copy it to
FPL 0 (figure 4-12). To activate the flight plan in
inverse order (first waypoint becomes last and last
waypoint becomes first), rotate the left outer knob one
step clockwise to position the cursor over USE?
INVRT? before pressing E (figure 4-13).
1:KNEW
2:GPT
3:SJI
4:CEW
8:KPIE
FPL 0
5. The selected flight plan is now displayed as FPL 0, the
active flight plan. Any changes made to FPL 0 will not
affect how this flight plan is stored as the numbered
flight plan.
|
|
|
|
|
|
Figure 4-13
Figure 4-12
4.1.3 Adding A Waypoint To A Flight Plan
A waypoint may be added to any flight plan containing
fewer than 30 waypoints. To add a waypoint to a flight
plan:
1:KNEW
2:GPT
3:SJI
4:CEW
8:KPIE
CRSR
1. Press the left C to enable the left cursor function if it
is not on already (figure 4-14).
|
|
|
|
|
|
Figure 4-14
2. Rotate the left outer knob as necessary to position the
cursor over the waypoint identifier which you desire to
follow the waypoint being added. Another way to
think of this is to position the cursor over the location
in the flight plan you wish the new waypoint to be
added. For example, if SJI is presently the third waypoint in the flight plan and you wish to insert BUGLE
intersection in the number three position in front of
SJI, move the cursor over SJI (figure 4-15).
1:KNEW
2:GPT
3:B
4:SJI
9:KPIE
CRSR
3. Use the left inner knob to enter the first character of
the waypoint being inserted. As you begin to turn the
knob, the existing waypoint in this position automatically jumps down to the next position. In this case,
SJI automatically moves to waypoint four (figure 416).
1:KNEW
2:GPT
3:BUGLE
4:SJI
9:KPIE
CRSR
Figure 4-18
5. Press E to display the waypoint page on the right
side for the identifier just entered.
6. Press E again to approve the waypoint page
(figure 4-18).
|
|
|
|
|
|
1:KNEW
2:GPT
3:SJI
4:CEW
8:KPIE
CRSR
Figure 4-15
|
|
|
|
|
|
Figure 4-16
4. Use the left outer and inner knobs in the normal manner to complete entering the waypoint identifier (figure
4-17).
USE? INVRT?|
1:KNEW
|
2:GPT
|
3:SJI
|
4:CEW
|
8:KPIE
|
CRSR
1:KNEW
2:GPT
3:BUGLE
4:SJI
9:KPIE
CRSR
Figure 4-17
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
7. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
4-4
Rev 2
4.1.4 Deleting A Waypoint From A Flight Plan
To delete a waypoint from a flight plan:
1. Press the left C to enable the left cursor function if it
is not on already.
|
|
|
|
|
|
1:KNEW
2:GPT
3:BUGLE
4:SJI
9:KPIE
CRSR
2. Rotate the left outer knob as necessary to position the
cursor over the waypoint to be deleted (figure 4-19).
3. Press F. The letters DEL (delete) will appear to the
left of the identifier and a question mark will appear to
the right of the identifier (figure 4-20). If a mistake was
made and you do not wish to delete this waypoint,
press F.
USE? INVRT?|
1:KNEW
|
2:GPT
|
DEL BUGLE? |
4:SJI
|
9:KPIE
|
CRSR
Figure 4-19
Figure 4-20
1:KNEW
2:GPT
3:SJI
4:CEW
8:KPIE
CRSR
4. Press E and the waypoint will be deleted from the
flight plan. The other waypoints in the flight plan will
be correctly repositioned (figure 4-21).
5. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
|
|
|
|
|
|
Figure 4-21
4.1.5 Deleting Flight Plans
To delete a flight plan which is no longer required:
USE? INVRT?|
1:KMKC
|
2:BUM
|
3:OSW
|
4:TUL
|
6:KRVS
|
FPL 8
1. Display the flight plan (FPL 0, FPL 1, FPL 2,..., or FPL
25) which is to be cleared (figure 4-22).
2. Make sure the left cursor function is turned off. If the
left cursor is on, press the left C to turn it off.
3. Press F. The words DELETE FPL? will appear at
the top of the page (figure 4-23). If a mistake was
made and you do not wish to clear this flight plan,
press F.
Figure 4-22
DELETE FPL?|
1:KMKC
|
2:BUM
|
3:OSW
|
4:TUL
|
6:KRVS
|
CRSR
Figure 4-23
4. Press E to clear the flight plan (figure 4-24).
NOTE: If there is no Direct-To waypoint and you delete
FPL 0, navigation will be flagged (i.e. disabled).
4-5
LOAD FPL 0?|
1:
|
|
|
|
|
FPL 8
Figure 4-24
Rev 2
4.1.6 Storing FPL 0 As A Numbered Flight Plan
The active flight plan (FPL 0) may be copied to a numbered flight plan (FPL 1, FPL 2, ... , or FPL 25) so that it
can be recalled for later use. This may be desirable, for
example, if the active flight plan was originally created on
the FPL 0 page and not as a numbered flight plan. To
store the active flight plan (FPL 0) as a numbered flight
plan (FPL 1, FPL 2, ... , or FPL 25):
LOAD FPL 0?|
1:
|
|
|
|
|
FPL 7
Figure 4-25
1. Select a numbered flight plan page which does not
contain any waypoints (figure 4-25). If none exist, use
the procedure described in section 4.1.5, “Deleting
Flight Plans,” to clear a flight plan which is no longer
required.
LOAD FPL 0?|
1:
|
|
|
|
|
CRSR
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function
with the cursor over the blank first waypoint position
(figure 4-26).
LOAD FPL 0?|
1:
|
|
|
|
|
CRSR
Figure 4-26
3. Rotate the left outer knob one step counterclockwise
to position the cursor over LOAD FPL 0? (figure 427).
Figure 4-27
USE? INVRT?|
1:KHOU
|
2:DAS
|
3:LFK
|
4:BEKEN |
5:KSHV
|
FPL 7
4. Press E to load the active flight plan into this numbered flight plan (figure 4-28).
Figure 4-28
4-6
Rev 2
4.2 OPERATING FROM THE ACTIVE
FLIGHT PLAN
4.2.1 General Procedures
Everything you have learned in this Pilot’s Guide thus far
is applicable to using the KLN 900 for flight plan operation. The following rules and considerations apply for
flight plan operation while the KLN 900 is in the Leg
mode:
• Although any of the KLN 900 pages may be utilized
while operating along a flight plan, common page
selections are the FPL 0 page on the left side while
simultaneously displaying one of three Distance/Time
pages (D/T 1, D/T 2, D/T 3) or the NAV 5 page (navigation graphics) on the right side. The information
contained on the Distance/Time pages is explained
later, beginning in section 4.2.5, “The Distance/Time
Pages”. The Super NAV 5 page is especially useful
for flight plan operation. It provides you with a visual
orientation of your position in the active flight plan and
displays the alphanumeric identifiers of the flight plan
waypoints. Of course the other four Navigation pages
may also be used extensively. Now would be a good
time to take a couple of minutes and review the NAV 5
and Super NAV 5 pages as they relate to flight plan
operation (see sections 3.9.6 and 3.9.7).
; 1:KNEW
< 2:GPT
3:SJI
4:CEW
5:MAI
8:KPIE
FPL 0
|
|
|
|
|
|
Figure 4-29
• Always verify that you are viewing the active flight plan
page (FPL 0) and not one of the other numbered flight
plan pages.
$=KHOU |
+++++Ê+++++|
DIS
278nm|
GS
182kt|
ETE
1:32|
BRG
264^|
NAV 1
• The active leg of the flight plan is designated with a B
symbol. A leg is defined as the course line between a
pair of waypoints (a “from” waypoint and a “to” waypoint). The head of the arrow is positioned to the left
of and points to the active “to” waypoint. In figure 429, GPT is the “to” waypoint. The tail of the B symbol
is positioned to the left of the “from” waypoint. KNEW
is the “from” waypoint in figure 4-29. The B symbol is
not displayed unless the KLN 900 is actually receiving
navigation signals suitable for navigation. (Note: If the
unit is in the take-home mode, it has been “tricked”
into thinking it is receiving signals and therefore the B
symbol can be displayed). Also, the B symbol will not
be displayed if Direct To navigation is occurring. If in
doubt as to whether or not Direct To operation is
occurring, view the NAV 1 page. If the top line shows
the H symbol (figure 4-30) instead of a “from” waypoint (figure 4-31), then Direct To navigation is occurring. If it is desired to cancel the Direct To operation
and operate from the active flight plan; press D, then
press F, then press E.
Figure 4-30
KNEW =GPT |
+++++Ê+++++|
DIS 52.4nm|
GS
182kt|
ETE
:18|
BRG
065^|
NAV 1
Figure 4-31
• As flight plan waypoints are reached, the active leg
symbol automatically orients itself on the next leg.
4-7
Rev 2
• If the flight plan contains more waypoints than can be
displayed on the screen at one time, the page will
automatically scroll as progress is made along the
flight plan so that the active leg is always displayed
(figure 4-32).
3:SJI
; 4:CEW
< 5:MAI
6:TLH
7:CTY
8:KPIE
FPL 0
• The last waypoint in the flight plan is always displayed
at the bottom of the FPL 0 page, even if all of the waypoints in the flight plan can’t be displayed on the page
at one time. To view intermediate waypoints, turn the
left cursor function on and use the left outer knob to
manually scroll through all of the waypoints, as
desired. If scrolling is performed all the way to the end
of the flight plan, a blank waypoint position will exist so
that a waypoint may be added to the end of the flight
plan (figure 4-33).
|
|
|
|
|
|
Figure 4-32
; 4:CEW
< 5:MAI
6:TLH
7:CTY
8:KPIE
9:
CRSR
4.2.2 Turn Anticipation And Waypoint Alerting
Prior to reaching a waypoint in the active flight plan, the
KLN 900 will provide navigation along a curved path segment to ensure a smooth transition between two adjacent
legs in the flight plan. That is, the CDI or HSI left/right
deviation will be referenced to the dashed line in figure 434. This feature is called turn anticipation. The transition
course is based upon the aircraft’s actual groundspeed
and the amount of course angle change between the two
legs. The KLN 900 automatically sequences to the next
leg after passing the midpoint in the transition segment.
|
|
|
|
|
|
Figure 4-33
WPT 3
WPT 2
Approximately 20 seconds prior to the beginning of turn
anticipation, the arrow preceding the active waypoint
identifier will begin flashing on the FPL 0 page and on any
Navigation page, Distance/Time page, or waypoint page
displaying the active waypoint identifier (figure 4-35). On
the Super NAV 5 page, the entire active waypoint identifier will start to flash. This is called “waypoint alerting”. If
an external waypoint alert annunciator is mounted in the
aircraft, this annunciator will begin flashing at the same
time.
WPT 1
Figure 4-34
To utilize the turn anticipation feature, start the turn transitioning to the next leg in the flight plan at the very
beginning of turn anticipation. This occurs when the
external waypoint alert annunciator or the active waypoint
identifier on the Super NAV 5 page stops flashing and
goes on steady. At this time the KLN 900 will notify you
with a message on the Message page of the new desired
track to select on your HSI or CDI.
; 1:KNEW
|KNEW =GPT
= 2:GPT
|+++++Ê+++++
3:SJI
|DIS
0.4nm
4:CEW
|GS
182kt
5:MAI
|ETE
:00
8:KPIE
|BRG
065^
FPL 0 enr-leg
NAV 1
ADJ NAV IND CRS TO 123°
5
Figure 4-35
A message will not be given if the change in desired track
(course change) is less than 5°. In addition, a message
will not be given if the KLN 900 is interfaced with an EHSI
or HSI having a course pointer that is automatically
slewed to the correct desired track.
4-8
Rev 2
The desired track (DTK) displayed on the NAV 3 page
also changes to the value for the next leg at the beginning
of turn anticipation. Turn anticipation becomes inactive
when transition to the next leg has been made.
TURN
|
ANTICIPATE |
|
ENABLE
|
|
|
SET 6
In some installations the KLN 900 can “read” the selected
course set on external CDIs or HSIs. In these installations
the KLN 900 will flash the value of desired track (DTK) on
both the NAV 3 and Super NAV 5 pages when the
desired track and the selected course differ by more than
10°. Set the selected course to match the desired track.
This will make sure that the orientation “picture” is always
correct.
Figure 4-36
If desired, turn anticipation may be disabled (or enabled)
on the Setup 6 page (SET 6) using the left C and the
left inner knob to select between DISABLE or ENABLE
(figure 4-36). If turn anticipation is disabled, navigation is
provided all the way to the waypoint, and waypoint alerting occurs approximately 36 seconds prior to actually
reaching the waypoint. Turn anticipation is automatically
disabled if the cross track error is larger than 4 nm when
in en route or terminal modes. (1 nm in approach arm or
approach active modes.)
4-9
Rev 2
4.2.3 Viewing The Waypoint Pages For The Active
Flight Plan Waypoints
The waypoint pages(s) for each of the waypoints in the
active flight plan may be easily displayed by selecting the
Active Waypoint page type (ACT) on the right side.
When the ACT page type is first selected, the waypoint
page for the active waypoint will be displayed (figure 437). The location of the waypoint in the flight plan (waypoint 1, waypoint 2, etc.) is annunciated with a number to
the left of the identifier. In addition, an arrow to the left of
the waypoint number designates the active waypoint.
The letter to the far right of the identifier designates the
type of waypoint: A = airport, V = VOR, N = NDB, I =
intersection, S = supplemental or T = terminal (for details
on terminal waypoints see section 6.1.2). For VORs having DME capability, the letter D is displayed between the
VOR identifier and the V. To view the other waypoints in
the flight plan, pull the right inner knob to the “out” position and turn it to view each of the waypoints in the order
they are contained in the flight plan (figure 4-38). For airport waypoints, the right inner knob may be pushed back
to the “in” position and rotated to display any of the eight
airport pages (figure 4-39). Pulling the knob back out will
allow further scanning of the waypoint pages in the active
flight plan.
; 1:KNEW
|= 2 GPT D V
< 2:GPT
|GULFPORT
3:SJI
|
L
4:CEW
|109.00 2^E
5:MAI
|N 30^24.40'
8:KPIE
|W 89^04.60'
FPL 0|enr-leg
|ACT
Figure 4-37
; 1:KNEW
| 8 KPIE A
< 2:GPT
|ST PETES3:SJI
|CLERWTR
4:CEW
|CL B
5:MAI
|N 27^54.63'
8:KPIE
|W 82^41.26'
FPL 0 enr-leg
ACT 1
Figure 4-38
4.2.4 Combining Direct To And Flight Plan Operation
It is very common when using flight plan operation to use
the Direct To function to proceed directly to a waypoint
which exists in the flight plan. For example, after takeoff it
is common to receive radar vectors in the terminal area
and then be given a clearance direct to the first point in
the flight plan that was filed. The KLN 900 makes this
kind of operation very easy to accomplish. Whenever
you do a Direct To operation to a waypoint which is in the
active flight Plan (FPL 0), the system will provide navigation to the waypoint and then automatically resume navigation along the flight plan when the Direct To waypoint is
reached. Waypoints which exist prior to the Direct To
waypoint in the active flight plan are bypassed. Of
course, the active flight plan will never be resumed if the
Direct To operation is to a waypoint which is not in the
active flight plan.
; 1:KNEW
| 8 KPIE A
< 2:GPT
|
3:SJI
|17L/35R L
4:CEW
| 8500' HRD
5:MAI
|04 /22 L
8:KPIE
| 5500' HRD
FPL 0 enr-leg
ACT[3
Figure 4-39
Any of the several methods previously described for initiating Direct To operation may be used, although the one
below is the easiest for this application. The procedure
below takes advantage of rule number 1 described in
section 3.8.
4-10
Rev 2
1. Select the FPL 0 page of the left side.
; 1:KNEW
|= 2 GPT D V
< 2:GPT
|GULFPORT
3:SJI
|
L
4:CEW
|109.00 2^E
5:MAI
|N 30^24.40'
8:KPIE
|W 89^04.60'
CRSR enr-leg
ACT
Figure 4-40
2. Press the left C and then use the left outer knob to
position the cursor over the desired waypoint (figure 440).
3. Press D. The waypoint page for the selected waypoint in FPL 0 will be displayed on the right side (figure
4-41).
4. Press E to approve the waypoint page. The Direct
To waypoint identifier in the active flight plan will now
be preceded by just an arrow (figure 4-42). The B
symbol is not displayed since there is no “from” waypoint in the flight plan.
DIRECT TO: | SJI D
< 2:GPT
|SEMMES
SJI
|17L/35R L H
4:CEW
|115.30 5^E
5:MAI
|N 30^43.55'
8:KPIE
|W 88^21.56'
CRSR enr-leg ent VOR
Figure 4-41
An alternative method is to use the Super NAV 5 page to
select the direct to waypoint. This is done by pulling out
on the right inner knob. With the inner knob out, it is possible to scan through the waypoints of the active flight
plan as described in section 3.9.7. When the desired waypoint is highlighted, press D and then E.
5
1:KNEW
|
$=SJI
2:GPT
|+++++Ê+++++
= 3:SJI
|DIS 90.4nm
4:CEW
|GS
180kt
5:MAI
|ETE
:30
8:KPIE
|BRG
062^
FPL 0 enr-leg
NAV 1
If for some reason it is desired to cancel the Direct To
operation prior to reaching the Direct To waypoint in order
to proceed along the flight plan leg, press D, then press
F, and then press E.
Figure 4-42
4.2.5 The Distance/Time Pages
As stated earlier, it is common to use the Distance/Time
pages in conjunction with flight plan operation. The
Distance/Time pages are specially designed to be most
useful when the active flight plan page (FPL 0) is displayed simultaneously on the left side.
; 1:KNEW
|DIS
< 2:GPT
| 34
3:SJI
| 76
4:CEW
|163
5:MAI
|243
8:KPIE
|477
FPL 0 enr-leg
4.2.6 The Distance/Time 1 Page (D/T 1)
When the FPL 0 page is displayed on the left side and the
D/T 1 page is displayed on the right side, the distance
(DIS) and estimated time enroute (ETE) are displayed for
each of the active flight plan waypoints (figure 4-43). The
distance displayed is the cumulative distance from the aircraft’s present position to each waypoint along the flight
plan route. The ETE is displayed in hours:minutes. If
Direct To operation is occurring to a waypoint that is not
in the active flight plan, then the D/T 1 page is blank when
the FPL 0 page is displayed on the left (figure 4-44).
ETE
:11
:25
:54
1:21
2:39
D/T 1
Figure 4-43
|DIS
1:KNEW
|
2:GPT
|
3:SJI
|
4:CEW
|
8:KPIE
|
FPL 0 enr-leg
If a numbered flight plan page (FPL 1 though FPL 25) is
displayed on the left side, the distances displayed are
from the first waypoint in the flight plan and have nothing
to do with the aircraft’s present position. No ETEs are
then shown (figure 4-45).
ETE
D/T 1
Figure 4-44
USE? INVRT?|DIS
1:KMKC
|
2:BUM
| 51
3:OSW
|126
4:TUL
|190
7:KDAL
|432
FPL 6 enr-leg
ETE
D/T 1
Figure 4-45
4-11
Rev 1
If a non-flight plan page is displayed on the left, the format
of the D/T 1 page changes to display just the distance
and ETE for the active waypoint and for the last waypoint
in the flight plan (figure 4-46).
KNEW =GPT | = 2 GPT
+++++Ê+++++|DIS
34NM
DIS 34.2nm|ETE
:11
GS
180kt|
8 KPIE
ETE
:11|DIS
477NM
BRG
064^|ETE
2:39
NAV 1 enr-leg
D/T 1
4.2.7 The Distance/Time 2 Page (D/T 2)
When the FPL 0 page is displayed on the left side and the
D/T 2 page is displayed on the right side, the distance
and estimated time of arrival are displayed for each of the
active flight plan waypoints (figure 4-47). The distances
are as described for the D/T 1 page. The time zone associated with the estimated time of arrival is annunciated at
the top right of the D/T 2 page. The time zone may be
changed by enabling the right cursor function to bring the
cursor over the time zone, and then turning the right inner
knob to select the desired time zone (figure 4-48).
Changing the time zone on the D/T 2 page changes the
time zone on other pages where time is displayed.
Figure 4-46
; 1:KNEW
|DIS
< 2:GPT
| 34
3:SJI
| 76
4:CEW
|163
5:MAI
|243
8:KPIE
|477
FPL 0 enr-leg
CST
09:23
09:37
10:06
10:33
11:51
D/T 2
Figure 4-47
If a numbered flight plan page other than FPL 0 is displayed on the left side, no estimated times of arrival are
displayed (figure 4-49).
; 1:KNEW
|DIS
< 2:GPT
| 34
3:SJI
| 76
4:CEW
|163
5:MAI
|243
8:KPIE
|477
FPL 0 enr-leg
If a non-flight plan page is displayed on the left side, the
format of the D/T 2 page changes to display just the distance and estimated time of arrival for the active waypoint
and for the last waypoint in the flight plan (figure 4-50).
UTC
15:23
15:37
16:06
16:33
17:51
CRSR
Figure 4-48
4.2.8 The Distance/Time 3 Page (D/T 3)
When any flight plan page is displayed on the left side
and the D/T 3 page is displayed on the right side, the distance and desired track (DTK) are displayed (figure 4-51).
The distances are as described for the D/T 1 page. The
desired track is the great circle course between two waypoints. You should view the diagram in Appendix A if you
are unfamiliar with this term.
USE? INVRT?|DIS
1:KMKC
|
2:BUM
| 51
3:OSW
|126
4:TUL
|190
7:KDAL
|432
FPL 7 enr-leg
CST
D/T 2
Figure 4-49
If a non-flight plan page is displayed on the left side, the
format of the D/T 3 page changes to display just the distance and desired track for the active waypoint and for
the next waypoint in the flight plan (figure 4-52). Note that
this is different than for the D/T 1 and D/T 2 pages.
KNEW =GPT | = 2 GPT
+++++Ê+++++|DIS
34NM
DIS 34.2nm|
15:23UTC
GS
180kt|
8 KPIE
ETE
:11|DIS
477NM
BRG
064^|
17:51UTC
NAV 1 enr-leg
D/T 2
Figure 4-50
; 1:KNEW
|DIS
< 2:GPT
| 34
3:SJI
| 76
4:CEW
|163
5:MAI
|243
8:KPIE
|477
FPL 0 enr-leg
Figure 4-51
KNEW =GPT | = 2 GPT
+++++Ê+++++|DIS
34NM
DIS 34.2nm|DTK
064^
GS
180kt|
3 SJI
ETE
:11|DIS
76NM
BRG
064^|DTK
061^
NAV 1 enr-leg
D/T 3
DTK
063^
061^
085^
092^
172^
D/T 3
Figure 4-52
4-12
Rev 2
4.2.9 The Distance/Time 4 Page (D/T 4)
The format of the D/T 4 page does not change. It displays on a single page the pertinent times for the flight
regardless of what is displayed on the left page and
regardless of whether flight plan or Direct To operation is
occurring (figure 4-53). The information displayed on the
D/T 4 page is the following:
•
The destination waypoint.
•
The selected time zone. The time zone may be
changed by pressing the right C and using the right
inner knob to select the desired time zone.
•
DEP - The departure time. There are two definitions of
departure time depending on what has been selected
on the Setup 4 page (SET 4 - see figure 4-54). If the
SET
4
page
displays
RUN
WHEN
GS > 30KT, then the departure time is that time when
the groundspeed first reached 30 knots. If instead,
the SET 4 page displays RUN WHEN POWER IS ON,
then the departure time is the time when power was
applied to the KLN 900. The SET 4 page may be
changed by pressing the left C while the SET 4
page is displayed on the left side and then rotating the
left inner knob. Press the left C again to turn the left
cursor function off.
•
TIME - The present time. The time may be reset on
the Self Test page at system turn-on or on the SET 2
page.
•
ETA - The estimated time of arrival at the destination
waypoint.
•
FLT - The flight time. If RUN WHEN GS > 30 KT is
selected on the SET 4 page, then flight time is the
amount of time that the aircraft’s groundspeed has
been above 30 knots. Normally, this will be the time
since takeoff. However, time spent at ground speeds
less than 30 knots such as intermediate stops without
shutting down power or helicopter hovering is not
counted as flight time.
| KPIE UTC
|DEP
15:02
|TIME 15:12
|ETA
17:51
|FLT
:10
|ETE
2:39
D/T 4
Figure 4-53
FLIGHT
|
TIMER
|
OPERATION |
|
RUN WHEN
|
GS > 30kt |
SET 4
Figure 4-54
If the present position flags (NAV flag) after being valid
in the NAV mode, the flight timer continues to run if
the groundspeed was more than 30 knots immediately
before the flag.
If RUN WHEN POWER IS ON is selected on the SET
4 page, then flight time is the time since power on.
•
ETE - Estimated time enroute to the destination
waypoint.
4-13
Rev 1
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
4-14
Rev 2
4.3 SAMPLE TRIP
Let’s use a sample trip to illustrate some of the KLN 900’s flight plan features you learned to use in this section of the
Pilot’s Guide. The flight will be from Lakefront airport in New Orleans, LA. (KNEW) to St. Petersburg/Clearwater, FL.
international airport (KPIE). You decide to fly mostly an inland route rather than following the coast to avoid the many
restricted areas and MOAs and also to avoid thunderstorms which are occurring off the coast around Panama City (figure
4-55). The pages viewed in this scenario assume that the KLN 900 is driving an external HSI or CDI. If your KLN 900
installation is not interfaced with an external HSI or CDI, then your page selection would have more emphasis on the
NAV 1 and Super NAV 1 pages than presented here.
CRESTVIEW
D115.9
CEW
SEMMES
D 115.3
SJI
D30
0
BAKOS
0
87
27
GULFPORT
D 109.0
GPT
BUGLE
27
15
°
238
9
081°
27
°
D
8
12
113.2 MSY
4
0
°
064
25
D
0
500 SNAKI
61
X
V 20 4
V 11
12 245
D
D36
3000
263°
7
D
J-2
D31
9
27
CORKY
19
DEFUN
2
GLEET
9
18
088° D
(AAS)
J-2
80
29
TRI COUNTY
275 BKK
CHEWS
V 198
2000
21
0
MARIANNA
FLA 113
D
272°
TALLAHASSEE
D117.5
9
27
18
109° J-2
17
D
MARIANNA
D114.0
MAI
41
SNEAD D24
TLH
MAUNA
12
V 19
200
0
8
QUILL
QUINCY
FLA
222
RESTRICTED
AIRSPACE
D
12
0
288°
9
27
18
28
8°
°
061
23
9
D
18
CODYS
14
D20 GULFPORT
MISS
CLERY
0
0
180
9
27
SLIDD
18
9 079°
27
D
V 198-241
24
PENSI
42
20
NEW ORLEANS
7
20
18
0
V-200
0
V 241
BRATT
LOXLY
29
3000
GULF OF MEXICO
18
NEW ORLEANS
LA Lakefront
PANAMA
CITY FLA
D3
7
CILLA
V
5
7 3
20 -29
00
53
TO
CI
LL
A
CROSS CITY
D112.0
V
9
7 0
20 -29
00 5
CTY
31
2°
0
9
27
18
170°
GULF OF MEXICO
19
D
CEDDI
18
2000
X
8
ELTOR
D58
103
198
26
V
T
1200
3000
GULF OF MEXICO
ENDED
D
NEW PORT
RICHEY FLA
D 116.4
349°
ST PETERSBURG
PIE
0
9
27
ST PETERSBURG
CLEARWATER
4-15
Rev 2
18
4.3.1 Pre-Departure
1. After turn-on and approval of the Self Test and
Database pages, the APT 4 page (airport communication frequencies) for KNEW is displayed on the right
side of the screen. Viewing the APT 4 page, you set
up the COMMs for ATIS, Clearance Delivery, Ground,
and Tower.
|DIS
1:KNEW
|
2:GPT
|---3:SJI
|---4:CEW
|---8:KPIE
|---FPL 0 enr-leg
ETE
--:---:---:---:-D/T 1
Figure 4-56
2. You create the flight plan on the FPL 4 page exactly
as described for this route in section 4.1.1. The flight
plan route is from KNEW, to GPT (Gulfport VOR), to
SJI (Semmes VOR), to CEW (Crestview VOR), to
MAI (Marianna VOR), to TLH (Tallahassee VOR), to
CTY (Cross City VOR), to KPIE.
; 1:KNEW
|DIS
< 2:GPT
| 54
3:SJI
| 95
4:CEW
|182
5:MAI
|263
8:KPIE
|496
FPL 0 enr-leg
3. The flight plan is now activated (made FPL 0) as
described in section 4.1.2.
4. Until the KLN 900 reaches a NAV ready status, there
is no B symbol to indicate the active flight plan leg on
the FPL 0 page and no distances displayed on the
D/T 1 page (figure 4-56).
ETE
--:---:---:---:---:-D/T 1
Figure 4-57
; 1:KNEW
|DIS
< 2:GPT
| 54
3:SJI
| 95
4:CEW
|182
5:MAI
|263
8:KPIE
|496
FPL 0 enr-leg
5. Shortly, the KLN 900 reaches a NAV ready status (figure 4-57). You see that the distance is 496 NM to St.
Petersburg/Clearwater along the flight plan route. The
active leg of the flight plan is KNEW - GPT and is so
indicated on the FPL 0 page 2 with the B symbol.
DTK
063^
061^
085^
092^
172^
D/T 3
6. You briefly view the D/T 3 page to determine that the
desired track to the first waypoint, GPT, is 63 degrees
(figure 4-58).
Figure 4-58
4.3.2 Enroute
1. After departure from runway 18R at Lakefront airport,
you receive radar vectors out of the New Orleans
Class B airspace. Finally, you are cleared direct
Gulfport. At this point you are slightly South of the
original course because of the radar vectors. Since
you are displaying the D/T 1 page (a non-waypoint
page) on the right side, to proceed direct to the active
waypoint in the flight plan you press D, and then
press E (figure 4-59). Remember that if a waypoint
page would have been displayed on the right side
when D was pressed, the Direct To page would
have contained that waypoint’s identifier, not the
active waypoint’s identifier). You reselect the D/T 1
page on the right side (figure 4-60). Since you are still
climbing at 120 knots, the ETEs are not representative
of what they will be when you level off at cruise speed.
1:KNEW
|
$=GPT
= 2:GPT
|+++++Ê+++++
3:SJI
|DIS 41.1nm
4:CEW
|GS
120kt
5:MAI
|ETE
:20
8:KPIE
|BRG
054^
FPL 0 enr-leg
NAV 1
Figure 4-59
1:KNEW
|DIS
= 2:GPT
| 41
3:SJI
| 83
4:CEW
|170
5:MAI
|250
8:KPIE
|484
FPL 0 enr-leg
ETE
:20
:41
1:25
2:05
4:02
D/T 1
Figure 4-60
2. Approaching Gulfport, the arrow adjacent to GPT
begins flashing. This waypoint alert notification begins
approximately 20 seconds before the time to start
your turn to join the second flight plan leg, GPT - SJI.
You briefly view the D/T 3 page to see that the next
desired track is 61 degrees.
4-16
Rev 2
3. As you pass abeam GPT, the leg orientation automatically changes to the second leg (figure 4-61).
1:KNEW
|DIS
; 2:GPT
| 41
< 3:SJI
| 42
4:CEW
|129
5:MAI
|209
8:KPIE
|443
FPL 0 enr-leg
4. After joining the second leg of the flight plan, you view
the D/T 1 page to see that the ETE to SJI is 14 minutes and that the ETE to your destination is 2 hours
and 28 minutes. The D/T 2 page indicates you should
arrive over SJI at 9:37 am Central Standard Time and
at KPIE at 11:51 am. Since KPIE is on Eastern
Standard Time, you use the right cursor and right
inner knob to change the time zone to EST (figure 462). You may decide a better alternative is to select
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, which is also
called Zulu time). In addition, you briefly check the
D/T 4 page to get a display of your departure time, the
actual time, the flight time so far, and the ETA and
ETE to KPIE (figure 4-63).
ETE
:20
:14
:43
1:09
2:28
D/T 1
Figure 4-61
1:KNEW
|DIS
; 2:GPT
| 41
< 3:SJI
| 42
4:CEW
|129
5:MAI
|209
8:KPIE
|443
FPL 0 enr-leg
Figure 4-62
5. Just prior to reaching Semmes (SJI) the waypoint
alert notification begins flashing to indicate the upcoming arrival at Semmes. A few seconds later you view
a message on the Message page stating: ADJ NAV
IND CRS TO 85°. This is your notification that there is
a course change of at least 5° and that you should set
the course pointer on your HSI or CDI to 85°. You
should immediately begin a turn to intercept the new
desired track of 85°.
EST
:20
10:37
11:06
11:33
12:51
D/T 2
| KPIE EST
|DEP
10:02
|TIME 10:23
|ETA
12:51
|FLT
:21
|ETE
2:28
D/T 4
6. About 80 NM from Crestview (CEW), you decide to
view the Super NAV 5 page with the 160 NM range
scale selected (figure 4-64). The track up map orientation (TK?) has been selected on the Super NAV 5
page.
Figure 4-63
79.0 oq
CEW
|
xy-«} |
180 uv
áà0:26|
ûü085^|
†ü085^|160
7. As your aircraft continues toward Crestview, you
decide to take advantage of the moving map display
capability of the Super NAV 5 page. While on the 60
nm range of the Super NAV 5 page, you press the
right C to bring the menu selection on the page as
you learned in section 3.9.7. Using the right inner
knob you select low and high altitude VORs. Pressing
the right C once again removes the menu from the
page and Monroeville (MVC), Saufley (NUN), and
Brookley (BFM) VORs are now displayed on the map
(figure 4-65).
MAI
CEW
SJ1
Figure 4-64
57.5 oq
CEW
|
xy-«} |
180 uv
áà0:19|
ûü086^|
†ü085^|60
CEW
MVC
NUN
BFM
Figure 4-65
4-17
Rev 2
8. When you are 20 NM West of MAI, you decide to proceed direct to Cross City VOR (CTY). To do this from
the Super NAV 5 page, you pull out the right inner
knob and scan through the active flight plan until CTY
is displayed (figure 4-66). Next, you press D to
view the waypoint page for CTY, and then press E
to navigate directly to CTY (figure 4-67).
18.9 oq
MAI
|
xy-«} |
180 uv
áà0:06|
ûü093^|
†ü093^|120
CTY
TLH
MAI
CTY
Figure 4-66
9. Over CTY you check the weather and determine that
it is currently marginal VFR at St. Petersburg and that
you may have to shoot the ILS 17L approach. You
add CAPOK, the outer compass locator for runway
17L, to your flight plan using the same procedure as
described in section 4.1.3 (figure 4-68).
144 oq
CTY
|
xy-«} |
180 uv
áà0:48|
ûü120^|
†ü121^|160
10. To prepare yourself for the arrival into St.
Petersburg/Clearwater International airport, you familiarize yourself with the database information for KPIE.
The easiest way to do this is to select the ACT pages
on the right side. If necessary, scan the waypoints in
the active flight plan by first pulling the right inner knob
to the “out” position. Then, rotate it to view the
desired waypoint. For KPIE, push the right inner knob
back to the “in” position and rotate it to display the
eight airport pages.
CTY
Figure 4-67
4:CEW
|DIS
5:MAI
|
6:TLH
|
; 7:CTY
|
< 8:CAPOK | 97
9:KPIE
|102
FPL 0 enr-leg
11. By the time you get to the St. Petersburg terminal
area, the weather has cleared so that an instrument
approach is not necessary. You delete CAPOK from
the flight plan exactly as described in section 4.1.4.
ETE
:32
:34
D/T 1
Figure 4-68
4-18
Rev 2
CHAPTER 5 - LEVEL 3 OPERATION
In this chapter you will learn to use many of the supplementary features of the KLN 900. These include such
things as the Advisory VNAV, the Trip Planning pages,
the Calculator pages, and other features that you may
find very beneficial and convenient to use in your flying.
5.1 TRIP PLANNING
There are seven Trip Planning pages (TRI) that can be
displayed on the left side of the screen. The KLN 900
allows three kinds of trip planning. The TRI 1 and TRI 2
pages team together to provide trip planning from your
present position to any waypoint of your choice. The
TRI 3 and TRI 4 pages provide trip planning between
any two waypoints, and the TRI 5 and TRI 6 pages provide an analysis of any of the 26 flight plans (FPL 0,
FPL 1, FPL 2, ..., FPL 25) stored in the Flight Plan
pages. The TRI 0 page is used to enter estimates of
your true airspeed and of the winds so that the KLN 900
can perform wind triangle calculations for use on the
other Trip Planning pages.
Data entered on any of the Trip Planning pages has no
effect on navigation data provided on any Navigation
(NAV) or Flight Plan (FPL) pages. You may perform trip
planning without disturbing ongoing navigation.
NOTE: The Trip Planning pages rely on pilot enterable
inputs for true airspeed, groundspeed, and fuel flow.
