Experimental Study of Corona Discharge Generated in a Modified

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ExperimentalStudyofCoronaDischarge
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666
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 46, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2010
Experimental Study of Corona Discharge Generated
in a Modified Wire–Plate Electrode Configuration
for Electrostatic Process Applications
Abdelber Bendaoud, Senior Member, IEEE, Amar Tilmatine, Senior Member, IEEE, Karim Medles,
Mohamed Younes, Octavian Blejan, and Lucian Dascalescu, Fellow, IEEE
Abstract—Parallel wire–plate electrode arrangements are
widely used to generate corona discharges in various electrostatic
processes. This paper analyzes the characteristic features of a
slight modification of such an electrode configuration. In all the
experiments, a stainless steel wire of diameter 0.18 or 0.57 mm
was used as the corona electrode, energized from a reversible dc
high-voltage supply. The modified two-level grounded electrode
consisted of three metallic plate segments, which are parallel to the
wire and located at 20, 15 (or 10), and 20 mm from it, respectively.
In a first set of experiments, the current–voltage characteristics
of this electrode arrangement were obtained for both polarities
of the high-voltage supply and compared to those of a standard
wire–plate electrode system. In a second set of experiments, two of
the plate segments were made of several aluminum strips insulated
from each other and successively connected to a microammeter,
in order to characterize the distribution of the corona current
at the surface of the modified grounded electrode. The third set
of experiments described in this paper was performed with the
corona electrode energized from a rotary spark gap connected at
the output of the dc high-voltage supply. Finally, the possibility of
applying this modified electrode configuration for the precipitation
of dust contained in flue gases is briefly discussed.
Index Terms—Corona discharge, electrostatic precipitator,
rotary spark gap.
I. I NTRODUCTION
P
RECIPITATION of dusts, spraying of powders, separation
of granular mixtures, and flue gas treatment are only a
few of the industrial applications of corona discharges [1]–[8].
The particles of dust, the powders, or the granular materials
processed in electrostatic precipitators, sprayers, or separators,
respectively, are charged by the ions generated in such disPaper 2008-EPC-152.R2, presented at the 2008 Industry Applications
Society Annual Meeting, Edmonton, AB, Canada, October 5–9, and approved
for publication in the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON I NDUSTRY A PPLICATIONS
by the Electrostatic Processes Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications
Society. Manuscript submitted for review November 19, 2008 and released
for publication September 5, 2009. First published February 5, 2010; current
version published March 19, 2010.
A. Bendaoud, A. Tilmatine, K. Medles, and M. Younes are with the IRECOM
Laboratory, University Djillali Liabes, Sidi Bel Abbès 22000, Algeria (e-mail:
[email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]).
O. Blejan is with Renault Technologie Roumanie, 077190 Voluntari,
Romania (e-mail: [email protected]).
L. Dascalescu is with the Electrostatics of Dispersed Media Research
Unit, Electrohydrodynamics Group, P’ Institute, UPR-3346, CNRS-University
of Poitiers-ENSMA, IUT d’Angoulême, 16021 Angoulême, France (e-mail:
[email protected]).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2010.2041092
charges. The electric forces that act on the corona-charged
particulate matter achieve the dust collection, the powder deposition, or the granule separations [9]–[11]. In plasma chemical
reactors, the corona discharge transfers to the treated gas the
energy that is necessary to decompose the pollutants [12].
Much work has already been done to characterize the various
types of corona electrodes and to calculate the electric field
strength, as well as the ionic charge density that they generate [13]–[19]. Indeed, the efficiency of any such electrostatic
process depends not only on the maximum magnitude but also
on the spatial distribution of the electric field strength and
of the ionic charge density in the corona discharge. Various
constructions have been described in technical literature [15],
[16], accompanied by current–voltage curves that enabled their
comparison under certain well-defined conditions (distance to a
grounded electrode and polarity of the high-voltage electrode).
Corona discharge in wire–plate electrode arrangements has
been thoroughly investigated, mostly in relation with the design
of high-voltage dc and ac power transmission lines [20]–[22].
