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th
Malaysian Research Development Classification System 5 Edition
Published by:
Malaysian Science and Technology Information Centre (MASTIC)
Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI)
Level 4, Block C5, Complex C,
Federal Government Administration Centre
62662 Putrajaya, Malaysia
Tel : 603-8885 8000/8038 Fax : 603-8889 2980
Email : [email protected]
http://www.mastic.gov.my
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Printed in Malaysia
ISSN 1394-4320
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form by any means, including electronic,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission
of Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI).
All information is correct at the time of printing and may be subject to
change without notice. The publisher does not bear any responsibility
for any incorrect information or omission. Every measure has been
taken to make this book comprehensive and accurate.
Printed by:
ASLITA SDN. BHD.
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Batu Caves, 68100 Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia
ii
contents
tableof
PREFACE
CHAPTER 1
1
CHAPTER 2
FIELD OF RESEARCH
DIVISION 1
F1010000
F1020000
F1030000
F1040000
F1050000
F1060000
F1070000
F1080000
F1090000
F1100000
F1110000
F1120000
F1130000
F1140000
F1150000
F1190000
Natural Sciences, Technologies and Engineering
Mathematical Sciences
Physical Sciences
Chemical Sciences
Earth Sciences
Information, Computer and Communication Technology (ICT)
Applied Sciences and Technologies
Engineering Sciences
Biological Sciences
Agricultural Sciences
Medical and Health Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Material Sciences
Marine Sciences
Forestry Sciences
Biotechnology
Non-oriented Natural Sciences, Technologies and Engineering
Research
DIVISION 2
F2010000
F2020000
F2030000
Social Sciences, Humanities and Business / Economic and
Administration
Social Sciences
Humanities
Economics, Business and Management
99
110
116
CHAPTER 3
SOCIO-ECONOMIC OBJECTIVE
131
DIVISION 1
S1010000
S1020000
Defence & Security
Defence
Logistics
135
135
6
Iiii
9
13
16
18
21
30
37
52
56
64
78
81
83
88
92
96
contents
tableof
DIVISION 2
S2010000
S2020000
S2030000
S2040000
S2050000
S2060000
S2070000
S2080000
S2090000
S2100000
S2110000
S2120000
S2130000
Economic Development
Plant Production and Plant Primary Products
Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
Mineral Resources (excluding Energy)
Energy Resources
Energy Supply
Manufacturing
Construction
Transport
Information and Communication Services
Commercial Services
Economic Framework
Natural Resources
Forest Production and Forest Products
136
136
136
136
137
137
138
138
138
138
139
139
139
DIVISION 3
S3010000
S3020000
S3030000
S3040000
S3050000
S3060000
Society
Health
Education and Training
Social Development and Community Services
Arts, Culture and Heritage
Religion and Ethics
Social Problems
140
140
140
141
141
141
DIVISION 4
S4010000
S4020000
S4030000
Environment
Environmental Knowledge
Environmental Aspects of Development
Environmental Management and Other Aspects
142
142
143
DIVISION 5
S5010000
S5020000
Advancement of Knowledge
Natural Sciences, Technologies and Engineering
Social Sciences and Humanities
144
144
ANNEX : ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
147
iv
preface
The Malaysian Research and Development Classification System (MRDCS)
5th Edition is a set of classifications designed for use in the measurement and
analysis of research and development (R&D) activity undertaken in Malaysia,
both in public and private sectors.
The new edition is an extension and refinement of the 4th Edition. In the new
edition, Scope Notes (SN) been added to the areas in the FOR and SEO only
covered until Group.
Malaysian Science and Technology Information Centre (MASTIC) has taken the
task of producing this 5th Edition in cooperation with major users of the MRDCS
from various research organisations. This consultative process was to ensure
that the new MRDCS will be widely accepted and used as guidelines for
classifying R&D activities in Malaysia.