These pages do not utilize inputs from fuel flow or air
data sensors. Fuel management and air data pages are
discussed in section 5.10 and 5.11.
NOTE: Areas of special use airspace are displayed on
the Trip Planning pages without regard to altitude.
5-1
Rev 2
5.1.1 The Trip Planning 0 Page (TRI 0)
If desired, you may enter the aircraft’s true airspeed
(TAS) and the winds aloft on the TRI 0 page so that this
information is utilized on the other Trip Planning pages.
The KLN 900 uses the TAS and winds entered on the
TRI 0 page to calculate your estimated groundspeed for
specific trip planning routes you enter on the other Trip
Planning pages.
TRIP PLAN |
ESTIMATES |
|
TAS: 150kt|
WIND: 210^%|
018kt|
TRI 0
To enter data on the TRI 0 page:
TRIP PLAN |
ESTIMATES |
|
TAS: 200kt|
WIND: 210^%|
018kt|
CRSR
Figure 5-1
1. Select the TRI 0 page on the left side (figure 5-1).
Figure 5-2
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
3. Enter the aircraft’s true airspeed by using the left
outer knob to move the cursor to the desired location
and the left inner knob to select each individual digit
(figure 5-2).
TRIP PLAN |
ESTIMATES |
|
TAS: 200kt|
WIND: 210^%|
018kt|
CRSR
4. Rotate the left outer knob clockwise to position the
cursor over the first two digits of the wind direction
(figure 5-3).
TRIP PLAN |
ESTIMATES |
|
TAS: 200kt|
WIND: 180^%|
018kt|
CRSR
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4
5. Turn the left inner knob to select the first two digits of
the wind direction (figure 5-4).
TRIP PLAN |
ESTIMATES |
|
TAS: 500kt|
WIND: 180^%|
025kt|
CRSR
6. Rotate the left outer knob one step clockwise to position the cursor over the last digit of the wind direction, and then use the left inner knob to complete the
winds direction entry.
7. Enter the wind speed by using the left outer knob to
move the cursor and the left inner knob to select
each individual digit (figure 5-5).
Figure 5-5
8. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
Let’s say you enter a TAS of 200 knots and winds of
180 degrees at 25 knots on the TRI 0 page. If you
entered two waypoints on the TRI 3 page (trip planning
between two waypoints) and the bearing from the first
waypoint you entered to the second was 180 degrees,
then the TRI 3 page would contain a groundspeed of
about 175 knots. The reason we say about 175 knots
is that the direction of the winds you enter are relative to
true North and the bearing displayed is relative to magnetic North. Remember that winds information you get
from a Flight Service Station or from an ATC facility is
always provided relative to true North. On the TRI 5
and TRI 6 pages (trip planning for a flight plan), the
winds are applied to each individual leg of the flight
plan.
5-2
Rev 2
5.1.2 The Trip Planning 1 And Trip Planning 2 Pages
(TRI 1 and TRI 2)
The TRI 1 and TRI 2 pages allow trip planning from your
present position to any waypoint of your choice. Unlike
the other Trip Planning pages, in order to utilize the TRI
1 and TRI 2 pages, the KLN 900 must either be receiving GPS signals sufficient to be in the NAV ready status
or the KLN 900 must be in the take-home mode.
The TRI 1 page provides estimates of distance, estimated time enroute, bearing, and fuel requirements.
The TRI 2 page displays the minimum enroute safe altitude (ESA) and any areas of special use airspace that
lay between your present position and the selected waypoint. The TRI 1 and TRI 2 pages are useful, for example, while you are airborne and wish to determine distance, time, fuel, and altitude requirements direct to an
alternate location.
NOTE: Prior to using the TRI 1 and TRI 2 pages while
the KLN 900 is in the take-home mode, use the SET 1
page to enter your present position. See section 3.6,
“INITIALIZATION AND TIME TO FIRST FIX”, for an
explanation of entering position on the SET 1 page.
For the following example let’s say the aircraft is located
over Battle Mountain VOR (BAM) enroute to Lake
Tahoe and you wish to perform trip planning back to
Salt Lake City International airport (KSLC). To perform
trip planning on the TRI 1 and TRI 2 pages:
1. Use the left outer knob to select the TRI type pages
on the left side.
P.POS-KLAX |
404nm 175^|
175kt 2:18|
FF: 00028.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 89.5|
TRI 1
2. Rotate the left inner knob to display the TRI 1 page
on the left side (figure 5-6).
3. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
The cursor will be over the waypoint identifier at the
top of the page.
P.POS-KSLC |
404nm 175^|
175kt 2:18|
FF: 00028.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 89.5|
CRSR
Figure 5-7
Figure 5-6
4. Use the left inner and outer knobs to enter the identifier of the selected waypoint (figure 5-7).
5. Press E to view the waypoint page for the
selected waypoint on the right side.
P.POS-KSLC |
226nm 070^|
200kt 1:08|
FF: 00028.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 56.5|
CRSR
6. Press E again to acknowledge the waypoint page.
The distance, bearing, and estimated time enroute
are now displayed (figure 5-8).
If you entered true airspeed and wind velocity information on the TRI 0 page, the groundspeed displayed is a
result of those inputs applied to the direction of flight
specified on the TRI 1 page. You may also enter any
groundspeed you desire by using the left outer knob to
position the cursor over each digit of the groundspeed
and using the left inner knob to select each individual
digit.
Figure 5-8
5-3
Rev 2
7. You can also calculate an estimate of the fuel
required to travel to the selected waypoint. Turn the
left outer knob to position the cursor over the appropriate first digit adjacent to fuel flow (FF).
8. Use the left inner and outer knobs as before to enter
the aircraft’s rate of fuel flow. The unit (gallons,
pounds, etc.) is not important as long as you are
consistent (figure 5-9).
P.POS-KSLC |
226nm 070^|
200kt 1:08|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00025.0|
F REQ 61.0|
CRSR
9. Use the left inner and outer knobs to enter the
amount of reserve fuel (RES) desired when you
reach the selected waypoint (figure 5-10). The estimated amount of fuel required (F REQ) to fly to the
selected waypoint with the specified reserve is now
displayed. Entering the fuel flow and reserve fuel on
the TRI 1 page also inputs this same information on
the TRI 3 and TRI 5 pages.
Figure 5-9
P.POS-KSLC |
226nm 070^|
200kt 1:08|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00032.0|
F REQ 68.0|
CRSR
10.Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
11.Select the TRI 2 page (figure 5-11). The minimum
enroute safe altitude (ESA) and a listing of areas of
special use airspace along the route are displayed.
If all of the areas of special use airspace won’t fit on
one page, there will be multiple TRI 2 pages indicated by TRI+2.
Figure 5-10
P.POS-KSLC |
ESA 14100ft|
LUCIN C
|
MOA
|
SALT LAKE |
CITY CL B |
TRI 2
Figure 5-11
5-4
Rev 2
5.1.3 The Trip Planning 3 And Trip Planning 4 Pages
(TRI 3 and TRI 4)
The TRI 3 and TRI 4 pages allow trip planning between
any two waypoints. The KLN 900 does not have to be
receiving GPS signals or even be connected to an
antenna in order to utilize these pages. To use the TRI
3 and TRI 4 pages:
1. Select the TRI 3 page on the left side (figure 5-12).
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
The cursor will be located over the “from” waypoint
identifier (figure 5-13).
3. Use the left inner and outer knobs to enter the identifier of the “from” waypoint (figure 5-14).
4. Press E to view the waypoint page on the right
side for the waypoint just entered.
5. Press E to approve the waypoint page. The cursor will be positioned over the “to” waypoint identifier
(figure 5-15).
KIND -KOSH |
275nm 341^|
223kt 1:14|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00032.0|
F REQ 71.5|
TRI 3
Figure 5-12
KIND -KOSH |
275nm 341^|
223kt 1:14|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00032.0|
F REQ 71.5|
CRSR
Figure 5-13
KOMA -KOSH |
275nm 341^|
223kt 1:14|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00032.0|
F REQ 71.5|
CRSR
Figure 5-14
KOMA -KOSH |
362nm 056^|
210kt 1:43|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00032.0|
F REQ 86.9|
CRSR
Figure 5-15
6. Use the left inner and outer knobs to enter the identifier of the “to” waypoint.
7. Press E to view the waypoint page on the right
side for the waypoint just entered.
KOMA -M39 |
413nm 163^|
175kt 2:21|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00032.0|
F REQ
107|
CRSR
8. Press E to approve the waypoint page. The distance, bearing, and estimated time enroute are now
displayed (figure 5-16).
If you entered true airspeed and wind velocity information on the TRI 0 page, the groundspeed displayed is a
result of those inputs applied to the direction of flight
specified on the TRI 3 page. You may also enter any
groundspeed you desire by using the left outer knob to
position the cursor over each digit of the groundspeed
and using the left inner knob to select each individual
digit.
Figure 5-16
If data is entered for fuel flow (FF) and reserve fuel
(RES), as described for the TRI 1 page, the fuel
required for the trip is now displayed. Fuel flow and
reserve fuel entries made on the TRI 3 page also input
this same data on the TRI 1 and the TRI 5 pages.
KOMA -M39 |
ESA 4600ft|
OMAHA
|
CL C
|
OFFUTT AFB |
CL C
|
TRI[4
Figure 5-17
9. Turn off the left cursor function and then select the
TRI 4 page (figure 5-17). The minimum enroute safe
altitude (ESA) and a listing of areas of special use
airspace along the route are displayed. If all of the
areas of special use airspace won’t fit on one page,
there will be multiple TRI 4 pages and the lower lefthand corner will display TRI+4.
5-5
Rev 2
5.1.4 The Trip Planning 5 And Trip Planning 6 Pages
(TRI 5 and TRI 6)
The TRI 5 and TRI 6 pages are used to do trip planning
for any one of the previously entered flight plans (FPL 0,
FPL 1, FPL 2, ..., FPL 25). The KLN 900 does not have
to be receiving GPS signals or even be connected to an
antenna in order to utilize these pages. To use the TRI
5 and TRI 6 pages:
FP 3 463nm|
K34 -KAPA |
202kt 2:17|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00032.0|
F REQ
105|
TRI 5
Figure 5-18
1. Select the TRI 5 page on the left side (figure 5-18).
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
The cursor will be located over the flight plan number.
3. Rotate the left inner knob to select the desired flight
plan to be analyzed (figure 5-19). The first and last
waypoints in the selected flight plan are displayed on
the second line. The distance and estimated time
enroute are also displayed. There is no bearing display since the flight plan can have up to 30 waypoints which creates 29 flight plan legs.
FP 5 692nm|
KDEN -KSAT |
177kt 3:53|
FF: 00032.0|
RES:00032.0|
F REQD 156|
CRSR
Figure 5-19
If you entered true airspeed and wind velocity information on the TRI 0 page, the groundspeed displayed is
the average groundspeed for the flight plan. It is the
result of the true airspeed and wind velocity entered on
the TRI 0 page applied to each leg of the flight plan.
You may also enter any groundspeed you desire by
using the left outer knob to position the cursor over each
digit of the groundspeed and using the left inner knob to
select each individual digit.
FP 5
|
ESA 14700ft|
DENVER
|
CL B
|
PINON CANYO|
N
|
TRI[6
Figure 5-20
If data is entered for fuel flow (FF) and reserve fuel
(RES), as described for the TRI 1 page, the fuel
required for the trip is now displayed. Fuel flow and
reserve fuel entries made on the TRI 5 page also input
this same data on the TRI 1 and the TRI 3 pages.
4. Turn off the left cursor function and then select the
TRI 6 page (figure 5-20). The minimum enroute safe
altitude (ESA) and a listing of areas of special use
airspace along the flight plan route are displayed. If
all of the areas of special use airspace won’t fit on
one page, there will be multiple TRI 6 pages indicated by TRI+6.
5-6
Rev 2
5.2 ADVISORY VNAV OPERATION
$=KDBQ
The KLN 900’s vertical navigation feature (VNAV) allows
you to program a descent or ascent path, and then provides
you with an advisory altitude to fly that will provide guidance
along the vertical path. For example, you can program the
VNAV to provide descent guidance so that you arrive at
your active waypoint or a waypoint in the active flight plan at
an altitude that you specify. The KLN 900 will alert you of
when to start the descent, and display the advisory altitudes
to fly throughout the descent.
DIS
GS
64.8nm
145kt
ETE
BRG
NAV 1 enr-leg
:27
094^
NAV 1
Figure 5-21
5.2.1 VNAV For Direct To Operation
The Navigation 4 (NAV 4) page is used to program the KLN
900 for vertical navigation. The following example will be
used to illustrate how to use the VNAV feature. You are
using the KLN 900 to fly direct to your destination airport,
Dubuque Municipal airport (KDBQ) located in Dubuque,
Iowa. You are presently about 65 nm West of Dubuque, flying at 7500 feet MSL (figure 5-21). You desire to use the
VNAV to provide vertical guidance to Dubuque’s traffic pattern altitude of 1900 feet MSL.
$=KDBQ |VNV INACTV
+++++Â+++++|
DIS 64.8nm|IND 07500ft
GS
145kt|SEL:00000ft
ETE
:27|KDBQ :-00nm
BRG
094^|ANGLE:-0.8^
NAV 1 enr-leg
NAV 4
Figure 5-22
1. Select the NAV 4 page on either side of the screen (figure 5-22). You can select the NAV 4 page either by
using the knobs or by pressing A to bring up the NAV
4 page on the right side and the ALT page on the left.
The aircraft’s actual altitude is displayed in the IND field.
If the displayed altitude is incorrect it is probably because
you have not recently updated the KLN 900’s altimeter
baro setting on the ALT page (see section 3.15).
|VNV INACTV
|
|IND 07500ft
|SEL:00000ft
|KDBQ :-00nm
|ANGLE:-0.8^
CRSR
NOTE: There may be some difference (less than 100 feet)
between the indicated altitude (IND) and the aircraft’s actual
altitude if the altitude input to the KLN 900 is from an altitude
encoder because these encoders only provide altitude in
100 foot increments. When DC Altimeters are used, display
increments of 200 feet are possible.
Figure 5-23
The identifier for the active waypoint (KDBQ) is automatically displayed on the NAV 4 page. Prior to programming a
VNAV operation, the top of the page displays that the VNAV
is inactive (VNV INACTV).
|VNV INACTV
|
|IND 07500ft
|SEL:01900ft
|KDBQ :-00nm
|ANGLE:-0.8^
CRSR
2. Press the appropriate C button to turn on the cursor
function if it is not already on (figure 5-23).
3. Enter the desired altitude of 1900 feet in the SEL field.
The outer knob is used to move the cursor and the inner
knob is used to select the digits. The altitude may be
entered in 100 foot or 10 meter increments
(figure 5-24).
Figure 5-24
NOTE: If the KLN 900 does not have an altitude input, the
IND and SEL fields will be labeled FR (from) and TO
respectively. The aircraft’s present altitude must be entered
into the FR field and the desired altitude into the TO field.
5-7
Rev 2
4. Use the outer knob to move the cursor to the offset
field adjacent to the active waypoint identifier.
Entering an offset allows you to reach the desired
altitude a specified distance before reaching the waypoint. In this example you desire to reach traffic pattern altitude two nautical miles prior to the airport,
which allows sufficient time to slow down and prepare for the landing. Enter an offset of 2 nm (figure
5-25).
|VNV INACTV
|
|IND 07500ft
|SEL:01900ft
|KDBQ :-02nm
|ANGLE:-0.8^
CRSR
Figure 5-25
Notice that the bottom of the NAV 4 page now displays
an angle. If you wish to start your descent now using
the displayed descent angle, use the outer knob to position the cursor over the ANGLE field (figure 5-26).
VNAV operation is initiated by bringing the cursor over
the ANGLE field. Or, by leaving the cursor off of the
ANGLE field, you may watch the VNAV angle increase
as you fly toward your waypoint. When the desired
angle is reached, position the cursor over the ANGLE
field and VNAV will commence. When VNAV begins,
the top of the page displays an advisory altitude. Just
start a rate of descent so that the aircraft’s altimeter
matches the advisory altitude.
|VNV 7500ft
|
|IND 07500ft
|SEL:01900ft
|KDBQ :-02nm
|ANGLE:-0.8^
CRSR
A better way yet to initiate VNAV is to program a desired
angle to use for the descent. If you are not sure what a
suitable descent angle is, use the CAL 4 page to calculate one for you. The CAL 4 page is described in section 5.3.4. After a little experience using the VNAV feature, you will soon learn what angles to use for your normal speeds and rates of descent. To program a
descent angle:
Figure 5-26
5. Use the outer knob to move the cursor to the
ANGLE field, and then enter the desired descent
angle (figure 5-27). If the time to begin your descent
is greater than ten minutes, VNV ARMED will now
be displayed on the top line of the NAV 4 page. If
the time is less than ten minutes, the top line displays a countdown to the time to begin the descent.
VNV ANGLE |VNV IN 8:53
|
GS:
160kt|IND 07500ft
FPM:
0500|SEL:01900ft
ANGLE 1.8^|KDBQ :-02nm
|ANGLE:-1.8^
CAL 4 enr-leg
CRSR
6. Return to any desired page for now. If you got to the
NAV 4 page by pressing A, press A once again
to return to the pages previously in view. If you got
to the NAV 4 page using the inner and outer knobs,
press C to turn off the cursor function and then
use the inner and outer knobs to select the desired
page. Approximately 90 seconds before the time to
begin descent, the message prompt will flash. When
you view the Message page, it will display “VNAV
ALERT”. This is notification for you to view the NAV
4 page because it is getting close to the time to
begin your descent.
Figure 5-27
|VNV 7500ft
|
|IND 07500ft
|SEL:01900ft
|KDBQ :-02nm
|ANGLE:-1.8^
NAV 4
7. When the countdown reaches 0:00, the time will be
replaced with an advisory altitude (figure 5-28).
Begin your rate of descent so that the altitude displayed on your altimeter matches the advisory altitude.
Figure 5-28
5-8
Rev 2
5.2.2 VNAV For Flight Plan Operation
Using the vertical navigation function when flying via a
flight plan is virtually the same as for the previous Direct
To example. The NAV 4 page will initially contain the
identifier for the active “to” waypoint in the flight plan.
You may program the vertical ascent or descent referencing this waypoint or you may enter the identifier
for any waypoint in the active flight plan which is
still in front of the aircraft’s position. When another
valid waypoint in the flight plan is entered on the NAV 4
page, the aircraft’s lateral flight path is not altered. This
means that you may program a vertical flight path having an ascent or descent point that begins prior to the
flight plan leg containing the selected VNAV waypoint.
5.2.3 VNAV From the Super NAV 5 Page
The Super NAV 5 page can be configured to display the
VNAV status. This means that you will not have to
change pages to see at what altitude you should be.
You will still need to set up the VNAV problem by using
the NAV 4 page as described in section 5.2.1. To use
the Super NAV 5 page to view the VNAV status use the
following steps.
25.5 oq
KPIE |
xy-«} |
201 uv
ETE
|
ûü172^|
†ü173^|30
1. Set up the VNAV situation from the NAV 4 page.
2. Turn to the Super NAV 5 page by selecting NAV 5 on
both sides of the display.
KPIE
Figure 5-28a
3. Turn on the left cursor and rotate the left outer knob
counter-clockwise until the cursor is over the third
line from the bottom of the display (figure 5-28a).
4. Rotate the left inner knob until “VNAV” is displayed
(figure 5-28b). Turn the left cursor off by pressing the
left C.
24.6 oq
KPIE |
xy-«} |
201 uv
VNAV |
ûü172^|
†ü173^|30
5. The Super NAV 5 page will now display the VNAV
status. If the VNAV problem has not been defined
yet, then V OFF will be displayed. If the time to start
VNAV operation is greater than 10 minutes then
V ARM is displayed. When the time to VNAV
operation is less than 10 minutes then the Super
NAV 5 page will display the time until VNAV
operation will start. For example, V 4:53 would be
displayed if the time until VNAV operation is 4
minutes and 53 seconds. If the VNAV function has
started and is suggesting an altitude then the Super
NAV 5 display will display this altitude. For example
V 4300 would be displayed if the suggested altitude
was 4300 feet.
KPIE
Figure 5-28b
CAUTION: Advisory VNAV operation will only be
accurate if the altimeter baro correction is kept
updated. If advisory VNAV is used, it is a good idea
to update the altimeter baro set on the ALT page
each time you make a change to the aircraft’s
altimeter setting.
NOTE: If you used the CAL 4 page to determine the
ascent/descent angle, the aircraft’s groundspeed during the ascent/descent should match that entered on
the CAL 4 page. If a different groundspeed is actually flown, a different rate of ascent/descent from the
one entered on the CAL 4 page will be required.
5-9
Rev 2
5.3 CALCULATOR PAGES
ALTITUDE |
IND:09000ft|
BARO:29.92"|
PRS 9000ft|
TEMP: 005^C|
DEN 9900ft|
CAL 1
There are seven Calculator pages which may be used to
calculate a variety of flight related information such as
pressure and density altitude, true airspeed, winds aloft,
VNAV angle, and time zone conversions. The Calculator
pages allow you to make “what if” calculations for conditions other than the present situation. Therefore, the
Calculator pages rely on you to make manual inputs of air
data parameters such as altitude and true airspeed even
if the KLN 900 is interfaced to air data sensors. If the
KLN 900 is interfaced with a compatible air data system,
the Other 9 and Other 10 (OTH 9 and OTH 10) pages
display the air data information directly.
Figure 5-29
ALTITUDE |
IND:08500ft|
BARO:29.92"|
PRS 8500ft|
TEMP: 005^C|
DEN 9300ft|
CRSR
5.3.1 The Calculator 1 Page (CAL 1)
The CAL 1 page is used to determine pressure altitude
and density altitude. To calculate these values:
1. Display the CAL 1 page on the left side (figure 5-29).
Figure 5-30
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
3. Enter the altitude indicated on the aircraft’s altimeter
(IND) to the nearest hundred feet or ten meter by
using the left outer knob to move the cursor to the
desired position and the left inner knob to select each
digit (figure 5-30).
ALTITUDE |
IND:08500ft|
BARO:30.04"|
PRS 8400ft|
TEMP: 005^C|
DEN 9200ft|
CRSR
4. Use the left outer knob to move the cursor to the first
BARO position, and then enter the current altimeter
setting by using the left inner and outer knobs (figure
5-31). The pressure altitude is now displayed (PRS).
Figure 5-31
NOTE: The SET 7 page (figure 5-32) is used to set the
unit of measure for various parameters. The altimeter
barometric setting can be set to inches of mercury (“), millibars (mB) or hectoPascals (hP). Altitude, airport elevation, and runway lengths can be set to feet (ft) or meters
(m). Finally, distances and velocities can be set to nautical miles (nm) and knots (kt) or kilometers (km) and kilometers/hour (k/h). To change a unit of measure: select
the SET 7 page; turn on the left Cand move it over the
desired field using the outer knob; turn the left inner knob
to select the desired unit of measure; and turn the cursor
off again. This format for the SET 7 page applies to ORS
02 or later software. ORS 01 software only allows the
selection of barometric setting units.
SET UNITS |
BARO: "
|
ALTITUDE/ |
APT: ft
|
DISTANCE
|
VEL: nm-kt|
SET 7
Figure 5-32
NOTE: Some areas of the world use hectopascals as a
barometric unit. Hectopascals are numerically the same
as millibars so choose millibars as the barometric unit in
these areas.
ALTITUDE |
IND:08500ft|
BARO:30.04"|
PRS 8400ft|
TEMP: 006^C|
DEN 9300ft|
CRSR
5. Use the left outer knob to move the cursor to the first
TEMP position, and then enter the outside air temperature (degrees C) by using the left inner and outer
knobs (figure 5-33). The first digit of the temperature
is either “0” if the temperature is above zero or “-” if
the temperature is below zero. For maximum accu-
Figure 5-33
5-10
Rev 2
racy, the static air temperature should be entered.
This is the temperature of air without the effect of
heating due to movement through the air. For the airspeeds of most piston aircraft, the difference between
static air temperature and the observed air temperature (or “total air temperature”) is negligible.
The density altitude (DEN) is now displayed.
6. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
NOTE: If a compatible air data system is interfaced to the
KLN 900 the Other 10 (OTH 10) page displays pressure
and density altitude directly for the present conditions.
TAS
|
CAS: 139kt|
ALT:08500ft|
BARO:30.04"|
TEMP: 002^C|
TAS
158kt|
CAL 2
5.3.2 The Calculator 2 Page (CAL 2)
The CAL 2 page is used to determine the true airspeed
(TAS) of the aircraft. To calculate the true airspeed:
Figure 5-34
1. Select the CAL 2 page on the left side (figure 5-34).
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
3. Enter the aircraft’s calibrated airspeed by using the
left inner and outer knobs (figure 5-35). If the calibrated airspeed isn’t known, use the indicated airspeed. For most aircraft the difference between the
calibrated airspeed and the indicated airspeed is
small at cruise airspeeds.
TAS
|
CAS: 144kt|
ALT:08500ft|
BARO:30.04"|
TEMP: 002^C|
TAS
163kt|
CRSR
4. Use the left outer knob to move the cursor to the first
ALT position, and then enter the aircraft’s indicated
altitude using the left inner and outer knobs. If the
indicated altitude was previously entered on the CAL
1 page, it will already be displayed.
Figure 5-35
TAS
|
CAS: 144kt|
ALT:08500ft|
BARO:30.04 |
TEMP: 006^C|
TAS
164kt|
CRSR
5. Turn the left outer knob to move the cursor to the
first BARO position and then enter the current
altimeter setting using the left inner and outer knobs.
If the altimeter setting was made on the CAL 1 page,
it will already be displayed. The SET 7 page is used
to select between making the altimeter setting in
inches of mercury (”) or millibars (MB).
Figure 5-36
6. Rotate the left outer knob to move the cursor to the
first TEMP position, and then enter the outside air
temperature (degrees C) by using the left outer and
inner knobs (figure 5-36). The first digit of the temperature is either “0” if the temperature is above
zero or “-” if the temperature is below zero. For maximum accuracy, the “total air temperature” should be
entered. This is the temperature of air including the
effect of heating due to movement through the air.
The temperature read on a standard outside air temperature gauge found on most piston aircraft is “total
air temperature”. Note that because of the two types
of temperature, a temperature entry made on the
CAL 1 page is not transferred to the CAL 2 page.
5-11
Rev 2
The true airspeed (TAS) is now displayed.
WIND
|
TAS
164kt|
HDG
000^|
HDWND 12kt|
WIND 340^%|
16kt|
CAL 3
7. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
NOTE: If a compatible air data system is interfaced to
the KLN 900, true airspeed (TAS) is displayed directly
on the Other 9 (OTH 9) page for the present conditions.
5.3.3 The Calculator 3 Page (CAL 3)
The CAL 3 page is used to determine the present wind
direction and speed. In addition, the headwind or tailwind
component of the wind is displayed. To calculate these
values:
Figure 5-37
WIND
|
TAS
164kt|
HDG
005^|
HDWND 11kt|
WIND 350^%|
15kt|
CRSR
1. Select the CAL 3 page on the left side (figure 5-37).
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
3. Enter the aircraft’s true airspeed (TAS) by using the
left inner and outer knobs. If the CAL 2 page was previously used to calculate true airspeed, it will already
be displayed.
Figure 5-38
4. Use the left outer knob to move the cursor to the first
HDG position, and then enter the aircraft’s heading
using the left inner and outer knobs (figure 5-38). The
headwind (HDWND) or tailwind (TLWND) and the
wind direction and speed are now displayed. The
wind direction is relative to true North.
VNV ANGLE |
|
GS:
175kt|
FPM:
0800|
ANGLE: 2.6^|
|
CAL 4
NOTE: The wind calculations are only correct when you
have entered the correct aircraft heading and true airspeed. Make sure to re-enter new values if you change
airspeed or heading.
Figure 5-39
5. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
NOTE: If the KLN 900 is interfaced with a compatible
source of heading information, line three of the CAL 3
page is blank. Heading is then automatically input and
used in the wind calculation displayed on the CAL 3 page.
If the KLN 900 is interfaced with a compatible air data
system in addition to a compatible heading source, the
Other 9 (OTH 9) page displays wind information directly.
VNV ANGLE |
|
GS:
160kt|
FPM:
0800|
ANGLE: 2.8^|
|
CRSR
5.3.4 The Calculator 4 Page (CAL 4)
The CAL 4 page is used to determine vertical navigation
descent/ascent angles to use on the NAV 4 page. To calculate the required angle:
Figure 5-40
1. Select the CAL 4 page on the left side (figure 5-39).
VNV ANGLE |
|
GS:
160kt|
FPM:
0500|
ANGLE: 1.8^|
|
CRSR
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
3. Use the left inner and outer knobs to enter what the
aircraft’s groundspeed will be during the descent or
ascent (figure 5-40).
4. Turn the left outer knob to move the cursor to the first
FPM or MPM position, and then enter the desired rate
of descent or ascent (in feet per minute or meters per
Figure 5-41
5-12
Rev 2
minute) using the left inner and outer knobs (figure 541). The descent/ascent angle is now displayed.
In addition, you may enter an angle and determine
what rate of descent or ascent will be required for the
selected combination of groundspeed and angle.
TEMP/SPEED |
000^C
|
032^F
|
|
100kt
|
115mph |
CAL 5
5. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
Figure 5-42
5.3.5 The Calculator 5 Page (CAL 5)
The CAL 5 page is used to perform two types of conversions: 1) Degrees Centigrade (C) to degrees
Fahrenheit (F) and vice versa and 2) knots (KT) or kilometers per hour (k/h) to miles per hour (MPH) and vice
versa. To use the CAL 5 page:
TEMP/SPEED |
025^C
|
077^F
|
|
100kt
|
115mph |
CRSR
Figure 5-43
1. Display the CAL 5 page on the left side (figure 5-42).
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
3. To convert degrees C to degrees F, use the left
outer knob to position the cursor over the appropriate Centigrade digits and use the left inner knob to
select the desired values of temperature. When the
desired temperature in degrees C is selected, the
corresponding temperature in degrees F is displayed
(figure 5-43).
TEMP/SPEED |
025^C
|
077^F
|
|
145kt
|
167mph |
CRSR
To convert degrees F to degrees C, use the left
outer knob to position the cursor over the appropriate Fahrenheit digits and use the left inner knob to
select the desired values of temperature. When the
desired temperature in degrees F is selected, the
corresponding temperature in degrees C is displayed.
Figure 5-44
To convert knots or kilometers per hour, use the left
outer knob to position the cursor over the appropriate digits and use the left inner knob to select the
desired values of speed. When the desired speed in
knots or kilometers per hour is selected, the corresponding speed in miles per hour is displayed (figure
5-44).
To convert miles per hour to knot or kilometers per
hour, use the left outer knob to position the cursor
over the appropriate MPH digits and use the left
inner knob to select the desired values of speed.
When the desired speed in miles per hour is
selected, the corresponding speed in knots or kilometers per hour is displayed.
4. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
5-13
Rev 2
5.3.6 The Calculator 6 Page (CAL 6)
The CAL 6 page is used to convert any time in one time
zone to the corresponding time in another time zone. A
listing of available time zones is contained in section
3.2. For example, it if is presently 9:56 am Pacific
Standard Time (PST) and you wished to determine the
time in Eastern Standard Time (EST):
TIME CONV |
11:56 CST |
CENTRAL STD|
|
17:56 UTC |
CORD UNIV/Z|
CAL 6
1. Select the CAL 6 page on the left side (figure 5-45).
The first time the CAL 6 page is viewed after the
KLN 900 has been turned on, the top time showing
will be the current system time. That is, it will be the
same time as displayed on the SET 2 page. Also,
the bottom time will be the current time referenced to
the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) time zone.
Remember that UTC is the same as “Zulu”.
Figure 5-45
TIME CONV |
11:56 CST |
CENTRAL STD|
|
17:56 UTC |
CORD UNIV/Z|
CRSR
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
3. Rotate the left outer knob to position the cursor over
the top time zone abbreviation (figure 5-46).
4. Turn the left inner knob to select the desired time
zone (figure 5-47).
TIME CONV |
09:56 PST |
PACIFIC STD|
|
17:56 UTC |
CORD UNIV/Z|
CRSR
Figure 5-47
Figure 5-46
5. Rotate the left outer knob to position the cursor over
the bottom time zone abbreviation, and then use the
left inner knob to select the desired time zone (figure
5-48). The corresponding time is now displayed.
TIME CONV |
09:56 PST |
PACIFIC STD|
|
12:56 EST |
EASTERN STD|
CRSR
In addition, you may enter a time different than the
actual time in either the top or bottom time display.
When either the top or bottom time is changed, the
other one also changes to show the correct
corresponding time.
Figure 5-48
6. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
5-14
Rev 2
5.3.7 The Calculator 7 Page (CAL 7)
The CAL 7 page is used to display the times of sunrise
and sunset for any waypoint in the published or user
database. It can do this for any date you desire until
December 31, 2087. Amazing you say! Yes, but it’s
true! To use the CAL 7 page:
SUNRISE/SET|
KORD
|
03 MAR 99|
CST|
RISE 06:24|
SET
17:43|
CAL 7
Figure 5-49
1. Select the CAL 7 page on the left side (figure 5-49).
The first time the CAL 7 page is selected after the
KLN 900 is turned on, the waypoint identifier defaults
to the current destination, the date defaults to the current date, and the time zone defaults to the system
time zone. Each of these three items may, however,
be changed. The sunrise and sunset times are displayed at the bottom of the page.
NOTE: The time zone initially displayed is the system
time zone. This is the same as the one on the SET 2
page. Note that the time zone displayed may not be
appropriate for the waypoint shown. For example, the
waypoint shown could be KLAX and the time zone may
be Eastern Standard Time (EST). Make sure you select
the appropriate time zone for the displayed waypoint.
SUNRISE/SET|
KATL
|
03 MAR 99|
CST|
RISE 06:04|
SET
17:35|
CRSR
Figure 5-50
2. Press the left C to turn on the left cursor function.
3. If desired, select another waypoint identifier using
the left inner and outer knobs. Press E to view the
waypoint page for the waypoint entered. Press E
again to approve the waypoint page (figure 5-50).
4. If desired, select another date using the left inner
and outer knobs. You must press E to enter the
date (figure 5-51).
SUNRISE/SET|
KATL
|
10 MAR 99|
CST|
RISE 05:55|
SET
17:41|
CRSR
5. If desired, select another time zone. The sunrise
and sunset times for the selected waypoint, date,
and time zone are now displayed (figure 5-52).
6. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
Figure 5-51
5-15
SUNRISE/SET|
KATL
|
10 MAR 99|
EST|
RISE 06:55|
SET
18:41|
CRSR
Figure 5-52
Rev 2
5.4 USER-DEFINED WAYPOINTS
Up to 1000 (250 for ORS 01 units) user-defined waypoints may be created. These waypoints may be
defined as a user-defined airport, VOR, NDB, or intersection. If the waypoint doesn’t fit into one of these categories, it may be defined as a supplemental (SUP)
waypoint. An advantage of defining a user waypoint as
a supplemental waypoint is that its location may be
entered as a radial and distance from a VOR or from
any other waypoint in the database.
5.4.1 Creating An Airport User Waypoint
A user defined airport waypoint must contain an
identifier, latitude, and longitude. In addition, any
combination of airport elevation, one runway length and
associated runway surface (hard or soft), and remarks
can also be stored. Communication frequencies cannot
be stored on the APT 4 page, airport services cannot be
stored on the APT 6 page, SIDs and STARs cannot be
stored on the APT 7 page, and approach procedures
cannot be stored on the APT 8 page. To create a user
waypoint as an airport:
1. Use the right outer knob to select the airport (APT)
type waypoints.
| KATL
|HARTSFIELD|ATL
|CL C
|N 33^38.42'
|W 84^25.62'
|CRSR
Figure 5-53
2. Rotate the right inner knob to select the APT 1 page.
3. Press the right C to turn on the right cursor function. The cursor will appear over the first character
of the identifier (figure 5-53).
4. The next step is to select the identifier of the user
waypoint. The identifier can be one to four
characters in length. Use the right inner knob to
select the first character of the identifier.
| FARM
|
|CREATE NEW
|WPT AT:
|USER POS?
|PRES POS?
|CRSR
5. Turn the right outer knob one step clockwise to
position the cursor over the second character and
then use the right inner knob to select the desired
character.
6. Use the right outer and inner knobs as described
above to finish selecting the identifier (figure 5-54).
Figure 5-54
7. If you wish to create a waypoint at your present position (the position shown on the NAV 2 page), turn
the right outer knob clockwise to position the cursor
over PRES POS? and press E. The APT 1 page
will now be displayed with the latitude and longitude
of the waypoint at the bottom of the page (figure 555).
| FARM
|
|
|
|N 42^26.91'
|W 91^11.22'
|APT 1
Figure 5-55
5-16
Rev 2
8. If instead, you wish to create a waypoint at a position
that you specify, position the cursor over USER
POS? and press E. A page with the identifier at
the top and dashes at the bottom will now be displayed (figure 5-56). The cursor will be over the
dashed latitude field. The latitude and longitude of
the waypoint must be entered. To do so, turn the
right inner knob to display an N (for North) or an S
(for South). Next, select the latitude in degrees, minutes, and hundreths of a minute by using the right
outer knob to position the cursor and the right inner
knob to select the desired numbers (figure 5-57).