Experimental studies have clarified important practical issues,
such as the onset voltage level of the corona discharge, power
losses, and the influence of ambient conditions (humidity,
wind, . . .). Researchers elaborated sophisticated numerical
models for calculating the electric field and the space charge
generated by an ionizing wire facing a plate electrode [23], [24].
Accurate numerical models have also been validated for the
study of two other electrode configurations, which are typical
for electrostatic precipitators: wires between parallel plates
connected to the ground and coaxial wire–cylinder electrodes
[25]–[27]. These studies aimed at improving the efficiency of
the electrostatic precipitation process, which is known to depend on the migration velocity of the charged particles toward
the collector electrode. There are two ways of improving the
collection efficiency of a precipitator:
1) increase the migration velocity, by maximizing the charge
carried by the particles and the strength of the electric
field in which they evolve;
2) decrease the velocity of the gas.
In the wire–plate electrode arrangement, the simplest way
to increase the electric field strength and also the space charge
density would be to reduce the interelectrode spacing, but this
would modify the gas velocity: The particles would spend
less time in the corona discharge, and for a given length of
the collector electrode, the probability for them to precipitate
decreases. The effect of the gas flow field is particularly strong
0093-9994/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE
BENDAOUD et al.: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CORONA DISCHARGE
667
Fig. 2. Grounded electrode arrangement model #2.1 (2.2) with 12 aluminum
strips: 1 to 12.
Fig. 1. “Dual-type” corona electrode facing (a) one-level grounded electrode
model #1 and (b) modified two-level grounded electrode model #2.1 or
#2.2, energized from a reversible dc high-voltage supply; d2 = 15 mm for
model #2.1; d2 = 10 mm for model #2.2.
for smaller particles (less than 1 μm in diameter). Solutions
should be found to better charge these particles and intensify the
electric field that acts on them without increasing the average
velocity of the gas in the precipitator.
In a recent paper, two of the authors pointed out the spectacular modification of the corona current density distribution
generated by a local reduction in the cross-sectional area of a
standard coaxial wire–cylinder precipitator [13]. They report
a significant improvement of the collection efficiency of the
modified precipitator, as compared to the standard installations
of similar dimensions. Would it be beneficial to modify in a
similar way the standard wire–plate electrode configuration of
the electrostatic precipitators?
The aim of this work is to give an answer to this question,
by characterizing the corona discharge generated between an
electrode wire, connected to a dc high-voltage supply, and
several plate segments that are parallel to that wire and located
at different distances from it. It is expected that the density of
the corona current and the intensity of the electric field will
increase in certain sections of the device, improving the corona
charging of the particles, while the average velocity of the gas
will remain practically the same.
II. E XPERIMENTAL S ETUP
The corona discharge was generated using the so-called
“dual-type electrode,” which is composed of a thin tungsten
wire of length 198 mm and diameter 0.18 or 0.57 mm, attached
to a copper cylinder of diameter 20 mm, which serves as the
mechanical support to the ionizing element, as shown in Fig. 1.
The ionizing wire and the supporting cylinder were energized
from the same reversible dc high-voltage supply (model SL300,
Spellman, Hauppauge, NY). The two elements were parallel,
and the plane defined by their axis was perpendicular to the
grounded electrode.
The experiments were performed with several models of
grounded electrodes. The “standard” one-level grounded elec-
Fig. 3. Electrode arrangement energized from a rotary spark gap connected to
a dc high-voltage supply.
trode, designated as model #1, consisted of a metallic (aluminum) plate, spaced at 20 mm from the ionizing wire, as
shown in Fig. 1(a). The “modified” two-level grounded electrodes, designated as model #2.1 and #2.2, were confectioned of
12 aluminum strips glued at the surface of a two-level insulating
support, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The distance between two strips
was 2.2 mm on the lower level and 1 mm on the upper level
of the grounded electrode (Fig. 2). The spacing between the
ionizing wire and the lower level of the grounded electrode
was d = 20 mm. The upper level of the grounded electrode was
located at d2 = 15 mm and d2 = 10 mm from the ionizing wire,
for model #2.1 and #2.2, respectively.
