Microbes in Our Lives Microorganisms Naming and Classifying

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Microbes in Our Lives
Microorganisms
 Microorganisms are organisms that are too small to be
 Produce products used in manufacturing
seen with the unaided eye.
(e.g., cellulase) and treatment (e.g., insulin)
 Decompose organic waste
 A few are pathogenic, disease-causing
producers in the ecosystem
y
by
yp
photosynthesis
y
 Are p
g of Microorganisms
g
allows humans to
 Knowledge
 Produce industrial chemicals such as ethanol
and acetone
 Produce fermented foods such as vinegar, cheese,
and bread
 Prevent food spoilage
 Prevent disease occurrence
 Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in
medicine and in microbiology laboratories.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms
Scientific Names
 Linnaeus established the system of scientific
 Staphylococcus aureus
nomenclature.
 Each organism has two names: the genus and
p
epithet.
p
specific
 Scientific Names are italicized or underlined. The genus
is capitalized and the specific epithet is lower case.
 Describes the clustered arrangement of the cells
(staphylo-) and the golden color of the colonies
((aur-).
)
 Escherichia coli
 Honors the discoverer, Theodor Escherich, and
 Are “Latinized” and used worldwide.
describes the bacterium’s habitat–the large intestine
 May be descriptive or honor a scientist.
or colon.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Scientific Names
Bacteria
 After the first use, scientific names may be abbreviated
 Prokaryotes
with the first letter of the genus and the specific epithet:
 Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are
y S. aureus is on skin and
found in the human body.
E. coli in the large intestine.
 Peptidoglycan cell walls
 Binary fission
gy, use organic
g
 For energy,
chemicals, inorganic
chemicals, or photosynthesis
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.1a
1
Archaea
Fungi
 Eukaryotes
 Prokaryotic
 Chitin cell walls
 Lack peptidoglycan
 Use organic chemicals for
 Live in extreme environments
energy.
 Include
 Molds and mushrooms are
 Methanogens
multicellular consisting of
 Extreme halophiles
masses of mycelia, which
 Extreme thermophiles
are composed of filaments
called hyphae.
 Yeasts are unicellular.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4.5b
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Protozoa
Algae
 Eukaryotes
 Eukaryotes
 Absorb or ingest
 Cellulose cell walls
 Use photosynthesis for
organic chemicals
y be motile via
 May
gy
energy
 Produce molecular oxygen
pseudopods, cilia,
or flagella
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.1b
and organic compounds
Figure 1.1c
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Viruses
Multicellular Animal Parasites
 Acellular
 Eukaryote
 Consist of DNA or RNA core
 Multicellular animals
 Core is surrounded by a
 Parasitic flatworms and round worms are called
Figure 1.1d
helminths.
protein coat.
p
 Microscopic stages in life cycles.
 Coat may be enclosed in a
lipid envelope.
 Viruses are replicated only
when they are in a living
host cell.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.1e
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 12.28a
2
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