On behalf of MASTIC, I would like to extend our heartfelt gratitude to the Ministry
of Science, Technology and Innovation's Secretary General, the Honourable
Dato' Abdul Hanan Alang Endut and Deputy Secretary General (Policy), Datuk
Alihan A Hamid for their support, and to all the experts (Annex) who have
contributed in providing inputs, drafting, revising and producing this new edition.
It is hoped that the MRDCS 5th Edition would be used as the main reference for
R&D classification system in Malaysia and be utilised by all concerned.
FADZILAH AHMAD DIN
Director of MASTIC
v
001
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CHAPTER 1
PURPOSE OF THE MRDCS
The Malaysian Research and Development Classification System or MRDCS was first
introduced in the 1992 National Survey of Research and Development. It was designed to
provide accuracy and detail in describing research and development activities in Malaysia.
These classifications provide the basis for the measurement and analysis of R&D activities
and statistics that are useful guidelines to the government policy makers, industrialists and
researchers. By utilising these classifications, relevant activities could be distinguished,
hence ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in setting priorities, providing funds, maximising
efforts and comparing Malaysian R&D efforts with those in other countries.
THE SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION
The classifications follow two internationally recognised systems:
i.
Field of Research (FOR) represents R&D activities classified according to their
scientific and academic disciplines. These disciplines tend to be universally
applicable, with national variations arising based on the grouping of different
research fields.
ii.
Socio-Economic Objective (SEO) organises those same R&D activities by their
purpose or presumed sectoral beneficiaries. This system shows greater national
variation according to a nation's profile and priorities.
These two classification systems must be considered in tandem as they cover the same
activity but from two different but importand perspectives. Both of which are necessary in
giving a clear depiction of R&D activity in the context of knowledge and national
development.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
002
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
STRUCTURE OF THE MRDCS
The Field of Research or FOR and Socio-Economic Objective or SEO are uniquely identified
by special code where "F" refers to FOR and "S” refers to SEO. The remaining characters
identify the Division, Category, Group and Area as shown in the following example:
'ABXXYYZZ '
A
B
XX
YY
ZZ
= SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION
= DIVISION
= CATEGORY
= GROUP
= AREA
Example (FOR) : F1040301
F: Field of Research ( SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION )
1: Natural Sciences, Technologies and Engineering ( DIVISION )
04: Earth Sciences ( CATEGORY )
03: Geochemistry ( GROUP )
01: Bio geochemistry ( AREA )
Example (SEO): S2010407
S: Socio-Economic Objective ( SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION )
2: Economic Development ( DIVISION )
01: Plant Reproduction and Plant Primary Products ( CATEGORY )
04: Forestry ( GROUP )
n.e.c. - not elsewhere classified
SN - Scope Notes
GUIDELINES FOR CLASSIFYING RESEARCH FIELD
There are nine possible Divisions and 99 possible Category, Group and Area levels to allow
for future expansion of the classification.
A research project is allocated to an Area in a hierarchical manner. This is achieved by first
determining the Division in which the research is being performed, followed by the most
relevant Category within that Division and then the most relevant Group within that Category.
It is vital to first identify the higher level of classification because within the different Groups
there are identical titles.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
003
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
APPLICATION OF SYSTEM
The MRDCS classifications have been designed primarily to meet the needs in classifying
research projects in consistent and hierarchical manner. The system used in this document
would among others be applicable for the following activities:
Conducting the National Survey of Research and Development.
Applying for R&D funds such as Techno Fund and Science Fund.
Identifying and codifying of the research projects and experts in database
development.
DEFINITIONS
This classification allows R&D activity to be categorised according to the types of research
efforts, namely Basic Research, Applied Research and Experimental Development. The
definitions and guidelines and scope of R&D activity are as follows:
Research and Development
R&D is defined according to the OECD standard as "comprising creative work undertaken on
a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man,
culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications".
The boundaries of R&D are listed below:
a.
Education and Training of Personnel and Students
Postgraduate research including supervision of the research is considered to be
R&D. The development of new teaching methods is also regarded as R&D. However,
teaching and training students, using established methods and subject knowledge,
is excluded.
b.
