Exploring the Nature of Science in the Next Generation Science

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Exploring the Nature of Science in
the Next Generation Science
Standards: Understanding the
Science of Nature through the Nature
of Science (Part II)
Dr. Paul Narguizian
Professor of Biology and Science Education
California State University, Los Angeles
Email: [email protected]
Web Page: http://www.calstatela.edu/faculty/pnargui/
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/scienceanzu-wyliei-dinosaur-01811.html
The “Chicken from Hell”
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/scienceanzu-wyliei-dinosaur-01811.html
U.S. paleontologists have discovered a new
raptor dinosaur that lived in western North
America during the Cretaceous period, about 66
million years ago.
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/scienceanzu-wyliei-dinosaur-01811.html
• What does the “Chicken from Hell” Anzu wyliei,
the Nature of Science (NOS), and the Next
Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have to
do with one another???
Nature of Science Survey
Answer “T” (True) or “F” (False)
(Modified from the work of Steven M. Dickhaus)
#
Statement
1
Science can prove anything, solve any problem, or answer any question.
2
Different scientists may get different solutions to the same problem.
3
Science is primarily concerned with understanding how the natural world works.
4
Science can be done poorly.
5
Science is primarily a method for inventing new devices.
6
Scientists have solved most of the major mysteries of nature.
7
Science can study things and events that happened in the past, even if there was no
one there to observe the event.
8
Most engineers and medical doctors are practicing scientists.
9
Scientists often try to disprove their own ideas.
10
Scientists can believe in God or a supernatural being and still do good science.
11
Any research based on logic and reasoning is scientific.
12
Science can be influenced by race, gender, nationality, or religion of the scientist.
13
Science involves dealing with many uncertainties.
14
Scientific concepts and discoveries can cause new problems for people.
15
Something that is "proven scientifically" is considered by scientists as being a fact,
and therefore no longer subject to change.
16
Science requires a great deal of creative activity.
17
Disagreement between scientists is one of the weaknesses of science.
Your
Answer
Correct
Answer
What is Science?
• Science is…
• Science involves…
• Etc.
http://mhrussel.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/untitled1.png
What is NOS about?
• What is science?
• How do scientists do their work?
• What is the nature of scientific
knowledge?
• How does scientific knowledge
develop?
• Is science objective? (What is
objectivity?)
• How does science differ from other
ways of knowing?
Study of NOS
• The study of NOS is informed by:
– Philosophy of Science
– History of Science
– Sociology of Science
– Science Education
What Should a Scientific
Explanation Include? (Examples)
What is a Scientific Explanation?
http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/photos/hypothesis-testing-618.jpg
What is a Scientific Explanation?
• In common usage, an explanation is a
statement made to clarify something and
make it understandable.
• In science, “explanation” means
something more concrete.
• Scientific explanations consist of three
specific parts:
1. claims,
2. evidence,
3. and reasoning.
CER
What is a Scientific Explanation?
• Define claim & evidence.
• A claim is an assertion or conclusion
that answers the original question.
• Evidence is scientific data that supports
the student’s/scientist’s claim. It must be
appropriate and sufficient. It can come
from an investigation or other source,
such as observations, reading material,
or archived data.
What is a Scientific Explanation?
• Define reasoning.
• Reasoning is the
justification that links
the claim and evidence.
It shows why the data
counts as evidence to
support the claim, using
appropriate scientific
principles.
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/science-anzu-wylieidinosaur-01811.html
3.3 m (11 feet) tall
1.5 m (5 feet) tall at the hip
BACK TO: The “Chicken from Hell”
• Resembled a cross between a modern emu and a
reptile.
• Described from 3 specimens that collectively preserve
almost the entire skeleton.
• Paleontologists can study the anatomy and
evolutionary relationships of a mysterious group of
theropod dinosaurs known as caenagnathids
(pronounced SEE-nuh-NAY-thids).
• Researchers
reported that two
of the specimens
display evidence
of pathology.
• One appears to
have a broken and
healed rib.
• The other has
evidence of some
sort of trauma to a
toe.
http://scitechdaily.com/paleontologists-announcediscovery-bird-like-dinosaur-anzu-wyliei/
Lamanna MC, Sues H-D, Schachner ER, Lyson TR (2014) A
New Large-Bodied Oviraptorosaurian Theropod Dinosaur
from the Latest Cretaceous of Western North America.
