REFERENCING OVERVIEW

advertisement
REFERENCING OVERVIEW
These guides cover different elements of referencing and can be used together or separately
depending on your prior knowledge or needs.
•
References and Bibliographies - an introduction to the concept of referencing.
•
Referencing at UWS: an Introduction to the Harvard Style – a summary of the
considerations and principles for using Harvard style references in UWS.
•
How Referencing Works in Practice – demonstrates how the referencing principles
discussed in References and Bibliographies and Referencing at UWS: an
Introduction to the Harvard Style apply to a sample text and reference list.
2012-2013
Page 1 of 16
Contents
REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES ................................................................... 3
What is referencing? ............................................................................................... 3
What is a list of references? ................................................................................... 4
Why do I have to reference? ................................................................................... 4
When should I include references in my writing? .................................................... 4
Which steps are involved in referencing? ............................................................... 4
What is secondary referencing? ............................................................................. 5
Where should I place the reference list in my document? ...................................... 5
Who can help me with referencing?........................................................................ 5
REFERENCING AT UWS: An introduction to the Harvard style ................................ 6
Adding citations in the text ...................................................................................... 7
Arranging your list of references ............................................................................. 8
Citing an item which has more than one author ...................................................... 8
Several publications with the same name from the same year ............................... 9
Inserting direct quotations and page numbers in your text ..................................... 9
When bibliographic details are missing from the source ....................................... 10
Using a secondary reference ................................................................................ 10
References ........................................................................................................... 11
Further Reading .................................................................................................... 11
HOW REFERENCING WORKS IN PRACTICE ....................................................... 12
Sample text ........................................................................................................... 13
References for sample text above ........................................................................ 14
Sample text with explanatory notes ...................................................................... 15
References with description.................................................................................. 16
2012-2013
Page 2 of 16
REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES
This guide is intended to
• Provide consistent and clear guidance on how to add information about sources to
assignments and how to compile reference lists and bibliographies while reflecting
international standards and procedures for referencing.
•
Apply to electronic and digital as well as printed sources of information.
What is referencing?
The term “bibliographic referencing” is widely used in both publishing and academia and
applies when acknowledgement of another person’s work is expected because someone
EITHER
OR
quotes someone else directly
paraphrases someone else’s work into their own words.
There are several acceptable methods of referencing and these are known as “referencing
systems”. Each referencing system has its own rules but all show some form of citation
within the text and a list of references at the end of the text. Referencing systems in
common use include:
2012-2013
•
Harvard. Author and date in the text e.g. According to Cottrell (2008)…
o Reference list at the end, in alphabetical order by author.
•
Numeric. Number in text e.g. According to Cottrell1 …
o Reference list at the end, in numerical order.
•
APA
o
o
Developed by the American Psychological Association.
(Multiple) author (or title) and date in the text.
Reference list at the end, in alphabetical order.
Page 3 of 16
What is a list of references?
The reference list provides the publication details (reference) for each item used in the text.
These details typically include the author(s), the date of publication (or creation), the title of
the item as well as information reflecting the type of item and how it was published. This
information enables the item to be traced by others.
Why do I have to reference?
•
To give credit to another author for their work and thus avoid plagiarism.
•
It helps your reader trace your sources by providing the relevant details.
•
It shows the development of your subject knowledge and evaluation skills.
•
You can demonstrate evidence of the depth of your reading.
•
You can demonstrate your ability to select and interpret resources effectively.
When should I include references in my writing?
•
Whenever you quote directly from another source.
•
Whenever you paraphrase someone else’s ideas into your own words.
•
When you use someone else’s work to support your ideas.
Which steps are involved in referencing?
•
Ensure you have the publication details of the items you are consulting. (Although
referencing management software e.g. Endnote/ Refworks help with this, you may
need to make changes to the formatting before submission).
•
Find out which bibliographic referencing system you are expected to use. (UWS
uses the Harvard system with some exceptions – see below).
2012-2013
Page 4 of 16
•
Read your assignment guidelines to see if you are expected to provide a reference
list or a bibliography. (A reference list shows publication details for each item used in
the text. A bibliography provides publication details for each item consulted).
•
Compile your reference list, or bibliography, according to the preferred referencing
system. Pay particular attention to punctuation.
What is secondary referencing?
Secondary referencing applies when the item to which you are referring is itself a reference.
In this situation your in-text citation should reflect both the original work and the work you
have consulted.
Where should I place the reference list in my document?