Specialised Scientific and Technical Information Services
Specialised scientific and technical information services which are undertaken solely
in support of R&D are regarded as R&D. Examples of these are scientific data
collection, coding, recording, classification, dissemination, translation, analysis and
bibliographic services. These specialized services are excluded if they are
undertaken independently and not solely in support of R&D.
c.
General Purpose or Routine Data Collection
Collection data in support of R&D work is included in R&D. However, data collection
of a general nature is excluded. This is normally carried out by government agencies
to record natural, biological, economic or social phenomena of general public or
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
004
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
government interest. Examples are national population censuses, surveys of
unemployment, topographical mapping and routine geographical surveys.
d.
Maintenance of National Standards
Routine testing and analysis of materials, components, products, processes, soils,
atmospheres, etc. for standard compliance is excluded from R&D.
e.
Feasibility Studies
Feasibility studies undertaken in support of R&D are included. However, a feasibility
study which involves gathering information about existing conditions, for use in
deciding whether or not to implement a project, is excluded, e.g. a study to determine
the viability of a petrochemical complex in a particular location.
f.
Specialized Medical Care
R&D includes the development of new treatments and procedures, including such
developments in conjunction with advanced medical care and examinations usually
carried out by university hospitals.
g.
Patent and License work
Patent work connected directly with R&D projects in included in R&D. However,
commercial, administrative and legal work associated with patenting, copywriting
and licensing, are excluded.
h.
Policy Related Studies
The boundary between certain policies related studies as described in the Frascati
Manual and R&D is complex. In the Frascati Manual, policy related studies cover
activities such as the analysis and assessment of existing programmes, continued
analysis and monitoring of external phenomena (e.g. defence and security analysis),
legislative inquiry concerned with general government departmental policy or
operations. Rigour is required to separate policy related studies, which are not R&D
from bona fide R&D policy work. Studies to determine the effects of a specific
national policy to a particular economic or social condition or social group have
elements of R&D. Routine management studies or efficiency studies are excluded.
i.
Marketing and Market Studies
Market research and opinion polls are excluded from R&D.
j.
Mineral exploration
The development of new or vastly improved methods of data acquisition, processing
and interpretation of data is included as R&D. Surveying undertaken as an integral
part of an R&D project to observe geological phenomena is also regarded as R&D.
However the search for minerals using existing methods is excluded from R&D.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
005
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
k.
Prototypes and Pilot Plants
The design, construction and testing of prototypes generally falls within the scope of
R&D. However, trial production and copying of prototypes are excluded from R&D.
The construction and operation of pilot plants is part of R&D provided that these are
used to obtain experience or new data for evaluating hypotheses.
Pilot plants are excluded as soon as the experimental phase is over or as soon as
they are used as normal commercial production units even if they continue to be
described as ' pilot plants '. If a pilot plant is used for combined operations, the
component used for R&D is to be estimated.
l.
Other activities, which are ancillary or consequential to R&D, are excluded.
Examples of these are interpretative commentary using existing data, forecasting,
operations research as a contribution to decision-making and the use of standard
techniques in applied psychology to classify or diagnose human characteristics.
Types of Activity.
Three types of activity applicable to R&D are recognized in this classification namely:
Basic research (Pure basic research & Strategic basic research)
Applied research
Experimental development
Pure basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire
new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of
knowledge.
Strategic basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to
acquire new knowledge directed into specified broad areas in the expectation of
useful discoveries. It provides the broad base of knowledge necessary for the
solution of recognized practical problems.
Applied research is original work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge
with a specific application in view. It is undertaken either to determine possible used
for the findings of basic research or to determine new ways of achieving some
specific and predetermined objectives.
Experimental development is systematic work, using existing knowledge gained
from research or practical experience that is directed to producing new materials,
products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to
improving substantially those already produced or installed.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
006
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CHAPTER 2
FIELD OF RESEARCH
Field of Research or FOR classification allows R&D activity to be categorised according to
the field of research undertaken. In this respect, it is the nature of the R&D itself, which is
being examined rather than the activity of the performing unit or the purpose of the R&D.