In some experiments, the various electrode arrangements
were energized from a rotary spark gap connected at the output
of the reversible dc high-voltage supply (Fig. 3).
III. E XPERIMENTAL P ROCEDURE
In a first set of experiments, the current–voltage characteristics of model #2.1 and #2.2 were compared to those obtained
668
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 46, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2010
Fig. 4. Current–voltage characteristics obtained at negative polarity of the
corona wire, for model #1 (one-level) and #2.1 (two-level).
Fig. 6. Current–voltage characteristics obtained at negative and positive polarity of the corona wire, for model #2.1 (d2 = 15 mm and a wire diameter of
0.18 mm).
TABLE I
C ORONA O NSET AND S PARKOVER VOLTAGE FOR M ODEL #2.1
TABLE II
C ORONA O NSET AND S PARKOVER VOLTAGE FOR M ODEL #2.2
Fig. 5. Current–voltage characteristics obtained at negative polarity of the
corona wire, for model #1 (one-level) and #2.2 (two-level).
for the standard wire–plate electrode arrangement (model #1),
at both polarities of the high-voltage supply. The current was
measured with an analog microammeter. The high voltage was
indicated on the front panel of the power supply. An experiment
was carried out using also a separate high-voltage probe, to
confirm the accuracy of the readings. Represented on the I–V
characteristics are the current values recorded right after corona
onset or before sparkover.
For the second set of experiments, a microammeter was
connected successively between the ground and each of the
12 aluminum tapes of the collector electrode.
It was thus possible to determine the distribution of the
current density along the two surfaces (lower level and upper
level) and along the lateral surface of the grounded electrode
arrangement. Each experiment was replicated three times.
In a third set of experiments, the current–voltage characteristics and the distribution of the corona current at the surface
of the grounded electrode were obtained for the wire electrode
energized from the rotary spark gap connected at the output of
the reversible high-voltage supply.
All the experiments were performed in the absence of dust
or gas flow, in ambient air (temperature: 22 ± 1 ◦ C; relative
humidity: 43 ± 2%).
IV. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION
A. Current–Voltage Characteristics
The current–voltage characteristics obtained for model #1,
#2.1, and #2.2 at negative polarity can be examined in Figs. 4
and 5. At a given voltage, the corona current generated by the
modified electrode arrangements is higher than that obtained
with the standard wire–plate system. The explanation is that
the electric field is more intense, and hence, the corona current
density is higher at the upper level of model #2.1 and #2.2.
Fig. 7. Corona current densities obtained at a high voltage U = ±17 kV for
model #2.1 (d2 = 15 mm; wire diameter: 0.18 mm).
At negative polarity, the corona current is higher, in absolute
value, than that at a similar high voltage of positive polarity, as
can be seen by examining the current–voltage characteristics
in Fig. 6. The corona onset voltage Uc and the sparkover
voltage Us for d2 = 15 mm (model #2.1) and d2 = 10 mm
(model #2.2), as well as the respective currents Ic and Is , can
be read in Tables I and II.
This is why the negative polarity is preferred in most electrostatic precipitation applications. However, most of the experiments that will be presented in the following sections of
this paper were done at positive polarity, for which the corona
discharge was more stable.
B. Corona Current Density Distribution
The distribution of the current density for model #2.1 (d2 =
15 mm), with a wire diameter of 0.18 mm, is shown in Fig. 7,
for U = 17 and −17 kV. The density is higher for the negative
polarity, in each point at the surface of the collector electrode.
Similar results were obtained for model #2.2.
The aspect of the current density distribution curves is similar
to that for the 0.57-mm-diameter wire. As expected, smaller
current density values were obtained at a given voltage level.