PLoS ONE 9(3): e92022. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone
.0092022
Figure 1. Exposures of the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Lance formations in western North
America.
The specimens were excavated from the uppermost level of the Hell
Creek rock formation in North and South Dakota – a formation known
for abundant fossils of Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops.
Figure 2. Craniomandibular skeleton of Anzu wyliei gen. et sp. nov.
• The dinosaur
would have
resembled a
gigantic flightless
bird, more than a
typical theropod
dinosaur such as
Tyrannosaurus
rex.
• It weighed an
estimated 200 to
300 kg (440 to 660
pounds).
Lamanna MC, Sues H-D, Schachner ER, Lyson TR (2014) A New Large-Bodied Oviraptorosaurian Theropod Dinosaur from
the Latest Cretaceous of Western North America. PLoS ONE 9(3): e92022. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
Anzu wyliei
• Its jaws were tipped with a
toothless beak, and its head
sported a tall, rounded crest
similar to that of a
cassowary.
Casuarius casuarius
Figure 3. Photographs of craniomandibular elements of Anzu wyliei gen. et sp. nov.
• With large sharp claws,
Anzu wyliei was an
omnivore, eating
vegetation, small animals
and perhaps eggs while
living on a wet floodplain.
The dinosaur apparently
got into some scrapes.
• Anzu wyliei is the largest
oviraptorosaur found in
North America
• Oviraptorosaurs are a
group of dinosaurs that
are closely related to
birds and often have
strange, cassowary-like
crests on their heads.
Lamanna MC, Sues H-D, Schachner ER, Lyson TR (2014) A New Large-Bodied
Oviraptorosaurian Theropod Dinosaur from the Latest Cretaceous of Western North
America. PLoS ONE 9(3): e92022. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
Figure 4. Postcranial skeleton of Anzu wyliei gen. et sp. nov. as preserved in the CM specimens.
• More than a dozen
oviraptorid species
have been discovered,
all in Mongolia and
China, and many are
known from beautifullypreserved, complete or
nearly complete
skeletons.
• Additionally, beginning
in the 1990s, several
small, primitive
relatives of oviraptorids
were unearthed in
much older, about 125
million-year-old rocks
in northeastern China.
Lamanna MC, Sues H-D, Schachner ER, Lyson TR (2014) A New Large-Bodied
Oviraptorosaurian Theropod Dinosaur from the Latest Cretaceous of Western North
America. PLoS ONE 9(3): e92022. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
Figure 6. Strict consensus trees resulting from successive trials of phylogenetic analysis.
• Paleontologists have
established that caenagnathids,
oviraptorids, and these more
archaic Chinese species are
closely related to one another,
and have united them as the
theropod group
Oviraptorosauria.
• Location of oviraptorosaurs in
both Asia and North America is
due to the fact that these
continents were frequently
connected during the Mesozoic
Era, allowing dinosaurs and
other land animals to roam
between them.
Lamanna MC, Sues H-D, Schachner ER, Lyson TR (2014) A New LargeBodied Oviraptorosaurian Theropod Dinosaur from the Latest
Cretaceous of Western North America. PLoS ONE 9(3): e92022.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
Figure 7. Calibrated phylogeny of oviraptorosaurian theropods showing hypothesized position of
Anzu wyliei gen. et sp. nov.
• Paleontologists
have established
that caenagnathids
and oviraptorids,
are closely related
to one another, and
have united them
as the theropod
group
Oviraptorosauria.
Lamanna MC, Sues H-D, Schachner ER, Lyson TR (2014) A New Large-Bodied
Oviraptorosaurian Theropod Dinosaur from the Latest Cretaceous of Western North
America. PLoS ONE 9(3): e92022. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0092022
Why new science
standards? Why now?
Standards Development
 Our last science standards were adopted
in 1998
 We know more about how people learn
 Emphasis has shifted, new advances
http://www.nextgenscience.org/
Standards Development
 Organized by Achieve, Inc. but led by the states.