When the complete latitude has been selected,
press E. The cursor will jump down to the longitude field. Turn the right inner knob to select W (for
West) or E (for East). Use the right outer and inner
knobs to select the longitude. Press E to approve
the waypoint position (figure 5-58).
| FARM
|
|
|
|! !!^!!.!!'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
Figure 5-56
| FARM
|
|
|
|N 39^32.73'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
Figure 5-57
9. Turn the right inner knob one step clockwise to display the APT 2 page (figure 5-59). To enter an airport elevation press the right C and rotate the
right outer knob to position the cursor over the
dashes to the right of ELV. Use the right outer knob
to position the cursor until the entire elevation is
selected. Press E to store. Press the right C to
turn off the right cursor function (figure 5-60).
| FARM
|
|
|ELV !!!!!ft
|
|
APT 2
10. Turn the right inner knob one step clockwise to display the APT 3 page (figure 5-61). To enter a runway length, press the right C and rotate the right
outer knob to position the cursor over the five
dashes directly beneath RWY LEN. Use the right
inner knob to select each individual digit and the
right outer knob to position the cursor until the entire
runway length is selected. Press E to approve the
runway length. The cursor will move to the surface
position. Turn the right inner knob to select either
HRD (for hard surface) or SFT (for soft surface).
Press E to approve the runway surface. Press the
right C to turn off the right cursor function (figure
5-62).
Figure 5-59
| FARM
|
|RWY LEN
| !!!!!' !!!
|
|
APT 3
Figure 5-61
| FARM
|
|
|
|N 39^32.73'
|W 96^40.18'
APT 1
Figure 5-58
| FARM
|
|
|ELV 01250ft
|
|
APT 2
Figure 5-60
| FARM
|
|RWY LEN
| 02300' SFT
|
|
APT 3
Figure 5-62
11. Airport remarks may be stored on the APT 5 page
using the procedure described in section 3.11.6,
“The Airport 5 Page (APT 5)”.
5-17
Rev 2
5.4.2 Creating A VOR User Waypoint
A user-defined VOR waypoint must contain an identifier,
magnetic variation, latitude, and longitude. The magnetic variation may be manually entered or, if one is not
entered, one will automatically be calculated and stored.
In addition, a VOR frequency may be stored. The procedure for creating a VOR user waypoint is similar to
that just described for creating an airport user waypoint.
Begin by selecting the VOR type waypoints instead of
the airport type waypoints. The VOR identifier can be
one to three characters in length. A VOR user waypoint
page that has not yet been defined by the user contains
the user identifier at the top of the page and three lines
of dashes (figure 5-63). The top line of dashes may be
filled in with frequency and magnetic variation. The second line is for latitude and the third line is for longitude
(figure 5-64). A user-defined VOR is stored as an
“undefined” (U) class.
| AAA
|
|
U
|!!!.!! !!^!
|! !!^!!.!!'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
Figure 5-63
5.4.3 Creating An NDB User Waypoint
A user-defined NDB waypoint must contain an identifier,
latitude, and longitude. In addition, an NDB frequency
may be stored. The procedure for creating an NDB user
waypoint is similar to that described for creating an airport user waypoint. Begin by selecting the NDB type
waypoints instead of the airport type waypoints. The
NDB identifier can be one to three characters in length.
An NDB user waypoint page that has not yet been
defined by the user contains the user identifier at the top
of the page and three lines of dashes (figure 5-65). The
top line of dashes may be filled in with the NDB frequency. The second line is for latitude and the third line
is for longitude (figure 5-66).
| AAA
|
|
U
|113.00 9^E
|N 42^46.04'
|W100^22.33'
VOR
Figure 5-64
| ND1
|
|
|FREQ !!!!.!
|! !!^!!.!!'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
| ND1
|
|
|FREQ 328.0
|N 33^40.67'
|W 90^04.59'
NDB
Figure 5-66
Figure 5-65
5.4.4 Creating Intersection Or Supplemental User
Waypoints
A user defined intersection or supplemental waypoint
must contain an identifier, latitude, and longitude. The
identifier for either can be one to five characters in
length. There are two procedures which may be used to
define these waypoints. Both procedures begin by
selecting the INT or SUP type waypoints, as appropriate.
The first method is similar to that described for creating
an airport, VOR, or NDB user waypoint. Only a latitude
and longitude need be entered to complete creating the
waypoint.
The second method is to define the waypoint’s position
in terms of a radial and distance from any other published or previously defined user waypoint. To create a
user waypoint in this manner:
| HICUP
|REF: RSW
|RAD: 182.7^
|DIS: 7.0nm
|N 26^24.80'
|W 81^46.65'
INT
1. Use the right outer knob to select INT or SUP type
waypoints, as appropriate (figure 5-67).
Figure 5-67
5-18
Rev 2
2. Use the right C and the right inner and outer
knobs in the manner previously described in section
5.4.1, “Creating An Airport User Waypoint”, to select
the waypoint identifier (figure 5-68).
| INT15
|
|CREATE NEW
|WPT AT:
|USER POS?
|PRES POS?
CRSR
3. Rotate the right outer knob to position the cursor
over USER POS? and press E. A user waypoint
page will appear with the identifier at the top with the
cursor over a dashed latitude field (figure 5-69).
| INT15
|REF: !!!!!
|RAD: !!!.!^
|DIS:!!!.!nm
|! !!^!!.!!'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
Figure 5-68
4. Turn the right outer knob counterclockwise to position the cursor over the dashes to the right of REF
(figure 5-70).
Figure 5-69
| INT15
|REF: !!!!!
|RAD: !!!.!^
|DIS:!!!.!nm
|! !!^!!.!!'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
5. Rotate the right inner knob to select the first character of an identifier for a “reference waypoint”. This
waypoint may be any existing waypoint.
6. Use the right outer knob to position the cursor, and
the right inner knob to select the characters so that
the entire identifier for the reference waypoint is displayed (figure 5-71).
| INT15
|REF: ORD
|RAD: !!!.!^
|DIS:!!!.!nm
|! !!^!!.!!'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
Figure 5-71
Figure 5-70
| INT15
|REF: ORD
|RAD: !!!.!^
|DIS: !!.!nm
|! !!^!!.!!'
|! !!^!!.!!'
CRSR
7. Press E to see the waypoint page for the reference waypoint just entered.
8. Press E again to approve this waypoint page. The
waypoint page being created will return with the cursor over the dashes to the right of RAD (figure 572).
| INT15
|REF: ORD
|RAD: 234.8^
|DIS:!!!.!nm
|! !!^!!.!!'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
Figure 5-72
Figure 5-73
9. Use the right inner and outer knobs to select the
radial (from the reference waypoint). The radial may
be selected to the nearest tenth of a degree (figure
5-73).
| INT15
|REF: ORD
|RAD: 234.8^
|DIS:048.1nm
|! !!^!!.!!'
|!!!!^!!.!!'
CRSR
10. Press E. The cursor will move to the dashes to
the right of DIS.
11. Use the right inner and outer knob to select the distance. The distance may be selected to the nearest
tenth of a nautical mile or kilometer (figure 5-74).
| INT15
|REF: ORD
|RAD: 234.8^
|DIS: 48.1nm
|N 41^32.77'
|W 88^47.95'
INT
Figure 5-74
12. Press E. The latitude and longitude is calculated
and displayed. The user waypoint is now defined
(figure 5-75).
NOTE: Entering the reference waypoint, radial, and distance is done only to define the user waypoint’s latitude
and longitude position. The reference waypoint, radial,
and distance are not stored as part of the user waypoint.
As soon as another page is viewed on the right side,
these parameters are lost. If the waypoint page for a
user-defined intersection or Supplemental waypoint is
viewed later on, it will display the radial and distance
from the VOR nearest the user-defined waypoint (figure
5-76). The original reference waypoint may be reentered at any time.
Figure 5-75
| INT15
|REF: JOT
|RAD: 268.1^
|DIS: 21.6nm
|N 41^32.77'
|W 88^47.95'
INT
Figure 5-76
5-19
Rev 2
5.4.5 Deleting User-Defined Waypoints
A listing of all user-defined waypoints is contained on
the Other 3 page (OTH 3). See figure 5-77. The userdefined waypoints are listed by category; airports (A)
are first, VORs (V) are second, NDBs (N) are third, intersections (I) are fourth, and Supplemental waypoints (S)
are last. Within each category, the waypoints are alphabetized by identifier. To the right of the identifier is the
type waypoint defined (A, V, N, I, or S). If the waypoint
is used in a flight plan, the flight plan number is shown
to the right of the waypoint type. If more than five user
waypoints exist, it is necessary to press the left C and
then use the left outer knob to scroll through the complete list. To delete a user waypoint:
USER
FARM
L29
AAA
ND1
INT15
OTH 3
WPTS |
A
6|
A 24|
V
|
N
|
I
|
Figure 5-77
1. Select the OTH 3 page.
USER
FARM
L29
AAA
ND1
INT15
CRSR
2. Press the left C and use the left outer knob to
move the cursor over the waypoint to be deleted (figure 5-78). If more than five user-defined waypoints
exist, it is necessary to use the left outer knob to
scroll through the complete list. A waypoint contained in a flight plan cannot be deleted without first
either deleting the waypoint from the flight plan or
deleting the entire flight plan.
WPTS |
A
6|
A 24|
V
|
N
|
I
|
Figure 5-78
3. Press F (figure 5-79). The waypoint page for the
waypoint to be deleted appears on the right side.
DEL ND1 ? | ND1
FARM A
6|
L29
A 24|
AAA
V
|FREQ 328.0
ND1
N
|N 33^40.67'
INT15 I
|W 90^04.59'
CRSR enr-leg ent NDB
4. Press E (figure 5-80).
5. Press the left C to turn off the left cursor function.
Figure 5-79
USER
FARM
L29
AAA
INT15
ADMA
CRSR
WPTS |
A
6|
A 24|
V
|
I
|
S
4|
Figure 5-80
5-20
Rev 2
5.4.6
The SAVE page
Sometimes it is handy to create a user waypoint at the
present position. The KLN 900 provides a special button
to make this job easier, the S button. Creating a user
waypoint at the present position can be done by pressing
the S button. When the S button is pressed the S
page appears on the right with the present position displayed. The cursor is over the WPT Ident field (Figure 581). This field is automatically filled with the first unused
WPT from the list USR01 - USR99 and US100 - US999.
Note that only a total of 1000 user waypoints are allowed.
(250 for ORS 01 units). The WPT name can be changed
to a name that is more meaningful by using the right inner
and outer knobs. If the E button is pressed with a
unique SUP ident displayed, a user waypoint will be created and the SUP page will be displayed. It’s that simple!
|SAVE WPT AT
|N 38^49.91'
|W 94^53.39'
|
|IDENT:USR01
|
SAVE
If an ident is entered which is not a unique SUP ident,
then Figure 5-84 will be displayed with the pilot entered
SUP ident displayed. Pressing E overwrites the previous SUP waypoint position; pressing F reverts to the
page shown in figure 5-82 with the user entered identifier
still being displayed in the identifier field. If there are
already 1000 (250 for ORS 01 units) user waypoints
when the E button is pressed with an unique SUP
ident, the scratchpad message “USR DB FULL” will be
displayed.
Figure 5-81
|SAVE WPT AT
|N 38^49.91'
|W 94^53.39'
|
|IDENT: HOME
|
SAVE
For example, to create a unique user waypoint called
HOME if your present position was KIXD located at N 38°
49.91 and W 94°53.39:
1. Press the S button (figure 5-81).
2. Use the right inner knob to enter “H”.
Figure 5-82
3. Turn the right outer knob one step clockwise to position
the cursor over the second character and then use the
right inner knob to select the “O”.
|HOME
|REF: OJC
|RAD:259.7NM
|DIS: 7.2NM
|N 38^49.91'
|W 94^53.39'
SUP
4. Continue this process to enter the “M” and “E” (figure 582)
5. Press E and a user waypoint called HOME will have
been created.
6. The SUP (figure 5-83) page will appear.
Figure 5-83
5-21
Rev 2
To create a user waypoint called HOME at KIXD a supplemental waypoint called HOME already exists:
1. Press the S button. (figure 5-81)
2. Use the right inner knob to enter “H”.
3. Turn the right outer knob one step clockwise to position
the cursor over the second character and then use the
right inner knob to select the “O”.
4. Continue this process to enter the “M” and “E”.
5. Press E Figure 5-84 will appear.
5. Press E and the new user waypoint HOME has been
defined at KIXD.
|SAVE WPT AT
|N 38^49.91'
|W 94^53.39'
|OVERWRITE?
|IDENT: HOME
|
SAVE
6. The SUP Figure 5-83 will appear.
When the SUP page appears on the right hand side,
entering a reference identifier in the reference field will
cause the radial and distance from that reference waypoint to be computed and displayed. The reference,
radial, and distance data is lost when this page is left.
When a new waypoint is first displayed, the reference
identifier on line 2 will be filled in with the nearest VOR to
the waypoint.
Figure 5-84
If the S button is pressed and so the S page is
shown while the SAVE page is displayed, operation
returns to the previous active page.
5-22
Rev 2
5.5 REFERENCE WAYPOINTS
Creating a Reference Waypoint is a method of adding a
waypoint to any flight plan. The Reference Waypoint
lies on the great circle route between two other waypoints in the flight plan. The point where the Reference
Waypoint lies on the great circle route is the point where
the route passes closest to a point that you designate.
The feature may be utilized on the ground as an aid in
defining a route before filing a flight plan, or in the air as
an easy way to comply with an ATC request for additional waypoints. It is also useful, at times, to use the
Reference Waypoint feature just to see how close your
flight will come to some point that you designate. An
example will illustrate the Reference Waypoint feature.
KLIT
TXKA
328°
28 NM
KDFW
N
TXK
GRW
CVE
6-81
Figure 5-85
A flight plan is created from Dallas Fort Worth airport
(KDFW), Texas to Adams Field (KLIT) in Little Rock,
Arkansas. Cowboy VOR (CVE) is added as a departure
waypoint outside the Dallas-Ft. Worth Class B airspace.
You desire to add a waypoint to your flight plan approximately half way between the 259 nautical mile distance
from CVE to KLIT. Looking at your chart, you determine that Texarkana VOR (TXK) is in the vicinity of your
route, but appears to be a little South of the route.
Since you don’t want to fly any out of your way, you
decide to create a reference waypoint using TXK.
PRESENT POS|
|DISPLAY
DBQ 274^fr|DESIRED
21.3nm|FPL ON
N 42^26.91'|LEFT PAGE
W 91^11.17'|
NAV 2 enr-leg
REF
Figure 5-86
USE? INVRT?|
1:KDFW
|
2:CVE
|ENTER REF
3:KLIT
|WPT:
4:
|
|
FPL 2 enr-leg
REF
Figure 5-87
1. Select the Reference Waypoint (REF) page on the
right side. If a flight plan page is not displayed on
the left side, the REF page looks like the one in figure 5-86. A similar REF page is shown when a
locked flight plan which can’t be edited, is displayed
on the left side.
2. Display the desired flight plan on the left side (figure
5-87). The Reference Waypoint feature may be used
on the active flight plan or on any of the 25 numbered flight plans that contain at least two waypoints.
USE? INVRT?|
1:KDFW
|
2:CVE
|ENTER REF
3:KLIT
|WPT: TXK
4:
|
|
FPL 2 enr-leg ent CRSR
Figure 5-88
3. Press the right C to turn on the right cursor function.
4. Use the right inner and outer knobs to enter the identifier of the desired waypoint (figure 5-88).
NOTE: The waypoint which is used to create the
Reference Waypoint may be in the published or user
database. This waypoint must be located relative to the
flight plan such that it is possible to draw a perpendicular line from this waypoint to a segment of the flight plan.
figure 5-85 shows that TXK is an acceptable waypoint to
use in creating a Reference Waypoint. Figure 5-85 also
shows that Greenwood VOR (GRW) would not be an
acceptable waypoint since a perpendicular line can be
drawn to an extension of the flight plan, but not to the
flight plan itself.
5-23
Rev 2
5. Press E to display the waypoint page for the waypoint just entered.
USE? INVRT?| TXKA
1:KDFW
|REF: TXK
2:CVE
|RAD: 330.3^
3:TXKA
|DIS: 32.8nm
4:KLIT
|N 34^01.08'
5:
|W 94^19.67'
CRSR enr-leg ent SUP
Figure 5-89
6. Press E again to display the waypoint page for the
newly created Reference Waypoint (figure 5-89).
The waypoint that was used to create the Reference
Waypoint is automatically inserted into the REF field.
The radial and distance as well as the latitude and
longitude are also displayed. The left side of the
screen shows where the Reference Waypoint will be
inserted in the flight plan.
The KLN 900 automatically names the Reference
Waypoint by appending the first available alphabetic
character to the identifier of the waypoint which you
entered. Thus, TXK becomes TXKA in this case. If you
later use TXK to create a Reference Waypoint in
another flight plan, this second Reference Waypoint
would be named TXKB. If you create a Reference
Waypoint using a waypoint with five characters in its
identifier, the fifth character will be dropped (for example, DUSTT becomes DUSTA).
USE? INVRT?|
1:KDFW
|
2:CVE
|ENTER REF
3:TXKA
|WPT:
4:KLIT
|
5:
|
FPL 2 enr-leg
CRSR
Figure 5-90
7. Press E once again to approve the waypoint page
for the Reference Waypoint and insert it into the
flight plan (figure 5-90).
8. Press the right C to turn off the right cursor function.
A Reference Waypoint is stored as a supplemental waypoint and counts as one of the possible user-defined
waypoints. Reference Waypoints that are part of a flight
plan show up on the listing of user-defined waypoints
displayed on the Other 3 (OTH 3) page. However,
Reference Waypoints that are no longer part of a flight
plan are deleted from the list of user-defined waypoints
when the KLN 900 is turned off.
5-24
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
5-25
Rev 2
DENVER
MINNEAPOLIS
CENTER WAYPOINTS
(Not For Actual Navigation)
OMAHA
McCOOK
LIS
PO
NEA
MIN
R
VE
N
DE
S
SA
KANSAS CITY
SA
KAN
GOODLAND
Y
IT
SC
TY
CI
N
KA
DENVER
GCK00
327°
29.7nm
WICHITA
GCK
Garden City
VOR
ER
QU
E
TULSA
E
QU
TY
ER
CI
QU
AS
BU
ER
NS
U
UQ
AL
BGD00
352°
29.7nm
BGD
Borger
VOR
ME
AL
PVW00
1°
28.7nm
FT
W
BU
QU
ER
QU
OR
E
TH
AMARILLO
MP
HIS
RT
H
WO
FT
ALB
NV
KA
DE
PVW
Plainview
VOR
DALLAS-FT WORTH
LUBBOCK
ABILENE
Figure 5-91
5-26
Rev 2
5.6 CENTER WAYPOINTS
Like Reference Waypoints, creating Center Waypoints
is a method of adding waypoints to a flight plan. The
word “Center” refers to air route traffic control center
(ARTCC) or area control center (ACC). In some parts of
the world these are referred to as “FIRs”. Center
Waypoints are waypoints at locations where a flight plan
intersects the “Center” boundaries. You may find
Center waypoints useful when filing flight plans or complying with ATC requests to make sure that you have at
least one waypoint in each Center’s airspace. Placing
waypoints on the boundaries results in the minimum
number of waypoints required to meet the criteria of
having one waypoint in each Center’s airspace. The
Center boundaries are stored in the database.
USE? INVRT?| DIS
1:KLBB
|
2:KMCK
| 396
3:
|
|
|
FPL 3 enr-leg
Figure 5-92
ETE
D/T 1
PRESENT POS|
|DISPLAY
DBQ 274^fr|DESIRED
21.3nm|FPL ON
N 42^26.90'|LEFT PAGE
W 91^11.12'|
NAV 2 enr-leg
CTR 1
An example will illustrate the Center Waypoint feature.
You are planning a flight from Lubbock, Texas
International airport (KLBB) to McCook, Nebraska
Municipal airport (KMCK) as shown in figure 5-91. A
flight plan is initially created with just these two waypoints (figure 5-92). In order to give ATC more waypoints for your intended direct routing, you decide to utilize the Center Waypoint feature.
Figure 5-93
USE? INVRT?|
1:KLBB
|
2:KMCK
|PRESS ENT
3:
|TO COMPUTE
|CTR WPTS
|
FPL 3 enr-leg ent CTR 1
5.6.1 Creating Center Waypoints And Inserting Them
in Flight Plans
To create the Center Waypoints:
1. Select the Center Waypoint 1 (CTR 1) page on the
right side. If a flight plan page is not being displayed
on the left side, the CTR 1 page will be as shown in
figure 5-93. A similar CTR 1 page is shown when a
locked flight plan which can’t be edited, is displayed
on the left side.
Figure 5-94
2. Select the desired flight plan page on the left side.
At this point it may be the active flight plan or one of
the other 25 numbered flight plans (figure 5-94).
| 3 NEW WPTS
|
|PRESS ENT
|TO INSERT
|INTO FPL
|
CTR 1
3. Press E to compute the Center waypoints. A
Center Waypoint will be created at each intersection
of the flight plan with a center boundary. When computation is complete, the CTR 1 page will display
how many Center waypoints have been computed
(figure 5-95).
Figure 5-95
4. If you wish to view the Center Waypoints before
inserting them into the flight plan, turn the right inner
knob to view the CTR 2 page(s). If there are multiple
Center Waypoints, there will be an equal number of
CTR+2 pages.
| PVW00 new
|FW -ABQ CTR
|PVW
001^
|
28.7nm
|N 34^33.21'
|W101^40.01'
CTR[2
An example of a CTR 2 page is figure 5-96. The top
line contains the identifier of the Center Waypoint. The
KLN 900 automatically creates the identifier by appending the first available 2-digit number to the identifier of
the nearest VOR to the waypoint. Thus, if Plainview
Figure 5-96
5-27
Rev 2
(PVW) is the nearest VOR to the first Center Waypoint
location, the 00 is appended to PVW to create PVW00.
If PVW were later used in the creation of another Center
Waypoint, the second waypoint’s identifier would be
PVW01.
The second line of the CTR 2 page shows the “from”
Center followed by the “to” Center. In our example,
PVW00 lies on the boundary between Ft. Worth (FW)
and Albuquerque (ABQ) Centers. See figure 5-91. A
listing of the Center abbreviations is contained in
Appendix D.
The third and fourth lines of the CTR 2 page display the
Center Waypoint location in terms of the identifier of the
nearest VOR to the Center Waypoint and the distance
and radial from this VOR to the Center Waypoint. Lines
five and six display the Center Waypoint location in
terms of latitude and longitude.
USE? INVRT?|
1:KLBB
|
2:PVW00 |CTR WPT
3:BGD00 |INSERTION
4:GCK00 |COMPLETE
5:KMCK
|
FPL 3 enr-leg
CTR 1
5. Insert the Center Waypoints into the displayed flight
plan by returning to the CTR 1 page on the right side
and pressing E (figure 5-97). The Center
Waypoints are inserted into the flight plan in the correct order.
Figure 5-97
In the example above, the initial flight plan had just one
leg; however, the Center Waypoint feature may be used
with flight plans containing multiple legs as well. If
inserting the Center Waypoints would cause the number
of waypoints to exceed 30, then no Center Waypoints
are displayed and the CTR 1 page will display the statement “NOT ENOUGH ROOM IN FPL”.
5.6.2 Viewing the Center Waypoints After Insertion
Into A Flight Plan
After the Center Waypoints have been inserted into a
flight plan, you may go back and view the CTR 2 pages
at any time. As long as you keep the same flight plan
page displayed on the left side of the screen, you may
view the Center Waypoints on the CTR 2 page(s) by
merely displaying the CTR 2 page(s). However, the
CTR 1 and CTR 2 pages revert to the format of figure 594 anytime you leave the specific flight plan page on the
left side and then return to it. Under these circumstances you must press E to view the Center
Waypoints on the CTR 2 page(s).
| PVW00
|REF: PVW
|RAD: 001.2^
|DIS: 28.7nm
|N 34^33.21'
|W101^40.01'
SUP
Center Waypoints are stored as part of the user-defined
waypoints and are considered supplemental waypoints.
When Center Waypoints are viewed on the SUP page
or on the Active Waypoint (ACT) pages, they appear in
the normal supplemental waypoint format (figure 5-98).
Center Waypoints that are part of a flight plan show up
on the Other 3 (OTH 3) page. Center Waypoints that
are no longer part of a flight plan are deleted from the
list of user-defined waypoints when the KLN 900 is
turned off.
Figure 5-98
5-28
Rev 2
5.6.3 Creating Center Waypoints After Modifying A
Flight Plan
Once Center Waypoints have been inserted into a flight
plan, they are treated like any other waypoints in the
flight plan. If a flight plan containing Center Waypoints
is modified in any way, you may recompute new Center
Waypoints. The original Center Waypoints are now part
of the flight plan and new Center Waypoints are computed by treating the original Center Waypoints the
same as any other waypoints in the flight plan.
1:KLBB
2:PVW00
3:BGD00
4:GCK00
5:KMCK
6:KOMA
FPL 3
Figure 5-99
If the interior of a flight plan containing Center
Waypoints is modified, it may be desirable to manually
delete obsolete Center Waypoints from the flight plan
before computing new ones. However, if the flight plan
is modified by adding new waypoints to the end of the
flight plan, this may not be necessary. For example,
let’s say you decide to modify your existing flight plan
from Lubbock to McCook by extending your flight to
Omaha (figure 5-99). When you use the CTR 1 page to
computer Center Waypoints, the CTR 1 page will now
be as shown in figure 5-100. The newly computed
Center Waypoint is identified as “NEW” on the CTR 2
page (figure 5-101) while the existing Center Waypoints
no longer contain the “NEW” label.
|
|
|
|
|
|
| 1 NEW WPT
|
|PRESS ENT
|TO INSERT
|INTO FPL
|
CTR 1
Figure 5-100
| EAR00 new
|DEN-MIN CTR
|EAR
182^
|
8.1nm
|N 40^35.57'
|W 99^02.54'
CTR[2
Figure 5-101
5-29
Rev 2
5.7 PROGRAMMING THE TURN-ON PAGE
You may personalize your KLN 900 by programming
information on the Turn-On page. Up to four lines, each
containing 23 characters, may be entered. The characters A through Z, the numbers 0 through 9, and spaces
may be used. Once programmed, this information will
be displayed for a few seconds each time you apply
power to your KLN 900. The example in figure 5-102
might give you some ideas, but use your imagination.
How about programming the date your medical expires,
or the date of your next biennial is due, or your wedding
anniversary so that you’ll be reminded each time you
turn-on the unit? To program data on the Turn-On
page:
GPS
ORS 04
c1998 ALLIEDSIGNAL INC
FRANKLIN SMITH
PILOT OWNER
N39296
SELF TEST IN PROGRESS
Figure 5-102
1. Turn the KLN 900 off if it is on.
2. Turn on the unit. As soon as you see the Turn-On
page (figure 5-103, press the left C). You’ll have
to be ready because the Turn-On page is only
displayed for a few seconds before automatically
being replaced by the Self Test page (or the TakeHome page if the KLN 900 is being used in the takehome mode).
GPS
ORS 04
c1998 ALLIEDSIGNAL INC
SELF TEST IN PROGRESS
Figure 5-103
3. To program the first line (third line of display), use
the left inner knob to select each desired character,
and use the left outer knob to move the cursor.
Spaces may be entered at the beginning of a line to
center the text. If you make a mistake, you may
move the cursor back to the desired location and reenter the character. When the first line is complete,
press E. The cursor will move to the second line.
4. Program the second, third, and fourth lines as you
did the first line. Remember that you must press
E to approve each line, including the last one.
5. If you wish to delete the text on a line you have
already approved, use the left outer knob to position
the cursor over the entire line. Enter a space for the
first character in the line, and then press E.
6. When you are finished programming the Turn-On
page, press the left C. Turn the unit off and back
on - how does it look?
5-30
Rev 2
5.8 THE STATUS PAGES
There are five Status pages. The Status 1 and Status 2
pages display information pertaining specifically to the
GPS receiver while the Status 3 and Status 4 pages
display supplementary information pertaining to the
KLN 900. Lastly, the Status 5 page (which is discussed
in section 6.1.9) provides a means for you to predict
when RAIM will be available.
5.8.1 Determining The Status Of The GPS Signals
(STA 1)
The Status 1 (STA 1) page may be viewed at any time
to determine the status of the GPS receiver and the
GPS satellites being received. This includes which
satellites are being tracked, the satellites’ health, the
signal-to-noise ratio for each of these satellites, and the
elevation of each satellite above the horizon.
The GPS receiver in the KLN 900 is capable of using
signals from up to eight satellites to determine its position. A valid position may be determined using as few
as four satellites alone or three satellites with an altitude
input. However, four satellites alone or three satellites
with an altitude input do not necessarily ensure that navigation can take place. The satellites must be positioned relative to your location such that sufficient
“geometry” exists to determine an accurate position.
The satellite constellation geometry is continually
changing as each satellite rises, travels across the sky,
and eventually sets relative to your position. The GPS
satellites are not in geosynchronous orbits positioned
over the same spot on earth at all times like some television communication satellites with which you may be
familiar. Rather, the GPS satellites are in orbits that
allow them to circle the earth about two times each day.
STATE
NAV|
SV SNR ELE|
02 40 11^|
11 42 47^|
16 36 06^|
*18B 33 65^|
STA[1
Figure 5-104
Figures 5-104 and 5-105 show a representative example of a set of STA 1 pages. There will be two STA 1
pages if more than four satellites are being received as
in this example. The fact that there are two Status 1
pages is indicated in the page identification segment by
the “+” in STA+1. The following information is displayed
on a STA 1 page.
19
28
46 59^|
45 43^|
|
|
|
|
STA[1
Figure 5-105
The GPS state is indicated on line 1:
INIT
ACQ
TRAN
NAV
NAV A
NAV D
DEGRD
FAILR
initialization
acquisition
transition
navigation
navigation with altitude aiding
navigation with data collection
navigation with position degradation
receiver failure
In the initialization state the GPS receiver is in the
process of initializing itself, collecting information such
as the date, time, and last present position. Next, the
5-31
Rev 2
receiver collects data from its own memory to determine
which satellites should be visible. After completing the
initialization process the receiver begins the acquisition
process. During this time, the visible satellites are being
acquired and data from them is obtained.
The transition state indicates an adequate number of
satellites for navigation has been acquired and is being
tracked but no position data can yet be produced.
Normal navigation is indicated by a NAV, NAV A, or
NAV D GPS state. NAV A indicates that the altitude
input is being used in the position solution. NAV D indicates that besides calculating position, the receiver is
collecting and storing in its memory additional data information from the satellites (called ephemeris and
almanac data).
•
The specific GPS satellites or “space vehicles” (SV)
being received are displayed in the left column.
Each satellite has its own identification number. A *
symbol to the left of the satellite number indicates
that this particular satellite is not presently being
used in the navigation position solution.
•
The satellite’s “health” is indicated to the right of the
satellite number. This health information is transmitted by the satellites:
B
bad
W
weak
unknown
blank
good
F
fail
•
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for each satellite
being received is displayed in the middle column and
indicates the signal strength for each satellite. The
higher the SNR value the stronger the signal.
Values usable for navigation will be in the mid 30s to
mid 50s; however, typical values are in the middle of
this range.
•
The elevation (ELE) above the horizon for each
satellite is provided in the right column and will range
from 0° to 90°.
5.8.2 Determining Estimated Position Error and
RAIM and FDE Availability (STA 2)
A representative Status 2 page is shown in figure 5-106.
On ORS 04 and later versions of the KLN 900, the STA
2 page displays the estimated position error and the current RAIM and FDE status (figure 5-106A). On the ORS
01 and ORS 02 versions of the KLN 900, the STA 2
page displays just the estimated position error (figure 5106B). The position error and current RAIM and FDE
availability depend upon such factors as the number of
satellites being received, the strength of the GPS signals, and the geometry of the satellites presently being
used for navigation.
ESTIMATED |
POSN ERROR |
.07nm|
RAIM YES
|
FDE NO
|
|
STA 2
Figure 5-106A
5-32
ESTIMATED |
POSN ERROR |
.07nm|
|
|
|
STA 2
Figure 5-106B
Rev 2
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a
technique whereby the KLN 900 determines the integrity
of the GPS navigation signals using only GPS signals or
GPS signals augmented with altitude. This determination is achieved by a consistency check of the satellites.
The mode of flight (Oceanic, En route, Terminal, or
Approach) significantly impacts the satellite availability
required for RAIM. Since Approach mode has the
strictest requirements, you may have a RAIM YES indication on the STA 2 page and still be unable to transition from Approach ARM to Approach active (APR)
mode if terminal RAIM is available but approach RAIM
is not available. In summary, you will not be able to use
the KLN 900 for an approach unless approach RAIM is
available. A RAIM WARN indication means that an
inconsistency has been detected in the information
received from the satellite constellation. You should
cross check your position using other equipment if this
warning appears.
FDE (Fault Detection and Exclusion) is a technique
whereby the KLN 900 utilizes redundant GPS measurements to provide independent monitoring of satellite
health. The detection function refers to the capability to
detect a satellite failure that affects navigation, while the
exclusion function refers to the capability to exclude a
failed satellite from the solution to prevent a satellite failure from affecting navigation. The availability of FDE is
primarily of interest to pilots who are using the KLN 900
for primary means oceanic/remote operation (see
Chapter 9). If FDE is active and a satellite has been
excluded, a “SV XX BAD” message will appear at the
bottom of the STA 2 page where XX is the designator of
the excluded satellite.
NOTE: The PreFlight software program (described in
appendix F) allows you to predict RAIM and FDE coverage along a flight plan. For more detailed information
about RAIM and FDE, please refer to the PreFlight
Version 2.0 User’s Manual which is stored on the
PreFlight diskettes.
SOFTWARE
|
HOST
03 |
RCVR
20 |
|
|
|
STA 3
Figure 5-107A
5.8.3 Determining KLN 900 Software Status (STA 3)
The Status 3 page (figures 5-107A and 5-107B) displays
the software revision status of the KLN 900 host computer and of the GPS receiver. If for some reason your
KLN 900 requires service, the information on this page
may be useful.
SOFTWARE
|
HOST
|
01583-0040|
01612-0001|
RCVR
|
01621-0001|
STA 3
Figure 5-107B
TOTAL TIME |
1364 HR|
PWR CYCLES |
581
|
|
|
STA 4
Figure 5-108
5.8.4 Determining KLN 900 Operational Time (STA 4)
The Status 4 page displays the KLN 900’s total operational time and also the number of times the unit has
been turned on (figure 5-108). Kind of like having a built
in Hobbs meter, isn’t it! These values are set to zero if
the KLN 900’s nonvolatile memory is cleared.
For information about the STA 5 RAIM Status page, refer to Section 6.1.9.
5-33
Rev 2
5.9 MODES OF OPERATION
The KLN 900 allows you to choose how the course to
the active waypoint is defined. This is done by selecting
between the two course modes, LEG and OBS. The
LEG mode means that the course to the active waypoint
is selected by the KLN 900, and is the default mode
when the KLN 900 starts up. The other course mode,
OBS, is the mode that allows you to define the course to
the active waypoint. This is the mode that you will use
quite often if you conduct any non-precision approaches
using the KLN 900.
PRESENT POS|
$=KOSH
|+++++Ê+++++
LGA 045^fr|DIS
683nm
15.2nm|GS
193kt
N 41^00.00'|ETE
3:34
W 73^41.60'|BRG
303^
NAV 2 enr-leg
NAV 1
The KLN 900’s Approach Arm and Approach Active
modes are explained in chapter 6, and the KLN 900’s
Oceanic (OCN) mode is explained in chapter 9.
The status of the course modes and the approach
modes are annunciated in the lower center segment of
the screen (figure 5-109). The exceptions to this are on
the Turn-On page where the mode is not annunciated,
and on the Super NAV 5 page where the mode is
annunciated on the left side of the screen (figure 5-110).
The following abbreviations are used for mode annunciation.
Mode
Enroute-Leg
Enroute-OBS
Annunciation
Figure 5-109
80.2 oq
CEW
|
xy-«} |
180 uv
áà0:26|
ûü085^|
†ü084^|160
Used
For
ENR-LEG Normal en route &
ENR:274 terminal operations
Approach Arm-Leg
Approach Arm-OBS
Approach Active-Leg
ARM-LEG
ARM:259
APR-LEG
Approach
operations
Oceanic-Leg
Oceanic-OBS
OCN-LEG
OCN:268
Oceanic
operations
MAI
CEW
SJI
Figure 5-110
NOTE: The approach active-OBS mode is not a valid
mode and cannot be selected.
