Student Guide-Keeping Laboratory Notebooks

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THE UNC CHARLOTTE WILLIAM STATES LEE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE
ECGR 2161, MEGR 3171L, MEGR 3152, MEGR 3251
Student Guide
Keeping Laboratory Notebooks
M.G. Hodgins Rev 3
Spring 2014
0
Introduction
A laboratory notebook is a permanent primary record of the owner’s laboratory work. It
contains data taken at the time of the experiment as well as data on experiment
preparation entered before the experiment and analyzed results and conclusions processed
after the experiment was concluded. In corporate and industrial laboratories, the
notebook is often a critically important document for both scientific and for legal reasons.
The outcome of patent lawsuits often hinges on the quality, completeness, and credibility
of a laboratory notebook. Many corporations have their own detailed procedures that
must be followed in maintaining and archiving lab notebooks.
Which Notebooks are allowed?
Lab notebooks must be permanently bound. Loose leaf binders are not acceptable. The
preferred notebook has pre-numbered pages and places for dates and investigator's
signatures on each page. It is safest to select something that is clearly labeled as
a laboratory notebook.
Acceptable
Unacceptable
1
Project No.________
TITLE _______________________________________________ Book No. _________
25
From Page No. ____
To Page No. ____
Witnessed & Understood by me,
Date
Invented by
Recorded by:
Date
Preferred Page layout
Notebook Keeping Rules
Use the following rules to maintain your laboratory notebook.
Getting Started
•
•
•
Before you use your notebook, print your name; course name, number and
section; contact information and the date you started using the notebook on
the inside cover, or on the cover if there is a space provided.
If there is no table of contents, reserve the first page for a table of contents.
Title this page as Table of Contents.
If there are no page numbers, number every page, odd and even, at the top
outer corner, before you begin using the notebook.
2
Keeping Your Laboratory Notebook
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Remember that the ultimate goal of a laboratory notebook is to provide a
permanent record of all the information necessary for someone else to
reproduce your experiment and replicate your results. Leave nothing out. Even
the smallest, apparently trivial, detail may make the difference.
Experimental facts should always be given in the past tense.
A narrative style is preferred.
Begin a new page for each experiment.
Use permanent ink. Pencil or erasable ink is not acceptable.
Record all observations as you make them. Do not trust your memory, even
for a minute.
Define all symbols used.
Print all information legibly, preferably in block letters. Do not write
longhand.
Never erase or white-out. If you make a mistake, draw one line through the
erroneous information, leaving it readable. If it is not otherwise obvious,
include a short note explaining the reason for the strikethrough. Date and sign
or initial the strikethrough.
The resistance value was measured at 22.75 Ω
27.75 Ω
Not Acceptable
•
The resistance value was measured at 22.75 Ω
Broken DMM
ent
. St u d
Jo hn C
27.75 Ω
Acceptable
Do not leave gaps or whitespaces in the notebook. Cross out any whitespaces.
This way, no one can go back in and fill in something that didn’t happen.
When you complete an experiment, cross out the whitespace that remains at
the bottom of the final page.
3
The resistance value was measured at 22.75 Ω
The resistance value was measured at 22.75 Ω
The power was turned on and the current value
was measured using the Kiethley Model 2000
digital multimeter. The value was found to be 1.333
Amps.
The power was turned on and the current value
was measured using the Kiethley Model 2000
digital multimeter. The value was found to be 1.333
Amps.
Not Acceptable
•
Acceptable
Enter all primary data directly and immediately into your notebook. Do not
record data on a piece of paper and enter it in your notebook later. Do not
print out and paste in primary data.
Frequency - Hz
Freq. - Hz
100
200
300
400
500
700
Measured V
0.012
0.311
0.437
0.556
0.681
0.773
Not Acceptable
•
•
100
200
300
400
500
700
Measured voltage – V
0.012
0.311
0.437
0.556
0.681
0.773
Acceptable
If you are part of a team, you must record your own data as the experiment
progresses. Do not have one team member record data and send out a
computer printout to be pasted in.
You are allowed to paste processed data into your notebook. Incorporate
computer-generated graphs, charts, printouts, photographs, and similar items
by taping or pasting them into the notebook with permanent adhesive or nonremovable tape. Date and sign across the corner or border. Signing in this way
clearly shows, if at any time in the future, the attachment had been
removed. All pasted entries must have a descriptive caption and all plots must
include units. The source of figures that you did not create must be referenced.
4
Filter Transfer Function
Gain (Unitless)
2.00
1.50
1.00
1.00
0.50
0
0.00
0
500
1000
1500
Not Acceptable
•
•
1.50
0.00
0.50
•
2.50
2.00
2.50
•
ent
. St u d
Jo hn C
2011
June 1
500
1000
1500
Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 1 Measured Filter Transfer Function for
RLC Filter
Acceptable
Reference large data files collected electronically by file name and location.