California was one of 26 Lead States
 Multiple rounds of input on public and
private drafts over an 18 month period
 State Review Team and Science Expert Panels
convened to provide input and
recommendations to State Superintendent of
Public Instruction Tom Torlakson
Shifts From Old to New Standards
 A marriage between the doing of science
and the knowing of science
 Architecture is different
 Written in terms of how students will be
assessed (Performance Expectations)
Three Dimensions
• Scientific and Engineering
Practices
• Crosscutting Concepts
• Disciplinary Core Ideas
Dimension 1
Science & Engineering Practices
1.
Asking questions
(science) and defining
problems (engineering)
5. Using mathematics and
computational thinking
6. Constructing explanations
(science) and designing
solutions (engineering)
2.
Developing and using
models
3.
Planning and carrying out 7. Engaging in argument from
evidence
investigations
4.
Analyzing and interpreting 8. Obtaining, evaluating, and
communicating
data
information
For each, the Framework includes a description of the practice, the culminating
12th grade learning goals, and what we know about progression over time.
15
Dimension 2
Crosscutting Concepts
1. Patterns
2. Cause and effect
3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
4. Systems and system models
5. Energy and matter
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change
32
Dimension 3
Disciplinary Core Ideas
Life Science
Physical Science
LS1: From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
PS1: Matter and Its Interactions
LS2: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
LS3: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of
Traits
PS2: Motion and Stability: Forces and
Interactions
PS3: Energy
PS4: Waves and Their Applications in
Technologies for Information Transfer
LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity
Earth & Space Science
Engineering & Technology
ESS1: Earth’s Place in the Universe
ETS1: Engineering Design
ESS2: Earth’s Systems
ETS2: Links Among Engineering,
Technology, Science, and Society
ESS3: Earth and Human Activity
Less emphasis on:
Discrete Facts
Isolated investigation and
experimentation process
skills
Student acquisition of
information
Numerous Standards
Uneven articulation
throughout grade levels
More emphasis on:
Conceptual understanding with a focus on
depth over breadth
Integration of science and engineering
practices with content
Student understanding and use of scientific
knowledge within and across science
disciplines, and science and engineering
practices
Limited number of disciplinary Core Ideas
and Cross Cutting Concepts that unify the
study of science and engineering
Learning progressions that develop K-12
*Presentation to the State Board of Education, July 10, 2013
Less emphasis on:
No Engineering
More emphasis on:
Engineering standards and practices
that all students should encounter
Assessing science
Assessing scientific understanding and
knowledge
reasoning specified by the
performance expectations
Limited correlation
Correlation with CCSS ELA and
with other subjects
Mathematics
Limited integration of Integration of science disciplines in
science disciplines in middle school
middle school
*Presentation to the State Board of Education, July 10, 2013
Architecture of a Standard
Performance
Expectations
Foundation
Boxes
Connection
Boxes
1998 CA Kindergarten
Life Science & Earth
Science
Students know how to
observe and describe
similarities and differences in
the appearance and behavior of
plants and animals
NGSS Kindergarten
Earth & Space
Science
Use a model to represent
the relationship between
the needs of different plants
or animals (including
humans) and the places they
Students know characteristics live. (K-ESS3-1.)
of mountains, rivers, oceans,
valleys, deserts, and local
landforms.
1998 CA 7th Grade
Life Science
Students know the
function of the Umbilicus
and placenta during
pregnancy
NGSS Middle School
Life Science
Use argument
supported by evidence
for how the body is a
system of interacting
Students know how bones subsystems composed of
and muscles work together groups of cells. (MS-LS1to provide a structural
3.)
framework for movement.
1998 CA High School
Chemistry
Students know how
reaction rates depend
on such factors as
concentration,
temperature, and
pressure.
NGSS High School
Physical Science
Apply scientific principles
and evidence to provide
an explanation about the
effects of changing the
temperature or concentration
of the reacting particles on the
rate at which a reaction
occurs.(HS-PS1-5.)
