Fire Frontmatter 2/18/03 9:36 PM Page xi PREFACE This text presents the elements that comprise an effective fire safety management program. It was written for managers who are accountable for fire safety as part of a comprehensive safety or risk management program. Safety programs are typically evaluated based upon the results they achieve for their respective organizations. Tangible results of any safety program can be difficult to measure. Over the years, the profession has evaluated safety program effectiveness by measuring the failures produced, such as accident frequency and severity rates, or property loss rates. Measuring safety programs by their failures is counterproductive. By the time any safety program produces the failures to measure, it is too late for managers to implement activities that could have prevented those failures from occurring in the first place. While the safety profession has never proven that a direct correlation exists between various safety program activities and achieving favorable program results, safety managers strive to identify the possible relationships. Successful safety managers place emphasis—such as their time and organizational resources—on implementing proactive activities that impact the results of their safety programs. Safety program effectiveness should be measured by the quality, rigor, and utility of these activities, as well as their impact on the bottom line. Having established that an effective safety program emphasizes proactive activities, this text places special attention on the fire safety activities that can achieve the most optimum results. Developing and implementing an effective fire safety management program can: • • • • • • reduce property-loss insurance premiums help minimize the financial impact of business interruptions boost customer service and public images foster an efficient work environment help realize quality gains impact favorably on the profitability of an organization Special attention has been given to fire safety activities that achieve results. These activities are explained in each chapter. Objectives of the Text Individuals who utilize this text should be able to: 1. Identify agency assistance and available resources for fire service operations. 2. Determine organizational patterns for fire service operations. 3. Summarize qualifications expected of personnel attached to organizations providing fire services. PREFACE xi Fire Frontmatter 2/18/03 9:36 PM Page xii xii THE FIRE SAFETY MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Describe the uses and operations of various types of fire control equipment. Determine and identify materials considered hazardous. Recognize the training and educational experiences needed for fire service personnel. Ascertain the components of fire service communications and dispatching. Demonstrate accepted management practices needed to establish and improve fire service operations. The purpose of this book is to present, in an organized and sequential way, how to develop an effective fire safety management program. Numerous books and articles have been published on fire science. However, the majority thus far were concerned with the scientific aspects of fire safety as opposed to actual program management. This publication attempts to fill that gap by providing an analysis of how to manage a fire safety program, which is usually part of an overall loss control program. The success of any organization depends on the soundness of its management system; this is no less true in the management of fire safety. Those same techniques that have been the hallmark of efficiency and profitability in the operation of any organization must be utilized in the successful management of fire safety. A basic knowledge of the available resources and fire safety organizations is essential. This is described in Chapter 1. Knowing where to go, who to contact, what facilities and equipment they possess, and their ability to respond will be of great assistance in organizing a plan of action. In addition, it will assist management in avoiding costly duplication of equipment. Knowledge of fire fighting resources at one’s command is one of the keys in determining whether a fire of a certain magnitude can be controlled with a minimum of damage, or whether it can accelerate into a major catastrophe. The chemistry of fire is reviewed in Chapter 2. Some personnel who are involved in fire safety from the scientific aspects are not interested in the management aspects. However, for those personnel who aspire to manage fire safety applications, this chapter will provide the necessary understanding of fire chemistry essentials. To reduce the effects and losses due to fire, Chapter 3 describes some efforts that can be used to develop an effective fire safety management program. Chapter 4 explains the precautions and procedures that should be undertaken to identify and control hazardous materials. Building construction is crucial for assuring life safety and controlling related fire risks. Building construction as related to fire safety is described in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 provides an overview of commonly installed fire detection systems. Various occupancies require different types of detection systems and, in some cases, more than one type of system would be satisfactory. These systems are described in sufficient detail to allow a safety manager to make sound decisions regarding their application. Fire Frontmatter 2/18/03 9:36 PM Page xiii PREFACE xiii The types and functions of fire control equipment are described in Chapter 7. As with detection systems, specific conditions warrant certain types of equipment. The chapter discusses advantages and disadvantages of the various fire control equipment. This will help a safety manager assess which equipment would be the most operationally cost effective for their particular application. Chapter 8 describes the practices that should be followed to care, maintain, and inspect fire protection systems. Particular emphasis is placed on management’s responsibility to support a preventive maintenance program. Chapter 9 explores the different types of legislation and enforcement that exist on the federal, state, and local levels, and how they are an integral part of a successful fire safety program. With everyone now much more aware of the threats posed by acts of terrorism as well as by natural disasters, Chapter 10 was added to give the safety professional an understanding of emergency response planning. Chapter 11 delineates the mission of the United States Fire Administration and presents a brief history of the USFA and the National Fire Academy.