NOTE: ORS 04 and later versions of the KLN 900
include the Oceanic mode and the OCEANIC: ON/OFF
switch on the KLN 900’s MODE page (figure 5-111B).
ACTIVE MODE|
|
|
LEG
|
|
CDI:±5.00NM|
MODE enr-leg
Figure 5-111A
For the OBS modes, the number included in the annunciation is the selected magnetic course. The course
may be changed by several different methods which are
described below.
ACTIVE MODE|
|
OCEANIC:OFF|
LEG
|
|
CDI:±5.00NM|
MODE enr-leg
Figure 5-111B
5.9.1 Selecting The Leg Mode Or The OBS Mode
You will use one of two methods to change between
course modes depending on how the KLN 900 is
installed in your aircraft. The “OBS” button on the front
of the KLN 900 may always be used to change between
Leg and OBS modes by simply pressing the button.
The current mode is displayed on the MODE page (figure 5-111).
5-34
Rev 2
The following procedure can be used to switch modes
when an external LEG/OBS switch is installed in the aircraft:
1. Locate the external switch in the panel of the aircraft.
An example of an external switch annunciator is
shown in figure 5-112.
GPS CRS
2. Change the position of the external switch. In the case
of the combination switch/annunciator all that you
have to do is press the switch and it will change
modes (figure 5-113).
LEG
Figure 5-112
GPS CRS
OBS
Figure 5-113
5.9.2 The Leg Mode
The following are characteristics of the Leg Mode:
1. The default course deviation indicator (CDI) sensitivity
is plus and minus five nautical miles, full scale. This
applies to the CDI on the NAV 1 page as well as any
external CDIs or HSIs interfaced to the KLN 900. If
the CDI or HSI has five dots left and right of the center
position, then each dot represents one nautical mile of
deviation.
NOTE: In some installations where the KLN 900 is
interfaced to certain models of EFIS equipment, the scale
factor will be plus or minus 7.5 nautical miles, full scale.
Refer to the Flight Manual Supplement for the aircraft or
the Pilot’s Guide for the EFIS equipment for details.
2. Navigation is provided along the great circle path
between two waypoints. As you probably know, great
circle navigation is the shortest distance between two
points located on the earth’s surface. In the case of
Direct To operation, the “from” waypoint is not
displayed but it is the point where Direct To operation
was initiated. The course to fly while in this mode is
referred to as the desired track (DTK). The desired
track is displayed on the NAV 3 and D/T 3 pages. You
can also configure the Super NAV 5 page to display
desired track, see section 3.9.7. To fly a great circle
course between two points, the desired track may be
constantly changing. A good way to illustrate this
concept is with a world globe and a piece of string.
You can determine the great circle path between
Denver, Colorado and Manila, Philippines by stretching the string over the globe between these two
points. Notice that you would start the flight with a
Northwesterly desired track, which gradually becomes
due Westerly, and finally Southwesterly by the time
you reach Manila. Of course, your trips with the KLN
900 will be substantially shorter and the desired track
will probably change only a few degrees.
5-35
Rev 2
3. Automatic waypoint sequencing is provided during
flight plan operation. As you reach a waypoint in your
flight plan, the next leg of the flight plan automatically
becomes active. There are some situations during
approach operations in which automatic sequencing is
automatically disabled, see chapter 6.
4. Turn anticipation may be utilized in flight plan operation as described in section 4.2.2.
5. The Minimum Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA) displayed
on the NAV 3 page is the highest MSA sector altitude
from the present position to the destination waypoint
along the active flight plan or Direct To route
(whichever is in use). See section 3.9.4.
5.9.3 The OBS Mode
The following are characteristics of the OBS mode. Item
1 is the same as for the Leg mode.
1. The default course deviation indicator (CDI) sensitivity
is plus and minus five nautical miles, full scale. This
applies to the CDI on the NAV 1 page as well as any
external CDIs or HSIs interfaced to the KLN 900. If
the CDI or HSI has five dots left and right of the center
position, then each dot represents one nautical mile of
deviation.
NOTE: In some installations where the KLN 900 is interfaced to certain models of EFIS equipment, the scale factor will be plus or minus 7.5 nautical miles, full scale.
Refer to the Flight Manual Supplement for the aircraft or
the Pilot’s Guide for the EFIS equipment for details.
2. The course is defined by the active waypoint and the
selected magnetic course. A course “to” or “from” the
active waypoint may be selected.
3. The course selection is normally made by changing
the selected course displayed on an external indicator such as an HSI, CDI or EFIS. When this is done,
the pilot must verify that the proper course has been
selected by confirming the digital selected course
readout displayed on the KLN 900. In the OBS mode
the selected course is always displayed as part of
the mode annunciation at the bottom center of the
screen on all pages but the Super NAV 5 page. On
the Super NAV 5 page, the mode/annunciation is
displayed on the left side of the screen. In many
installations, two or more navigation sources can
displayed on one indicator. In these situations there
is a switch in the panel which will determine what
navigation source is displayed. For the KLN 900 to
properly read the external indicator the KLN 900
must be the displayed navigation source on the
external indicator.
5-36
Rev 2
When the KLN 900 is not the displayed navigation
source on the external indicator or if the KLN 900 is
interfaced with an EFIS system, it is possible to
change the selected course from several pages on
the KLN 900. This can be done from the NAV 3 or
MODE page as well as the Super NAV 5 page if it is
configured to display the OBS selected course on
the left hand side. To change the selected course
from one of these pages:
a. Select the NAV 3, MODE or Super NAV 5 page
(figure 5-114).
b. Press the appropriate C to turn on the cursor
function. If the course is being changed from the
Super NAV 5 page, use the left outer knob to rotate
the cursor over the OBS angle field.
=GGT |
=GGT
OBS:
234^|+++++Ê+++++
TK
233^|DIS 20.0nm
FLY R 0.0nm|GS
154kt
MSA 4500ft|ETE
:08
ESA 4500ft|BRG
234^
NAV 3 enr:234
NAV 1
c. Turn the appropriate inner knob to select the
desired course (figure 5-115).
Figure 5-114
d. Press the appropriate C to turn off the cursor
function.
NOTE: It is easy to tell if it is possible to enter the OBS
value on the KLN 900. All that has to be done is to look
next to the letters “OBS” displayed on either the MODE,
NAV 3 or Super NAV 5 pages. If a colon (:) follows the
letters OBS, then it is possible to enter a value from the
KLN 900. If the colon is missing, then the course must be
changed from the external indicator.
=GGT |
=GGT
OBS:
227^|+++++i+·+++
TK
233^|DIS 20.0nm
FLY R 2.4nm|GS
154kt
MSA 4500ft|ETE
:08
ESA 4500ft|BRG
234^
CRSR enr:227
NAV 1
NOTE: If the KLN 900 is interfaced to EFIS or if the KLN
900 is interfaced to certain mechanical indicators through
an optional KA 90 adapter, the external indicator will be
slewed to agree with what you entered on the KLN 900.
Figure 5-115
4. There is no automatic leg sequencing or turn anticipation.
5. The Minimum Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA) displayed
on the NAV 3 page is the highest MSA sector altitude from the present position to the active waypoint.
See section 3.9.4. Other waypoints in the active
flight plan do not affect the ESA.
6. When the active waypoint is a VOR or an approach
waypoint and the Auto magnetic variation mode is
active (see section 5.12), the published magnetic
variation for the VOR or approach waypoint is utilized rather than the calculated magnetic variation.
5-37
Rev 2
5.9.4 Switching From The Leg Mode To The OBS
Mode
The following mode transition occurs if the KLN 900 is in
the Leg mode and the mode is changed to the OBS
mode:
1. The waypoint that was active in Leg mode prior to
the mode change remains the active waypoint in
OBS mode.
2. The selected course is defined by two different methods depending on the installation and the status of
the unit.
a. If the KLN 900 is interfaced with compatible
EFIS systems, a compatible mechanical HSI
interfaced through a KA 90 adapter, or if the KLN
900 is not displayed on the external indicator, then
the selected course is chosen such that the deviation
from the selected course remains the same.
b. Otherwise, if the KLN 900 is the displayed navigation source when the change is made to OBS
mode, then the selected course becomes whatever
was set on the external indicator prior to changing to
the OBS mode. This value should normally be the
desired track to the active waypoint if you had the
external indicator set to the correct value prior to
switching to the OBS mode.
3. If the OBS value chosen by default from rule a above
is unacceptable, you can always define the desired
course by the methods described in section 5.9.3.
5.9.5 Switching From The OBS Mode To The Leg
Mode
The following mode transition occurs if the KLN 900 is in
the OBS mode and the mode is switched to the Leg
mode:
1. The waypoint that was active while in the OBS mode
remains the active waypoint when the Leg mode is
activated. The system does not attempt to orient
itself on a leg of the active flight plan unless the
TO/FROM indicator is indicating FROM. In this case
the KLN 900 will reorient on the active flight plan.
2. The selected course (OBS) that was active in the
OBS mode prior to switching to a Leg mode
becomes the desired track (DTK) in the Leg mode,
unless the switch was made on the “from” side in
which case the KLN 900 will calculate the correct
desired track for the new leg.
3. With the exception of #2 above, the characteristics of
normal Direct To operation apply.
5-38
Rev 2
5.9.6 Going Direct-To A Waypoint While in the OBS
Mode
The direct-to function will select the OBS value that will
take the aircraft from the present position direct to the
active waypoint when the KLN 900 is interfaced to EFIS,
a compatible mechanical HSI interfaced through a KA
90, or when the KLN 900 is not the displayed navigation
source on the external indicator.
|
=GGT
|+++++i+·+++
|DIS 20.0nm
|GS
154kt
|ETE
:08
|BRG
234^
$= CRS 234 NAV 1
Figure 5-116
If the KLN 900 is the displayed navigation source on a
non-driven HSI or a CDI it is not possible for the KLN
900 to change the OBS value. In these situations the
KLN 900 will provide a scratch-pad message that will tell
you what OBS value should be selected to go direct to
the active waypoint (figure 5-116).
5.9.7 Activating A Waypoint While In The OBS Mode
While in the OBS mode, you may activate another waypoint by using the normal Direct To method or by using
a second method. This second method activates
another waypoint without changing the selected course
(OBS). In other words, when the new waypoint is activated, the D-Bar is not recentered. In figure 5-117 the
KLN 900 is in the OBS mode and the selected course is
90°. You have just crossed INITT intersection and
desire to activate the next waypoint in the flight plan,
FINAL, without recentering the D-Bar.
3:GGT
|
=INITT
4:BEGIN |+++·+j+++++
= 5:INITT |DIS
0.4nm
6:FINAL |GS
122kt
7:MMAPP |ETE
:00
8:KHOM
|BRG
275^
CRSR enr:090
NAV 1
Figure 5-117
1. Press D (figure 5-118). The rules described in
section 3.8, “DIRECT TO OPERATION”, dictate
which waypoint identifier will be initially displayed on
the Direct To page.
DIRECT TO: | FINAL
|REF: BTV
FINAL
|RAD: 292.8^
|DIS: 11.7nm
|N 44^25.40'
|W 73^27.20'
CRSR enr:090 ent INT
2. Press D a second time. The annunciation
DIRECT TO changes to ACTIVATE (figure 5-119).
The right side still displays the appropriate waypoint
page. Repeated presses of D alternates between
DIRECT TO and ACTIVATE. Make sure ACTIVATE
is displayed.
Figure 5-118
ACTIVATE:
| FINAL
|REF: BTV
FINAL
|RAD: 292.8^
|DIS: 11.7nm
|N 44^25.40'
|W 73^27.20'
CRSR enr:090 ent INT
3. Press E to approve the waypoint page and activate the waypoint (figure 5-120). The selected
course does not change, therefore this method does
not center the D-Bar like a Direct To operation.
5.9.8 Changing the CDI Scale Factor
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) scale factor can
be changed by using the MODE page. In normal operations it is possible to select a CDI scale factor which is
plus or minus 5 NM, 1 NM or 0.3 NM full scale deflection. This means that if the scale factor was ±1 NM and
the needle was deflected full scale to the right, the aircraft would be 1 NM left of course. The default CDI
scale factor is ±5 NM.
Figure 5-119
3:GGT
|
=FINAL
4:BEGIN |+++·+i+++++
5:INITT |DIS
4.8nm
= 6:FINAL |GS
122kt
7:MMAPP |ETE
:02
8:KHOM
|BRG
088^
FPL 0 enr:090
NAV 1
Figure 5-120
5-39
Rev 2
If it is desired to change the CDI scale factor to another
value, use the following procedure:
1. Use the left outer knob to select the MODE page.
ACTIVE MODE|
|
OCEANIC:OFF|
LEG
|
|
CDI:±5.00NM|
CRSR enr-leg
Figure 5-121
2. Press the left C. If necessary, use the left outer
knob to move the cursor over the value of the CDI
scale (figure 5-121).
NOTE: The OCEANIC:ON/OFF field shown in figures
5-121 and 5-122 will only appear on ORS 04 and later
versions of the KLN 900.
3. Rotate the left inner knob to select the desired CDI
scale factor (figure 5-122).
ACTIVE MODE|
|
OCEANIC:OFF|
LEG
|
|
CDI:±0.30NM|
CRSR enr-leg
Figure 5-122
4. Turn the left C off. The CDI scale factor change is
complete.
NOTE: The KLN 900 will automatically select a scale
factor while in one of the approach modes. When the
KLN 900 selects a CDI scale factor it is not possible to
select a scale factor that is less sensitive than what the
KLN 900 has automatically chosen. For example, as
you will see in the next chapter, the approach-arm
mode usually has a scale factor of ±1 NM. While in the
approach-arm mode it is not possible for you to select
the ±5 NM scale factor. This is to ensure proper
operation of the approach modes.
5-40
Rev 2
5.10 THE FUEL MANAGEMENT PAGES
Certain models of fuel management computers manufactured by Shadin Company, ARNAV System, Inc,
and Gebe Instruments may be interfaced with the KLN
900. The primary benefit of having the KLN 900 interfaced with a “real time” fuel management computer is
that the system can continuously compute the amount
of fuel required to reach the destination and the
amount of fuel that will be on board upon reaching the
destination. The concept is the following. The fuel
management computer continuously sends the rate of
fuel flow and the amount of fuel remaining to the KLN
900. The KLN 900 continuously calculates the aircraft’s distance, groundspeed, and estimated time
enroute (ETE) to the destination waypoint. The fuel
required to reach the destination waypoint is the ETE
multiplied by the current rate of fuel flow. The amount
of fuel that will be remaining at the destination is the
amount of fuel presently remaining minus the fuel
required to reach the destination.
CAUTION: The KLN 900 fuel calculations are
based on the present rate of fuel flow, the present
groundspeed, the present distance to destination
along the programmed route, and the amount of
fuel presently remaining. Before take-off, the fuel
flow computer must be properly initialized with the
amount of fuel on board the aircraft. Since many
factors influence the required amount of fuel to
reach the destination, it is the pilot’s responsibility
to view the fuel management pages often to check
for any significant changes. Some factors affecting the amount of fuel required are power changes,
altitude changes, headwind/tailwind component
changes, fuel/air mixture adjustments, and routing
changes.
The OTH 5, OTH 6, OTH 7, AND OTH 8 pages are
used to display fuel management information for
KLN 900’s interfaced with compatible fuel management
computers. If there is no fuel management computer
interface, these fuel management pages are not displayed.
5.10.1 The Other 5 Page (OTH 5)
The OTH 5 page displays the following information
(figure 5-123):
•
The destination waypoint. An arrow is displayed to
the left of the identifier if the waypoint is the active
waypoint.
•
The fuel units as received from the fuel management computer.
GAL
IMP
KLFT
GAL|
FOB
126|
REQD
90|
L FOB
36|
RES: 00030|
EXTRA
6|
OTH 5
Figure 5-123
gallons
imperial gallons
5-41
Rev 2
L
KG
LB
•
liters
Kilograms
pounds
The fuel presently on board (FOB). In most installations this is defined by using the fuel flow computer’s
control unit. However, if the KLN 900 is interfaced
with a compatible Shadin fuel flow computer, it is
possible to define the fuel on board by using the KLN
900. In these installations it is not required to have
the fuel flow computer’s control head installed in the
aircraft. To change the present fuel on board (FOB)
use the following procedure:
1.
Turn to the OTH 5 page.
KLFT
GAL|
FOB:
126|
REQD
90|
L FOB
36|
RES: 00030|
EXTRA
6|
OTH 5
Figure 5-124
2. If it is possible to enter the present fuel on board
by using the KLN 900 there will be a colon (:) following FOB on the display. If the colon exists press the
left C (figure 5-124). If the colon does not exist it
is not possible to change the fuel on board through
the KLN 900 (figure 5-123).
NOTE: ORS 04 and later versions of the KLN 900
allow you to initialize Fuel on Board to the full fuel
quantity. To do so, simply activate and move the left
cursor over the “FOB” abbreviation on the OTH 5
page, then when the word “FULL?” is displayed (figure 5-125A), press the ENT button. If the full fuel
quantity has been properly configured by your
installer, the Fuel on Board (FOB) quantity will automatically be set to the full fuel amount. Now, you no
longer have to memorize the full fuel quantity! You
will also notice that the FUEL USED amounts which
appear on the OTH 8 page are reset to zero.
KLFT
GAL|
FULL?
97|
REQD
90|
L FOB
46|
RES: 00030|
EXTRA
6|
CRSR
Figure 5-125A
3. Enter the current fuel on board (FOB) using the
left inner knob (figure 5-125B). Make sure the
amount entered is consistent with the units used by
the fuel flow computer.
4.
KLFT
GAL|
FOB:
97|
REQD
90|
L FOB
46|
RES: 00030|
EXTRA
6|
OTH 5
Figure 5-125B
Turn the left C off.
•
The fuel required to reach the destination waypoint
at the current rate of fuel flow and the present
groundspeed (REQD).
•
The landing fuel on board (L FOB) is the fuel
presently on board minus the fuel required to reach
the destination.
•
The desired fuel reserve (RES). You may enter here
the amount of reserve fuel you wish to have upon
landing. The fuel must be entered in the same units
as displayed on the first line. To enter the reserve,
press the left C, rotate the left outer knob to move
the cursor over each of the desired reserve digits,
and use the left inner knob to select each digit.
Press the left C when finished to turn off the left
cursor function.
5-42
Rev 2
•
The calculated extra fuel (EXTRA). This is the landing fuel on board (L FOB) minus the fuel reserve
(RES) you entered.
FUEL DATA |
|
ENDUR 3:19|
RANGE 597|
NM/GAL 6.2|
RES: 00030|
OTH 6
5.10.2 The Other 6 Page (OTH 6)
The OTH 6 page displays the following information
(figure 5-126):
•
The endurance (ENDUR) in hours and minutes. The
endurance calculation is based on the amount of fuel
remaining after subtracting out the reserve (RES)
you entered on the OTH 5 or the OTH 6 page from
the present fuel on board.
•
The range (RANGE) is the distance (nautical miles
or kilometers) that could be flown based on the
endurance calculated above and the present groundspeed.
•
The fuel efficiency is equal to the groundspeed
divided by the present fuel flow.
•
The desired fuel reserve (RES) is the same as displayed on the OTH 5 page. Changing the reserve
on one of the two pages also changes it on the other
page.
Figure 5-126
FUEL FLOW |
|
GAL/HR|
ENG 1 15 |
ENG 2 14 |
TOTAL 29 |
OTH 7
5.10.3 The Other 7 Page (OTH 7)
The OTH 7 page displays rate of fuel flow. It has two
formats depending on whether the aircraft is a twin
engine (figure 5-127) or a single engine (figure 5-128).
Figure 5-127
5.10.4 The Other 8 Page (OTH 8)
The OTH 8 page displays the amount of fuel used. If
interfaced with the ARNAV fuel management computer,
this page displays dashes since the ARNAV system
does not output fuel used. There are two formats for the
page, depending on whether the aircraft is a twin engine
(figure 5-129) or single engine (figure 5-130).
FUEL USED |
|
GAL|
ENG 1
17|
ENG 2
16|
TOTAL
33|
OTH 8
Figure 5-129
5-43
FUEL FLOW |
|
GAL/HR|
|
|
10 |
OTH 7
Figure 5-128
FUEL USED |
|
GAL|
|
|
12|
OTH 8
Figure 5-130
Rev 2
5.11 THE AIR DATA PAGES
The KLN 900 will interface to various air data systems
including the Bendix/King KAD 280 and KAD 480, specific
models of Shadin Company air data systems as well as
systems from other manufacturers. When interfaced with
one of these systems, the KLN 900 will display real time
air data parameters such as true airspeed (TAS), static air
temperature (SAT), total air temperature (TAT), Mach
number, density altitude, and pressure altitude.
With a
TAS input from an air data computer and a compatible
heading input, the KLN 900 will calculate and display real
time wind data (magnitude and direction). Should any
parameter not be available it will be dashed.
The Other 9 and Other 10 (OTH 9 and OTH 10) pages are
used to display air data information if both a fuel management system and an air data system are interfaced to the
KLN 900. If there is no fuel management system, air data
information is displayed on the Other 5 and Other 6
pages. If there is no air data system interface, these
pages are not displayed.
NOTE: These air data pages receive inputs from air data
sensors and display real time air data information. They
are independent of the CAL 1, CAL 2, and CAL 3 pages
which rely on manual pilot inputs to calculate air data information.
5-44
Rev 2
5.11.1 The Other 9 Page (OTH 9)
Without a fuel management system this becomes the
OTH 5 page. The following information is displayed
(figure 5-131):
TAS
AIR DATA |
TAS
229kt|
MACH
.34|
|
|
|
OTH 9
True airspeed (the true speed of an aircraft
through the surrounding air mass)
MACH Mach number (the ratio of the true airspeed to
the speed of sound at a particular flight
condition).
Figure 5-131
If a compatible source of heading information is provided
to the KLN 900 and your groundspeed is greater than
30 knots, the following wind data is also displayed (figure
5-132):
AIR DATA |
TAS
229kt|
MACH
.34|
HDWND 30kt|
WIND 078^%|
32kt|
OTH 9
TLWND Tailwind component of the wind
HDWND Headwind component of the wind
WIND The wind “from” direction relative to true North
and the wind speed
Figure 5-132
5.11.2 The Other 10 Page (OTH 10)
Without a fuel management system this become the
OTH 6 page. The following information is displayed
(figure 5-133):
SAT
Static air temperature (the actual temperature of the surrounding air mass)
TAT
Total air temperature(the air temperature
including heat rise due to compressibility.
This is the temperature measured directly by
the OAT probe.
PRS
Pressure altitude (to nearest 100 feet or 10
meters)
DEN
Density altitude (to nearest 100 feet or
meters).
AIR DATA
|
|
20^C|
26^C|
6500ft|
9100ft|
SAT
TAT
PRS
DEN
OTH10
Figure 5-133
5-45
Rev 2
5.12 MAGNETIC VARIATION
The KLN 900’s primary coverage area is from N 74° to
S 60° latitude as was shown in figure 3-1. Magnetic variation is automatically computed within this coverage
area when MAG VAR is in the AUTO mode on the SET
2 page (figure 5-134). All navigation data presented outside this area is automatically referenced to true North
unless a manual input of magnetic variation is made on
the SET 2 page. The following message will be displayed on the Message page:
MAGNETIC VAR INVALID
NAV DATA REFERENCED
TO TRUE NORTH
A user-defined magnetic variation may be entered on
the SET 2 page by turning the left cursor on; moving it
over the AUTO field on line 6 using the left outer knob;
turning the left inner knob to select USER; and finally
moving the cursor over the magnetic variation field and
entering the desired value using the left knobs.
DATE/TIME |
30 MAY 92|
14:59:28UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
AUTO
10^W|
SET 2
When a user-defined magnetic variation of 0 degrees is
being used, the following message will be displayed on
the Message page:
Figure 5-134
DATE/TIME |
30 MAY 92|
14:59:28UTC|
CORD UNIV/Z|
MAG VAR: |
USER: 10^W|
SET 2
Figure 5-135
NAV DATA REFERENCED
TO TRUE NORTH
When a user-defined magnetic variation other than 0
degrees is being used, the following message will be displayed:
NAV DATA REFERENCED TO
USER DEFINED MAG VAR
There are two exceptions when a user-defined magnetic
variation will not be used for navigation. When the active
waypoint is part of an approach procedure, the magnetic
variation for the published approach will be used and the
following message will be displayed:
MAG VAR FOR PUBLISHED
APPROACH BEING USED
Also, when the unit is in OBS mode and the active waypoint is a VOR, the published magnetic variation associated with the VOR station will be used and the following
message will be displayed:
MAG VAR FOR PUBLISHED
VOR BEING USED
NOTE: The above format for the SET 2 page applies to
ORS 02 and later software. ORS 01 software only allows
the selection of a user-entered magnetic variation when
the unit is outside of the primary coverage area, while
ORS 02 and later software always allows the user to
specify the magnetic variation.
5-46
Rev 2
5.13 OPERATION WITHOUT A DATABASE
CARD
The KLN 900 is designed so that a database card is
required for normal operation. However, in the event
that the card is inadvertently not inserted or that the
card fails, there is a reversionary mode providing partial
operation that may be used.
NO DATA BASE
CARTRIDGE PRESENT
PUBLISHED WPTS HAVE
BEEN DELETED FROM FPL 0
MAGNETIC VARIATION:!!^!
ACKNOWLEDGE?
enr-leg
CRSR
NOTE: Reversionary operation without a database card
should only be used for VFR flight, not for IFR.
Figure 5-136
Without a database card inserted, the Database page
appears as in figure 5-136. All published waypoints
(those that originated from the database card) have
been deleted from the active flight plan, FPL 0.
Therefore, the only waypoints remaining in FPL 0 are
any user-defined waypoints that were originally included
in the flight plan.
NO DATA BASE
CARTRIDGE PRESENT
PUBLISHED WPTS HAVE
BEEN DELETED FROM FPL 0
MAGNETIC VARIATION:06^E
ACKNOWLEDGE?
enr-leg
CRSR
The KLN 900 is unable to calculate magnetic variation
without the database card. Therefore, a magnetic variation must be manually inserted on the Database page
when there is no card. Use the right inner and outer
knobs to enter the desired magnetic variation and press
E to enter (figure 5-137). With the cursor positioned
over ACKNOWLEDGE?, press E to approve the
Database page. The magnetic variation can be entered
on the Database page and on line 6 of the SET 2 page
(figure 5-135).
Figure 5-137
DATA BASE CARD HAS
BEEN REMOVED.
PLEASE CYCLE POWER
The active flight plan is the only flight plan available
when there is no database card. There is no way to
gain access to flight plans one through 25. Functions
not requiring the published database are operative.
Some functions, such as nearest airport, nearest VOR,
nearest NDB, reference waypoint, and trip planning, are
operational but only to the extent that user-defined waypoints are utilized. Functions that depend on the database card are not operative. Some of these include
Special Use Airspace, Minimum Safe Altitudes, ARTCC
waypoints, FSS frequencies on the OTH 1 page, and
ARTCC frequencies on the OTH 2 page. Non-precision
approaches, SIDs and STARs are also disabled.
Figure 5-138
If the database card is removed after the unit has been
powered up, the message in figure 5-138 appears. This
message will be displayed until power has been cycled.
Should the database card be reinserted the unit will
reinitialize.
5-47
Rev 2
5.14 USING THE TAKE-HOME MODE
It is very likely that the KLN 900 will become your “best
friend” in the cockpit. As with any good friend, you may
need some time to get well-acquainted. This will allow
you to utilize it to the maximum extent. A great way to get
to know the KLN 900 is to use it outside the airplane,
using what we call the “take-home mode”.
There are products available which allow you to use the
KLN 900 at your home, office, or hotel to have getacquainted time in the take-home mode, for instance the
Commander 2900 from Lone Star Aviation. It is also
helpful to do flight planning and perform database
updates outside the airplane, perhaps with a home
personal computer.
For more information on the Commander 2900, contact:
Lone Star Aviation Corp.
804 North Great S. W. Pkwy
Arlington, TX 76011
Phone: (817) 548-7768
FAX: (817) 633-6208
When the KLN 900 is in the take-home mode, it performs
as if it is receiving adequate satellite signals to determine
its position. It displays the latitude and longitude of its last
known position or of whatever position it is initialized to on
the Setup (SET 1) page (see section 3.6, “Initialization
and Time to First Fix”). In addition, a ground speed and
heading may be entered on the SET 1 page and the
KLN 900 will track a flight plan or a direct to waypoint just
as if it was actually functioning in an aircraft. Distances
count down, waypoints sequence, and the deviation bar
follows the progress of the simulated flight. Using the
take-home mode is an excellent way to learn the
operation of the KLN 900 without worrying about the
engine running, other traffic, or even terrain (Fortunately,
these phenomena are not simulated in the take-home
mode!)
5.15 CONFIGURATION DATA AND
MESSAGES
The KLN 900 configuration data tailors the operation of
the unit for the installation in your airplane. This data,
which is configurable at the time of installation, makes the
KLN 900 flexible enough to meet the requirements of the
wide array of target aircraft.
The configuration data is stored both in the external configuration module and in memory internal to the KLN 900
unit. When the KLN 900 is initially shipped from the factory, the configuration data in the KLN 900’s internal
memory is set to the default values. During the installation process, the internal and external configuration data
was set for your airplane and installation.
5-48
Rev 2
External Configuration Module
The external configuration module, KCM 100, is installed
with every KLN 900 and is used to make sure proper
operation occurs. For purposes such as bench operation,
the KLN 900 will operate without an external configuration
module.
When the KLN 900 is powered up under normal operating
conditions and the external configuration module is present, the data in the external configuration module is used
as the system configuration.
If the data in the external configuration module differs
from the unit’s internal configuration data, the external
configuration module is used and copied to the internal
configuration data.
CONFIGURATION MEMORY
ERROR
ACKNOWLEDGE?
Differences between the internal and external configuration data could occur if one KLN 900 unit is configured
and then removed and later a second KLN 900 unit is
installed in the aircraft. For example, if the KLN 900 unit
is initially configured correctly in the aircraft and a
replacement KLN 900 unit is later installed in the aircraft,
the external configuration module would ensure that
proper configuration was preserved.
Figure 5-139
If the KLN 900 is powered up under normal operating
conditions and no memory errors have occurred and an
external configuration module is not present, then the
internal configuration data is used.
KLN 900 WILL RESET
ITSELF TO USE DEFAULT
CONFIGURATION VALUES.
If a memory error is detected in the external configuration module during the normal start-up sequence, the
following full screen message (Figure 5-139) is displayed after the initialization page and the internal configuration data is used. The internal configuration data
is not copied to the external configuration module.
ACKNOWLEDGE?
Figure 5-140
If a memory error is detected in the external configuration
module and a memory error is also detected in the internal configuration data, then the “Configuration Memory
Error” (figure 5-139) message is displayed and the default
values are copied to the internal configuration data. The
external configuration module shall not be changed. The
internal configuration data is used. After displaying the
above message, the KLN 900 uses the new configuration
values by resetting itself. Figure 5-140 is displayed to
inform the user that the KLN 900 will re-powerup. This
page is also displayed if an internal configuration error
occurs and no external configuration module is present.
5-49
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
5-50
Rev 2
CHAPTER 6 - LEVEL 4 OPERATION
In this chapter you will learn how to use the KLN 900 for
non-precision approaches as well as SID/STAR procedures. All of these procedures require that you are comfortable with the operation of the unit as presented up to
this point. In particular, you need to be comfortable with
flight plan operation (chapter 4) and the OBS mode
(section 5.9).
6.1 NON-PRECISION APPROACH
OPERATIONS
Flying non-precision approaches using the KLN 900 are
not in themselves very difficult. However, it is different
than using traditional equipment such as VORs and
NDBs. With this in mind, make sure that you practice
with the KLN 900 in VFR weather with a check pilot
before attempting to use the KLN 900 in actual IFR conditions.
In addition to the two course modes (Leg and OBS)
described in section 5.9, there are also two approach
modes. These are approach arm and approach active.
The status of the approach mode is indicated both on an
external switch/annunciator and on the status line of the
KLN 900. In most installations the external annunciator
will indicate ARM for the approach arm mode and
approach active will be annunciated by ACTV. One difference of these modes from the normal enroute mode is
that the integrity monitoring is set to a tighter level.
Another difference between these modes and the enroute
mode is that the CDI scale factor will usually change to
±1.0 NM for approach ARM and will always change to
±0.3 NM when in the approach active mode.
CAUTION: The KLN 900 obtains approach information from the database. Therefore, it is extremely
important that the database is current. The KLN 900
is approved for IFR non-precision approaches only
when the database is current. If you attempt to select
an approach when the database is out-of-date, you
will be given the status-line message: “OUTDATED
DB” in the bottom center portion of the screen as a
reminder.
The ARM mode can be selected in two ways. Normally,
the ARM mode is selected automatically by the KLN 900
when the aircraft is within 30 NM of an airport and an
approach is loaded in the flight plan for that airport. It is
possible to arm the approach mode at a distance greater
than 30 NM from the airport by pressing the external GPS
approach switch, but the KLN 900 will not change the CDI
scale factor until the aircraft reaches the 30 NM point. If
the GPS APR external switch is pressed while the
approach mode is armed, then the KLN 900 will disarm
the approach and change back to enroute mode. The
CDI scale factor will also change back to ±5.0 NM. The
approach can be re-armed by simply pressing the GPS
APR switch again.
The following sections assume that your KLN 900 is properly installed in the aircraft with all of the necessary
accessories to fly non-precision approaches. In most
cases this will mean that the aircraft has external
switch/annunciators to arm the approach mode and an
external annunciator to indicate when a message is active
and when waypoint sequencing is about to occur will also
be installed. In some installations the aircraft will have a
NAV/GPS switch to select which navigation source is displayed on the primary HSI or CDI.
The Super NAV 5 page has been specifically designed to
provide most of the functions needed for non-precision
approaches. This page provides an interface that presents pertinent navigation information, a way to access
the flight plan, and a graphic presentation of the present
position relative to the flight plan waypoints. You will find
this page to be a good friend while performing GPS
based non-precision approaches.
The APR ACTV mode can only be engaged automatically
by the KLN 900. To cancel the APR ACTV mode press
the external GPS APR switch. This will change the mode
to APR ARM. Once past the Final Approach Fix (FAF), it
is not possible to return to the approach active mode without conducting a missed approach and flying back to the
FAF.
NOTE: There are some approach procedures in the
world that are not suited for the operational characteristics of the KLN 900. These procedures are not included
in the database. Therefore it is not possible to use the
KLN 900 for these approaches. It is good preflight practice to verify that the KLN 900 contains the anticipated
procedures for each flight.
6-1
Rev 2
Load approach
into flight plan
(A)
CDI Scale Factor
±5.0 nm
(B)
Approach automatically
arms when within 30 nm
of the airport and an
approach is loaded into
the active flight plan
30
nm
CDI Scale Factor
changing from
±1.0 nm to ±0.3 nm
Approach Arm
CDI Scale Factor
±1.0 nm
IAF
2
MAP
17
(D)
14
FAF
Transition to approach
ACTV if:
- LEG mode is selected
- Integrity checks OK
- Aircraft heading
towards the FAF
- FAF or co-located
IAF/FAF is active
waypoint
ARP
(E)
35
nm
(C)
70°
32
CDI Scale Factor
constant at ±0.3 nm
Automatic Waypoint
sequencing stops
(F)
NO
T TO
MAHP
S CAL
E
FAF - Final Approach Fix
MAP - Missed Approach Point
ARP - Airport Reference Point
IAF
- Initial Approach Fix
MAHP - Missed Approach Holding
Point
N
TIO
A
G
I
V
NOT FOR NA
Figure 6-1 KLN 900 Approach Diagram
6-2
Rev 2
General Procedure for Non-Precision Approaches
If any of these conditions are not met, the KLN 900 will
not transition to the approach active mode and a missed
approach will be required if the conditions do not change
before reaching the FAF. If all of these conditions are
met then the CDI scale factor will start to change to ±0.3
NM, the external annunciator will indicate ACTV, and the
KLN 900’s status line will display APR.
Non-precision approaches will all have the general flow of
events as follows. Refer to figure 6-1.
1. Select and load the approach into the flight plan.
This can be done at almost any time but must be completed before reaching the Final Approach Fix and should
be done as soon as possible. This corresponds to position A in figure 6-1. If the aircraft’s position is more than
30 NM from the airport, then the CDI scale factor will
remain at the default ±5 NM full-scale deflection.
5. At the FAF (position D in figure 6-1) the CDI scale
factor will be at ±0.3 NM and will remain at this scale factor until you manually cancel the approach mode by either
pressing the external GPS APR button to change to the
ARM mode, by initiating a direct-to operation or by
changing to OBS mode.
2. Transition to the approach arm mode. This will
occur automatically when the aircraft is within 30 NM of
the airport and there is an approach loaded into the flight
plan (position B in figure 6-1). The CDI scale factor will
gradually change to ±1.0 NM over the next 30 seconds
and the external annunciator and the KLN 900’s status
line will indicate ARM.