The reference list is usually, but not always, the last element of your assignment. Check
your assignment guidelines.
Who can help me with referencing?
•
Your lecturers
•
Your local subject librarian
•
Your local Effective Learning Tutor
2012-2013
Page 5 of 16
REFERENCING AT UWS: An introduction to the
Harvard style
In 2009 the Learning and Teaching Board adopted the Harvard style as the preferred
referencing system for UWS student coursework. Psychology and law coursework is
exempt from this expectation as subject specific referencing systems apply:
•
Psychology students should follow the American Psychological Association’s APA
style as detailed in http://www.apastyle.org
•
Law students should follow the OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal
Authorities) guidelines as detailed in
http://denning.law.ox.ac.uk/published/oscola_2006.pdf
•
All other students should use the Harvard style. Guidelines to assist you are
outlined below and in the Collection of Referencing Examples (CoRE) in My UWS
Library on Moodle.
The system of referencing known as “Harvard” uses the name and date style. This means
that whenever another work is either quoted or paraphrased, the name of the author (or
other responsible person or organisation) and the date of publication appear in the text. This
information, or citation, acts as a link to the list at the end of the work, or section, which
provides the full reference for each item mentioned.
There are small variations in how the Harvard system is applied. This guide and the
Collection of Referencing Examples aim to provide a consistent interpretation for use within
UWS.
2012-2013
Page 6 of 16
Adding citations in the text
Depending on the type of the item being referred to (book, journal article, film, website etc.),
the citation in the text should include:
• The surname of one or more authors OR editors OR creators OR producers
OR directors.
•
OR the name of an organisation.
•
OR the title of the work, if none of the above apply.
•
the year the item was first published
•
OR the year the item was created, if this is more relevant.
AND
For ease, the term “author” will be used in this document to refer to the person or
organisation deemed responsible for a work.
There are two ways of introducing a citation into your text and your selection will depend
entirely on the context.
•
Make the author part of your sentence and show the year, in brackets, after
the name e.g. Cameron (2009) states…
•
Add the name and date as supplementary information. Brackets appear
around the name and year and this appears at an appropriate point in the
text, e.g. Effective reading is a complicated skill (Cameron, 2009).
OR
2012-2013
Page 7 of 16
Arranging your list of references
•
There should be one list at the end of the work. This is arranged in alphabetical
order by author (or by title if the author isn’t known) and has an entry for every
item cited in the text.
•
Each reference should allow the item to be found by others and include:
o Author(s).
o Date of publication or creation.
o Full title of the work.
o Additional information regarding publication (printed or physical items) or
availability (online items).
•
If an item has been attributed to an editor, creator, producer or director, rather
than an author, add an explanatory suffix e.g. (dir.) after the name but before the
date.
•
The author of an item can be an organisation rather than an individual.
Citing an item which has more than one author
All authors must be acknowledged even when there are several. Acceptable formats are:
No. of authors In the text
2
3
4 or more
2012-2013
In the reference list
Surname1 and Surname2
E.g. Durkin and Main
Surname1, Surname2 and
Surname3
E.g. Durrant, Rhodes and
Young
Surname1 et al.
E.g. Luckin et al.
Name1 and Name2
E.g. Durkin, K. and Main, A.
Name1, Name2 and Name3
E.g. Durrant, A., Rhodes, G. and Young,
D.
Name1, Name2, Name3 … and Name?
E.g. Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R.,
Logan, K., Mee, A. and Oliver, M.
Page 8 of 16
Several publications with the same name from the same
year
There may be times when you wish to refer to different items published in the same year
either by an organisation or by individuals with the same surname.
In such cases, use “a”, “b”, “c” to differentiate between the items.
• Add “a” to the in-text citation for the relevant item mentioned first in your text,
e.g. (Biz/ed, 1996-2010a), “b” to the citation for the item mentioned second,
e.g. (Biz/ed, 1996-2010b), “c” to the third and so on.
•
Arrange your reference list so that the reference for the item marked “a”
appears before the reference for the item marked “b” etc.
Inserting direct quotations and page numbers in your
text
There may be times when you wish to include a quotation in your work. The recognised
conventions for this are to:
• Use quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation.
2012-2013
•
Add the quotation into the body of your text if it only consists of a few words
OR indent a separate paragraph for longer phrases or passages.
•
Use ellipsis ... if you are omitting one or more words from the quotation.
•
Add the relevant page number(s) for each direct quotation.