The laboratory notebooks should contain a summary of the information in
these files. Create backup files immediately.
Include only procedures that you personally perform and data that you
personally observe. If you are working with a lab partner and taking shared
responsibility for performing procedures and observing data, note that fact as
well as describing who did what and when.
Never tear a page out of the notebook.
Finish your notebook write up as soon as is possible. By delaying, you could
forget important information for analyzing your experiment.
For Each Experiment
1. Title: Give the experiment a title. Record this title at the top of each page of the
experimental record and in the table of contents.
2. Purpose: Give a 1-2 sentence description of the purpose of the experiment. A
major review of the literature is not required.
3. Planned procedure: Exactly what you plan to do. This section should be
completed before you step into lab. List all instruments to be used.
5
- Build circuit
- Test circuit
- Select components, measure & record values.
- Build low pass filter.
- Connect Tektronix AFG3002 signal generator to input.
- Set output to 1 V P-P and frequency to 100 Hz.
- Connect Tektronix TDS 2002 oscilloscope to output. Set
vertical scale to 0.1 V/div and time scale to 20 msec/div.
- Measure filter output.
- Increase frequency in steps of 20 Hz and measure until 300 Hz.
Not Acceptable
Acceptable
4. Include diagrams: Include all relevant information (Reference the source if you
did not draw them).
R = 100.3 Ω
Signal
generator
in
C = 0.01 µF
Output to
oscilloscope
Low Pass Filter Circuit
Not Acceptable
Acceptable
5. Record All Settings and Results:




All instrument settings.
All component measurements.
All the raw data you take. The format will vary depending on the
experiment. In general, organized tables are more useful than lists of
numbers. You can organize these tables ahead of time since you already
have some idea of what to expect.
All relevant observations – especially if related to unexpected results.
6. Data analysis: calculations, statistics, graphs.
7. Conclusions: This section is not as extensive as a conclusion of a formal lab
report. Were the results as expected? Did you achieve the goal of the experiment?
8. Finalize: Date and sign each page on which you entered data.
6
Other Points
Are things getting too sloppy?
Perhaps your data records are scattered throughout the notebook, and you would like to
summarize them. You may re-enter tables or figures any time you wish to organize your
work. To prevent confusion over duplication of data you must put a line through a table
or figure you intend to re-draw, initial and date the change, and note the page on which
the re-organized data can be found. Don’t obscure any of the original entry.
Sloppy versus Illegible
Notebooks, by their very nature, are not going to look very neat. They should, however
be organized and particularly, legible. Shown below are notebook pages written by three
very accomplished scientists. While not extremely neat, these notebooks are all organized
and legible and each conveys detailed information related to important scientific
discoveries or inventions.
Alexander Graham Bell [Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov]
7
Isaac Newton [Cambridge Univ. Library, http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk]
Thomas A. Edison [Global Patent Solutions, http://blog.globalpatentsolutions.com]
8
Class Specific Notebook Instructions
All notebooks will be collected twice for grading. The first time will be as you leave the
lab session. The second is at one on several notebook turn in times as noted on the class
calendar.
First: When you leave the lab. The TAs will grade the lab plans and all raw data.
[Exception 3171L: hand in one week later.]
Second: The TAs will grade processed lab data, results and conclusions.
ECGR 2161
1.
2.
3.
Notebook must contain at least 160 pages.
Signature: Obtain the TA’s signature upon leaving the lab.
Save your notebook for 3171L. You will continue to use this notebook as your
lab notebook in Instrumentation Lab.
What Should Be in Your Notebook for First Grading (Not necessarily a complete list.)
a.
b.
c.
All pre-lab problems and solutions.
Purpose and procedure for the project.
All information needed to reproduce the experiment – specifically:
• All instruments used (Make and model).
• All instrument settings.
• All passive components (Nominal values and measured values).
• All active components, connection (pins), specs (Input voltage, etc.).
• Sketch of all circuits built.
The lab notebook must contain hand drawn diagrams of all circuits. All
circuit components (active and passive) must be labeled and measured
values (R, C, L) must be included. Diagrams not created by students must
be referenced.
• Sketch or printout of all LabView block diagrams.
Printouts of LabView diagrams may be pasted in
• All raw data taken by hand. If data is taken electronically, record filename.
• All important observations made during the project.
What Should Be in Your Notebook for Final Grading (Not necessarily a complete list.)
• Plots, tables, etc. of all processed data
• Explanation of results.