Appendices
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
Conceptual Shifts
Responses to May Public Feedback
College and Career Readiness
All Standards, All Students
Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions in the NGSS
Science and Engineering Practices in the NGSS
Crosscutting Concepts in the NGSS
Nature of Science in the NGSS
Engineering Design in the NGSS
Science, Technology, Society, and the Environment
Model Course Mapping in Middle and High School
Connections to Common Core State Standards in Mathematics
Connections to Common Core State Standards in English
Language Arts
The Nature of Science and NGSS
The nature of science is included in the Next Generation Science
Standards. Here we present the NOS Matrix. The basic
understandings about the nature of science are:
1. Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods
2. Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence
3. Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New
Evidence
4. Scientific Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain
Natural Phenomena
5. Science is a Way of Knowing
6. Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in
Natural Systems
7. Science is a Human Endeavor
8. Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material
World
Overview
One goal of science education is to help students understand the nature of scientific knowledge. This matrix presents eight major themes and grade level
understandings about the nature of science. Four themes extend the scientific and engineering practices and four themes extend the crosscutting concepts. These
eight themes are presented in the left column. The matrix describes learning outcomes for the themes at grade bands for K-2, 3-5, middle school, and high
school. Appropriate learning outcomes are expressed in selected performance expectations and presented in the foundation boxes throughout the standards.
Understandings about the Nature of Science
Categories
Scientific
Investigations Use a
Variety of Methods
K-2
3-5
Middle School
High School
 Science investigations
 Science methods are determined
 Science investigations use a variety of methods and
 Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the
 Scientist use different
 Science investigations use a
 Science investigations are guided by a set of values
 New technologies advance scientific knowledge.
 Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that
begin with a question.
ways to study the world.
by questions.
variety of methods, tools, and
techniques.
tools to make measurements and observations.
to ensure accuracy of measurements, observations,
and objectivity of findings.
 Science depends on evaluating proposed
explanations.
 Scientific values function as criteria in distinguishing
between science and non-science.
same set of procedures to obtain data.


Scientific Knowledge
is Based on Empirical
Evidence
Scientific Knowledge
is Open to Revision in
Light of New Evidence
Science Models, Laws,
Mechanisms, and
Theories Explain
Natural Phenomena
 Scientists look for
patterns and order when
making observations
about the world.
 Science knowledge can
change when new
information is found.
 Scientists use drawings,
sketches, and models as
a way to communicate
ideas.
 Scientists search for
cause and effect
relationships to explain
natural events.
 Science findings are based on
recognizing patterns.
 Scientists use tools and
technologies to make accurate
measurements and
observations.
 Science explanations can change
based on new evidence.
 Science theories are based on a
body of evidence and many
tests.
 Science explanations describe
the mechanisms for natural
events.
 Science knowledge is based upon logical and
conceptual connections between evidence and
explanations.
 Science disciplines share common rules of obtaining
and evaluating empirical evidence.




 Scientific explanations are subject to revision and
improvement in light of new evidence.
 The certainty and durability of science findings
varies.
 Science findings are frequently revised and/or
reinterpreted based on new evidence.



 Theories are explanations for observable






phenomena.
Science theories are based on a body of evidence
developed over time.
Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of
natural phenomena.
A hypothesis is used by scientists as an idea that
may contribute important new knowledge for the
evaluation of a scientific theory.
The term "theory" as used in science is very different
from the common use outside of science.



include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity,
skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of
findings.
The discourse practices of science are organized around disciplinary
domains that share exemplars for making decisions regarding the
values, instruments, methods, models, and evidence to adopt and use.
Scientific investigations use a variety of methods, tools, and
techniques to revise and produce new knowledge.
Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence.
Science disciplines share common rules of evidence used to evaluate
explanations about natural systems.
Science includes the process of coordinating patterns of evidence with
current theory.
Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence
supporting a single explanation.
Scientific explanations can be probabilistic.
Most scientific knowledge is quite durable but is, in principle, subject
to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing
evidence.
Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify
the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may
result in revision of an explanation.
Theories and laws provide explanations in science, but theories do not
with time become laws or facts.
A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the
natural world, based on a body of facts that has been repeatedly
confirmed through observation and experiment, and the science
community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new
evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the
theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence.
Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in
the development of a scientific theory.
Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among
observable phenomena.
Scientists often use hypotheses to develop and test theories and
explanations.
Understandings about the Nature of Science
Categories
Science is a Way of
Knowing
K-2
 Science knowledge helps
us know about the world.
3-5
 Science is both a body of
knowledge and processes
that add new knowledge.
 Science is a way of knowing
that is used by many people.
Middle School
 Science is both a body of knowledge and the processes
and practices used to add to that body of knowledge.