WARNING: It is not approved to conduct the final
portion of the approach unless the KLN 900 is in the
approach active mode (ACTV on external
annunciator, APR on the KLN 900’s status line).
3. Get established on the final approach course.
• NoPT (No Procedure Turn) arrival route
• Radar vectors (requires OBS mode)
• Procedure turn or holding pattern (requires
OBS mode)
• DME arc
6. Fly to the Missed Approach Point (position E in
figure 6-1). The KLN 900 will not automatically sequence
to the next waypoint. You must manually change to the
appropriate waypoint according to the situation. By
default, the KLN 900 will nominate the first waypoint of
the published missed approach procedure when D is
pressed, and the active waypoint is the MAP and you
have flown past the MAP (rule number 4 in section 3.8).
4. Transition to the approach active mode. This
mode change is automatic and occurs at position C in
figure 6-1 when:
• the aircraft is 2 NM from the FAF and the
approach mode is armed
• the LEG mode is selected
• the aircraft is heading towards the FAF
• the FAF or a co-located IAF/FAF is the active
waypoint
• the KLN 900 confirms that adequate integrity
monitoring is available to complete the approach.
• RAIM is available at FAF & MAP
7. If necessary conduct the missed approach
procedure. Remember to always refer to the paper chart
when conducting a missed approach. The OBS mode is
usually needed at some point during a missed approach
and is always required to fly the holding pattern (position
F in figure 6-1).
The details of the above operations as well as several
examples of how to conduct non-precision approaches
using the KLN 900 are given in the following sections.
6-3
Rev 2
6.1.1 Selecting An Approach
The first item in the list from the previous section is to
select and load the approach into the active flight plan.
Approaches are selected from the APT 8 (or ACT 8) page
of the airport for which you desire to shoot the approach.
If you are operating from a flight plan, the easiest way to
get to the approach information is by turning to the ACT
page for your destination as described in section 4.2.3.
The following example will use the VOR or GPS RWY
25R approach to Los Angeles International airport
(KLAX).
1. Turn to one of the APT pages and select KLAX by
using the right cursor, inner, and outer knobs (figure 6-2)
2. Use the right inner knob to turn to the APT 8 page. If
you selected KLAX from the APT 1 page turn the inner
knob one click counter-clockwise to reach the APT 8
page.
3. Turn the right cursor on by pressing the right C.
The cursor comes up on the first approach in the list of
approaches. Use the right outer knob to move the cursor
to different approaches (figure 6-3). If there are more
than 5 approaches to an airport you can move the cursor
down to “scroll” the other procedures into view by rotating
the right outer knob.
| 9 KLAX A
|LOS ANGELES
| INTL
|CL B
|N 33^56.55'
|W118^24.48'
APT 1
Figure 6-2
|
|
|
|
|
|
KLAX IAP
1 NDB 24R
2 VOR 07L
3 VOR 07R
4 VOR 25L
5 VOR 25R
ent CRSR
Figure 6-3
|V25R-KLAX
|IAF 1 ELMOO
|
2 LAHAB
|
3 SLI
|
4 SMO
|
ent CRSR
Figure 6-4
|V25R-KLAX
| 4 FREBYî
| 5 MA25Bñ
| 6 LAX
| 7 INISH
|LOAD IN FPL
CRSR
Figure 6-5
|V25R-KLAX
| 1 ELMOOì
| 2 LAX18
| 3 FITON
| 7 INISH
|LOAD IN FPL
ent CRSR
Figure 6-6
|V25R-KLAX
|PRESS ENT
|TO ADD KLAX
|AND APPR TO
|FPL 0
| APPROVE?
ent CRSR
Figure 6-7
4. With the flashing cursor over “VOR 25R” press E.
5. The KLN 900 will present a list of Initial Approach
Fixes (IAFs) corresponding to this approach. In this
example we want the ELMOO IAF. Select this by pressing E when the cursor is over ELMOO (figure 6-4).
Note: If there is only one IAF for a procedure, then the
KLN 900 will skip this step and go on to the next step.
In many cases ATC will not tell you explicitly which IAF to
use. In these cases you need to select an IAF which is
closest to the route of flight that you expect. If you expect
radar vectors, then the selection of the correct IAF is less
important because you will be given vectors to the FAF
and will not need to use the IAF.
6. The KLN 900 next presents a list of waypoints that
make up the approach. Review these waypoints to make
sure that you have selected the correct IAF. If there are
more than four waypoints in the approach you can move
the cursor up to “scroll” the other waypoints into view by
rotating the right outer knob (figure 6-5).
7. If the cursor is over LOAD IN FPL (figure 6-6) and
you press E, then KLN 900 checks to see if this airport
is in the active flight plan. If it is not, the KLN 900 will ask
if you want to add the approach and the airport reference
point to the active flight plan (FPL 0). In most cases this
is desirable, so press E (figure 6-7).
6-4
Rev 2
8. The KLN 900 will then bring up the FPL 0 page and
put the sequence of approach waypoints in front of the
airport reference point (figure 6-8).
V25R-KLAX | KLAX IAP
10 ELMOOì | 1 NDB 24R
11 LAX18
| 2 VOR 07L
12 FITON
| 3 VOR 07R
13 FREBYî | 4 VOR 25L
17:KLAX
| 5 VOR 25R
FPL 0 enr-leg
APT 8
Figure 6-8
NOTE: At any time during the process of selecting an
approach you can easily return to the previous step by
pressing the F button.
The waypoints that make up the approach procedure are
loaded into the flight plan. At the top of the list of
approach waypoints is a “header” that describes the
approach that follows. The form of this header is ABBBBCCCC. A is the first letter of the type of approach being
flown (e.g. V for a VOR approach). BBBB will be filled in
with the runway that the approach is to. Finally CCCC
corresponds to the identifier of the airport which the
approach is to. An example of this is shown in figure 6-8
where V25R-KLAX means the VOR 25R approach to
KLAX.
After the approach has been entered into the flight plan
the KLN 900 checks to make sure that the resulting flight
plan “makes sense”. If the KLN 900 detects any waypoints that are in both the enroute portion of the flight plan
and the portion that makes up the approach, then the following message will be given:
REDUNDANT WPTS IN FPL
EDIT ENROUTE WPTS
AS NECESSARY
Examine the flight plan and delete those enroute
waypoints that are not necessary.
NOTE: Approaches can only be entered into FPL 0, the
active flight plan. If the KLN 900 is turned off for more
than 5 minutes, then the approach is deleted when power
is turned back on.
6.1.2 Interpreting What You See
In the example above, you may have noticed a couple of
waypoints with somewhat strange names. The second
waypoint of the approach procedure, LAX18, has a name
that is not normal for a waypoint. This is an example of
what are called “terminal” waypoints. These are waypoints that are associated with a specific airport. They
are used to define a spot on the ground that does not
have a normal waypoint name. In the case of “LAX18”
this point is 18 NM from the LAX VOR on the 68° radial.
The fifth waypoint in the approach procedure, MA25B, is
another type of terminal waypoint. In this case this point
is the missed approach point for runway 25. This
approach applies to both the left and right runways so the
letter B is used to mean “both”.
There are few other types of terminal waypoints that you
will need to be familiar with to fully understand GPS nonprecision approaches. The naming convention for these
waypoints are as follows:
6-5
Rev 2
Fxyyy
Ixyyy
Cxyyy
Mxyyy
RWzzz
Daaab
• F stands for Final Approach Fix
• I stands for Intermediate Fix
• C stands for Course Fix
• M stands for Missed Approach Point
• RW stands for Runway Fix. This is
usually the MAP for the approach
• zzz will be a runway number possibly
including L for Left, R for Right, C for
Center, or B for Both.
• D stands for DME arc waypoint
• aaa is the radial that the fix is on from
the reference VOR
• b will be a letter corresponding to the
distance from the reference VOR. For
example, G is the seventh letter of the
alphabet so D234G would be a point on
the 234° radial 7 NM from the reference
VOR. DME arcs greater than 26 NM will
have waypoints where the first two
characters are the first two letters of the
DME identifier. The next three characters
will be the radial that the arc waypoint is
on.
In the rules above x and yyy are defined as follows. For
runways with only one approach, x will be replaced with
an “A” or a “F”. For runways that have multiple
approaches, x will be replaced with “V” for VOR, “N” for
NDB, or “R” for RNAV. The letters yyy will be replaced
with either the runway identifier (e.g., FF25L) or, for
circling approaches, the inbound course to the missed
approach point (e.g., MA259).
Waypoints along a given radial will be named such that
the first three letters are the reference VOR/DME and the
next two are the DME distance. If the distance is greater
than 100 NM the order is reversed. For example, LAX18
is 18 NM from LAX while 26FLW is 126 NM from FLW.
If the aircraft is not too far from the destination airport, the
Super NAV 5 page can be used to determine where
some of these waypoints are relative to others in the
approach. At the time of this writing, all of the National
Ocean Service (NOS) charts and some Jeppesen charts
do not show the special terminal waypoints that are
required for GPS approaches. For this reason it is a good
idea to understand what the special waypoints are used
for and what they mean.
You may have also noticed that some waypoints have a
dash and a small letter at the end of the waypoint name.
The small letter is an aid that we have added to the name
of some waypoints to help you recognize important points
in the approach. These suffixes are displayed on the FPL
0 page, the Super NAV 5 page, and the Super NAV 1
page. The definitions of these suffixes are:
i - The Initial Approach Fix (IAF) of the approach.
f - This is the Final Approach Fix (FAF) of the approach
6-6
Rev 2
m - The Missed Approach Point (MAP) of the approach
h - The missed approach holding point for the approach
Every approach will have a FAF and a MAP. Almost all
will have an IAF and missed approach holding point.
13 FREBYî |
14 MA25Bñ |
*NO WPT SEQ|
15 LAX
|
16 INISH |
17:KLAX
|
FPL 0 enr-leg
Figure 6-9
Another item that you should notice in the flight plan is the
line that has *NO WPT SEQ on it (figure 6-9). This is
what is referred to as a fence and the purpose of this line
is to tell you that the KLN 900 will not automatically
sequence past the waypoint that precedes the fence.
The waypoint before the fence is always the missed
approach point. The reason that waypoint sequencing is
not allowed is that many missed approach procedures
require specific actions before going to the missed
approach holding point (e.g., climbing on a fixed heading
until reaching an altitude).
6.1.3 Changing Or Deleting An Approach Once
Loaded Into The Flight Plan
The sequence of waypoints that are retrieved from the
database of the KLN 900 define the approach procedures
as they are charted. To ensure that the proper path over
the ground is followed, it is not possible to either delete or
add waypoints to the approach section of the flight plan.
To help you see which waypoints are enroute waypoints
and which are approach waypoints, the KLN 900 does
not display a colon next to the waypoint number on the
FPL 0 page if the waypoint is an approach waypoint.
It is only possible to replace the existing approach with
another one, or delete the entire approach from the flight
plan. To replace an existing approach, or delete an
approach, follow these steps.
8:LAS
|
9:DAG
|
V25L-KLAX |
10 ELMOOì |
11 LAX18 |
17:KLAX
|
FPL 0 enr-leg
Figure 6-10
1. With the left page displaying the active flight plan
(FPL 0) turn the left cursor on by pressing the left C
(figure 6-10).
2. Move the cursor so that it covers the approach
header at the top of the approach procedure. Once the
cursor comes over the approach header, it will automatically change to read CHANGE APR? (figure 6-11). If you
press E in this condition the KLN 900 will bring up the
APT 8 page that corresponds to the current approach. At
this point it is possible to select different approach procedures, different IAFs, or both.
8:LAS
|
9:DAG
|
CHANGE APR?|
10 ELMOOì |
11 LAX18 |
17:KLAX
|
CRSR enr-leg
Figure 6-11
8:LAS
|
9:DAG
|
DELETE APR?|
10 ELMOOì |
11 LAX18 |
17:KLAX
|
CRSR enr-leg
Figure 6-12
3. If you press the F button while the cursor is over
the approach header it will change to read DELETE
APR? (figure 6-12). If you press E now, the KLN 900
will remove the entire approach procedure from the active
flight plan. If the KLN 900 was in the approach arm or the
approach active modes, then deleting the approach will
cause the KLN 900 to change back to enroute mode.
This means that the CDI scale factor will change back to
the default ±5.0 NM scale.
6-7
Rev 2
6.1.4 Example Approach: No Procedure Turn
Now that you know the basics of inserting an approach
into the flight plan, we can now show the approach operation of the unit by several examples. This first example
will use the approach that was loaded into the flight plan
in section 6.1.1. This example will show how the KLN
900 sequences through an approach and what type of
annunciations and scale factor changes can be expected.
The KLN 900 will remain in the familiar Leg mode so
there will be no need to change between Leg and OBS
mode in this example. Refer to the approach plate for
this approach (figure 6-13) to see what the procedure
looks like.
For this example it is assumed that you are on an active
flight plan with the final destination being the Los Angeles
International airport, KLAX. It is also assumed that ATC
will not give you radar vectors during this approach.
1. Load the VOR 25R approach to KLAX as
demonstrated in section 6.1.1.
2. When you are within 30 NM of the airport, the
KLN 900 will automatically arm the approach mode and
provide the following message.
PRESS ALT TO SET BARO
The message acts as a reminder to make sure the
KLN 900 is using the correct barometric pressure. If the
barometric information is not correct, then the integrity
monitoring provided by the KLN 900 will not be as good
as it could be. Press A to bring up the ALT page and
verify that the barometric pressure is correct.
NOTE: If the KLN 900 is interfaced with a compatible air
data computer that provides the correct barometric pressure to the KLN 900, then the previous message is not
displayed and it is not necessary to update the barometric
pressure.
At this time the KLN 900 will smoothly change the CDI
scale factor to ±1.0 NM. The external approach annunciator installed in the aircraft will indicate that the approach
is in the ARM mode.
Figure 6-13
3. As you approach ELMOO, the KLN 900 will provide
waypoint alerting on the external annunciator as well as
on the screen of the KLN 900. Once you pass ELMOO,
the KLN 900 will automatically sequence to the next waypoint in the approach, LAX18.
4.7 oq
LAX18 |
arm-«}|
159 uv
.32NM=|
ûü161^|
†ü170^|5
4. This may be a good time to select the Super NAV 5
page. This page is especially useful for getting a feeling
of where you are in the approach (figure 6-14).
5. As the aircraft approaches the LAX18 waypoint, the
KLN 900 will again provide waypoint alerting. As the
aircraft passes LAX18 and sequences to FITON, the KLN
LAX18
FITON
Figure 6-14
6-8
Rev 2
900 will provide a message telling you to set the external
indicator (CDI or HSI) to a new value. If desired track
(DTK) is shown on the screen, this value will flash when
the external selected course does not match the DTK
within 10°.
that are past the MAP. To perform the published missed
approach procedure, press D to bring up the direct-to
page. The default waypoint will be the first waypoint of
the missed approach procedure. In this case the first
waypoint is LAX. Confirm this waypoint as the direct to
waypoint and press E.
NOTE: If the KLN 900 is interfaced to EFIS or a suitable
mechanical HSI through the optional KA 90 adapter, then
the external course pointer will be driven to the correct
value when leg sequencing occurs.
12. Upon reaching LAX, the KLN 900 will sequence to
the next waypoint in the missed approach procedure,
INISH. In this example, there is no holding pattern published for the missed approach so you can expect further
instructions upon reaching INISH.
6. As the aircraft approaches the FAF (FREBY) it is a
good idea to check over the status of the KLN 900. Verify
that LEG sequencing is selected. Remember, the KLN
900 will not transition to the approach active mode if the
OBS mode is selected. If the KLN 900 shares an HSI or
CDI with other NAV sources, it is also good to verify that
the NAV/GPS switch is set to GPS.
NOTE: If Air Traffic Control (ATC) gives you instructions
for a missed approach that is different from the published
missed approach procedure, it is always possible for you
to select a different direct to waypoint than the default
direct to waypoint.
7. By the time the aircraft is 2 NM from FREBY, the
Final Approach Fix, the KLN 900 will make a prediction to
see if integrity will be available at the FAF and at the
MAP. If the prediction indicates that integrity monitoring
will be available, and RAIM is currently available, the
KLN 900 will change the GPS APR annunciator to read
ACTV and the status line will indicate APR (figure 6-15).
At this time the KLN 900 will also start to change the CDI
scale factor. By the time the aircraft reaches the FAF
(FREBY) the CDI scale factor will be down to ±0.3 NM.
1.9 oq
FREBYî|
z{-«} |
159 uv
.00NM=|
ûü248^|
†ü248^|7
8. The fix NOELE is not included in the list of waypoints
provided in the database. You will need to identify this
point by using the along track distances given in the profile view of the approach plate. In this example NOELE is
located 1.3 NM from the MAP. When the distance to
MA25B is 1.3 NM, then the aircraft is at NOELE and you
can descend to the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for
this approach.
MA25B
FREBY
Figure 6-15
NOTE: Some approach procedures require that you add
up several along-track distances to be able to identify a
step down fix.
9. The KLN 900 will again provide waypoint alerting as
you approach MA25B. This is shown on the Super NAV 5
page by a flashing active waypoint identifier. If the AUTO
scale factor was chosen for the Super NAV 5 page then
the airport diagram will be visible when the aircraft is
within 5 NM of the airport. More detail is shown as the
aircraft gets to within 1 NM of the airport (figure 6-16).
0.3 oq
MA25Bñ|
z{-«} |
159 uv
.01NM |
ûü248^|
†ü248^|1
The following steps would need to be performed if a
missed approach is required.
25LR
MA25B
Figure 6-16
11. Upon reaching MA25B and not seeing the runway
you decide to perform a missed approach. Remember,
the KLN 900 will not automatically sequence past the
missed approach point. This is shown on the Super NAV
5 page by not showing any lines connecting waypoints
6-9
Rev 2
6.1.5 Example Approach: Off-Airport Navaid
An approach that is quite common is an approach that is
based on an off-airport navaid. An example of this is the
VOR RWY 22 approach to Clovis New Mexico Municipal
airport, KCVN. To fly this procedure as published use the
following steps and refer to figure 6-17 for the procedure.
For this example assume that the aircraft is approaching
from the Northeast going Direct-to the Clovis airport with
no active flight plan.
1. Load the approach into the flight plan as described in
section 6.1.1. In this case there is only one IAF so the
KLN 900 does not present the option for you to select an
IAF. In this example, there is no active flight plan to begin
with so the KLN 900 will ask to add the airport and the
approach to FPL 0 (figure 6-18).
2. Approaching the area Air Traffic Control (ATC) tells
you to go direct-to the TXO VOR and clears you for the
approach to KCVN. This is easy to do from the Super
NAV 5 page by pulling out on the right inner knob and
scanning through the active flight plan by turning the inner
knob. Once TXO-i is displayed in the scanning window
(figure 6-19), press D and then E to initiate a direct to
operation to the TXO VOR.
3. At a distance of 4 NM to the TXO VOR, the KLN 900
will give the following message:
IF REQUIRED SELECT OBS
This message provides a reminder that to fly a course
reversal the OBS mode needs to be selected. Note from
the approach chart that there is a No Procedure Turn
(NoPT) Arrival Sector for this approach. If you are
approaching TXO within the indicated area there is no
need to perform a course reversal and you need to ignore
this message. The NoPT sector is not stored in the database so it is not possible for the KLN 900 to know if a
course reversal is required or not; as a result, the KLN
900 will always give this message whenever a waypoint
could be used for a course reversal. The KLN 900 will
transition to the approach mode when 2nm from the
IAF/FAF. It will then sequenced from the FAF to the MAP
at the FAF.
Figure 6-17
|V22-KCVN
|PRESS ENT
|TO ADD KCVN
|AND APPR TO
|FPL 0
| APPROVE?
ent CRSR
Figure 6-18
If however, you are approaching from any other direction
a course reversal is required and the OBS mode will need
to be selected. If the OBS mode is not selected before
reaching TXO, then the KLN 900 will automatically
sequence to the missed approach point. This is not desirable when performing a course reversal so the OBS
mode must be selected before reaching TXO.
35.2 oq
KCVN |
xy-«} |
165 uv
áà0:13|
ûü227^|
†ü227^|40
NOTE: The KLN 900 will only remind you to select OBS
mode if the IAF is the active waypoint. Therefore if a
course reversal is required, make sure the IAF is the
selected waypoint.
KCVN
RW22
TA87
TXO
Q54
Q55
TXOì
Figure 6-19
6-10
Rev 2
4. If a course reversal is required, then upon reaching
TXO perform the appropriate holding pattern entry and
set the inbound course on the external CDI or HSI. In this
example the inbound course is 241°. At this point the
KLN 900 works very similar to a conventional VOR/DME.
If a missed approach is required for this approach, then
the following steps would be required.
9. The published missed approach procedure for this
approach is to make a climbing left turn to 5700 feet and
proceed direct to the TXO VOR. In this case TXO will be
the default direct to waypoint when D is pressed. This
is the desired waypoint so press E to confirm the waypoint and proceed direct to the VOR.
5. Once established on the inbound course of 241°,
switch back to the Leg mode. When Leg mode is selected
the FAF is automatically made the active waypoint when
the IAF and the FAF are at the same waypoint.
NOTE: If ATC gives you instructions for a missed
approach that are different from the published missed
approach procedure, it is always possible for you to select
a different direct to waypoint than the default direct to
waypoint.
NOTE: It is mandatory that the unit be in LEG mode with
the FAF as the active waypoint before crossing the FAF
to activate the approach active mode and change to a
±0.3 NM scale factor. The CDI scale factor changes from
±1.0 NM to ±0.3 NM over the two miles to the FAF.
Delaying the switch from OBS to Leg mode compresses
the scale factor change. This will make the transition
more abrupt. If the switch from OBS to Leg is delayed
too long it will not be possible for the KLN 900 to change
to the approach active mode.
10. As the aircraft approaches TXO you will need to
select OBS mode to stop waypoint sequencing and
define the inbound course for the holding pattern. If you
do not select the OBS mode before the aircraft is within 4
NM of the holding point, then the KLN 900 presents a
message reminding you to select the OBS mode.
6. When the aircraft is 2 NM from the FAF, the KLN 900
will verify that the proper integrity is available. If integrity
monitoring is available for the approach, then the
KLN 900 will change to the Approach Active mode. This
will be annunciated on the external approach status
annunciator as well as on the KLN 900. The CDI scale
factor will also start to change from ±1.0 NM to ±0.3 NM.
NOTE: If another attempt at the approach is desired
after holding, it is necessary to manually change the
active waypoint. When the FAF and the missed approach
holding point are at the same place then the KLN 900 will
automatically change the active waypoint to the FAF
when you change from OBS to LEG. Make sure to make
this change as soon as possible to ensure the approach
active mode becomes the active mode.
7. Upon reaching TXO, the KLN 900 will automatically
sequence to RW22, the missed approach point.
8. The fix at 8 DME from TXO along the final approach
course is not included in the waypoints that come from
the database. Since the distance that the KLN 900 is giving you is distance TO the MAP, you will need to mentally
figure out when the aircraft has reached this point. This is
done by looking at the along track distances given in the
plan view of the approach. In this case the fix is 4.1 NM
from RW22. Upon reaching this distance you can
descend to the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for this
approach.
6-11
Rev 2
6.1.6 Example Approach: Radar Vectors
For this example we will use the same approach that was
used in the previous section except this approach will be
conducted with the help of radar vectors from approach
control. The aircraft will be assumed to be arriving from
the West, although this does not change the way the
approach will be flown using the KLN 900.
1. The approach has been selected and entered into the
flight plan and the aircraft is going direct to KCVN (Clovis,
New Mexico Municipal) as described in section 6.1.5.
2. As soon as ATC mentions radar vectors you should
immediately start to think of the OBS mode. Once given
radar vectors, change the active waypoint to TXO and
select the OBS mode. Note that it is not important what
order these events take place. It is just as effective to
change to OBS mode and then change the active waypoint as it is to change the active waypoint and then
switch to OBS mode.
3. Next, change the selected course on the CDI or HSI
to the final approach course. For this example, the
inbound course is 241°. It is now possible to watch your
progress on the Super NAV 5 page and anticipate when
you will be given new headings to fly (figure 6-20).
4.5 oq
TXOî |
âä241 |
123 uv
4.3NM=|
òô241^|
†ü061^|5
4. Once established on the inbound course, you will
need to change back to the Leg mode to allow for proper
approach operation and automatic leg sequencing. For
best performance, the change back to Leg mode should
be made before the aircraft is 2 NM from the FAF.
NOTE: It is mandatory that the unit be in LEG mode with
the FAF as the active waypoint before crossing the FAF
to activate the approach active mode and change to ±0.3
NM scale factor. The CDI scale factor changes from ±1.0
NM to ±0.3 NM over the two miles to the FAF. Delaying
the switch from OBS to Leg mode compresses the scale
factor change. This will make the transition more abrupt.
If the switch from OBS to Leg is delayed too long it will
not be possible for the KLN 900 to change to the
approach active mode.
TXO
Figure 6-20
5. The rest of this approach would be flown using the
same steps as presented in section 6.1.5.
6-12
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
6-13
Rev 2
6.1.7 Example Approach: On-Airport Navaid
Another common type of approach is an approach that is
based on an on-airport navaid. These could be either
VOR or NDB approaches. An example of this type of
approach is the VOR RWY 24 approach to Bowman
airport in Louisville, Kentucky (Figure 6-21). The airport
identifier for this airport is KLOU.
For this example assume that the aircraft is approaching
KLOU from the Nabb VOR.
1. After passing the Nabb VOR, you are told to expect
the VOR 24 approach at KLOU. You load the approach
using the procedure described in section 6.1.1 and select
the BQM IAF.
2. When the distance from the present position to the
destination airport reaches 30 NM, the KLN 900 will automatically arm the approach mode. The CDI scale factor
will transition from ±5.0 NM to ±1.0 NM and the KLN 900
will provide more sensitive integrity monitoring. You also
press A to update the barometric information.
3. When the aircraft is 4 NM from the BQM VOR, the
KLN 900 will give a message reminding you to select the
OBS mode. The OBS mode is required for the procedure
turn. In this case, don’t select the OBS mode until after
the KLN 900 has sequenced past BQM-i and made the
FAF, FF24-f, the active waypoint. (This will keep you from
having to manually activate FF24-f while in the OBS
mode.) After passing BQM, select OBS mode and then, if
required, select the outbound course of 068° on the external CDI or HSI. The TO-FROM flag will change from TO
to FROM passing over FF24.
4. With the OBS mode selected and FF24 as the active
waypoint, it is possible to fly the procedure turn. Allow
enough distance past FF24 to complete the procedure
turn and still be 2 NM away before reaching the FAF.
Remember that the procedure requires you to remain
within 10 NM of BQM during the procedure turn. After
completing the heading portion of the procedure turn,
change the selected course to the inbound course of 248°
on the external CDI or HSI.
Figure 6-21
5. Once established on the inbound course the Leg
mode will again need to be selected so that proper
approach operation and waypoint sequencing will occur.
NOTE: It is mandatory that the unit be in LEG mode with
the FAF as the active waypoint before crossing the FAF
to activate the approach active mode and change to a
±0.3 NM scale factor. The CDI scale factor changes from
±1.0 NM to ±0.3 NM over the two miles to the FAF.
Delaying the switch from OBS to Leg mode compresses
the scale factor change. This makes the transition more
abrupt. If the switch from OBS to Leg is delayed too long
it will not be possible for the KLN 900 to change to the
approach active mode.
6-14
Rev 2
6. When the aircraft is 2 NM from the FAF, the KLN 900
will verify that the proper GPS integrity is available. If
integrity monitoring is available for the approach, then the
KLN 900 will change to the Approach Active mode. This
will be annunciated on the external approach status
annunciator as well as on the KLN 900. The CDI scale
factor will also start to change from ±1.0 NM to ±0.3 NM.
7. Normal waypoint alerting will occur as the aircraft
passes the final approach fix. The leg from the final
approach fix to the missed approach point will become
active and the CDI scale factor will remain at ±0.3 NM. If
the AUTO scale factor was selected on the Super NAV 5
page, then the scale factor will zoom in on the airport as
the aircraft gets closer and closer to the missed approach
point. Eventually the map scale changes to 1 NM and the
runway diagram becomes visible on the map.
The following steps are followed if a missed approach is
required.
8. The missed approach instructions call for a climbing
left turn to a heading of 110° until intercepting the 061°
inbound course to the missed approach holding fix,
SCUMY. To fly this with the KLN 900 it will be necessary
to put the KLN 900 into the OBS mode and make
SCUMY the active waypoint. Change the selected course
on the external CDI or HSI to 061°.
9. Once the aircraft reaches SCUMY, you will need to
perform a holding pattern entry suitable for this holding
pattern and set the selected course to 241° for the
holding pattern.
6-15
Rev 2
6.1.8 Example Approach: DME Arc
DME arc procedures with the KLN 900 are completely different from using traditional VOR and DME equipment.
Don’t worry though because DME arc procedures using
the KLN 900 are also easier than using traditional equipment. This is because the KLN 900 provides left/right
guidance around the arc. No more having to watch distance in one place and radial in another!
Very rarely do you actually fly to the beginning of an arc,
especially in a radar environment. Instead, the flight path
of the aircraft generally intersects the arc at some point.
Once the aircraft is near the arc, it is then possible to turn
so that the arc distance is maintained until time to turn to
the inbound fix.
The following example will show how DME arc procedures are flown using the KLN 900. This example
approach will be to use the VOR RWY 12 approach to
Owatonna, Minnesota, KOWA. The approach plate for
this approach is in figure 6-22. Assume that the aircraft is
approaching from the North and is in a radar environment.
1. ATC assigns the VOR RWY 12 approach. Turn to
the APT 8 page for KOWA to select the approach. You
select the VOR 12 approach and the KLN 900 presents
the IAF selection page (figure 6-23).
2. There are five choices for the IAF. Three of these
choices you can recognize but the other two, D040L and
D220L, are unfamiliar and not shown on this chart.
These two waypoints are the database identifiers for the
ends of the arc. D040L means DME arc point, 040 is the
radial which the waypoint lies, and L indicates the distance of the arc. L is the twelfth letter of the alphabet so
the L indicates that this is an arc with a radius of 12 NM.
In a similar manner D220L can also be decoded. In this
example the aircraft is approaching from the north so the
D040L IAF will be selected.
Figure 6-22
|V12-KOWA
|IAF 1 ALMAY
|
2 D040L
|
3 D220L
|
4 FOW
|
5 MKT
ent CRSR
Figure 6-23
3. The KLN 900 knows that this point is associated with
a DME arc. Once an arc waypoint is chosen, the KLN 900
determines what radial of the reference VOR the aircraft
is presently located on. A waypoint is created that is
located at the intersection of the present radial and the
DME arc. This waypoint is the first waypoint in the list of
waypoints presented on the APT 8 page before loading
the approach into the flight plan (figure 6-24). This waypoint is named using the same convention discussed
earlier.
|V12-KOWA
| 1 D011Lì
| 2 D310L
| 3 FOWî
| 7 FOWï
|LOAD IN FPL
ent CRSR
Figure 6-24
NOTE: If the present radial from the reference VOR is
outside of the defined arc, then the KLN 900 will default to
the beginning of the arc.
CAUTION: The KLN 900 does not take into account
the geometry of the active flight plan when determining the arc intercept point. This point is defined
6-16
Rev 2
solely on the present radial and the defined arc distance from the reference VOR. For this reason it is
better to delay selecting approaches that contain
DME arcs until the aircraft is closer to the destination.
4. With the cursor over LOAD IN FPL, press E. The
approach will be loaded into the active flight plan just like
any other approach would be.
5. After the approach is loaded into the flight plan the
KLN 900 may give the message:
REDUNDANT WPTS IN FPL
EDIT ENROUTE WPTS
AS NECESSARY
Examine the flight plan and, if practical, observe the
Super NAV 5 page to make sure that the sequence of
waypoints does not have any unnecessary legs in it.
6. The KLN 900 will now provide guidance to the arc
intercept point. The Super NAV 5 page displays the entire
arc on the screen. The portion that is between the
beginning of the arc and the arc intercept is drawn with a
dashed line. The part that is between the arc intercept
point and the end of the arc is drawn with the normal solid
line (figure 6-25).
7. In some cases ATC may provide radar vectors to the
arc. The KLN 900 provides a means to define a new
intercept point based on the current track of the aircraft
over the ground. This can be done from either the Super
NAV 5 page or from the FPL 0 page. The dashed line
displayed on the Super NAV 5 page will help you to determine if ATC is giving you correct vectors.
•
From the Super NAV 5 page, pull out the right
inner knob to bring up the waypoint scanning
window.
•
Turn the right inner knob until the first waypoint of
the arc is displayed, D011L in this example. For
approaches this will have a small (i) appended to
the waypoint name. If the recalculation is to be
done from the FPL 0 page, then turn on the left
cursor and move it over the first waypoint of the
arc.
•
From either page press F. This will change
the waypoint to read MOVE? (figure 6-26). If it is
desired to recompute the arc intercept point then
press E. If a new arc intercept point is not
desired then press F again.
•
3.0 oq
D011Lì|
arm-«}|
142 uv
.11NMÇ|
ûü191^|
âë011^|5
D011L
Figure 6-25
3.0 oq
D011Lì|
arm-«}|
142 uv
.11NMÇ|
ûü191^|
âë011^|5
If E was pressed, then the KLN 900 will
calculate an arc intercept point based on the
present track of the aircraft over the ground.
D011L
MOVE ?
Figure 6-26
6-17
Rev 2
NOTE: If the present track does not intercept the arc,
then the KLN 900 will display NO INTRCPT in the
scratch pad area of the screen.
8. When the aircraft approaches the arc the KLN 900
will provide waypoint alerting and turn anticipation to join
the arc.
9. Once established on the arc the KLN 900 provides
left/right guidance relative to the curved arc. Distance to
the active waypoint is the distance from the present position to the active waypoint, NOT the distance along the
arc. Refer to Appendix A for the geometry of the arc.
10. During the arc, the desired track will be constantly
changing. To help you keep the orientation correct the
Super NAV 5 will automatically display the desired track
(DTK) on the sixth line. It is not possible to change this to
something else while on the arc. The value displayed for
the desired track will flash when the difference between
the CDI or HSI and the current desired track is greater
than 10°.
11. Some DME arcs have defined radials that serve as
step down fixes. These points are not stored in the
database. To help you determine your position relative to
these step-down points along the arc, the KLN 900 will
display a new value on the bottom line of the display on
the Super NAV 5 page. This new bit of information is
denoted by the letters ARC followed by three numbers.
The three numbers represent the current radial that you
are on relative to the reference VOR/DME. It is not possible to select any other type of information to display on
this line like you normally can. The arc radial is forced into
this position when the aircraft is 30 NM from the arc. The
arc display is shown in figures 6-26 or in figure 6-27. Just
watch this value and when it reads the same as one of
the step-down points you can descend as necessary.
This particular example does not have such points, but
there are quite a few approaches that do.
NOTE: Autopilot performance may not be satisfactory if
coupled in the NAV mode while flying the arc. Many
autopilots were never designed to fly curved paths. If
autopilot performance is not satisfactory while flying DME
arcs, select the HDG mode and keep changing the heading bug to keep the D-bar centered.
12. As the aircraft approaches the end of the arc, the
KLN 900 will provide waypoint alerting and turn anticipation to the next leg.
13. When the aircraft is 2 NM from FOW VOR, the FAF,
the KLN 900 will attempt to transition to the approach
active mode. Since the DME arc procedure is flown
entirely in the LEG mode the only possible problem would
be if the integrity monitoring did not check out.
6-18
Rev 2
14. The visual descent point is identified by the along
track distance to the MAP to be 1.5 NM. When the aircraft reaches this point (figure 6-27), and the runway environment is in sight, it is possible to descend for a landing.
1.5 oq
RW12ñ |
z{-«} |
101 uv
.06NM=|
ûü130^|
†ü129^|2
If a missed approach is needed use the following steps:
15. The missed approach calls for a climb to 2000 and
then a left turn direct to FOW. Since the KLN 900 will not
automatically sequence past the MAP, the KLN 900 will
provide the correct lateral guidance for the climb.
RW12
12
Figure 6-27
16. Once 2000 feet has been reached press D, the
missed approach holding point will be the default direct to
waypoint. Press E to confirm the direct to waypoint and
proceed to the FOW VOR.
NOTE: If ATC gives you instructions for a missed
approach that is different from the published missed
approach procedure, it is always possible for you to select
a different direct to waypoint than the default direct to
waypoint.
17. The OBS mode will need to be selected to accomplish the holding pattern. If this is not done before the
aircraft getting 4 NM from FOW, the KLN 900 will provide
a message reminding you to select the OBS mode.
NOTE: If another attempt at the approach is desired
after holding, it is necessary to manually change the
active waypoint. When the FAF and the missed approach
holding point are at the same place then the KLN 900 will
automatically change the active waypoint to the FAF
when you change from OBS to LEG. Make sure to make
this change as soon as possible to ensure the approach
active mode becomes the active mode.