• Comparison with theory when appropriate.
• Conclusions
3171L
1.
Use your 2161 notebook.
9
2.
Signature: Obtain the TA’s signature upon leaving the lab and after and follow
up work.
What Should Be in Your Notebook for First Grading (Not necessarily a complete list.)
a. Process diagram and plan for the project.
The process diagram outlines the steps necessary to complete that day’s
experiment. The included figure shows an example of a process diagram,
specifically the temperature experiment. A missing or incomplete diagram may
result in the student being refused entry into the lab.
Use Polynomial
Fit to Calibrate
Thermocouple
Volts à Deg K
Set Up
Hotplate and
Sensors
Describe Setup
Make &
Check
Connections
to DMM
Develop
Labview
Program
Describe Program
Thermocouple
Raw Data
Turn on
Hotplate &
Start
Labview to
Collect Data
Show Formula
and Values
Thermocouple
Calibrated
Data
Show Plot
Show Plot
Thermistor
Raw Data
Show Plot
RTD Raw Data
Show Plot
Use
Thermocouple
Date to Calibrate
Thermistor
Show Formula
and Values
Use
Thermocouple
Date to
Calibrate RTD
Show Formula
and Values
Thermistor
Calibrated
Data
Show Plot
RTD Calibrated
Data
Show Plot
b. Procedure for the project.
c. All information needed to reproduce the experiment – specifically:
• All instruments used (Make and model).
• All instrument settings.
• All passive components (Nominal values and measured values).
• All active components, connection (pins), specs (Input voltage, etc.).
• Hand drawn sketch of all circuits built.
The lab notebook must contain hand drawn diagrams of all circuits. All
circuit components must be labeled and measured values (R, C, L) must
be included. Diagrams not created by students must be referenced.
• Sketch or printout of all LabView block diagrams.
Printouts of LabView diagrams may be pasted in
• All raw data taken by hand. If data is taken electronically, record filename.
• All important observations made during the project.
What Should Be in Your Notebook for Final Grading (Not necessarily a complete list.)
• Abstract
An abstract must be included in each experiment write up. The abstract
must be about a paragraph and address why the experiment was done,
how it was done and provide a top level summary of experiment results.
• Plots, tables, etc. of all processed data
• Explanation of results.
• Comparison with theory when appropriate.
• Conclusions
10
3152
1. Signature: Obtain the TA’s signature upon leaving the lab.
What Should Be in Your Notebook for First Grading (Not necessarily a complete list.)
a. Purpose.
b. Procedure for the project.
d. All information needed to reproduce the experiment – specifically:
• All instruments used (make and model) and interconnection if applicable.
• All instrument settings.
• All material samples, composition, shape and dimensions.
• Sketch or printout of all LabView block diagrams.
Printouts of LabView diagrams may be pasted in
• All raw data taken by hand. If data is taken electronically, record filename.
Students are expected to hand enter data as it is taken during the lab. For
instance, Charpy energy loss data from the dial indicator and distances
measured for KE correction.
• All important observations made during the project.
What Should Be in Your Notebook for Final Grading (Not necessarily a complete list.)
• Abstract
An abstract must be included in each experiment write up. The abstract
must be about a paragraph and address why the experiment was done,
how it was done and provide a top level summary of experiment results.
• Plots, tables, etc. of all processed data
• Explanation of results.
• Comparison with theory when appropriate.
• Conclusions
3251
1. Signature: Obtain the TA’s signature upon leaving the lab.
What Should Be in Your Notebook for First Grading (Not necessarily a complete list.)
a. Purpose.
b. Procedure for the project.
c. All information needed to reproduce the experiment – specifically:
• All test systems used (make and model) and description of operation.
• All instrument settings.
• All relevant temperature, pressure and humidity readings.
11
• Sketch or printout of all LabView block diagrams.
Printouts of LabView diagrams may be pasted in
• All raw data taken by hand. If data is taken electronically, record filename.
Students are expected to hand enter data as it is taken during the lab. For
instance, flow rate and temperature readings from the conduction
experiment.
• All important observations made during the project.
What Should Be in Your Notebook for Final Grading (Not necessarily a complete list.)
• Abstract
An abstract must be included in each experiment write up. The abstract
must be about a paragraph and address why the experiment was done,
how it was done and provide a top level summary of experiment results.
• Plots, tables, etc. of all processed data.
• Explanation of results.
• Uncertainty analysis.
• Comparison with theory when appropriate.
• Conclusions
Notebook Ordering
Notebooks are available from the following:
• http://www.amazon.com for approximately $18.
• http://www.bookfactory.com for approximately $19.
• http://www.snco.com/lab.htm for approximately $18.
12
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