Page 9 of 16
When bibliographic details are missing from the source
The details you require to create a reference are clearly apparent on most publications but
there may be times when you wish to refer to items which do not include these.
If you cannot find the required information anywhere on the item, there are conventions you
may be able to use, for example:
• No author - refer to the item by its title.
•
No date - use n.d.
•
No location - use s.l.
•
No publisher - use s.n.
Using a secondary reference
A secondary reference applies when you include a section of text or a graphic or a piece of
music etc. that has not been written, produced or created by the authors of the work you are
consulting. The in-text citation shows that you have not seen the original work and are using
someone else’s interpretation of it and takes the form original author, year of publication,
cited in author of work consulted, year of publication e.g. …learning skills can be
developed (Gardner, 1993 cited in Cottrell, 2008).
Your reference list should only include the work you have actually consulted.
2012-2013
Page 10 of 16
References
Biz/ed (1996-2010a) Study Skills: Reading. [Online] Available:
http://www.bized.co.uk/reference/studyskills/reading.htm [Accessed: 9 December 2010].
Biz/ed (1996-2010b) Study Skills: Essay Writing. [Online] Available:
http://www.bized.co.uk/reference/studyskills/essay.htm [Accessed: 12 July 2010].
Cameron, S. (2009) The Business Student’s Handbook: Skills for Study and Employment. 5th
ed. [Online] Harlow: Pearson Education. Available: Dawsonera. [Accessed: 20 September
2010].
Cottrell, S. (2008) The Study Skills Handbook. 3rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Durkin, K and Main, A. (2002) Discipline-based study skills support for first-year
undergraduate students. Active Learning in Higher Education. [Online] Vol.3(1), pp.24-39.
Available: SAGE Journals Online. [Accessed: 21 September 2010].
Durrant, A., Rhodes, G. and Young, D. (eds.) (2009) Getting Started with University-level
Work-based Learning. Hendon: Middlesex University Press.
Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R., Logan, K., Mee, A. and Oliver, M. (2009) Do Web 2.0 tools
really open the door to learning? Practices, perceptions and profiles of 11–16-year-old
students. Learning, Media and Technology. [Online] Vol.34(2), pp.87-104. Available: Taylor
& Francis Journals (informaworld). [Accessed: 12 January 2011].
Further Reading
Neville, C. (2010) The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd ed.
Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Leeds Metropolitan University Skills for Learning (2009) Quote Unquote: a Guide to Harvard
Referencing. [Online] Available: skillsforlearning.leedsmet.ac.uk/Quote_Unquote.pdf
[Accessed: 23 August 2010].
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th ed.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
2012-2013
Page 11 of 16
HOW REFERENCING WORKS IN PRACTICE
This summary guide illustrates examples of selected item types referenced to UWS
Referencing Guidelines. It includes
• Sample Text
•
Sample References
•
Sample Text and References with explanatory notes.
More examples can be seen in the CoRE (Collection of Referencing Examples) available
from My UWS Library on Moodle.
2012-2013
Page 12 of 16
Sample text
Effective reading is “one of the most sophisticated skills we possess” according to Cameron
(2009, p.80) and an important factor in academic success (Durrant, Rhodes and Young,
2009). The skill involves critical enquiry and analytical awareness as well as comprehension
(Luckin et al., 2009).
Note taking can help to organize your thoughts by separating the facts and examples from
any personal opinions mentioned by an author or lecturer (Biz/ed, 1996-2010a). Academic
writing as a whole, however, can be more problematic with many students experiencing
difficulty and approaching new assignments with trepidation (Whitehead, 2002).
“Students often have difficulty in differentiating clearly between essay
and report formats….and some appear to have had little practice in
writing critical evaluations”
(Durkin and Main, 2002, p.25).
Indeed, some students regard academic assignments purely as a tool to measure their
grasp of a subject but it should be remembered that assignments are also a key method for
markers to discriminate between candidates (Biz/ed, 1996-2010b). Although a traumatic
process, the resulting feedback can be a useful tool for personal development (Lloyd-Jones
and Masterson, 2010).
Learning effectively may not come naturally, but is a skill that can be developed (Gardner,
1993 cited in Cottrell, 2008; Make the Most of Your Learning Style, n.d.). The time involved
is worthwhile effort as communicating what has been learned in a clear and concise manner
is crucial to academic success (Cameron, 2009).
2012-2013
Page 13 of 16
References for sample text above
Biz/ed (1996-2010a) Study Skills: Reading. [Online] Available:
http://www.bized.co.uk/reference/studyskills/reading.htm [Accessed: 9 December 2010].