6.1.9 Approach Problems and RAIM Availability
Predictions (STA 5)
Very rarely there will be a problem with the integrity of the
GPS system while you are conducting non-precision
approaches with the KLN 900. In some cases the KLN
900 will determine that there will not be sufficient integrity
monitoring for the leg between the FAF and the MAP, or
RAIM is not currently available. In these cases the KLN
900 will not go into the approach active mode and will
present the following message:
RAIM NOT AVAILABLE
APR MODE INHIBITED
PREDICT RAIM ON STA 5
In these cases you will not be able to finish the approach
because there is insufficient integrity monitoring. The STA
5 (Status 5) page provides a means for you to predict
when RAIM will be available.
NOTE: In take-home mode, predicted RAIM will
ALWAYS be available on the STA 5 page. Therefore, the
6-19
Rev 2
KLN 900 should be in normal mode when performing a
RAIM prediction using the STA 5 page.
done graphically in a bar graph format. The center of the
bar graph represents the ETA that you entered in step 5.
Each bar represents 5 minutes of time. The RAIM
calculation is good for ±15 minutes of the ETA. Bars that
are above the line indicate that RAIM is available and
bars below the line indicate when RAIM is not available.
To perform a RAIM prediction on the STA 5 page two
pieces of information are needed. The first is the location
that the prediction will be for and the second is the time
for the prediction.
The destination waypoint will, by default, be the missed
approach point of an approach loaded in the flight plan. If
there is no approach in the flight plan, then the default
waypoint is the last waypoint in the active flight plan. Of
course it is possible for you to enter any waypoint in this
field.
An example is shown in figure 6-30. Notice in the figure
that the first four bars are below the line and the other
three are above the line. This means that RAIM is not
available at the ETA, nor during the 15 minutes prior to
the ETA. RAIM is predicted to be available five minutes
after the ETA and the next 10 minutes. By showing the
times when RAIM will be available it is possible for you to
alter your ETA to ensure that there will not be any RAIM
problems.
The time used for the RAIM prediction will be the current
ETA to the destination airport or the MAP. This time is
automatically updated by the KLN 900 so there is usually
no need to enter a value. If you are making a RAIM calculation for planning purposes, it is also possible to enter a
time in this field. An important point about this time is that
the time used for RAIM prediction is always in the future
and limited to 24 hours from the present time. For
example, if the time is now 19:30 and the time entered for
the ETA is 18:30, then the prediction will be made for the
next day not one hour ago.
Even more rare will be the case when the KLN 900
cannot provide sufficient integrity monitoring or if there is
an actual satellite failure while the aircraft is on the leg
from the FAF to the MAP. In these cases the KLN 900
will FLAG the navigation solution and a missed approach
will have to be flown. The KLN 900 will provide the
following message:
PRESS GPS APR FOR NAV
This message is telling you to cancel the approach mode
by pressing the external switch/annunciator. This will
change the unit to the approach-arm mode and
navigation information will be restored.
To perform a manual RAIM calculation use the following
procedure.
1. Turn the left outer and inner knobs to select the STA
5 page.
2. Press the left C. The cursor will be over the DEST
field.
RAIM STATUS| 3K1
DEST: 3K1 |ALVA MUN
ETA: --:--|
CST|
êêêêêêê |N 36^46.39'
-15 0 +15|W 98^40.20'
CRSR|
ent|APT 1
3. Enter the desired waypoint identifier by using the left
inner and outer knobs just like you do for any other
waypoint entry.
4. Once the desired waypoint identifier is entered press
E (figure 6-28). Press E again if the waypoint
information is correct.
Figure 6-28
5. The cursor will now be over the ETA field. Use the left
inner knob to enter the desired hour. Note that the
current time zone is displayed below the ETA field. Use
the left outer knob to move the cursor over the minutes
field. Use the inner and outer knobs to select tens of minutes and single minutes as required. When the desired
time is selected press E. The RAIM calculations will
start.
RAIM STATUS|
DEST: 3K1 |
ETA: 14:35|
CST|
COMPUTING |
-15 0 +15|
STA 5|
6. The RAIM calculation will usually take a few seconds
before an answer is reached. During this time the STA 5
page will be as shown in figure 6-29.
Figure 6-29
RAIM STATUS|
DEST: 3K1 |
ETA: 14:35|
CST|
èèèèééé |
-15 0 +15|
STA 5|
Figure 6-30
7. Once the RAIM calculation is complete, the STA 5
page will indicate the results of the prediction. This is
6-20
Rev 2
6.2 SID/STAR PROCEDURES
The database in the KLN 900 also contains the pilot NAV
SIDs (Standard Instrument Departures) and STARs
(Standard Terminal Arrival Routes) for the primary
database coverage area (see Chapter 2 for database
coverage areas). SID/STAR procedures stored in the
database can only be considered accurate as long as the
database is current. Even though the database contains
SID and STAR procedures, there is a lot of information
that is not included in the database. Therefore, the paper
chart is still the primary source of information. For example, many procedures require the aircraft to fly to a certain
altitude, along a heading until intercepting a course, and
many other procedures that the KLN 900 can not automatically accomplish. Many procedures require pilot
action to ensure that the proper path is flown over the
ground. The main purpose of loading a SID or a STAR
into the active flight plan is to provide you with a quick
way of loading a potentially large number of waypoints.
SID and STAR procedures can be as challenging to fly
as some approaches are. Therefore it is mandatory that
you are comfortable with the operation of the KLN 900
before attempting to fly SID and STAR procedures. In
particular, flight plan operation and the OBS mode should
be second nature to you.
NOTE: There are some SID/STAR procedures in the
world that are not suited for the operational characteristics of the KLN 900. These procedures are not included
in the database and therefore the waypoints that make up
these procedures would have to be entered manually. It
is good preflight practice ensure that the KLN 900 contains anticipated procedures for the flight.
SID and STAR procedures are stored with the airport for
which they apply. SID and STAR procedures are
accessed through the APT 7 page. If there are both SIDs
and STARs for a given airport, then there will be two APT
7 pages, one to select a SID and the other to select a
STAR. This is indicated by APT+7. It is also possible to
have only a SID or only a STAR in which case there is
only one APT 7 page.
SID and STAR procedures are defined in three parts.
The parts are the SID or STAR name (e.g., PORTE9), a
transition (e.g., Fellows), and a runway specific component (e.g., RW 01L). The APT 7 pages lead you through
the selection process.
6.2.1 Selecting a SID
Use the following procedure to select a SID. Some steps
may not be necessary depending on the procedure that
you wish to fly. For this example, the PORTE NINE
departure from San Francisco International (KSFO) will
be used.
6-21
Rev 2
1. Select KSFO on one of the airport pages (figure
6-31). If you are operating from an active flight plan you
can use the ACT 7 page for KSFO by scanning through
the active flight plan (see section 4.2.3).
2. If not already displayed, rotate the right inner knob
until the APT 7 page appears as in figure 6-32. This will
allow the selection of SID procedures.
3. Turn the right cursor on by pressing the right C,
and rotate the right outer knob until the flashing cursor is
over PORTE3 (figure 6-33). With the cursor over
PORTE3, press E.
4. The KLN 900 will now ask which runway that you will
be using. For this example select RW01B (figure 6-34)
and press E.
5. The last bit of information needed to define this SID is
the transition. This example uses the Fellows transition.
To select the Fellows transition, move the cursor down to
FLW (figure 6-35) and press E.
| KSFO
|SAN FRANCIS
|C INT
|CL B
|N 37^37.14'
|W122^22.49'
APT 1
Figure 6-31
| KSFO
|SELECT SID
| 1 CUIT2
| 2 DUMB6
| 3 EUGEN5
|11 SHOR1
APT+7
| KSFO
|SELECT SID
| 5 OFFSH4
| 6 PORTE3
| 7 REBAS3
|10 SHOR1
ent CRSR
|PORTE3-SID
|RUNWAY
| 1 RW01B
| 2 RW10B
| 3 RW19B
| 4 RW28B
ent CRSR
Figure 6-33
6. The KLN 900 now presents a list of waypoints that
make up the SID. Review these waypoints if desired. If
the waypoints look correct then press E with the cursor
over LOAD IN FPL to load the SID into the active flight
plan (figure 6-36).
Figure 6-34
|PORTE3-SID
|TRANSITION
| 1 AVE
| 2 CZQ
| 3 FLW
| 4 PXN
ent CRSR
7. The KLN 900 will then add the SID procedure after
the airport reference point in the active flight plan (figure
6-37). If the airport reference point is not included in the
active flight plan, then the KLN 900 will ask to add this
waypoint to the active flight plan.
Figure 6-35
Figure 6-32
|PORTE3-SID
| 1 SFO04
| 2 PORTE
| 3 PESCA
| 5 FLW
|LOAD IN FPL
ent CRSR
Figure 6-36
Section 6.2.4 gives the actions required to fly this SID.
6.2.2 Selecting a STAR
The steps required to select a STAR are very similar to
those required to select a SID. The only difference is the
order of the steps to define the STAR and where the
STAR is loaded into the flight plan. The steps required to
define Acton Four arrival with the Wink transition serve as
an example of how to select a STAR. This STAR is to the
Dallas/Fort Worth International airport (KDFW).
; 1:KSFO
| KSFO
PORTE3-SID|SELECT SID
< 2.SFO
| 1 CUIT2
3.PORTE | 2 DUMB6
4.PESCA | 3 EUGEN5
10.KLIT
|11 SHOR1
FPL 0 enr-leg
APT+7
Figure 6-37
Use the following procedure to select a STAR:
| KDFW
|DALLAS/FT
|WORTH
|CL B
|N 32^53.82'
|W 97^02.55'
APT 1
Figure 6-38
1. Select KDFW on one of the airport pages (figure 638). If you are operating from an active flight plan you
can use the ACT 7 page for KDFW by scanning through
the active flight plan (see section 4.2.3).
2. Turn to the APT 7 page for KDFW. Make sure that
the words SELECT STAR are displayed near the top of
the screen.
6-22
Rev 2
3. Turn the right cursor on by pressing the right C,
and, if necessary, rotate the right outer knob until the
flashing cursor is over the desired STAR. With the cursor
over AQN4 (figure 6-39), press E.
| KDFW
|SELECT STAR
| 1 AQN4
| 2 BOIDS4
| 3 BUJ6
| 4 SCY6
ent CRSR
4. The KLN 900 will now ask which transition you want
to use. For this example select INK (figure 6-40) and
press E.
5. In some cases, the STAR procedure requires you to
select a specific runway. To select a specific runway
move the cursor over the desired runway and press E.
In this example the STAR does not require a specific runway so the KLN 900 skips this step.
|AQN4-ãåç
|TRANSITION
| 1 ABI
| 2 EDNAS
| 3 INK
|
ent CRSR
Figure 6-40
Figure 6-39
|AQN4-ãåç
| 1 INK
| 2 PHILS
| 3 TQA
|12 CREEK
|LOAD IN FPL
ent CRSR
6. The KLN 900 now presents a list of waypoints that
make up the STAR (figure 6-41). Review these waypoints if desired and then press E to load the STAR
into the active flight plan.
7. The KLN 900 will then add the STAR procedure
before the airport reference point in the active flight plan
(figure 6-42). If the airport reference point is not included
in the active flight plan, then the KLN 900 will ask to add
this waypoint to the active flight plan.
Figure 6-41
; 1:KELP
| KDFW
AQN4-ãåç |SELECT STAR
< 2.INK
| 1 AQN4
3.PHILS | 2 BOIDS4
4.TQA
| 3 BUJ6
14:KDFW
| 4 SCY6
FPL 0 enr-leg
APT+7
Figure 6-42
NOTE: It is not possible to load a SID or STAR into a
flight plan other than FPL 0. In ORS 01 and ORS 02 versions of the KLN 900, SID and STAR procedures are
deleted from FPL 0 after the power is off for more than 5
minutes. In ORS 04 and later versions of the KLN 900,
SID and STAR procedures are not deleted regardless of
how long the power is off.
6.2.3 Editing a SID or STAR
From the proceeding two examples you may have
noticed that SID and STAR procedures have procedure
“headers” just as approaches do. It is possible to use
these headers to delete and change the entire procedure
just like is done with approach procedures. One difference between SID and STAR procedures and
approaches is that it is possible to add waypoints to and
delete waypoints from the published procedure. To help
you differentiate between approaches (no adding or deleting waypoints allowed) and SID or STAR procedures
(adding and deleting waypoints allowed) the waypoint
number has a period (.) next to it instead of a blank
space. The period also differentiates a SID or STAR
waypoint from a “regular” waypoint in an unlocked flight
plan that has a colon (:) next to the waypoint number.
To add an individual waypoint in the SID or STAR procedure use the following steps:
1. Use the left knobs to select the FPL 0 page on the left
side of the screen.
6-23
Rev 2
2. Turn the left cursor on by pressing the left C.
Rotate the left outer knob as necessary to position the
cursor over the waypoint identifier which you desire to
follow the waypoint being added.
3. Use the left inner and outer knobs in the normal
manner to define the desired waypoint.
4. Press E to display the waypoint page for this
identifier. If the waypoint is correct, then press E a second time to confirm the waypoint page. The new waypoint
is added to the waypoints that make up the SID or STAR
procedure.
To delete an individual waypoint in a SID or STAR
procedure use the following steps:
1. Use the left knobs to select the FPL 0 page on the left
side of the screen.
2. Rotate the left outer knob to place the cursor over the
waypoint to be deleted.
3. Press F. The letters DEL (delete) will appear to
the left of the identifier and a question mark will appear to
the right of the identifier.
4. If this is the desired waypoint to delete, then press
E. If it is not the desired waypoint, press F.
NOTE: Adding waypoints to or deleting waypoints from
SID or STAR procedures does not change the way that
they are stored in the published database.
To change or delete an entire SID or STAR procedure
from the active flight plan use the following steps:
1. Use the left knobs to select the FPL 0 page on the left
side of the screen.
2. Turn the left cursor on by pressing the left C. Move
the cursor over the SID or STAR procedure header by
using the left outer knob.
3. With the cursor over the procedure header, press
E to change the SID or STAR or press F and then
E to delete the entire procedure.
NOTE: Any waypoints manually added to a SID or STAR
will be deleted if the SID or STAR is changed or deleted
using the above procedure.
6-24
Rev 2
6.2.4 Example of a SID Procedure
To illustrate the use of the KLN 900 with a SID, the Porte
Nine departure loaded into the flight plan in section 6.2.1
will be used. This procedure is one of the more difficult
that you are likely to come across. Most procedures are
not this difficult, but this SID serves as a good example
for what steps to take when you encounter a difficult procedure.
9. There is an altitude restriction marked with an “x” on
the chart. The name of this point is 26FLW. 26FLW
means that the waypoint is 126 NM from the FLW
VOR/DME. Make sure to meet any altitude requirements
upon reaching this waypoint.
10. Once the aircraft reaches FLW, proceed on with the
rest of the flight plan as required.
To fly this procedure use the following steps and refer to
the chart for this SID (figure 6-43):
1. Load the SID as described in section 6.2.1.
2. The procedure states “Intercept and proceed via SFO
R-350, cross the 4 DME fix at or above 1600’...”. To
accomplish this portion of the SID, put the KLN 900 into
the OBS mode with SFO04 as the active waypoint and
make 350° the selected course. It is easiest to accomplish these steps before take-off. SFO04 is the waypoint
that is 4 DME from the SFO VORTAC and 350° is the
inbound course to this fix. After take-off climb to 1600’ as
required by the SID.
3. Once the aircraft reaches SFO04, turn left to a heading of 200°. At this point it is necessary to manually
change the active waypoint to “PORTE”. This is done
easily from either the Super NAV 5 page or from the FPL
0 page. In either case, once PORTE is highlighted in
reverse video, press D to bring up the direct to page.
4. Press E to confirm PORTE as the direct to
waypoint.
5. Change the selected course to the new value of 135°.
This setup will take the aircraft to the PORTE intersection
as directed by the SID.
6. Before reaching PORTE, change back to the Leg
mode to enable automatic waypoint sequencing. Once
the aircraft reaches PORTE the KLN 900 will
automatically sequence to the next waypoint, PESCA.
7. After passing PESCA, the procedure calls for a 090°
heading until intercepting the OSI R-116. Once
established on the 116° radial proceed to the WAGES
intersection. To do this with the KLN 900, change back to
the OBS mode and make sure that WAGES is the active
waypoint. Set the selected course to 116°.
8. Before reaching WAGES change to the Leg mode.
This will allow automatic waypoint sequencing upon
reaching WAGES.
Figure 6-43
6-25
Rev 2
6.2.5 Example of a STAR Procedure
To illustrate the use of the KLN 900 with STAR
procedures the steps required to fly Acton Four arrival to
Dallas/Fort Worth International will be shown in this section. This procedure is considerably simpler than the SID
example shown in section 6.2.4.
NOTE: It is extremely rare to have a different path over
the ground for turbojets and non-turbojets, but be sure to
cross check with your paper charts.
If the aircraft you are flying in is a turbojet, then fly the rest
of the STAR as depicted on the chart with no changes to
the flight plan. If the aircraft is not a turbojet then follow
these steps:
For this example assume that the aircraft departs from El
Paso, Texas and files for the Acton Four arrival with the
Wink transition. Use the following steps to fly this
procedure with the KLN 900 and refer to the chart for this
STAR (figure 6-44):
4. Turn to the FPL 0 page and delete the following waypoints: MARKUM, BRYAR, HULEN, FLATO, and
CREEK. To do this turn on the left cursor and rotate the
left outer knob until the cursor is over one of the above
waypoints.
1. Load the STAR into the flight plan as described in
section 6.2.2.
5. Press F and then E to delete a waypoint.
2. This STAR is very simple and the KLN 900 will automatically guide the aircraft along the proper route until the
AQN VOR.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until all of the unnecessary
waypoints are deleted.
3. Long before reaching AQN examine this procedure
and notice that there are two different routes depending
on what type of aircraft is flying the STAR. Turbojets fly to
CREEK intersection while non-turbojets fly to RENDY
intersection. The database in the KLN 900 has the
sequence of waypoints for the turbojet procedure NOT
the sequence for non-turbojets.
7. Now add JERRY, CRESN, and RENDY to FPL 0 by
using the left inner and outer knobs and E as
necessary.
8. The rest of the STAR can now be flown.
Figure 6-44
6-26
Rev 2
CHAPTER 7 - TANDEM OPERATION
7.1 TANDEM OPERATION
The tandem KLN 900 system is intended for training aircraft and consists of two KLN 900s and one antenna.
During tandem operation, one KLN 900 is designated as
the master and the other as the slave. The master KLN
900 should be installed in the cockpit occupied during
solo flight. The antenna must be connected to the master
KLN 900 unit. The KLN 900 will only operate in tandem
with another KLN 900.
Tandem operation provides a method for entries to be
made on either of the KLN 900 units. Any entries made
on one unit are reflected on the other. If entries are made
on the master and the slave simultaneously, entries of the
master KLN 900 have priority over the slave KLN 900.
The same display information appears on both KLN 900
units.
WARNING: OTHER KLN 900
NOT RESPONDING. PLEASE
MAKE SURE OTHER
KLN 900 IS ON OR PRESS
THE ENT BUTTON FOR
STAND ALONE OPERATION.
The master KLN 900 needs a current data base card.
The slave does not need a data base or an antenna
unless it is intended that the slave be able to operate in
stand alone mode (no master). In that situation the slave
KLN 900 will need both a data base and an antenna.
Figure 7-1
When the right inner knob of either the master or the
slave is pulled out and the cursor is on a scan field, all
characters from the active cursor field to the last character in the scan field are highlighted. Turning the right
inner knob which is pulled out increments or decrements
the entire sub-field; turning the right inner knob which is
not pulled out increments or decrements only the data in
the active cursor field. This allows the cursor to operate
in either setting regardless of the setting of the other unit.
The cursor will revert to the entire sub-field after 5 seconds if one knob is pushed in while the other knob
remains pulled out.
During normal tandem operation, flight plans and userdefined waypoints will be crossfilled from the master to
slave unit whenever they are modified. (ORS 02 or later
units only)
7.1.1 Tandem Operation Failure Modes and
Messages
If the slave unit fails, (does not communicate with the
master unit for approximately 5 seconds), the master unit
will continue to operate, but the message “OTHER KLN
900 NOT RESPONDING” will be displayed.
If the master unit fails, a warning page will be displayed
(figure 7-1) on the slave.
7-1
Rev 1
If while this message is being displayed on the slave KLN
900, the master begins to respond, tandem operation will
resume. If the ENT button is pressed while this message
is displayed on the slave KLN 900, it will reinitialize for
stand alone operation. (Note for the slave to operate in
stand alone mode, it needs to be equipped with its own
database and antenna.) While the Slave is operating
stand alone, the message “OTHER KLN 900 NOT
RESPONDING” will be displayed on the slave’s message
page. Should the power be cycled on the slave unit, the
normal power up sequence is followed and the slave KLN
900 will re-attempt tandem operation.
7-2
Rev 1
CHAPTER 8 - DUAL OPERATION
8.1 DUAL OPERATION
When two KLN 900’s are installed for dual mode operation, both units operate independently. In a dual installation, each KLN 900 should have its own database card
and antenna connection.
Dual mode operation is significantly different from a
Tandem configuration. In a Tandem configuration, one
unit is the master and one unit is the slave, and only the
master unit is required to have a database card and an
antenna.
8.1.1 Dual Installation User Data Transfer
ORS 04 and later versions of the KLN 900 allow dual
installation KLN 900 units to transfer flight plan and user
waypoint information from one unit to the other.
USER DATA COPY
COPY UNIT TO DB CARD?
COPY DB CARD TO UNIT?
COPY UNIT TO PC?
COPY PC TO UNIT?
DUAL UNIT DATA XFER?
CRSR
ent CRSR
The following items are copied from the sending unit the
to the receiving unit: (1) all flight plans (from FPL 0 to
FPL 25), (2) all user waypoints, and (3) any SID’s,
STAR’s, or approaches currently residing in FPL 0.
Figure 8-1
WARNING: All flight plans and user waypoints will
be overwritten on the receiving unit.
USER DATA COPY
DUAL UNIT DATA XFER?
During a transfer, any published waypoints which are not
recognized by the receiving KLN 900 will be deleted. To
keep this from happening, simply make sure that both
units are using the same database or a very similar database before performing a data transfer.
CRSR
ent CRSR
Figure 8-2
To perform a dual mode transfer of flight plan and user
waypoint information from one KLN 900 unit to another,
perform the following steps:
DUAL UNIT
UNIT DATA TRANSFER
1. Rotate the left knobs on each unit so that the SET 10
page is displayed. If the aircraft is determined to be on
the ground, the SET 10 page will appear as shown in
Figure 8-1; and if your aircraft is in the air, the SET 10
page will appear as shown in Figure 8-2.
THIS UNIT TO:
TRANSMIT DATA?
RECEIVE DATA?
CRSR
ent CRSR
Figure 8-3
2. Select the “DUAL UNIT DATA XFER” option and
press E on both units. This will change the SET 10 to
the screen shown in Figure 8-3.
THIS UNIT TO
TRANSMIT USER DATA
NOTE: You can press the F button to back up and
return to the original SET 10 page.
ESTABLISHING
CONNECTION...
3. Select the “TRANSMIT DATA” option and press E
on the unit which contains the flight plans and user waypoints which you want to transfer. The SET 10 page will
appear as shown in Figure 8-4.
SET10
CRSR
Figure 8-4
8-1
Rev 2
4. Select the “RECEIVE DATA” option and press E on
the unit which is to receive the flight plans and user waypoints. The SET 10 page will appear as shown in Figure
8-5.
THIS UNIT TO
RECEIVE USER DATA
USER DATA WILL
BE OVERWRITTEN
ACKNOWLEGE?
CRSR
ent CRSR
Figure 8-5
NOTE: The F key will cancel the operation and step
back to the previous page.
5. If it is OK to overwrite the flight plans and user waypoints on the receiving unit, press E to ACKNOWLEDGE the warning on the receiving unit. The SET 10
page will then appear as shown in Figure 8-6.
THIS UNIT TO
RECEIVE USER DATA
6. Then, once a connection with the other unit is established the SET 10 pages on both units will appear as
shown in Figure 8-7.
ESTABLISHING
CONNECTION...
7. Once the flight plan and user waypoint data has been
successfully transferred, the SET 10 pages on both units
will appear as shown in Figure 8-8.
SET10
CRSR
Figure 8-6
8. The receiving unit will then display the message
shown in figure 8-9. Simply press E to acknowledge
this message.
USER DATA TRANSFER
IN PROGRESS...
SET10
CRSR
Figure 8-7
USER DATA HAS BEEN
SUCCESSFULLY...
TRANSFERRED
ACKNOWLEGE?
ent CRSR
Figure 8-8
CRSR
KLN 900 WILL RESET
ITSELF TO USE NEW
USER DATA.
ACKNOWLEGE?
ent CRSR
Figure 8-9
CRSR
8-2
Rev 2
8.1.2 Dual Installation User Data Copy Error
Messages
The message shown in figure 8-10 will be displayed on
the receiving unit if it is unable to make a connection to a
transmitting unit within 1 minute. (NOTE: The transmitting unit will not time out.) The most likely cause of this
problem is that the RS-232 interface between the two
units has not been installed properly. Contact the
installer of your KLN 900 units to resolve the problem.
UNABLE TO ESTABLISH
CONNECTION WITH
TRANSMITTING UNIT
ACKNOWLEGE?
CRSR
ent CRSR
Figure 8-10
If an unrecoverable communication error occurs during
the transfer, the message shown in figure 8-11 may be
displayed on either unit. This message may appear if the
procedure in section 8.1.1 was not followed properly or if
there is a problem with the database card on the receiving unit.
USER DATA TRANSFER
FAILED
OPERATION CANCELED
ACKNOWLEGE?
ent CRSR
Figure 8-11
If the message shown in figure 8-12 appears, simply
remove the data card and carefully move the tiny writeprotect switch on the PCMCIA card to the write-enabled
position. Then, insert the card back into the KLN 900,
cycle the power Off then On, and repeat procedure 8.1.1.
CRSR
DATA BASE CARD
IS WRITE PROTECTED.
COPY OPERATION
IS CANCELED.
ACKNOWLEGE?
ent CRSR
Figure 8-12
CRSR
8-3
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
8-4
Rev 2
CHAPTER 9 - OCEANIC OPERATION
9.1 PRIMARY MEANS OCEANIC/REMOTE
OPERATION
ACTIVE MODE|
|
OCEANIC:OFF|
LEG
|
|
CDI:±5.00NM|
MODE enr-leg
Figure 9-1
ORS 04 and later versions of the KLN 900 provide for primary means oceanic/remote operations (per FAA Notice
8110.60).
When the KLN 900 is to be used as a primary means of
navigation for oceanic/remote operations (including minimum navigation performance specifications (MNPS) airspace), you are required to verify that FDE is available for
the oceanic sections of your flight prior to departure.
(Please refer to section 5.8.2 for more information about
FDE.) The PreFlight Version 2.0 (or greater) software
can be used to perform the required FDE prediction for
the oceanic sections of your flight. The PreFlight software program runs on a Microsoft Windows-compatible
personal computer and includes the capability to transfer
flight plans and waypoints to and from the KLN 900 using
an interface cable. Instructions for ordering the PC interface cable (i.e. the PC Data Loader Kit) appear on the
order form in Appendix F.
ACTIVE MODE|
|
OCEANIC: ON|
LEG
|
|
CDI:±5.00NM|
CRSR OCn-leg
Figure 9-2
During your flight you should turn to the KLN 900’s
MODE page and select OCEANIC: ON (figure 9-2) at the
beginning of the oceanic/remote section of your flight.
Since oceanic mode does not require the same level of
satellite integrity monitoring as do the other modes of
flight, oceanic mode effectively increases the availability
of RAIM and FDE. In oceanic mode, the CDI sensitivity is
5 nmi full scale, unless manually changed by the pilot.
Finally, at the end of the oceanic/remote section of your
flight , your should turn to the KLN 900’s MODE page and
select OCEANIC: OFF (figure 9-3).
ACTIVE MODE|
|
OCEANIC:OFF|
LEG
|
|
CDI:±5.00NM|
CRSR enr-leg
Figure 9-3
ACTIVE MODE|
|
OCEANIC:OFF|
LEG
|
|
CDI:±5.00NM|
MODE arm-leg
Figure 9-4
If you have an approach loaded and come within 30 nautical miles of the destination airport, the KLN 900 will
automatically switch from Oceanic mode to Approach
ARM. If the KLN 900 is in either Approach ARM or
Approach Active, the OCEANIC mode will be turned OFF
and the OCEANIC selection on the MODE page will not
be user-editable (figure 9-4).
NOTE: The PreFlight software program (described in
Appendix F) allows you to predict RAIM and FDE coverage along a flight plan. For more detailed information
about B-RNAV, FDE, Oceanic mode, and operating the
PreFlight software, please refer to the PreFlight User’s
Manual which is stored on the PreFlight diskettes.
9-1
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
9-2
Rev 2
APPENDIX A - NAVIGATIONAL TERMS
WPT 2
NORTH
ETE
ETA
ARC
-
Bearing to waypoint (degrees)
Drift Angle (degrees) - not displayed on KLN 900
Distance to waypoint
Desired Track (degrees)
Selected Course
Groundspeed
Heading (degrees)
Present position
Actual Track (degrees)
Waypoint
Cross Track Error Correction displayed as
“FLY L 2.3 nm”
Estimated Time Enroute (hrs:min)
Estimated Time of Arrival
Radial from reference VOR when executing an
approach procedure with a DME arc
GS
E/
ET
A
-
BRG
D
IS
/E
T
BRG
DA
DIS
DTK
OBS
GS
HDG
POS
TK
WPT
XTK
DTK
DA
HDG
WPT 1
TK
OFF TRACK
Leg Mode
XTK
POS
WIND
NORTH
OBS
WPT 2
BRG
NORTH
ACTIVE WPT
NORTH
GS
NORTH
/E
TA
GS
/E
TE
D
TE
IS
/E
/E
TA
BRG
D
IS
DTK
DA
DA
HDG
HDG
TK
OFF TRACK
OBS Mode
TK
XTK
OFF TRACK-DME ARC
Leg Mode
XTK
POS
POS
WPT 1
NORTH
WIND
WIND
NORTH
WPT 2
Reference
VOR
TK
ARC
BRG
DA
HDG
S
/G
TA
DTK
/E
TE
S/E
DI
POS
ON TRACK
Leg Mode
WIND
WPT 1
A-1
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
A-2
Rev 2
APPENDIX B - MESSAGE PAGE MESSAGES
The following is a list of the messages that can appear
on the Message page. When the message prompt
appears, press MSG to view the message page. See
section 3.5 for an explanation of the Message page.
ACTV ANNUNCIATOR FAIL - This message appears
when there is a failure of the KLN 900 ACTV annunciator drive circuitry. To determine if the approach mode is
active you will need to look at the status line of the
KLN 900 because the annunciator will not be working if
this message has been given. Service the KLN 900 as
soon as possible.
If you need service or repairs made to your KLN 900,
please contact your local authorized Bendix/King service center. If necessary, you may also send your
KLN 900 to the following address:
Honeywell International Inc.
Attention: Customer Service
23500 West 105th Street
Olathe, KS 66061
U.S.A.
Tel: (800) 257-0726 (U.S. Callers)
(913) 712-0600 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-1313
ADJ NAV IND CRS TO 123° - (Adjust Navigation
Indicator Course to 123°) When this message appears,
the pilot should select the suggested course on the HSI
or CDI. When the KLN 900 is in the LEG mode, this
message occurs at the beginning of turn anticipation
(prior to reaching the active waypoint) if the upcoming
course change is greater than 5°. See section 4.2.2.
This message will also appear in installations where the
KLN 900 is interfaced with an HSI or CDI such that the
KLN 900 has the capability of reading the selected
course from the HSI or CDI. In the Leg mode it will
appear whenever the difference between the HSI’s
selected course and the KLN 900’s desired track (DTK)
is greater than five degrees.
If you are shipping your KLN 900, be sure to include
a description of the problem, your name, your street
address, your phone #, fax #, and your e-mail
address. Remember to package the KLN 900 carefully and purchase insurance to protect the KLN 900
from damage during shipping.
ADJ NAV IND CRS - (Adjust Navigation Indicator
Course) This message will appear in installations where
the KLN 900 is interfaced with EFIS or with a mechanical HSI through the optional KA 90 adapter. This message appears when the difference between the HSI’s
selected course and the KLN 900’s selected course
(OBS) is greater than 0.5°. This usually happens only
when the external indicator is not slewed to a new value
defined by the KLN 900. Check the interface between
the KLN 900 and the external indicator to determine the
problem.
Altitude Alert annunciator drive circuitry. Any Altitude
Alerting annunciators or audible alerts (if a Sonalert is
connected to this output) will not be working if this message has been given. Service the KLN 900 as soon as
possible.
ALTITUDE FAIL - This message appears if the altitude
input to the KLN 900 fails. The altitude related features
of the KLN 900 will be disabled. There also may be
more RAIM related messages since altitude is not
available to help in the integrity calculations. This is
most often an installation or configuration related failure.
Have the installation checked as soon as practical to
determine the cause of the problem. Refer to Service
Center for installation troubleshooting.
AIRDATA RECEIVER FAIL - This message appears if
the KLN 900 is interfaced with an air data system and
that system’s outputs are not being received correctly by
the KLN 900. This is most often an installation or configuration related failure. Refer to Service Center for installation troubleshooting.
ANALOG BARO SET FAIL - This message will only
appear on ORS 04 and later units. This message
appears when a problem is detected with the analog
barometric pressure setting from an air data (or similar)
system.
AIRSPACE ALERT - This message appears when the
estimated time to enter a special use airspace is
approximately 10 minutes or when the distance from an
area of special use airspace is less than two nautical
miles. See section 3.10.
APT ELEVATION UNKNOWN - (Airport Elevation
Unknown) This message appears if the elevation of the
airport which would otherwise be used for the height
above airport alert is unknown.
ALTITUDE ALERT ANNUNCIATOR FAIL - This message appears when there is a failure of the KLN 900
B-1
Rev 2
ARINC TRANSMITTER FAIL - This message appears
when the ARINC 429 output fails an internal test.
Anything depending on the KLN 900’s ARINC 429 output, such as the EHI 40/50 electronic HSI and some
navigation graphics displays, should not be used.
the ACTV annunciator output. It is usually indicative of
a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and the
ACTV annunciator. To determine if the approach mode
is active you will need to look at the status line of the
KLN 900 because the annunciator will not be working if
this message has been given. Have the installation
checked to determine the problem.
ARINC 561/568 IND CTRL
OUTPUT FAIL-This message appears when there is a
failure of the KLN 900 ARINC 561/568 IND CTRL OUTPUT drive circuitry. The ARINC 561/568 IND CTRL
OUTPUT will not be working if this message has been
given and any ARINC 561/568 equipment, such as HSI
distance displays, connected to the KLN 900 should not
be used. Service the KLN 900 as soon as possible.
CHECK ALTITUDE ALERT
ANNUNCIATOR -This message appears when an overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900 ALTITUDE
ALERT ANNUNCIATOR output. It is usually indicative
of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and the
annunciator. Any Altitude Alerting annunciators or audible alerts (if a Sonalert is connected to this output) will
not be working if this message has been given. Have
the installation checked to determine the problem.
ARM ANNUNCIATOR FAIL - This message appears
when there is a failure of the KLN 900 ARM annunciator
drive circuitry. To determine if the approach mode is
armed you will need to look at the status line of the KLN
900 because the annunciator will not be working if this
message has been given. Service the KLN 900 as soon
as possible.
CHECK CONFIGURABLE
ANNUNCIATOR 1 - This message appears when an
overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900 CONFIGURABLE ANNUNCIATOR 1 output. It is usually
indicative of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900
and the annunciator. This annunciator will not be working if this message has been given. Have the installation checked to determine the problem.
ARM GPS APPROACH - If the approach ARM mode
has been disarmed then the KLN 900 will remind you to
ARM the approach mode when the aircraft is 3 NM from
the Final Approach Fix. Arm the approach mode if it is
desired to use the KLN 900 for conducting an approach.
CHECK CONFIGURABLE
ANNUNCIATOR 2 - This message appears when an
overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900 CONFIGURABLE ANNUNCIATOR 2 output. It is usually
indicative of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900
and the annunciator. This annunciator will not be working if this message has been given. Have the installation checked to determine the problem.
BAD SATELLITE GEOMETRY
AND RAIM NOT AVAILABLE - This message appears
only when the unit is in the approach active mode, RAIM
is not available and the satellite geometry has further
degraded to cause more uncertainty of the aircraft position. This message may be followed by a NAV flag (in a
couple of minutes) if conditions continue to degrade.
CHECK ARINC 561/568 IND
CTRL OUTPUT - This message appears when an overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900 ARINC
561/568 IND CTRL OUTPUT. It is usually indicative of
a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and the
ARINC 561/568 equipment. The ARINC 561/568 IND
CTRL OUTPUT will not be working if this message has
been given and any ARINC 561/568 equipment, such as
HSI distance displays, connected to the KLN 900 should
not be used. Have the installation checked to determine
the problem.