 Science knowledge is cumulative and many people,
from many generations and nations, have contributed
to science knowledge.
 Science is a way of knowing used by many people, not
just scientists.
High School
 Science is both a body of knowledge that represents a current



Scientific Knowledge
 Science assumes natural
Assumes an Order and
events happen today as
Consistency in Natural
they happened in the
Systems
past.
 Many events are
repeated.
Science is a Human
 People have practiced
Endeavor
science for a long time.
 Men and women of
diverse backgrounds are
scientists and engineers.
Science Addresses
Questions About the
Natural and Material
World.
 Scientists study the
natural and material
world.
 Science assumes consistent
patterns in natural systems.
 Basic laws of nature are the
same everywhere in the
universe.
 Men and women from all
cultures and backgrounds
choose careers as scientists
and engineers.
 Most scientists and engineers
work in teams.
 Science affects everyday life.
 Creativity and imagination are
important to science.
 Science assumes that objects and events in natural
systems occur in consistent patterns that are
understandable through measurement and observation.
 Science carefully considers and evaluates anomalies in
data and evidence.

 Men and women from different social, cultural, and
 Scientific knowledge is a result of human endeavor, imagination, and

 Individuals and teams from many nations and cultures have


 Science findings are limited to 
what can be answered with
empirical evidence.

understanding of natural systems and the processes used to refine,
elaborate, revise, and extend this knowledge.
Science is a unique way of knowing and there are other ways of
knowing.
Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing through use of
empirical standards, logical arguments, and skeptical review.
Science knowledge has a history that includes the refinement of, and
changes to, theories, ideas, and beliefs over time.
Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws
operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in
the future.
Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic
laws are consistent.


ethnic backgrounds work as scientists and engineers.
Scientists and engineers rely on human qualities such
as persistence, precision, reasoning, logic, imagination
and creativity.
Scientists and engineers are guided by habits of mind
such as intellectual honesty, tolerance of ambiguity,
skepticism and openness to new ideas.
Advances in technology influence the progress of
science and science has influenced advances in
technology.
Scientific knowledge is constrained by human capacity,
technology, and materials.
Science limits its explanations to systems that lend
themselves to observation and empirical evidence.
Science knowledge can describe consequences of
actions but is not responsible for society’s decisions.
Nature of Science understandings most closely associated with Practices
Nature of Science understandings most closely associated with Crosscutting Concepts
creativity.
contributed to science and to advances in engineering.
 Scientists’ backgrounds, theoretical commitments, and fields of
endeavor influence the nature of their findings.
 Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and
science has influenced advances in technology.
 Science and engineering are influenced by society and society is
influenced by science and engineering.
 Not all questions can be answered by science.
 Science and technology may raise ethical issues for which science, by
itself, does not provide answers and solutions.
 Science knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not
what should happen. The latter involves ethics, values, and human
decisions about the use of knowledge.
 Many decisions are not made using science alone, but rely on social
and cultural contexts to resolve issues.
California’s Timeline
 September 4, 2013 State Board of Education adopted NGSS
 November 6, 2013 SBE adopted an integrated model as the







preferred approach for middle school (a discipline focus
model approved as an alternative)
Jan-Feb 2014 Science Framework Focus Groups and Public
Comment
April 2014 – deadline to apply to serve on Framework
Committee
July 2014 Science Framework Development Begins
2014 Science Assessment Stakeholder meetings
2016 anticipated adoptions of California Science Framework
2015-16 (more likely 2016-17) implementation of NGSS in
schools
2016-17 Instructional Materials Adoption Process
Where to get more information
 NGSS website: www.nextgenscience.org/
 CSTA website: www.cascience.org/csta/ngss.asp
 Consider joining the NGSS listserv hosted by CED or the NGSS Blog on the CSTA website
 Check out the CSTA calendar of events to find NGSS review workshops
 NSTA’s NGSS website www.nsta.org/about/standardsupdate/default.aspx
 Framework – available as PDF or for purchase
www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13165
 CEDWorkshops at the CSTA Conference:
http://www.cascience.org/csta/pdf/ConferenceHandouts/2013/Boyd_Fram
ework.pdf (Framework Timeline)
http://www.cascience.org/csta/pdf/ConferenceHandouts/2013/Lafontaine
_NGSSTheBasics.pdf (NGSS Basics)
45
The Link Between
Dinosaurs and Birds
• When scientists encounter a new
specimen, part of their research is to
observe, describe, and identify it.