Biz/ed (1996-2010b) Study Skills: Essay Writing. [Online] Available:
http://www.bized.co.uk/reference/studyskills/essay.htm [Accessed: 12 July 2010].
Cameron, S. (2009) The Business Student’s Handbook: Skills for Study and Employment. 5th
ed. [Online] Available: Dawsonera. [Accessed: 20 September 2010].
Cottrell, S. (2008) The Study Skills Handbook. 3rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Durkin, K and Main, A. (2002) Discipline-based study skills support for first-year
undergraduate students. Active Learning in Higher Education. [Online] Vol.3(1), pp.24-39.
Available: SAGE Journals Online. [Accessed: 21 September 2010].
Durrant, A., Rhodes, G. and Young, D. (eds.) (2009) Getting Started with University-level
Work-based Learning. Hendon: Middlesex University Press.
Lloyd-Jones, N. and Masterson, A. (2010) Writing skills and developing an argument. In:
Maslin-Prothero, S. (ed.) Bailliere’s Study Skills for Nurses and Midwives. 4th ed. Edinburgh:
Bailliere Tindall Elsevier, pp.121-40.
Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R., Logan, K., Mee, A. and Oliver, M. (2009) Do Web 2.0 tools
really open the door to learning? Practices, perceptions and profiles of 11–16-year-old
students. Learning, Media and Technology. [Online] Vol.34(2), pp.87-104. Available: Taylor
& Francis Journals (informaworld). [Accessed: 12 January 2011].
Make the Most of Your Learning Style. (n.d.) [Online] Available:
http://www.brainboxx.co.uk/a3_aspects/pages/MakeMost.htm [Accessed: 29 July 2010].
Whitehead, D. (2002) The academic writing experiences of a group of student nurses: a
phenomenological study. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol.38(5), pp.498-506.
2012-2013
Page 14 of 16
Sample text with explanatory notes
2012-2013
Page 15 of 16
References with description
Reference
Description
Biz/ed (1996-2010a) Study Skills: Reading. [Online] Available:
http://www.bized.co.uk/reference/studyskills/reading.htm [Accessed: 9
December 2010].
Page from Internet
– author listed
Biz/ed (1996-2010b) Study Skills: Essay Writing. [Online] Available:
http://www.bized.co.uk/reference/studyskills/essay.htm [Accessed: 12 July
2010].
Item marked “a”
listed before the
item marked “b” as
it appears earlier in
the text
Cameron, S. (2009) The Business Student’s Handbook: Skills for Study and
th
Employment. 5 ed. [Online] Available: Dawsonera. [Accessed: 20
September 2010].
Electronic
rd
Cottrell, S. (2008) The Study Skills Handbook. 3 ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave
Macmillan.
Printed Book
Durkin, K and Main, A. (2002) Discipline-based study skills support for firstyear undergraduate students. Active Learning in Higher Education. [Online]
Vol.3(1), pp.24-39. Available: SAGE Journals Online. [Accessed: 21
September 2010].
Online Journal
Article
Durrant, A., Rhodes, G. and Young, D. (eds.) (2009) Getting Started with
University-level Work-based Learning. Hendon: Middlesex University Press.
Edited Book
Lloyd-Jones, N. and Masterson, A. (2010) Writing skills and developing an
argument. In: Maslin-Prothero, S. (ed.) Bailliere’s Study Skills for Nurses and
th
Midwives. 4 ed. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall Elsevier, pp.121-40.
Chapter of edited
book (authors of
chapter known)
Page numbers of
chapter included in
reference.
Luckin, R., Clark, W., Graber, R., Logan, K., Mee, A. and Oliver, M. (2009)
Do Web 2.0 tools really open the door to learning? Practices, perceptions and
profiles of 11–16-year-old students. Learning, Media and Technology.
[Online] Vol.34(2), pp.87-104. Available: Taylor & Francis Journals
(informaworld). [Accessed: 12 January 2011].
Multiple authors –
all authors listed
Make the Most of Your Learning Style. (n.d.) [Online] Available:
http://www.brainboxx.co.uk/a3_aspects/pages/MakeMost.htm [Accessed: 29
July 2010].
Website – no
author listed
Whitehead, D. (2002) The academic writing experiences of a group of student
nurses: a phenomenological study. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol.38(5),
pp.498-506.
2012-2013
Page 16 of 16
Print Journal Article
Download