BENDAOUD et al.: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CORONA DISCHARGE
669
V. C ONCLUSION
The modified electrode arrangement has current–voltage
characteristics and current density distributions that are more
advantageous for electrostatic precipitation than those of standard devices. They are expected to provide the following:
1) better particle charging, by intensifying the electric field
strength in the sections of the precipitator with smaller
interelectrode spacing;
2) higher collection efficiency for particles of all sizes, by
reducing the gas velocities through the sections characterized by a larger inter-electrode spacing.
Fig. 8. High-voltage pulses generated by a rotary spark gap, at the frequency
f = 62.5 Hz.
Further work is needed to validate these predictions by carrying out collection efficiency experiments with various types
of pollutants.
R EFERENCES
Fig. 9. Current–voltage characteristics obtained for pulsed energization of the
corona wire for model #2.1 (d2 = 15 mm; wire diameter: 0.18 mm).
Fig. 10. Current distribution obtained for pulsed energization of the corona
wire for model #2.1 (d2 = 15 mm; wire diameter: 0.18 mm).
C. Pulsed Energization
The aspect of the pulse generated by the rotary spark gap
device can be examined in Fig. 8. At the frequency f =
125 Hz, the corona current is higher, in absolute value, than
the value measured obtained at a similar high voltage of f =
62.5 Hz, as shown in Fig. 9. The corona onset voltage is the
same for the two frequencies, but the sparkover voltage at
a frequency f = 125 Hz is higher than that obtained at f =
62.5 Hz. The overall current is smaller than that in the case of
dc energization.
This observation is confirmed by the current density curves
obtained for various pulse frequencies generated by the rotary
spark gap (Fig. 10). The superposition of pulsed and dc energization should be examined as a solution for electrostatic
precipitator applications [28].
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Abdelber Bendaoud (M’08–SM’09) was born in
Oujda, Morocco, in 1957. He received the Dipl.Eng.
degree in electrical engineering from the University
of Sciences and Technology, Oran, Algeria, in 1982,
and the Dr.Eng. and Ph.D. degrees from the Department of Electrical Engineering, University Djillali
Liabes, Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria, in 1999 and 2004,
respectively.
Since 1994, he has been an Assistant/Associate
Professor of electric machines in the Department
of Electrical Engineering, University Djillali Liabes,
where he is a member of the Intelligent Control and Electrical Power Systems Laboratory. His current research interests include electrostatic separation
technologies, high-voltage insulation and gas discharges, electric and magnetic
fields, and electromagnetic compatibility.
Amar Tilmatine (M’08–SM’09) received the M.S.
degree in electrical engineering and the Dr.Eng. degree from the University of Sciences and Technology, Oran, Algeria, in 1988 and 1991, respectively.
Since 1991, he has been with the Department
of Electrical Engineering, University Djillali Liabes,
Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria, where he has been teaching
courses on electric field theory and high-voltage
techniques. He is currently a Professor and Head of
the Electrostatics and High-Voltage Engineering
Research Unit, IRECOM Laboratory. From 2001 to
2009, he visited the Electronics and Electrostatics Research Unit, University
Institute of Technology, Angoulême, France, at least once a year, as an Invited
Scientist, to work on a joint research project on new electrostatic separation
technologies. His other fields of interest are high-voltage insulation and gas
discharges.
Karim Medles was born in Tipaza, Algeria, in
1972. He received the M.S. and Dr.Eng. degrees in
electrical engineering and the Ph.D. degree, with
a thesis that he partly prepared at the University
Institute of Technology, Angoulême, France, with an
18-month research scholarship awarded by the
French Government, from the University Djillali
Liabes, Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria, in 1994, 1999, and
2006, respectively.
In 1999, he joined the Department of Electrical
Engineering, University Djillali Liabes, as a Senior
Lecturer, where he is currently an Associate Professor and the Head of Applied
Electrostatics and Methodology Research Unit, IRECOM Laboratory. He has
published several scientific papers in international and national journals, as well
as in conference proceedings. He was invited as a Visiting Scientist in France.
His current research interests include power systems, high-voltage engineering,
and electrostatics.