BAD SATELLITE GEOMETRY
SEE EPE ON STA 2 PAGE - This message will occur
after receiving a notice that RAIM is not available. This
means that the geometry of the satellites is such that
the possible error in position is greater than allowed for
IFR use. Cross check the position of the aircraft with
other means of navigation every 15 minutes to verify
that the position is still accurate.
BATTERY LOW: SERVICE
REQUIRED TO PREVENT
LOSS OF USER DATA - This message appears when
the KLN 900’s internal battery is low and needs replacing at an authorized Bendix/King service center. The
battery should be replaced within a week to prevent the
loss of all user-defined data including waypoints, airport
remarks, flight plans, etc. Typical battery life is approximately three to five years.
CHECK ARM ANNUNCIATOR - This message
appears when an overcurrent condition is detected on
the ARM annunciator output. It is usually indicative of a
failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and the ARM
annunciator. To determine if the approach mode is
armed you will need to look at the status line of the
KLN 900 because the annunciator will not be working if
this message has been given. Have the installation
checked to determine the problem.
CHECK ACTV ANNUNCIATOR - This message
appears when an overcurrent condition is detected on
B-2
Rev 2
CHECK FCS LOCALIZER
ENGAGE OUTPUT - This message appears when an
overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900
CHECK FCS LOCALIZER ENGAGE OUTPUT. It is
usually indicative of a failure of the wiring between the
KLN 900 and the autopilot. The FCS LOCALIZER
ENGAGE OUTPUT will not be working if this message
has been given and since autopilot performance may be
affected, the autopilot should not be coupled to the KLN
900. Have the installation checked to determine the
problem.
this message has been given. Have the installation
checked to determine the problem.
CHECK LEG ANNUNCIATOR - This message appears
when an overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN
900 LEG ANNUNCIATOR output. It is usually indicative
of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and the
annunciator. To determine if the unit is in LEG mode
you will need to look at the status line of the KLN 900
because the annunciator will not be working if this message has been given. Have the installation checked to
determine the problem.
CHECK SPARE
ANNUNCIATOR 4 - This message appears when an
overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900
SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 4 output. It is usually indicative of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and
the annunciator. This annunciator will not be working if
this message has been given. Have the installation
checked to determine the problem.
CHECK SPARE
ANNUNCIATOR 3 - This message appears when an
overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900
SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 3 output. It is usually indicative of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and
the annunciator. This annunciator will not be working if
this message has been given. Have the installation
checked to determine the problem.
CHECK WPT ANNUNCIATOR - (Check Waypoint
Annunciator) This message appears when an overcurrent condition is detected on the WPT annunciator output. It is usually indicative of a failure of the wiring
between the KLN 900 and the WPT annunciator. To
determine if waypoint alerting is being given you will
need to look at the KLN 900 because the annunciator
will not be working if this message has been given.
Have the installation checked to determine the problem.
CHECK MSG ANNUNCIATOR - (Check Message
Annunciator) This message appears when an overcurrent condition is detected on the MSG annunciator output. It is usually indicative of a failure of the wiring
between the KLN 900 and the MSG annunciator. To
determine if message alerting is being given you will
need to look at the KLN 900 because the annunciator
will not be working if this message has been given.
Have the installation checked to determine the problem.
CONFIGURABLE
ANNUNCIATOR 1 FAIL - This message appears when
there is a failure of the KLN 900 CONFIGURABLE
ANNUNCIATOR 1 drive circuitry. The CONFIGURABLE ANNUNCIATOR 1 will not be working if this
message has been given. Service the KLN 900 as soon
as possible.
CHECK OBS ANNUNCIATOR - This message appears
when an overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN
900 OBS ANNUNCIATOR output. It is usually indicative
of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and the
annunciator. To determine if the unit is in OBS mode
you will need to look at the status line of the KLN 900
because the annunciator will not be working if this message has been given. Have the installation checked to
determine the problem.
CONFIGURABLE
ANNUNCIATOR 2 FAIL - This message appears when
there is a failure of the KLN 900 CONFIGURABLE
ANNUNCIATOR 2 drive circuitry. The CONFIGURABLE ANNUNCIATOR 2 will not be working if this
message has been given. Service the KLN 900 as soon
as possible.
CHECK SPARE
ANNUNCIATOR 1 - This message appears when an
overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900
SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 1 output. It is usually indicative of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and
the annunciator. This annunciator will not be working if
this message has been given. Have the installation
checked to determine the problem.
CROSS-TALK RS 232 IN
DATA ERROR - This message appears when an error
is present in the data received on the CROSS-TALK RS
232 IN.
CHECK SPARE
ANNUNCIATOR 2 - This message appears when an
overcurrent condition is detected on the KLN 900
SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 2 output. It is usually indicative of a failure of the wiring between the KLN 900 and
the annunciator. This annunciator will not be working if
DATA BASE CHECKSUM ERR - (Data Base
Checksum Error) This message appears if the data
base fails an internal test when the KLN 900 is turned
on. The most likely cause of the message is a failed
data base cartridge.
B-3
Rev 2
DATA BASE OUT OF DATE
ALL DATA MUST BE
CONFIRMED BEFORE USE - This message appears
when the data base is out of date as a result of a date
and time entered on the SET 2 page or Self-Test page
or as a result of a pilot-entered date being overridden by
a date from the GPS receiver.
Use Airspace) This message appears when the aircraft’s present position is inside an area of special use
airspace. See section 3.10.
LATERAL SUPERFLAG FAILURE - This message
appears when an internal test fails for a specific Lateral
NAV flag output. The KLN 900 is still usable, but anything connected to the super flag (such as some HSIs
and autopilots) should not be used with the KLN 900.
EEPROM FAILURE:
EXTERNAL D-BAR INVALID - This message appears
in the event a specific internal test fails. Do not use an
external HSI or CDI while it is driven by the KLN 900.
The rest of the KLN 900 is still usable including the
internal CDI; however, the page displays may not be
centered on the screen.
LEG ANNUNCIATOR FAIL - This message appears
when there is a failure of the KLN 900 LEG annunciator
drive circuitry. To determine if the unit is in LEG or OBS
mode, you will need to look at the status line of the KLN
900 because the annunciator will not be working if this
message has been given. Service the KLN 900 as soon
as possible.
FCS LOCALIZER ENGAGE
OUTPUT FAIL - This message appears when there is a
failure of the KLN 900 FCS LOCALIZER ENGAGE
OUTPUT drive circuitry. The FCS LOCALIZER
ENGAGE OUTPUT will not be working if this message
has been given and since autopilot performance may be
affected, the autopilot should not be coupled to the KLN
900. Service the KLN 900 as soon as possible.
MAG VAR FOR PUBLISHED
APPROACH BEING USED -- This message appears
when a user-defined magnetic variation has been
selected on the SET 2 page and an approach waypoint
is active. The published magnetic variation associated
with the approach waypoint will be used.
GENERAL RS-232 DATA INPUT ERROR - This message appears when an error is detected in the received
RS-232 data such as from a fuel management or air
data system.
MAG VAR FOR PUBLISHED
VOR BEING USED -- This message appears when a
user-defined magnetic variation has been selected on
the SET 2 page; the unit is in OBS mode; and the active
waypoint is a VOR. In this case, the published magnetic
variation associated with the VOR station will be used.
GENERAL RS-232 OUTPUT ERROR - This message
appears when the RS 232 output fails an internal test.
Anything connected to the RS 232 output bus, such as
some moving map displays and ELTs (for position
reporting), will not be fully functional. Do not use moving map displays that depend on the KLN 900’s RS 232
output if this message is displayed.
MAGNETIC VAR INVALID
ALL DATA REFERENCED
TO TRUE NORTH - This message appears when the
magnetic variation is invalid due to operation outside of
the data base magnetic variation area without having a
pilot-entered magnetic variation. See section 5.12.
HIGH TEMPERATURE
CHECK COOLING FAN - This message appears when
the internal temperature of the KLN 900 is measured at
100°C or higher. This message usually indicates that
the fan being used to cool the KLN 900 is not working.
Service the KLN 900’s cooling fan as soon as possible.
(This message will only appear on ORS 04 and later
units.)
MSG ANNUNCIATOR FAIL - (Message Annunciator
Failure) This message appears when there is a failure
of the KLN 900 MSG annunciator drive circuitry. To
determine if message alerting is being given you will
need to look at the KLN 900 because the annunciator
will not be working if this message has been given.
Service the KLN 900 as soon as possible.
IF REQUIRED SELECT OBS - This message appears
when the aircraft is 4 NM from a waypoint which could
be used as the basis for either a procedure turn or a
holding pattern and the unit is in the LEG mode. Select
the OBS mode when flying procedure turns or holding
patterns. This message is advisory only. If no procedure
turn is required then no action is required.
NAV DATA REFERENCED
TO TRUE NORTH -- This message appears when a
user-defined magnetic variation of 0 degrees is being
used for navigation data.
NAV DATA REFERENCED TO
USER DEFINED MAG VAR -- This message appears
when a user-defined magnetic variation other than 0
degrees is being used for navigation data.
INSIDE SPC USE AIRSPACE
[name and type of special use airspace]
[ATC responsible] [Vertical boundaries] - (Inside Special
B-4
Rev 2
NAV IND CRS FAIL
ENTER OBS CRS ON GPS - The message appears if
the unit is in OBS mode and a failure warning condition
is detected in the incoming ARINC 429 serial data. The
KLN 900 is still usable, but it is not able to ìreadî the
selected course from a CDI or HSI due, for example, to
the loss of a reference signal. When this message is
present, OBS information must be entered on the KLN
900 (Super NAV 5 page for example), rather than
selecting the course on a CDI or HSI.
OTHER WAYPOINTS DELETED - This message
appears when the message “WAYPOINT _____
DELETED” would be effective for more than ten waypoints.
POSITION DIFFERS FROM
LAST POSITION BY > 2NM or (POSITION DIFFERS
FROM LAST POSITION BY > 4KM) This message
appears when the GPS sensor first reaches the NAV
mode if the new position differs from the position when
power was turned off by more than two nautical miles.
NAV IND CRS FAIL
ADJ NAV IND CRS TO ___° - The message appears if
the unit is in LEG mode a failure warning condition is
detected in the incoming ARINC serial data. The KLN
900 is still usable, but it is not able to ìreadî the selected
course from a CDI or HSI due, for example, to the loss
of a reference signal. The CDI or HSI selected course
should be adjusted manually when this message is present, particularly if the KLN 900 is coupled to a flight
control system.
POSITION OF
WPT HAS
CHANGED - (Position of Waypoint Has Changed) This
message appears when either the latitude or the longitude of a waypoint used in a flight plan or the active
waypoint has changed by more than .33 minutes as a
result of updating the database. This message is displayed on the left side of the screen while the waypoint
page corresponding to the waypoint which changed is
displayed on the right side of the screen.
NO GENERAL RS-232 IN DATA - This message
appears when no input is received on the RS-232 input
(such as from a fuel management or air data system).
POSITIONS OF OTHER
WAYPOINTS HAVE CHANGED - This message
appears when the above message “POSITION OF WPT
HAS CHANGED” would be effective for more than ten
waypoints.
If no source of RS-232 is interfaced, the receiver input
must not be configured properly. Refer to Service Center
for installation troubleshooting.
PRESS ALT TO SET BARO - This message appears
when the approach mode is armed. Press the ALT button to update the baro information for proper integrity
monitoring.
NO GPS RCVR DATA - (No Receiver Data) This message appears when the KLN 900 fails a specific internal
test for the GPS receiver. This failure will prevent the
unit from providing any navigation capability.
PRESS GPS APR FOR NAV - This message appears
after the NAV flag has been set due to a RAIM problem
while the unit is in the approach mode. By pressing the
GPS APR button, the unit will be able to restore
navigation information so that you can conduct a missed
approach based on navigation information provided by
the KLN 900.
OBS WPT > 200NM or (OBS Waypoint > 370 km)
This message appears when the KLN 900 is in the OBS
mode and the distance to the active waypoint is more
than 200 nautical milesor 370 kilometers. The system
will perform normally; however, at this distance the DBar will be extremely sensitive to changes in selected
course.
RAIM NOT AVAILABLE
APR MODE INHIBITED
PREDICT RAIM ON STA 5 - This message appears
when integrity monitoring (RAIM) is predicted to not be
available at either the FAF or the MAP. The KLN 900
will not allow the unit to go into the approach active
mode until conditions improve. Turn to the STA 5
(Status 5) page to perform a RAIM prediction. The STA
5 page will give an indication of how long it will be until
RAIM is available so that the approach can be flown
using the KLN 900 (see section 6.1.9 for how to perform
a RAIM prediction). The STA 5 prediction can also be
performed prior to departure to insure RAIM at your
arrival.
OBS ANNUNCIATOR FAIL - This message appears
when there is a failure of the KLN 900 LEG annunciator
drive circuitry. To determine if the unit is in LEG or OBS
mode, you will need to look at the status line of the KLN
900 because the annunciator will not be working if this
message has been given. Service the KLN 900 as soon
as possible.
OTHER KLN 900
NOT RESPONDING - This message appears when two
KLN 900 units are set up to operate in tandem mode
and no serial data is being received from the slave unit.
This KLN 900 is still usable.
B-5
Rev 2
RAIM POSITION ERROR
CROSS CHECK POSITION - This message means that
the unit has detected a problem with one of the satellites
and the position cannot be assured to be within IFR
limits for the particular mode of flight. Cross check the
position of the aircraft with other means of navigation
frequently to verify that the position is still accurate. If
this message becomes a persistent problem, return the
KLN 900 for service.
• NONVOLATILE RAM FAIL (The battery-backed
Random Access Memory has failed. Nonvolatile
memory will be cleared.)
If you encounter this error, turn the KLN 900 off
and then back on. If the problem continues to
occur after power has been cycled, return the
KLN 900 for service.
• RF SELF-TEST FAIL (This means the receiver is
not sensing a proper Radio Frequency signal
from the satellites/antenna.)
This is most often an installation related failure or
a bad antenna. Refer to Service Center for
installation troubleshooting.
Receiver Automonous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a
method of calculating integrity in the GPS position. The
KLN 900 calculates the position multiple times using different sets of satellites and compares the answers. If
they have excessive difference, the message appears.
• ASIC SELF-TEST FAIL (Internal error)
Return the KLN 900 for service.
RAIM NOT AVAILABLE
CROSS CHECK POSITION - This message appears
when there are not enough received GPS satellite
signals to compute integrity (RAIM). Cross check the
position of the aircraft with other means of navigation
frequently to verify that the position is still accurate. If
this message becomes a persistent problem, it may be
necessary to refer to your Service Center for installation
troubleshooting.
• NO MILLISEC INTERRUPT (Internal error)
This is most often an installation related failure or
a bad antenna. Refer to Service Center for
installation troubleshooting.
• NO INITIALIZATION DATA (Internal error)
If you encounter this error, turn the KLN 900 off
and then back on. If the problem continues to
occur after power has been cycled, return the
KLN 900 for service.
This message may be caused by any of the following:
1. The satellites are blocked from view by obstructions.
2. The satellites are too low on the horizon for use or
there is insufficient geometry to support RAIM.
3. There is signal loss in the antenna, the coax, or
receiver module.
• EEPROM MEMORY FAIL (The EEPROM has
failed self test.)
If you encounter this error, turn the KLN 900 off
and then back on. If the problem continues to
occur after power has been cycled, return the
KLN 900 for service.
The aircraft should be in an open area with good visibility.
The KLN 900 will usually have 6-8 satellites shown on the
STA 1 page, and the majority of their SNR’s (Signal to
Noise Ratios) will be in the 40’s. SNR’s of 30 and below
are unusable, 30-35 are marginal, and 35-48 are considered good.
• UART 2 LOOPBACK FAIL (Internal error)
This is most often an installation related failure.
Refer to Service Center for installation troubleshooting.
RCVR HARDWARE ERROR:_____- (Receiver
Hardware Error) This message appears when the
KLN 900 fails a specific internal test for the GPS
receiver. The blank will contain a numerical value which
may provide assistance to maintenance personnel.
• ONE MILLISEC UNDERFLOW (Internal error)
Return the KLN 900 for service.
One or more of the following descriptions will appear
after the “RCVR HARDWARE ERROR: ____” message
line. Please follow the instructions for the message(s)
which you are observing.
• EPROM FAIL (EPROM Failure)
Return the KLN 900 for service.
• ONE MILLISEC OVERFLOW (Internal error)
Return the KLN 900 for service.
RECYCLE POWER TO USE
CORRECT DATA BASE DATA - This message
appears when the date entered on the Self-Test page is
before the data base effective date and the date entered
later on the SET 2 page is after the data base effective
date, or vice versa. Turn the KLN 900 off and back on
so that the correct data base data is utilized.
• RAM FAIL (Random Access Memory Failure)
Return the KLN 900 for service.
B-6
Rev 2
REDUNDANT WPTS IN FPL
EDIT ENROUTE WPTS
AS NECESSARY - This message appears after the
pilot inserts an approach or SID/STAR procedure in the
flight plan and the KLN 900 determines that some waypoints that were in the flight plan are no longer needed.
Examine the active flight plan and remove those waypoints that occur both in the enroute and the approach
or SID/STAR sections of the flight plan.
SPARE
ANNUNCIATOR 4 FAIL - This message appears when
there is a failure of the KLN 900 SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 1 drive circuitry. The SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 4
will not be working if this message has been given. At
the time of this publication, these annunciator outputs
did not perform any function, so servicing the KLN 900
is recommended but optional.
STEERING SUPERFLG FAIL - This message appears
when an internal test fails for a specific analog roll steering flag output. The KLN 900 is still usable, but certain
automatic flight control systems (AFCSs) should not be
coupled to the KLN 900 if the AFCS is utilizing analog
roll steering.
SATELLITE COVERAGE
INADEQUATE FOR NAV - This message appears
when the received GPS signals are not adequate for
navigation. Occasions when this message will be displayed include when there are an insufficient number of
satellites (including altitude input) or when the satellite
geometry is inadequate for accurately determining position within 3.8 nautical miles.
SYSTEM TIME UPDATED
TO GPS TIME - The message appears when the
KLN 900 system time is automatically updated to GPS
time by more than 10 minutes.
SERIAL SUPERFLAG FAIL - This message appears
when an internal test fails for a specific serial flag output. The KLN 900 is still usable, but anything connected
to the superflag (usually a distance/velocity/time display
on an HSI) should not be used with the KLN 900.
UNIT OPERATING STAND ALONE - This message
appears when two KLN 900 units are set up to operate
in tandem mode and no serial data is being received
from the other KLN 900 unit. This KLN 900 is still
usable and will operate by itself with no tandem operation.
SET FUEL ON BOARD
ON OTH 5 IF NECESSARY - This message appears
when the KLN 900 determines that it is interfaced with a
compatible Shadin fuel flow computer that allows the
KLN 900 to set the fuel on board. The pilot should turn
to the OTH 5 page to enter the current fuel on board for
proper fuel computations (see section 5.10.1).
USER DATA LOST - This message appears when the
unit determines that the internal memory backup battery
is dead or that some other internal failure has occurred
which has caused all user-entered data including waypoints, flight plans, airport remarks, etc., to be lost.
SPARE
ANNUNCIATOR 1 FAIL - This message appears when
there is a failure of the KLN 900 SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 1 drive circuitry. The SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 1
will not be working if this message has been given. At
the time of this publication, these annunciator outputs
did not perform any function, so servicing the KLN 900
is recommended but optional.
VNV ALERT- (Vertical Navigation Alert) This message
appears when a VNAV operation has been programmed
on the NAV 4 page and the estimated time to start the
climb or descent is approximately 90 seconds. This
message serves as notification to select the NAV 4
page so that the VNAV operation may be executed.
This message does not appear if the NAV 4 page is
already being displayed. VNAV status can also be
displayed on the Super NAV 5 page.
SPARE
ANNUNCIATOR 2 FAIL - This message appears when
there is a failure of the KLN 900 SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 1 drive circuitry. The SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 2
will not be working if this message has been given. At
the time of this publication, these annunciator outputs
did not perform any function, so servicing the KLN 900
is recommended but optional.
WAYPOINT ______ DELETED - This message appears
when a waypoint used in a flight plan, or the active waypoint, no longer exists as a result of updating the data
base. The blank space is filled in with the waypoint
identifier. The waypoint is deleted from flight plans in
which it was used.
SPARE
ANNUNCIATOR 3 FAIL - This message appears when
there is a failure of the KLN 900 SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 1 drive circuitry. The SPARE ANNUNCIATOR 3
will not be working if this message has been given. At
the time of this publication, these annunciator outputs
did not perform any function, so servicing the KLN 900
is recommended but optional.
WPT ANNUNCIATOR FAIL - (Waypoint Annunciator
Failure) This message appears when there is a failure
of the KLN 900 WPT annunciator drive circuitry. To
determine if waypoint alerting is being given you will
need to look at the KLN 900 because the annunciator
will not be working if this message has been given.
Service the KLN 900 as soon as possible.
B-7
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
B-8
Rev 2
APPENDIX C - STATUS LINE MESSAGES
Status line messages are short operational messages
that are displayed in the lower center segment of the
screen. (See section 3.3 and figure 3-37). The following are the status line messages that may appear.
ACTIVE WPT - (Active Waypoint) Appears when you
try to delete a user-defined waypoint on the OTH 3 page
if the waypoint is the active waypoint (the waypoint you
are navigating to). Another waypoint must be made the
active waypoint before this waypoint can be deleted
from the user-defined waypoint list.
INVALID ENT - (Invalid Enter) Appears when you have
attempted to enter data which is not a valid entry. For
example, trying to enter a date of 30 FEB 92.
INVALID REF - (Invalid Reference) Appears when you
attempt to create a reference waypoint on the
Reference Waypoint page if the waypoint you have chosen to use as the reference is not a valid choice. The
waypoint is not a valid choice if it is impossible to draw a
perpendicular line from the waypoint you have entered
to one of the legs of the flight plan. A waypoint is also
invalid for use as a reference if the letters A through Z
cannot be appended to the waypoint identifier to create
a unique identifier. See section 5.5.
HC RS XXX° - (Direct To course XXX°) Appears when
the KLN 900 is in the OBS mode and is interfaced with
an external indicator which the KLN 900 cannot change
the selected course and the pilot performs a Direct-To
operation. Since the KLN 900 cannot change the
selected course to the direct-to course, the KLN 900
gives you this message telling you the OBS value that
will take the aircraft direct to the active waypoint.
INVALID VNV - (Invalid Vertical Navigation) Appears
when a waypoint identifier has been entered on the NAV
4 page if the waypoint identifier is not valid for use in a
VNAV operation. For the Enroute-Leg mode, the waypoint must be the active waypoint or a waypoint positioned in the active flight plan ahead of the aircraft’s
location. In the Enroute-OBS mode, the waypoint must
be the active waypoint.
DUP IDENT - (Duplicate Identifier) Appears when you
have selected a waypoint identifier on one of the waypoint type pages if there is more than one waypoint of
that waypoint type having the same identifier.
ENT LAT/LON - (Enter Latitude and Longitude)
Appears when a user-defined waypoint is being created,
to remind you to enter the location of the waypoint.
NO ACTV WPT -(No Active Waypoint) Appears when
you attempt to activate the OBS mode if there is no
active waypoint. To have an active waypoint, a flight
plan must be activated or a Direct To operation must be
accomplished.
FPL FULL - (Flight Plan Full) Appears when an
attempt is made to add a new waypoint to a flight plan
which already contains 30 waypoints and the first
waypoint is part of the active leg. Change the active
waypoint or delete another waypoint before adding any
more waypoints.
NO APPROACH - Appears when an attempt is made
to arm the GPS approach mode when there is no
approach loaded into the active flight plan. Load an
approach into the flight plan before trying to arm the
approach mode.
FPL LOCKED - Appears when an attempt is made to
add or delete a waypoint to or from a locked flight plan.
IN ACT LIST - (In Active List) Appears when a userdefined VOR waypoint is the active waypoint if you try to
change the stored magnetic variation of this VOR. If
you need to change the magnetic variation of this waypoint, you must first make another waypoint active.
NO APT WPTS - (No Airport Waypoints) Appears when
the APT type pages have been selected if the KLN 900
doesn’t contain a data base cartridge and there are no
user-defined airport waypoints.
INVALID ADD - Appears when an attempt is made to
add a new waypoint into the approach. Approach
procedures must be flown as they are retrieved from the
database.
NO INT WPTS - (No Intersection Waypoints) Appears
when the INT type pages have been selected if the KLN
900 doesn’t contain a data base cartridge and there are
no user-defined intersection waypoints.
INVALID DEL - (Invalid Delete) Appears when an
attempt is made to delete an approach waypoint.
Individual approach waypoints cannot be deleted, you
must delete (or replace) the entire approach.
NO INTRCEPT - (No Intercept) Appears when an
attempt is made to recalculate the intercept point on a
DME arc and the actual track does not intercept with the
C-1
Rev 2
arc. Change the track (heading) of the aircraft so that
the actual track does intercept the DME arc and try
again.
NO NDB WPTS - (No NDB Waypoints) Appears when
the NDB type pages have been selected if the KLN 900
doesn’t contain a data base cartridge and there are no
user-defined NDB waypoints.
NO SUCH WPT - (No Such Waypoint) Appears when
there is no waypoint in the data base corresponding to
the entered identifier on the Reference Waypoint page.
NO SUP WPTS - (No Supplemental Waypoints)
Appears when the SUP type pages have been selected
if the KLN 900 doesn’t contain a data base cartridge and
there are no user-defined supplemental waypoints.
NO VOR WPTS - (No VOR Waypoints) Appears when
the VOR type pages have been selected if the KLN 900
doesn’t contain a data base cartridge and there are no
user-defined VOR waypoints.
OUTDATED DB - (Outdated Database) Appears
whenever the pilot attempts to select an approach from
the database when the database has expired.
RMKS FULL - (Remarks Full) Appears when an
attempt is made to create a user-entered airport remark
on the APT 5 page if 100 user-entered airport remarks
already exist. In order to create additional airport
remarks, some existing remarks must be deleted on the
OTH 4 page as described in section 3.11.6.
RWY MISSING - (Runway Missing) Appears when the
Airport 3 (APT 3) page runway diagram shows some,
but not all, of the runways at the selected airport. This
occurs if the data base contains runway threshold position data for only some of the runways at the selected
airport.
USED IN FPL - (Used In Flight Plan) Appears when
you try to delete a user-defined waypoint on the OTH 3
page if the waypoint is used in a flight plan. Either this
waypoint must be deleted from the flight plan or the
entire flight plan must be deleted before this waypoint
can be deleted from the user-defined waypoint list.
USR DB FULL - (User Data Base Full) Appears when
you attempt to create a user-defined waypoint if the user
data base already contains 1000 waypoints (250 waypoints for ORS 01 units). In order to create additional
user-defined waypoints, it will first be necessary to delete
existing user-defined waypoints on the OTH 3 page.
C-2
Rev 2
APPENDIX D - ABBREVIATIONS
STATE ABBREVIATIONS
CANADIAN PROVINCE ABBREVIATIONS
ABBREVIATION
STATE
AK
AL
AR
AZ
CA
CO
CT
DC
DE
FL
GA
IA
ID
IL
IN
KS
KY
LA
MA
MD
ME
MI
MN
MO
MS
MT
NC
ND
NE
NH
NJ
NM
NV
NY
OH
OK
OR
PA
RI
SC
SD
TN
TX
UT
VA
VT
WA
WI
WV
WY
Alaska
Alabama
Arkansas
Arizona
California
Colorado
Connecticut
District of Columbia
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Iowa
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Maryland
Maine
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Mississippi
Montana
North Carolina
North Dakota
Nebraska
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
Nevada
New York
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Vermont
Washington
Wisconsin
West Virginia
Wyoming
ABBREVIATION
AB
BC
MB
NB
NF
NS
NW
ON
PE
PQ
SK
YK
PROVINCE
Alberta
British Columbia
Manitoba
New Brunswick
Newfoundland
Nova Scotia
Northwest Territory
Ontario
Prince Edward Island
Quebec
Saskatchewan
Yukon
COUNTRY ABBREVIATIONS
ABBREVIATION
AFG
AGO
AIA
ALB
ANT
ARE
ARG
ASM
ATG
AUS
AUT
BDI
BEL
BEN
BFA
BGD
BGR
BHR
BHS
BHU
BLZ
BMU
BOL
BOS
BRA
BRB
BRN
BWA
CAF
CAN
CHE
CHL
CHN
CIV
D-1
COUNTRY
Afghanistan
Angola
Anguilla I.
Albania
Antarctica/Netherlands
Antilles/Aruba
United Arab Emirates
Argentina
American/Western Samoa
Antigua/Barbuda
Australia
Austria
Burundi
Belgium
Benin
Burkina Faso
Bangladesh
Bulgaria
Bahrain
Bahamas
Bhutan
Belize
Bermuda
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovia
Brazil
Barbados
Brunei
Botswana
Central African Republic
Canada
Switzerland
Chile/Easter I.
China
Ivory Coast
Rev 2
Country Abbreviations - Continued
CMR
CNR
COG
COK
COL
CRI
CRO
CSK
CUB
CYM
CYP
DEU
DJI
DMA
DNK
DOM
DZA
ECU
EGY
ERI
ESP
ETH
FIN
FJI
FLK
FRA
GAB
GBR
GHA
GIB
GIN
GLP
GMB
GNB
GNQ
GPV
GRC
GRD
GRL
GTM
GUF
GUY
HKG
HND
HTI
HUN
IDN
IND
IOT
IRL
IRN
IRQ
ISL
ISR
ITA
JAM
JOR
JPN
JTN
Cameroon
Canary Islands
Congo
Cook Islands
Colombia/San Andres
Costa Rica
Croatia
Czech Republic
Cuba
Cayman Islands
Cypress
Germany
Djibouti
Dominica
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Algeria
Ecuador
Egypt
Eritrea
Spain
Ethiopia
Finland
Fiji/Tonga
Falkland Islands
France
Gabon
United Kingdom
Ghana
Gibraltar
Guinea
Guadeloupe/Martinique
Gambia
Guinea-Bissau
Equatorial Guinea
Cape Verde
Greece
Grenada
Greenland
Guatemala
French Guiana
Guyana
Hong Kong
Honduras
Haiti
Hungary
Indonesia
India
British Indian Ocean Territory
Ireland
Iran
Iraq
Iceland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Jordan
Japan/Okinawa
Johnston Island
KEN
KHM
KIR
KNA
KOR
KWT
LAO
LAT
LBN
LBR
LBY
LCA
LKA
LSO
LUX
MAC
MAR
MCD
MDG
MDV
MEL
MEX
MHL
MID
MLI
MLT
MNP
MOL
MOZ
MRT
MSR
MUS
MWI
MYR
MYS
NAM
NCL
NER
NGA
NIC
NIU
NLD
NOR
NPL
NRU
NZL
OMN
PAC
PAK
PAN
PCI
PER
PHL
PNG
POL
PRI
PRK
PRT
D-2
Kenya
Cambodia/Kampuchea
Kiribati/Tuvalu/Phoenix I./Line I.
St. Kitts/Nevis
Korea
Kuwait
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Liberia
Liby/SPA Jamahiriya
St. Lucia
Sri Lanka
Lesotho
Luxembourg
Macau
Morocco
Macedonia
Madagascar/Comoros/
Mayotte I./Reunion
Maldives
Melilla
Mexico
Marshall Island
Midway Island
Mali
Malta
Mariana Islands
Moldova
Mozambique
Mauritania
Monserrat I.
Mauritius
Malawi
Myanmar
Malaysia
Namibia
New Caledonia
Niger
Nigeria
Nicaragua
Niue Island
Netherlands
Norway
Nepal
Naura
New Zealand
Oman
Oakland OTCA (PACIFIC)
Pakistan
Panama
Caroline Island/Micronesia
Peru
Philippines
Papua New Guinea
Poland
Puerto Rico
Korea (Dem. Peoples Republic)
Portugal/Azores/Madeira I.
Rev 2
Country Abbreviations - Continued
PRY
PYF
QAT
ROM
RWA
SAU
SDN
SEN
SGP
SHN
SLB
SLE
SLO
SLV
SOM
SPM
STP
SUR
SVK
SWE
SWZ
SYC
SYR
TCA
TCD
TGO
THA
TTO
TUN
TUR
TWN
TZA
UGA
URY
USA
VCT
VEN
VGB
VIR
VNM
VUT
WAK
WLF
XJ1
XJ2
XJ3
XJ4
XJ5
XJ6
XJ7
XJJ
XJR
YEM
YUG
ZAF
ZAM
ZAR
ZWE
Paraguay
French Polynesia/Society I./Tuamotu
Qatar
Romania
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Sudan
Senegal
Singapore
Ascension Island/St. Helena
Solomon Islands
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
El Salvador
Somalia
St. Pierre/Miquelon
Sao Tome/Principe
Suriname
Slovakia
Sweden
Swaziland
Seychelles
Syria
Turks and Caicos Islands
Chad
Togo
Thailand
Trinidad/Tabago
Tunisia
Turkey
Taiwan
Tanzania
Uganda
Uruguay
U.S.A. including Baker Islands
St. Vincent
Venezuela
Virgin Islands (U.K.)