In part, the identification process
happens by following an extremely
detailed checklist marking the
presence or absence of particular
characters.
• Examining the patterns of the
appearance and disappearance of
characters is the key to figuring out
the relatedness of organisms.
The Link Between
Dinosaurs and Birds
• Compare at least three specimens each from Dinosaur Hall and from
the Hall of Birds. Begin to think about the relative relatedness of these
specimens by examining the various features you observe.
• In addition to these characters, hints about the identity of each
specimen can be found by observing:
• the body plan and posture (e.g. bipedal, more of a horizontal or
vertical stance)
• the relative length of arms to body size
• the bones in the hands and fingers (separate or fused together)
• the length and structure of the tail
• the presence or absence and orientation of toes 1 and 5 on the
foot
• the presence or absence of teeth
• the shape of the breastbone and extent to which sternum is
keeled
Analysis and Hypothesis
• The following questions may help
you begin to analyze and
hypothesize about the relatedness
of the specimens:
1. Which characters do they all
share?
2. Which characters do some
specimens share but not
others?
3. Are some of these specimens
more closely related to each
other?
Scientific Claims
• Overwhelming evidence indicates that birds
are a group of dinosaurs (avian theropod
dinosaurs) that escaped the massive
extinction 65 million years ago.
• Birds share many anatomical characteristics
with their extinct relatives.
• Many characteristics present in their theropod
ancestors were modified to enable birds to
fly.
Scientific Claim: Birds Evolved from
Dinosaurs
Dinosaur Hall
• Dinosaur Hall at the Natural History
Museum of Los Angeles, is one of the
most extraordinary dinosaur exhibits in the
world.
• Inside are more than 300 real fossils, and
20 complete dinosaurs and ancient sea
creatures.
http://www.nhm.org/site/explore-exhibits/permanent-exhibits/dinosaur-hall
Dinosaur Hall
Exploration:
1.) Claim: Birds Evolved from Dinosaurs.
2.) Visit Dinosaur Hall at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles,
which is one of the most extraordinary dinosaur exhibits in the world. Inside
are more than 300 real fossils, and 20 complete dinosaurs and ancient sea
creatures.
3.) Provide as much evidence as you can from Dinosaur Hall to support the
aforementioned claim “Birds Evolved from Dinosaurs.”
4.) Provide the reasoning behind each piece of evidence your group
collected to support the claim.
Ralph W. Schreiber Hall of Birds
• This hall presents an incredibly diverse
selection of birds from all over the world,
with examples of more than 400 species
that are local to Southern California.
Great Auk
Pinguinus impennis
Cassowary
http://www.nhm.org/site/explore-exhibits/permanent-exhibits/birds
Ralph W. Schreiber Hall of Birds
1.) Claim: Birds Evolved from Dinosaurs.
2.) Visit the Ralph W. Schreiber Hall of Birds at the Natural History
Museum of Los Angeles. This hall presents an incredibly diverse
selection of birds from all over the world, with examples of more than 400
species that are local to Southern California.
2.) Provide as much evidence as you can from Hall of Birds to support the
aforementioned claim “Birds Evolved from Dinosaurs.”
3.) Provide the reasoning behind each piece of evidence your group
collected to support the claim.
Provide examples from the
Dinosaur Hall and Hall of Birds
Exhibits to support…
• The Nature of Science in the NGSS
• Choose a particular Grade Level (K-12) and
apply as many of the NGSS/NOS
categories to the exhibit as possible.
• Be sure to provide at least one example
from the exhibit per category.
• Design/apply a lesson plan to support your
findings.
Resources
• Next Generation Science Standards
www.nextgenscience.org/
• CDE updates to the NGSS
www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ca/sc/ngssintrod.asp
• http://www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ca/sc/ngssstandard
s.asp
• NSTA Common Core Resources
www.nsta.org/about/standardsupdate
Scientific Hypothesis, Law,
Theory, and Fact
• What is a Fact?
• What is a Hypothesis?
• What is a Law?