Mohamed Younes was born in Mostaganem,
Algeria, in 1965. He received the Dipl.Eng. degree
in electrical engineering from the University of Sciences and Technology, Oran, Algeria, in 1989, and
the Dr.Eng. degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering, University Djillali Liabes, Sidi Bel
Abbès, Algeria, in 1998.
He spent 12 months at the University Institute
of Technology, Angoulême, France, with a research
scholarship, in order to prepare part of the Ph.D. thesis that he defended in 2007 at the University Djillali
Liabes. He is currently an Associate Professor of electrical engineering in the
Department of Electrical Engineering and is a member of the Electrostatics
and High-Voltage Engineering Research Unit, IRECOM Laboratory, University
Djillali Liabes. His current research interests include high-voltage engineering,
computational electrostatics, and fuzzy logic, topics on which he has published
several scientific papers in international and national journals, as well as in
conference proceedings.
Octavian Blejan received the M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Politehnica University of
Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania, in 2003. In 2009,
he defended a Ph.D. thesis on the experimental
and numerical modeling of electrostatic precipitation processes, jointly sponsored by the Politehnica
University, Bucharest, and the University of Poitiers,
Poitiers, France.
Since January 2008, he has been with Renault
Technologie Roumanie, Voluntari, Romania, as an
R&D Engineer. His main interests are corona discharges, corona charging of particulates, numerical analysis of ionized fields,
and pulsed energization of electrostatic precipitators.
BENDAOUD et al.: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CORONA DISCHARGE
Lucian Dascalescu (M’93–SM’95–F’09) received
the Dipl. Eng. degree (with first-class honors) from
the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in
1978, the Dr. Eng. degree in electrotechnical materials from the “Politehnica” University of Bucharest,
Bucharest, Romania, and the Dr. Sci. degree and
the “Habilitation à Diriger de Recherches” diploma
in physics from the University “Joseph Fourier,”
Grenoble, France.
His professional carrier began at CUG (Heavy
Equipment Works), Cluj-Napoca. In 1983, he moved to the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca as an Assistant Professor, later becoming an Associate
Professor of electrical engineering. From October 1991 to June 1992, he
received a research fellowship at the Laboratory of Electrostatics and Dielectric
Materials, Grenoble, where he returned in January 1994, after one year as an Invited Research Associate and Lecturer at Toyohashi University of Technology,
Toyohashi, Japan, and three months as a Visiting Scientist at the University of
Poitiers, Poitiers, France. For four years, he taught a course on electromechanical conversion of energy at the University Institute of Technology, Grenoble.
In September 1997, he was appointed Professor of electrical engineering and
automated systems and Head of the Electronics and Electrostatics Research
Unit, University Institute of Technology, Angoulême. Since 1999, he has been
the Head of the Department of Management and Engineering of Manufacturing
Systems. He is currently the Head of the Electrostatics of Dispersed Media
Research Unit, which is part of the EHD Group, P’ Institute, CNRS-University
of Poitiers-ENSMA, IUT, Angoulême, France. He has been invited to lecture
on the electrostatics of granular materials at various universities and international conferences in China (1988), Poland (1990), USA (1990, 1997, 1999,
and 2008), Japan (1993 and 2009), France (1993 and 2008), Great Britain
(1998), Romania (1999, 2004, and 2006), Canada (2001), Belgium (2002), and
Algeria (2005, 2006, and 2009). He is the author or coauthor of more than
110 papers and is the author of several textbooks in the field of electrical
engineering and ionized gases. He is the holder of 15 patents.
Prof. Dascalescu is a Fellow of IEEE Industry Applications Society (IAS)
and a member of the Electrostatics Society of America, the Electrostatics
Society of Romania, Société des Electriciens et Electroniciens (SEE), and Club
Electrotechnique, Electronique, Automatique (EEA) France. He is also the Vice
Chair of the IEEE France Section, and the Past Chair and Technical Program
Chair of the Electrostatic Processes Committee of the IAS.
671
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