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Vietnam
Vanautu
Wake Island
Wallis/Futuna Islands
Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan
Armenia/Georgia
Ukraine, Moldova
Estonia/Russia
Belarus/Latvia/Lithuania/Russia
Kazakhstan/Russia
Kazakhstan/Tajikistan/
Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan
Azerbaijan
Russia
Yemen (Arab Republic)
Yugoslavia
South Africa
Zambia
Zaire
Zimbabwe
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER
(ARTCC/FIR) ABBREVIATIONS
(Used on CTR 2 Page)
ABBREVIATION
ABQ
ACC
ADD
ADE
ADN
AKM
AKT
AKU
ALG
ALM
AMD
AMM
AMS
ANA
ANC
ANC
ANC
ANK
ANT
ARA
ARK
ARY
ASH
ASM
AST
ASU
ATF
ATH
ATL
ATY
AUC
AUC
BAG
BAH
BAK
BAL
BAN
BAR
BAS
BAT
BEI
BEL
BER
BIA
BIS
BLA
BLG
BLO
BOD
BOD
BOG
BOM
BOR
BOS
D-3
ARTCC
Albuquerque
Accra
Addis Ababa
Adelaide
Aden
Akmola
Aktyubinsk
Aktau
Algiers
Alma-Ata
Amderma
Amman
Amsterdam
Anadyr
Anchorage Arctic
Anchorage
Anchorage Oceanic
Ankara
Antananarivo
Aralsk
Arkhangelsk
Arkakyk
Ashkhabad
Asmara
Astrakhan
Asuncion
Antofagasta
Athens
Atlanta
Atyrau
Auckland Oceanic
Auckland
Baghdad
Bahrain
Baku
Bali
Bangkok
Barcelona
Balkhash
Batagay
Beijing
Belem
Bermuda
Biak
Bishkek
Blagoveshchensk
Belgrade
Bloemfontein
Bodo
Bodo Oceanic
Bogota
Bombay
Bordeaux
Boston
Rev 2
Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC/FIR) Abbreviations - Continued
BRA
BRD
BRE
BRI
BRL
BRN
BRR
BRS
BRT
BRU
BRV
BRY
BRZ
BSK
BST
BUC
BUD
BUJ
CAI
CAL
CAM
CAM
CAN
CAP
CAS
CHA
CHE
CHI
CHO
CHR
CHT
CHU
CLE
COC
COL
COM
COP
COR
CRT
CUR
DAK
DAK
DAM
DAR
DEL
DEN
DES
DHA
DIK
DOR
DSS
DUR
DUS
EDM
EMI
ENT
EZE
FRA
FW
Beira
Brindisi
Bremen
Brisbane
Berlin
Barnaul
Barranquilla
Brasilia
Beirut
Brussels
Bratislava
Beryozovo
Brazzaville
Bratsk
Brest
Bucharest
Budapest
Bujumbura
Cairo
Calcutta
Campo Grande
Central America
Canaries
Capetown
Casablanca
Chaybukha
Chelyabinsk
Chicago
Chokurdakh
Chersky
Chita
Chulman
Cleveland
Cocos Island
Colombo
Comodoro Rivadavia
Copenhagen
Cordoba
Curitiba
Curacao
Dakar
Dakar Oceanic
Damascus
Darwin
Delhi
Denver
Dar-Es-Salaam
Dhaka
Kikson
Kornod
Dusseldorf
Durban
Dushanbe
Edmonton
Emirates
Entebbe
Ezeiza
Frankfurt
Ft Worth
GAB
GAN
GAN
GEN
GEO
GUA
GUY
HAN
HAR
HAV
HK
HNR
HOC
HON
HOU
HOU
IND
IRK
ISL
IST
JAK
JAX
JED
JOH
KAB
KAG
KAL
KAM
KAN
KAR
KAT
KAZ
KC
KHA
KHR
KHT
KIE
KIG
KIN
KIR
KIS
KK
KL
KM
KNS
KO
KOL
KOS
KRA
KRS
KRV
KSH
KTM
KUN
KUR
KUW
LAH
LAN
LAP
D-4
Gaborone
Gander Domestic
Gander Oceanic
Geneva
Georgetown
Guangzhou
Guayaquil
Hanoi
Harare
Havana
Hong Kong
Honiara
Hochiminh
Honolulu
Houston
Houston Oceanic
Indianapolis
Irkutsk
Isla de Pascua
Istanbul
Jakarta
Jacksonville
Jeddah
Johannesburg
Kabul
Karaganda
Kaliningrad
Kamennyi Mys
Kano
Karachi
Kathmandu
Kazan
Kansas City
Khabarovsk
Kharkov
Khatanga
Kiev
Kigali
Kingston
Kirensk
Kisangani
Kota Kinabalu
Kuala Lumpur
Khanty-Mansiysk
Kinshasa
Kzyl-Orda
Kolpashevo
Kostanay
Krasnovodsk
Krasnoyarsk
Kirov
Kishinau
Khartoum
Kunming
Kurgan
Kuwait
Lahore
Lanzhou
LA Paz
Rev 2
Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC/FIR) Abbreviations - Continued
LAX
LIL
LIM
LIS
LJU
LON
LUA
LUB
LUS
LVO
MAD
MAG
MAI
MAL
MAN
MAR
MAU
MAZ
MAZ
MDR
MEL
MEM
MEN
MER
MEX
MGD
MIA
MIA
MIL
MIN
MIR
MLM
MLT
MNC
MNC
MNS
MNT
MOG
MON
MOS
MRM
MS
MSK
MTV
MUN
MUM
MUR
MUS
NAD
NAH
NAI
NAS
NDJ
NIC
NIK
NMY
NOR
NOV
NUK
Los Angeles
Lilongwe
Lima
Lisbon
Ljubljana
London
Luanda
Lubumbashi
Lusaka
Lvov
Madrid
Magadan
Maiquetia
Male
Manila
Marseille
Mauritius
Mazatlan
Mazatlan Oceanic
Madras
Melbourne
Memphis
Mendoza
Merida
Mexico
Magdagachi
Miami
Miami Oceanic
Milan
Minneapolis
Mirny
Malmo
Malta
Monction Northern
Monction Southern
Manaus
Monterrey
Mogadishu
Montreal
Moscow
Murmansk
Mys Shmidta
Minsk
Montevideo
Munich
Mumbai
Muren
Musca
Nadi Oceanic
Naha
Nairobi
Nassaut
N’Djamena
Nicosia
Nikolaevsk-Na-Amure
Niamey
Norilsk
Novosibirsk
Nukus
NY
NY
NZE
OAK
OAK
ODE
OKH
OMS
ORN
OSK
OSL
PA
PAN
PAP
PAR
PE
PEC
PEM
PEN
PEP
PER
PET
PEV
PHN
PIA
PM
PMT
PRA
PRM
PTR
PV
PYO
REC
RES
REY
RIG
RIV
RMS
ROB
ROC
ROM
ROS
ROV
SAI
SAL
SAM
SAN
SAR
SCO
SDO
SEA
SEM
SEY
SHA
SHE
SHN
SHW
SIM
SIN
D-5
New York
New York Oceanic
New Zeland
Oakland
Oakland Oceanic
Odessa
Okha
Omsk
Orenburg
Okhotsk
Oslo
Punta Arenas
Panama
Port Au Prince
Paris
Port Elizabeth
Pechora
Perm
Penza
Petropavlousk
Perth
Petersburg
Pevek
Phnom Penh
Piarco
Port Moresby
Puerto Montt
Prague
Paramaribo
Petropavlovsk-Kam
Porto Velho
Pyongyang
Recife
Resistencia
Reykjavik
Riga
Rivadavia
Reims
Roberts
Rochambeau
Rome
Rostov
Rovaniemi
Sainshand
Sal Oceanic
Samara
Santiago
Sarajevo
Scottish
Santo Domingo
Seattle
Semipalatinsk
Seychelles
Shanghai
Shenyang
Shannon
Shanwick Oceanic
Simferopol
Singapore
Rev 2
Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC/FIR) Abbreviations - Continued
SJU
SKO
SLC
SLK
SM
SMR
SNA
SOF
SON
STA
STO
SUK
SUN
SUR
SWI
SYD
SYK
SYM
TAE
TAH
TAI
TAL
TAM
TAS
TAZ
TBI
TEH
TEL
TIK
TIL
TIR
TOK
TOR
TRI
TRO
TUK
TUN
TUR
TYU
UFA
UJU
ULA
UND
URA
URU
VAN
VAR
VEL
VIE
VIL
VLA
VLO
VNT
VOL
VRK
WAR
WAS
WEL
WIN
San Juan Oceanic
Skopje
Salt Lake City
Salekhard
Santa Maria Oceanic
Samarkand
Sanaa
Sofia
Sondrestrom
Stavanger
Stockholm
Sukhumi
Sundsvall
Surgut
Switzerland
Sydney
Syktyvkar
Seymchan
Taegu
Tahiti Oceanic
Taipei
Tallinn
Tampere
Tashkent
Tashavz
Tbilisi
Tehran
Tel Aviv
Tiksi
Tilichiki
Tirana
Tokyo
Toronto
Tripoli
Trondheim
Turukhansk
Tunis
Turukhansk
Tyumen
Ufa
Ujung Bandang
Ulaanbaatar
Underhaan
Uralsk
Urumqi
Vancouver
Varna
Velikiye Luki
Vienna
Vilnius
Vladivostok
Vologda
Vientiane
Volgograd
Vorkuta
Warsaw
Washington
Wellington
Winnipeg
WND
WUH
YAK
YAN
YEK
YEN
YER
YS
ZAG
ZHA
ZHK
ZHY
ZUR
ZYR
Windhoek
Wuhan
Yakutsk
Yangon
Yekaterinburg
Yeniseysk
Yerevan
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Zagreb
Zhambyl
Zhezkazgan
Zhygansk
Zurich
Zyryanka
OTHER ABBREVIATIONS USED ON KLN 900 PAGES
80
100
100LL
A
AAS
ABV
ACQ
ACT
ADJ
AFIS
AGL
AKD
AKS
ALRT
ALT
ANNUN
APPR
APR
APT
ARINC
ARM
ARVL
ASOS
ATD
ATF
ATIS
ATS
AWOS
B
B
BARO
BEL
BRG
C
CAL
CAL
CAS
CAUT
D-6
80 octane fuel
100 octane fuel
100 octane low lead fuel
Airport waypoint
Aeronautical advisory service
Above
Acquisition
Active flight plan waypoints
Adjust
Aerodrome Flight Info. Service
Above Ground Level
Alaska Daylight Time
Alaska Standard Time
Alert area
Altitude
Annunciators
Approach
Approach
Airport
Aeronautical Radio, Inc.
Approach Arm Mode
Arrival (freq)
Automated Surface Observation
Station
Atlantic Daylight Time
Aerodrome traffic frequency
Automatic Terminal Information
Service
Atlantic Standard Time
Automatic weather observing
station
Bad
Both
Barometric Pressure (altimeter
setting)
Below
Bearing
Centigrade
Calculator
Calibration
Calibrated airspeed
Caution area
Rev 2
Other Abbreviations Used on KLN 900 Pages - Continued
CDI
CDT
CL B
CL C
CLR
CLY
CONV
CORD UNIV
CRS
CRSR
CST
CTA
CTAF
CTR
D
D/T
DB
DEGRD
DEN
DEP
DEST
DEV
DIR
DIS
DME
DNGR
DTK
DUP
E
EDT
EFIS
ELE
ELEV
ELV
ENDUR
ENG
ENR
ENT
ESA
EST
ETA
ETE
F
FAF
FAILR
FDE
FF
FLT
FOB
FP
FPL
FPM
FR
F REQ
FSS
G
Course Deviation Indicator
Central Daylight Time
Class B airspace
Class C airspace
Clearance delivery
Clay
Conversion
Coordinated Universal Time
Course
Cursor
Central Standard Time
Control area (outside USA)
Common traffic advisory
frequency
Center (Air Route Traffic
Control Center)
DME capable
Distance/Time
Database
Degraded navigation
Density Altitude
Departure
Destination
Deviation (on external course
devation indicator)
Director (freq)
Distance
Distance Measuring Equipment
Danger area
Desired track
Duplicate
East
Eastern Daylight Time
Electronic Flight Info. Service
Elevation
Elevation
Airport elevation
Endurance
Engine
En route
Enter
Minimum en route safe altitude
Eastern Standard Time
Estimated time of arrival
Estimated time en route
Fahrenheit
Final Approach Fix
Failure of receiver
Fault Detection and Exclusion
Fuel Flow
Flight time
Fuel on board
Flight plan
Flight plan
Feet per minute
From
Fuel required
Flight service station
GPS based approach procedure
GAL
GDT
GPS
GPS CRS
GRND
GRV
GS
GST
H
H
HAD
HAS
HB
HDG
HDWND
HRD
HSI
HT
I
IAF
IAP
ICAO
IDENT
ILS
IMP
INACTV
IND
INIT
INT
INVRT
KG
KM
KT
L
L
L
L
L
L FOB
LB
LB
LCL
LDG
LEN
LOM
LPC
LPT
M
MACH
MAG VAR
MAHP
MAP
MAT
MB
MCOM
MDT
D-7
Gallon
Greenland Daylight Time
Global Positioning System
External Leg/OBS switch
Ground control
Gravel
Groundspeed
Greenland Standard Time
High altitude VOR
High pressure oxygen
Hawaii Daylight Time
Hawaii Standard Time
High pressure bottled oxygen
Heading
Headwind
Hard surface
Horizontal Situation Indicator
Height
Intersection waypoint
Initial Approach Fix
Instrument Approach
International Civil Aviation
Organization
Identifier
Instrument Landing System
Imperial gallon
Inactive
Indicated altitude
Initialization
Intersection
Invert
Kilogram
Kilometers
Knots
Left
Liters
Low altitude VOR
Low pressure oxygen
Runway lighting sunset to sun
rise
Landing fuel on board
Low-pressure bottled oxygen
Pounds
Local time
Landing
Length
Locator Outer Marker
Runway lighting is pilot controlled
Runway lighting is part time or
on request
Meters
Mach number
Magnetic Variation
Missed Approach Holding Point
Missed Approach Point
Steel matting
Millibars
Multicom
Mountain Daylight Time
Rev 2
Other Abbreviations Used on KLN 900 Pages - Continued
MF
MLS
MOA
MOD
MOGAS
MPH
MPM
MSA
MSG
MSL
MST
N
N
N
NAV
NAV A
NAV D
NDB
NM
NP APR
NR
NRST
OBS
OCN
ORS
OTH
P.POS
PCL
PDT
POS
POSN
PRES
PROH
PRS
PST
PTAX
PWR
R
R
(R)
RAD
RAIM
RAMP
RCVR
RDO
RDR
REF
REQD
RES
REST
RMI
RMKS
RT
RW
RWY
Mandatory frequency
Microwave Landing System
Military operation area
Mode
Automotive fuel
Miles per hour
Meters per minute
Minimum safe altitude
Message
Mean Sea Level
Mountain Standard Time
NDB overlay approach
procedure
NDB waypoint
North
Navigation
Navigation with altitude aiding
Navigation with data collection
Non-Directional Radio Beacon
Nautical miles
Non-Precision Approach
Nearest
Nearest
Omni bearing selection
Oceanic
Operational Revision Status
Other
Present position
Pilot controlled lighting
Pacific Daylight Time
Position
Position
Present
Prohibited area
Pressure altitude
Pacific Standard Time
Pre-taxi clearance
Power
Right
RNAV overlay approach
procedure
Radar environment to approach
& departure
Radial
Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring
Ramp/taxi control (freq)
Receiver
Radio
Radar (freq)
Reference
Required fuel
Reserve fuel
Restricted area
Radio magnetic indicator
Remarks
Right hand traffic pattern
Runway
Runway
S
S
SAT
SDT
SEL
SEQ
SET
SFT
SHL
SID
SND
SNR
SNW
SPC USE
SRCH
SST
STA
STAR
STN
SUA
SUP
SV
SW
T
T
t
TAS
TAT
TEMP
TK
TLWND
TMA
TRAN
TRF
TRI
TRNG
TRSA
TWR
U
UNIC
UNK
UTC
V
V
V
VEL
VERT
VNV
VOR
W
W
WARN
WPT
WRN
XTK
Z
D-8
South
Supplemental waypoint
Static air temperature
Samoa Daylight Time
Selected altitude
Sequence
Setup
Soft surface
Shale
Standard Instrument Departure
Sand
Signal-to-noise-ratio
Snow
Special Use (airspace)
Search the sky
Samoa Standard Time
Status
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
Station
Special Use Airspace
Supplemental
Space vehicle
Software
Terminal VOR
Terminal waypoint
Relative to true North
True airspeed
Total air temperature
Temperature
Actual track
Tailwind
Terminal area (outside USA)
Transition
Turf
Trip
Training area
Terminal Radar Service Area
Tower
Undefined class of VOR
Unicom
Unknown
Coordinated Universal Time
(Zulu)
VNAV status (on Super NAV 5)
VOR approach overlay
procedure
VOR waypoint
Velocity
Vertical
Vertical navigation (VNAV)
Very high frequency
Omnidirectional Range station
Weak
West
Warning area
Waypoint
Warn
Cross track error correction
Zulu time
Rev 2
APPENDIX E - SECONDS TO DECIMAL MINUTES
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
The KLN 900 utilizes latitude and longitude expressed in
degrees, minutes, and hundredths of a minute. You
may occasionally see a document expressing latitude
and longitude in degrees, minutes, and seconds. You
may use this table to convert seconds to hundredths of
a minute.
SECONDS
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
HUNDREDTHS OF
A MINUTE
.00
.02
.03
.05
.07
.08
.10
.12
.13
.15
.17
.18
.20
.22
.23
.25
.27
.28
.30
.32
.33
.35
.37
.38
.40
.42
.43
.45
.47
.48
.50
.52
.53
.55
.57
.58
.60
.62
.63
.65
.67
.68
.70
.72
.73
.75
.77
.78
.80
.82
.83
.85
.87
.88
.90
.92
.93
.95
.97
.98
For Example:
35 deg, 46 min, 24 seconds becomes 35 deg, 46.40 min
32 deg, 15 min, 58 seconds becomes 32 deg, 15.97 min
E-1
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
E-2
Rev 2
APPENDIX F - ACCESSORIES
Honeywell PreFlight Software Version 2.0
PreFlight can import flight
plans created by other
flight planning programs.
PreFlight predicts RAIM
and FDE availability for
B-RNAV and Primary
Means Oceanic Operation.
Flight plans may be transferred
directly from a KLN 900 or created
with the PreFlight Flightplan editor, a
text editor, or by one of several popular flight planning software packages. The following flight planning
programs have the capability to
interface with PreFlight:
B-RNAV
• PreFlight can be used to determine the number of healthy
satellites available. RAIM prediction is only required if there
are less than 24 healthy satellites (less than 23 with altitude
aiding)
• PreFlight can predict RAIM availability along a flight plan per FAA
AC 90-96 and JAA AMJ 20X2
requirements.
• PreFlight is for use with B-RNAV
approved versions of the
Bendix/King KLN 900, KLN 90B,
KLN 89B, and Global FMS products.
Primary Means Oceanic
• PreFlight can predict FDE availability along a flight plan per FAA
Notice 8110.60 requirements.
PreFlight can transfer
flight plans between a PC
and a KLN 900.
PreFlight allows the transfer of userdefined waypoints and flight plans
between a Windows PC and a KLN
900. Multiple sets of flight plans to
be created and stored on a PC.
Flight planning can also be done
using other PC flightplanning software and then loaded into the
KLN 900.
• PreFlight is for use with Primary
Means Oceanic approved versions of the Bendix/King KLN
900 and Global FMS products.
ı
GPS
CRS
R
BRT PUSH
ON
D
CLR
ENT
ALT
NRST
PULL SCAN
MSG
• FLITESOFT, RMS Technology
• FlightPlanner for Windows, Flight
Level Software (Austrialian marketplace)
• Destination Direct, Flight Planning
for Windows, Version 3.0 or
higher, Delta Technology
International
Be sure to ask for the Bendix/King
compatible version when ordering
each product.
PreFlight runs on Microsoft Windows
3.1, 95, NT, or Windows for
Workgroups. A modem or internet
connection is required to update
almanac data. A COM serial port
and interface cable are needed to
interface with a KLN 900.
C
R
S
R
OBS
• FliteStar/FliteMap, Version 7.0 or
higher, MentorPlus Software,
Jeppesen-Sanderson
SAVE
Policy Notice: In keeping with Honeywell’s goal of constant product improvement, product specifications and design features may be altered without notice.
F-1
Rev 2
Honeywell PreFlight Software Version 2.0
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
In order to effectively use the PreFlight software, the following minimum requirements must
be met:
1. A 80386DX-33MHz or higher computer that runs Microsoft Windows with 4 MB of RAM, a 1.44
MB disk drive, a hard disk with approximately 3MB to 6MB available (depending on your installation options), and a VGA or super VGA display.
2. Microsoft Windows operating system Version 3.1, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows for
Workgroups Version 3.1 / 3.11, or Windows NT Version 3.51 / 4.0.
3. A mouse or compatible pointing device supported by Microsoft Windows.
4. A modem or Internet connection for downloading GPS satellite status information.
In order to transfer flight plan data to your KLN 900, your system must also have:
5. A serial communications port (COM1:, COM2:, COM3:, or COM4:) available and functioning
under Microsoft Windows.
6. A PC interface cable that connects the KLN 900’s data loader jack and your PC. Depending on
the manner in which you purchased your KLN 900, the cable may be an optional item or may
have been included in the original installation kit. Please use the order form on the following
page to order the interface cable.
7. In order to transfer data via the PreFlight software, your KLN 900 must display software version
ORS 02 or greater in the upper righthand corner of the screen when the unit is first turned on.
8. A power supply for your KLN 900. This power supply may take the form of the aircraft or an
outside source (if the GPS unit is removed from the aircraft). Honeywell recommends the
Commander 2900 GPS / Loran Control Station built by Lone Star Aviation Corporation, 804
North Great S.W. Pkwy, Arlington, TX 76011, USA, 817-633-6208.
Additional disk space is required for each of the files saved by the PreFlight software. This can
range from 1 KB to 80 KB depending on the number of user-defined flight plans and waypoints.
F-2
Rev 2
Accessory Kits Order Form
Consult current catalog or call phone numbers listed below for prices.
Please select the accessories desired, then
fill out and mail this order form. Credit card
orders may be faxed.
PreFlight Kit Version 2.0
(Part number 050-03462-0001)
The PreFlight Kit includes a software program which will run on
your Microsoft-Windows compatible
personal computer. The PreFlight
software predicts GPS satellite coverage along a flight plan, provides
for the creation and importation of
flight plan information, and transfers
data between your personal computer and your KLN 900.
PC Data Loader Kit
(Part number 050-03213-0000)
The PC Data Loader Kit contains a
PC interface cable that connects
the KLN 900’s data loader jack to
your personal computer.
Depending on the manner in which
you purchased your KLN 900, the
cable may be an optional item or
may have been included in the original installation kit.
Please ship to:
Name:
Company:
Address:
City:
State:
Zip Code:
Country:
Telephone: (
FAX: (
)
)
E-mail:
Aircraft Make:
Aircraft Model:
______
Method of Payment
Check/Money order enclosed
Wire Transfer:
Chase Manhattan Bank, NY
Acct #910-2-538734
Customer Number: ___________
Please contact us if you do not have a customer number. (Note: Your customer number is
the first six digits of your sales order number.)
MasterCard, VISA, Discover, or
American Express
Number
Expires
Helpful hint:
By using the PreFlight software in
conjunction with the PC interface cable,
you can save money by updating your
GPS database using diskettes rather
than by using a PCMCIA card (See section 2.8).
Signature
Include applicable sales tax for your state.
Send to:
Honeywell International Inc.
Navigation Services
Mail Drop #66
23500 West 105th Street
Olathe, KS 66061
U.S.A.
Tel: (800) 247-0230 (U.S. Callers)
(913) 712-3145 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-3904
email: [email protected]
web site: www.gpsdatabase.com
N
Tape here
Fold here
NO POSTAGE
NECESSARY
IF MAILED
IN THE
UNITED STATES
BUSINESS REPLY MAIL
FIRST-CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO. 121 OLATHE, KANSAS
POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.
Navigation Services, Mail Drop #66
23500 West 105th Street
P.O. Box 1950
Olathe, KS 66051-9930
INDEX
A
Approaches 2-2, 3-49, 5-47, 6-1
Changing 6-7
Deleting 6-7
Loading 6-4
Selecting 6-4
APR, see Approach active mode
APT 1 page (Airport 1) 3-42
APT 2 page (Airport 2) 3-43
APT 3 page (Airport 3) 3-43
APT 4 page (Airport 4) 3-45
APT 5 page (Airport 5) 3-47
APT 6 page (Airport 6) 3-48
APT 7 page (Airport 7) 3-49, 6-21, 6-22
APT 8 page (Airport 8) 3-49, 6-4, 6-16
ARC 6-18, A-1
ARM, see Approach armed mode
ARTCC (“Center”)
Abbreviations D-3
Frequencies 3-52
Waypoints 5-27
AUTO magnetic variation 5-46
AUTO map scale 3-36, 6-9
Autopilot 6-18
Abbreviations
Airport names 3-25, 3-26, 3-42
ARTCC/FIR D-3
Canadian province D-1
Country D-1
Other KLN 900 D-6
State D-1
Accessories Appendix F
ACT page (active flight plan waypoints) 4-10
Actual track (TK) 3-32, 3-35, A-1
Air data pages 5-44
Airport data
City, State (or Country) 3-43
Communication frequencies 3-45
Elevation 3-43
Fuel availability 3-48
Instrument approach capability 3-43
Name 3-42
Nearest 3-22, 3-37, 3-42
Radar capability 3-43
Remarks 3-47
Runway information 3-43, 3-44
Services 3-48
User defined waypoints 5-16
Airport identifiers 2-3
Airspace, see Special Use Airspace
Airspeed 5-11, 5-13, 5-44, 5-45
Alerting
Altitude 3-55
Height above airport 3-58
Special Use Airspace (SUA) 3-39
Waypoint 3-29, 4-8
Almanac 3-17
Altitude
Alerting 3-55
Density (DEN) 5-10, 5-44, 5-45
Indicated (IND) 3-55, 5-10
Minimum enroute (ESA) 3-33
Minimum safe (MSA) 3-33
Page 3-55
Pressure 5-10, 5-44
Annunciators, remote 3-59, 6-1
Antennas 1-2
Approach active (ACTV) mode 5-34, 6-1, 6-3, 6-9
Approach armed (ARM) mode 3-29, 5-34, 5-40, 6-1,
6-3, 6-8
B
Baro set 3-6, 3-55, 6-8
Battery 2-10
Bearing (BRG) to waypoint 3-31
B-RNAV Appendix F
Brightness, see Display brightness
C
CAL 1 page (Calculator 1) 5-10
CAL 2 page (Calculator 2) 5-11
CAL 3 page (Calculator 3) 5-12
CAL 4 page (Calculator 4) 5-8, 5-12
CAL 5 page (Calculator 5) 5-13
CAL 6 page (Calculator 6) 5-14
CAL 7 page (Calculator 7) 5-15
Calibrated airspeed (CAS) 5-11
Canadian Province abbreviations D-1
Cancel, see Delete
Canceling Direct to operations 3-29
Card, see Data base
CDI 3-4, 3-31, 3-59, 4-9, 6-9
CDI scale factor 3-31, 5-39, 5-40, 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, 6-8
“Center” waypoints 5-27
I-1
Rev 2
Changing
Approaches 6-7
SIDs 6-23
STARs 6-23
Communication frequencies
Airport 3-45
Center (ARTCC) 3-52
Flight Service Stations (FSS) 3-52
Computer data base, updating 2-3
Configuration Data
Controls 3-2, 3-11
Country abbreviations D-1
Course fix 6-6
Course reversal 6-10
Coverage area
Database 2-1
Navigation 3-1
Cross track error 3-32, A-1
CTA 3-39, 3-42
CTR 1 page (Center 1) 5-27
CTR 2 page (Center 2) 5-27
Cursor 3-11
Customs 3-48
Direct to operation 3-27, 3-34, 4-10
Canceling 3-29
Flight plan 4-10
Recenter D-Bar 3-29
VNAV 5-7
Display brightness 3-3
Display format 3-9
Distance 3-31, 3-36, 4-11, A-1
D/T 1 page (Distance/Time 1) 4-11
D/T 2 page (Distance/Time 2) 4-12
D/T 3 page (Distance/Time 3) 4-12
D/T 4 page (Distance/Time 4) 4-13
DME arcs 6-6, 6-16, 6-17, 6-18
DTK, see Desired Track
Dual Mode Data Transfer, 8-1
Duplicate waypoints 3-15
E
Editing
SID 6-23
STAR 6-23
EFIS 3-4, 5-35, 6-9
Enter prompt 3-10
EPE (estimated position error) 5-32
Erase, see Delete
ESA, see minimum enroute safe altitude
Estimated position error (EPE) 5-32
ETA (estimated time of arrival) 4-13, A-1
ETE (estimated time enroute) 3-31, 3-36, 4-11, 4-13,
A-1
D
Database
Card 2-3, 2-7
Contents 2-2
Coverage areas 2-1
Currency requirement for approach use 6-1
Functions 2-1
Operation without card 5-47
Page 3-7
Update service options 2-10
Updating 2-3, 5-46
User 2-2, 2-8
Data entry 3-14
Date 3-5, 3-53
Delete
Airport remarks 3-47
Approach 6-7
Direct to operation 3-29
Flight plans 4-5
SID 6-24
STAR 6-24
User defined waypoints 5-20
Waypoints from a flight plan 4-5
Density Altitude (DEN) 5-10, 5-44, 5-45
Departure time 4-13
Desired track (DTK) 3-32, 3-35, 4-9, 4-12, 5-35, A-1
F
-f (final approach fix identifier suffix) 6-6
FAF (final approach fix) 6-1, 6-2, 6-6
FDE (fault detection and exclusion) 5-33, F-1
Fence 6-7
Flight plan(s)
Activating 4-3
Active 4-3
Adding waypoints 4-4
Creating 4-1
Deleting flight plans 4-5
Deleting waypoints 4-5
Inverting 4-4
Locked 4-1, C-1
Operation from 4-7
Rules 4-1
VNAV operation 5-9
Flashing data on screen 3-11
Flight time 4-13
Fly-by/Fly-over waypoints 4-2
I-2
Rev 2
Frequencies, see Communication frequencies
FSS frequencies 3-52
Fuel
Availability 3-48
Flow 5-43
Management pages 5-41
On board 5-42
Planning 5-3, 5-5, 5-6
Used 5-43
L
Landing fee 3-48
Leg mode 5-34, 5-35, 5-38
Lighting, runway 3-44
Loading
Approach 6-4
SID 6-22
STAR 6-23
Local time 3-5, 3-6, 3-54
Locator outer marker (LOM) 3-50
G
GPS APR switch/annunciator 3-59, 6-1, 6-9
GPS CRS switch/annunciator 3-59, 5-35
GPS status 5-31
Groundspeed 3-31, 3-36, A-1
M
-m (missed approach point identifier suffix) 6-7
Mach 5-45
Magnetic variation 5-46
Map display 3-34, 3-36
MAP (missed approach point) 3-27, 6-2, 6-3, 6-6, 6-7
MAHP (missed approach holding point) 3-28, 6-2, 6-3
Message page 3-16
Messages
Message page 3-16, Appendix B
Status line 3-10, Appendix C
Microwave Landing System (MLS) approach 3-43
Minimum enroute safe altitude (ESA) 3-33, 5-3, 5-5, 5-6,
5-36
Minimum safe altitude (MSA) 3-33
Missed approach procedure 3-27, 6-3, 6-11, 6-19
MODE page 5-34, 5-40
Modes 3-12, 3-36, 5-34
MOVE? 6-17
Moving map 3-34, 3-36
MSA (Minimum Safe Altitude) 3-33
H
-h (missed approach holding point identifier suffix) 6-7
Heading (HDG) 3-34, 3-35, A-1
Height above airport alert 3-58
Holding pattern 6-11, 6-15, 6-19
HSI 3-4, 3-59, 4-9, 6-9
I
-i (initial approach fix identifier suffix) 6-7
IAF (initial approach fix) 6-2
Selecting 6-4, 6-16
ICAO identifiers 2-3
Initialization 3-17
Instrument Landing System (ILS) approach 3-43
INT page (Intersection page) 3-50
Integrity monitoring, see RAIM
Intercept DME arc 6-16, 6-17
Moving the intercept point 6-17
Interface cable F-3
Interfaces 1-1
Intermediate fix 6-6
Intersections 3-50
Intersection user waypoints 5-18
N
NAV 1 page (Navigation 1) 3-31
NAV 2 page (Navigation 2) 3-32
NAV 3 page (Navigation 3) 3-32
NAV 4 page (Navigation 4) 3-34, 5-7
NAV 5 page (Navigation 5) 3-34
NAV/GPS switch/annunciator 3-59, 6-1, 6-9
Navigation map display 3-34, 3-35
Navigation terms A-1
NDB(s)
page 3-50
user waypoints 5-18
nearest 3-22, 3-37
on map display 3-37
Nearest airports, VORs, NDBs 3-22, 3-24, 3-27
NRST page/button, 3-23
NOS charts 6-6
NO WPT SEQ 6-7
No procedure turn 6-8
Non-precision approaches, see Approaches
J
Jeppesen charts 6-6
K
KA 91 antenna 1-2
KA 92 antenna 1-2
I-3
Rev 2
O
S
OBS IN 3-4
OBS mode 3-32, 5-34, 5-36, 5-38
In approach procedures 6-10, 6-11, 6-12, 6-14,
6-19
OBS OUT 3-4
Oceanic (OCN) mode 9-1, 5-34, F-1
Off-airport navaid 6-10
On-airport navaid 6-14
ORS (Operational Revision Status) ii, 3-3
OTH 1 page (Other 1) 3-52
OTH 2 page (Other 2) 3-52
OTH 3 page (Other 3) 5-20
OTH 4 page (Other 4) 3-47
OTH 5 page (Other 5) 5-41
OTH 6 page (Other 6) 5-43
OTH 7 page (Other 7) 5-43
OTH 8 page (Other 8) 5-43
OTH 9 page (Other 9) 5-44, 5-45
OTH 10 page (Other 10) 5-44, 5-45
Outer markers (OM) 3-50
Oxygen availability 3-48
Sample trips 3-60, 4-15
Satellite status 5-31, 5-32
SAVE page/button 5-21
Scanning active waypoints 3-38, 6-17
Scanning waypoints 3-21, 3-24
Selected course, see OBS mode
Selecting
Approach 6-4
IAF 6-2
SID 6-21
STAR 6-22
Transition (SID/STAR) 6-22
Waypoints 3-20
Self test page 3-3
SET 0 page (Setup 0) 2-5
SET 1 page (Setup 1) 3-18
SET 2 page (Setup 2) 3-53, 5-46
SET 3 page (Setup 3) 3-22
SET 4 page (Setup 4) 4-13
SET 5 page (Setup 5) 3-58
SET 6 page (Setup 6) 4-9
SET 7 page (Setup 7) 3-39, 5-10
SET 8 page (Setup 8) 3-41
SET 9 page (Setup 9) 3-57, 3-59
SET 10 page (Setup 10) 2-9, 2-10
SID (standard instrument departure) 6-21
Changing 6-23
Deleting 6-24
Editing 6-23
Example 6-25
Loading 6-22
Selecting 6-22
SID/STARs 2-2, 3-49, 4-3, 5-47, 6-21
SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) 5-32
Software status 5-33
Special Use Airspace (SUA) 3-39, 5-3, 5-5, 5-6
STA 1 page (Status 1) 5-31
STA 2 page (Status 2) 5-32
STA 3 page (Status 3) 5-33
STA 4 page (Status 4) 5-33
STA 5 page (Status 5) 6-19, 6-20
STAR (standard terminal arrival route) 6-20
Changing 6-23
Deleting 6-24
Editing 6-23
Example 6-26
Loading 6-23
Selecting 6-23
State abbreviations D-1
Static Air Temperature (SAT) 5-45
Status line messages 3-10, Appendix C
P
Page definition 3-9
Page selection 3-12
PC Data Loader Kit F-3
PCMCIA card 2-3, 2-7, 2-10
Plus sign (+) meaning 3-9
Power cycles 5-33
Present position 3-8, 3-32
Pressure Altitude (PRS) 5-10, 5-45
Preview of Operation II
Primary Means Oceanic/Remote Operation 9-1, F-1
Procedure turns 6-14
R
RAIM (receiver autonomous integrity monitoring) 5-32,
6-3, 6-14, 6-15, 6-19
Prediction 6-19, 6-20, F-1
Radar vectors 6-12, 6-17
Receiver status 5-31
REF page (Reference waypoint) 5-21
Reference waypoints 5-23
Removing KLN 900 2-7
Runway fix 6-6
Runway information 3-44
I-4
Rev 2
Step-down fix 6-9, 6-18
Sunrise/Sunset 5-15
SUA, see Special Use Airspace
SUP page (Supplemental waypoint) 5-18
Super NAV 1 page 3-32
Super NAV 5 page 3-27, 3-36, 5-9, 5-35, 6-1, 6-6, 6-17
Supplemental waypoints 3-51, 5-18
Surface, runway 3-44
System components 1-1
U
Updating database 2-3, 2-10
User database 2-2, 2-8, 3-51
User-defined waypoints 2-2, 5-16
USER magnetic variation 5-46
UTC, see Time Zones
V
VNAV (vertical navigation) 3-36, 5-7
Vectors 6-12, 6-17
VOR(s)
page 3-49
user waypoint 5-18
nearest 3-22, 3-37
on map display 3-37
T
Take-home mode 3-3, 3-19, 5-48
Tandem 7-1
TAS (True Airspeed) 5-11, 5-45
TAT (Total Air Temperature) 5-45
Temperature conversion 5-13
Terminal waypoints 4-10
Names 6-5
Time
Actual 3-5, 3-53, 4-13
Enroute 3-31, 3-36, 4-11, 4-13, A-1
Flight 4-13
Of arrival 4-12, 4-13, A-1
Setting 3-5, 3-53
Total time of operation 5-33
Zones 3-5, 3-54, 5-14
Time to first fix 3-17
TK, see Actual Track
TMA (Terminal Area) 3-39, 3-42
Total Air Temperature (TAT) 5-45
Track, see Actual track, see Desired track
Traffic pattern indicator 3-44
Transitions (SID/STAR), selecting 6-22
TRI 0 page (Trip Planning 0) 5-2
TRI 1 page (Trip Planning 1) 5-3
TRI 2 page (Trip Planning 2) 5-3
TRI 3 page (Trip Planning 3) 5-5
TRI 4 page (Trip Planning 4) 5-5
TRI 5 page (Trip Planning 5) 5-6
TRI 6 page (Trip Planning 6) 5-6
Trip planning 5-1
True airspeed (TAS) 5-11, 5-12, 5-45
Turn anticipation 4-8
Turn-on 3-3
Turn-on page 3-3
W
Waypoint alerting 3-29, 4-8
Waypoint scanning window 3-38, 6-17
Waypoints
Active 3-31
“Center” 5-27
Duplicate 3-15
Identifiers 2-3
Nearest 3-22
Reference 5-23
Selecting by identifier 3-20
Selecting by name or city 3-24
Selecting by scanning 3-21
User defined 2-2, 5-16
Wind 5-12, 5-45
X
Y
Z
I-5
Rev 2
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
I-6
Rev 2
Honeywell International Inc.
Electronic & Avionics Systems World Headquarters
Business & General Aviation Enterprise
One Technology Center
23500 West 105th Street
Olathe, KS 66061
U.S.A.
Honeywell General Information
between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. Central Time, Monday thru Friday.
Tel: (800) 347-5462 (U.S. Callers)
Tel: (913) 712-0400 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-1301 (General Information)
FAX: (913) 712-1335 (Domestic Orders)
FAX: (913) 712-1302 (International Orders)
web site: www.bendixking.com
Honeywell Customer Service & Product Support
Tel: (800) 257-0726 (U.S. Callers)
Tel: (913) 712-0600 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-1306 (Product Support)
FAX: (913) 712-1313 (Repair & Overhaul)
Honeywell Navigation Services, Mail Drop #66
Tel: (800) 247-0230 (U.S. Callers)
Tel: (913) 712-3145 (International)
FAX: (913) 712-3904
email: [email protected]
web site: www.gpsdatabase.com
Copyright © 1999 by Honeywel Internationall Inc. All rights reserved.
Rev. 2, January 1999, Part Number 006-08796-0000
Printed in the USA
N
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