• What is a Scientific Theory?
FACTS
• Fact: Facts are the objects and events that
exist around us, which we might observe and
experience.
• Facts or shared empirical observations are
the foundation upon which all scientific
knowledge is constructed, but what scientists
do with those facts is key to a complete
understanding and appreciation of the
scientific enterprise (Fitzhugh 2009).
Scientific Fact
• Fact: In science, an observation that has
been repeatedly confirmed (NRC, 1998).
How Can FACTS be Used in
Science?
• In brief, facts or shared data and observations are the raw
materials of science that may be used in a variety of ways.
• Facts may be formed into a law or “a descriptive
generalization about how some aspect of the natural world
behaves under stated circumstances” (National Academy of
Sciences (NAS), 1998, p. 5). Another distinct kind of scientific
knowledge is a theory which is “a well substantiated
explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can
incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypotheses”
(p. 5).
How Can FACTS be Used at the NHM LA?
American black bear
Ursus americanus (Pallas, 1780)
http://www.nhm.org/site/explore-exhibits/permanent-exhibits/northamerican-mammals/black-bear
• For instance, we have the facts that mammals
have hair—a set of observations we wish to
explain (Fitzhugh 2009).
HYPOTHESIS
• How would you incorporate the aforementioned
fact(s) into a hypothesis?
• An evolutionary biologist might then present the
following hypothesis:
• As the result of random mutation, hair originated in
the earliest mammals, which were diminutive and
likely nocturnal creatures, living among the
dinosaurs, and there was a selective advantage to
the presence of hair because it ensured a constant
body temperature.
Scientific Hypothesis
• Hypothesis: A testable statement about the
natural world that can be used to build more
complex inferences and explanations (NRC,
1998).
• A hypothesis in the classroom or museum
setting usually involves a prediction followed
by an explanation.
• Hypotheses suggest to us what might have
happened in the past to account for what we
observe in the present.
http://assets.baymard.com/blog/ab-testing-problem-hypothesisfull-size.png
Scientific Law vs. Theory
• In the language of science, laws and
theories are related but distinct kinds of
scientific knowledge.
Scientific Law vs. Theory
• Laws and theories are both products and tools of
science, but each has a distinct heritage and role.
One does NOT become the other when more
evidence is amassed (Horner & Rubba, 1978,
1979; McComas, 1997).
• Theories and laws are equally mature, important,
useful and unique kinds of scientific knowledge.
Understanding the fundamental distinctions and
relationships between laws and theories is essential
in fully appreciating and evaluating the work of
scientists while gaining fluency in the language of
science.
https://pbs.twimg.com/profile
_images/1384598458/PolarBear-6108-crop.jpg
http://cbsla.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/natural-history-museum.jpg
• The Natural History Museum of Los
Angeles can provide the opportunity for
students to understand the roles and
discrete contributions of laws and theories
while providing opportunities for them to
question their beliefs about these and other
related issues in the nature of science.
• Theories, on the other hand, are used to not only
guide us in understanding the present by way of
the past, but to also anticipate what we might
experience in the future.
• As with any human endeavor, however,
hypotheses and theories might be incorrect. So a
fundamental part of any field of science is the
process of critically evaluating our hypotheses and
theories, known as testing.
http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/radiantskies/radiantskies1212/radiantskie
s121200432/16632227-abstract-word-cloud-for-scientific-theory-with-relatedtags-and-terms.jpg
Scientific Law
• Law: A descriptive generalization about
how some aspect of the natural world
behaves under stated circumstances
(NRC, 1998). Laws include predictions
made about natural phenomena.
Scientific Theory
• Theory: A well-substantiated
explanation/mechanism of some aspect of the
natural world that can incorporate facts, laws,
inferences, and tested hypotheses (NRC, 1998).
Theories explain how the law works (McComas,
2003).
• Scientific theories are explanations that are based
on lines of evidence, enable valid predictions, and
have been scientifically tested in many ways.
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/under1.GIF
http://www.projectrho.com/public_html/rocket/images/respectscience/theory.jpg
Scientific Law vs. Theory
• Sonleitner, (1989) makes the point that
theory and law, are qualitatively different in
what they are and what they do.
• He states that laws are generalizations
about phenomena while theories are
explanations of phenomena.
• Theory and law are not distinguished by
their degree of verification.
Core NOS Ideas to Inform K-12 Science
Teaching
• The following NOS ideas are emerging as the consensus elements that
should define the content core when NOS is taught as content in K-12
educational programs.
1) Science demands and relies on empirical evidence.
2) Knowledge production in science shares many common factors
such as shared habits of mind, norms, logical thinking and methods
(including careful data recording, truthfulness, observation, etc.)
• However, there is no one scientific methods by which all science is
done
• Experiments are not the only route to knowledge
• Science uses both inductive reasoning and hypothetico-deductive
testing
• Scientific conclusions are peer reviewed but observations and
experiments are not generally repeated
3) Scientific knowledge is tentative but durable. (This means that
science cannot prove anything but scientific conclusions are still
valuable and long lasting)
• The problem of induction makes ultimate “proof” impossible
Consensus Views on NOS
(cont’d)
4) Laws and theories are related but distinct kinds
of scientific knowledge. Hypotheses are special,
but general, kinds of scientific knowledge (and
the term probably causes more problems then it
is worth).
5) Science has a creative component.
6) Science has a subjective element. (Ideas and
observations in science are “theory”-laden; this
bias plays both potentially positive and negative
roles in scientific investigation).
Consensus Views on NOS
(cont’d)
7) There are historical, cultural and social influences on
science.
8) Science and technology impact each other, but they
are not the same.
9) Science and its methods cannot answer all questions.
(In other words, there are limits on the kinds of questions
that can be asked of science. There is no conflict between
science and religion).
This list has been developed with reference to sources including McComas, Clough
and Almazroa (1998), McComas and Olson (1998), Lederman, et al (2002) and
Osborn, et al (2003).
References
Allen, G. and J. Baker. 2001. Biology: Scientific Process and Social Issues. Bethesda, Md.: Fitzgerald
Science Press, Inc.
Bybee, R. W. (Ed.) 2004. Evolution in Perspective: The Science Teacher’s Compendium. Arlington,
VA: NSTA Press.
Campbell, N.A., Reece, J.B., and Mitchell, L.G. 1999. Biology (5th ed.). Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin
Cummings.
Darwin, C. 1964. On the Origin of Species (Facsimile 1st ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press.
Freeman, S. & Herron, J.C. 2004. Evolutionary analysis (3rd. Ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Gould, J.A. 1992. Classical Philosophical Questions. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Miller, K.R. 2006. Presentation. NSTA Conference. Anaheim, CA.
Miller, K. R. 1999. Finding Darwin’s God. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Narguizian, P. 2004. Understanding the nature of science through evolution. The Science Teacher
71(9): 40-45.
National Academy of Sciences. (2004). Evolution in Hawaii: A Supplement to Teaching About
Evolution and the Nature of Science, by Steve Olson. Washington, DC: The National Academies
Press.
National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press.
Pennock, R.T. (2005). On teaching evolution and the nature of science. In J. Cracraft & R.W. Bybee
(Eds.), Evolutionary science and society: Educating a new generation (pp.7-12). Washington, DC:
AIBS/BSCS.
Peterson, G. R. 2002. The intelligent design movement: Science or ideology? Zygon 37(1): 7-23.
Price, P.W. (1996). Biological evolution. New York: Saunders College Publishing.
Scott, E.C. (2005). Evolution vs. creationism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
University of California Museum of Paleontology at UC Berkeley and the National Center for Science
Education: evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evohome.html
Volpe, E.P. & Rosenbaum, P.A. (2000). Understanding evolution. New York: McGraw Hill.
Key Concepts
• A scientific theory is an explanation inferred from multiple
lines of evidence for some broad aspect of the natural world
and is logical, testable, and predictive. As new evidence
comes to light, or new interpretations of existing data are
proposed, theories may be revised and even change;
however, they are not tenuous or speculative.
• A scientific hypothesis is an inferred explanation of an
observation or research finding; while more exploratory in
nature than a theory, it is based on existing scientific
knowledge.
• A scientific law is an expression of a mathematical or
descriptive relationship observed in nature. It also has
predictive power.
• VTShome.org
• Visual literacy & Science
Literacy (connections)…
• Observation(s)/Claims/Evidence/
Reasoning
• Nhm.org
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