FOR consists of a set of discrete categories, which identify such research field. For new
edition, FOR also covered all the areas from SEO. These fields include recognised academic
disciplines and related major sub-fields taught at universities or tertiary institutions and
organisations, and emerging areas of study. It reflects the expansion of research activity
particularly in natural sciences, information, computer and communication technologies, the
applied science and technologies, the biological and other natural science, such as
mathematical sciences, the social science and the humanities.
FOR represents R&D activities classified according to their scientific and academic
disciplines currently have 2 Divisions, 18 Categories, 237 discrete Groups and 3001 Areas.
Choose the FOR classification which most appropriately describes the scientific discipline
you are practising.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
Division 1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
009
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1010000
F1010100
AREA
Mathematics
F1010101 Approximation Theory
F1010102 Calculus of Variation
F1010103 Category Theory, K-Theory and Homological
Algebra
F1010104 Combinatorics
F1010105 Control Theory
F1010106 Difference, Differential, Integral, IntegroDifferential and Functional Equations
F1010107 Dynamical Systems
F1010108 Field Theory
F1010109 Fourier and Harmonic Analysis
F1010110 Functional Analysis
F1010111 Fuzzy Mathematics
F1010112 Geometry, Topology and Manifolds
F1010113 Global Analysis and Bifurcation
F1010114 Group Theory and Generalisations
F1010115 History and Philosophy
F1010116 Indigenisation and Islamisation
F1010117 Linear and Multilinear Algebra
F1010118 Mathematical Logic and Set Theory
F1010119 Mathematical Programming and Optimisation
F1010120 Number Theory
F1010121 Numerical Analysis
F1010122 Operations Research
F1010123 Real and Complex Functions
F1010124 Rings and Algebras
F1010125 Several Complex Variables
F1010126 Real Analysis
F1010127 Complex Analysis
F1010128 Graph Theory
F1010129 Cryptography
F1010199 Other Mathematics and Mathematics Disciplines
n.e.c
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
010
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Statistics
F1010200
F1010201
F1010202
F1010203
F1010204
F1010205
F1010206
F1010207
F1010208
F1010209
F1010210
F1010211
F1010212
F1010213
F1010214
F1010215
F1010216
F1010299
Decision Theory
Experimental Design and Analysis
Exploratory Data Analysis
History and Philosophy
Indigenisation and Islamisation
Multivariate Analysis
Observational Studies
Probability and Distribution Theory
Quality and Productivity Measurement
Sampling and Survey Techniques
Statistical Computing
Statistical Inferences
Statistical Modelling
Stochastic Analysis and Modelling
Survival and Reliability Analysis
Time Series and Spatial Analysis
Other Statistics and Statistical Sciences n.e.c.
Mathematics and Statistics for ICT and
Industries
F1010300
F1010301
F1010302
F1010303
F1010304
F1010305
F1010306
F1010307
F1010308
F1010309
F1010310
F1010311
F1010312
F1010313
F1010314
Algorithms and Cryptology
Applied Logic and Automata
Artificial Intelligence
Circuits and Networks
Computational Methodology and Complexities
Computer Systems Organisation
Computer-Aided Geometric Design (CAGD)
Deterministic and Stochastic Difference,
Differential, Integral, Integro-differential and
Functional Equations
Discrete Mathematics
Dynamical Systems
Experimental Mathematics
Industrial Computing
Industrial Optimisation and Control
Industrial Statistics
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
011
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1010315
F1010316
F1010317
F1010318
F1010319
F1010320
F1010321
F1010399
Information and Communication
Natural Language Programming
Software Engineering
Data Mining
Image Processing and Pattern Recognition
Computational Mathematics
Forensic Statistics
Other Mathematics and Statistics for ICT and
Industries n.e.c.
Application of Mathematics and Statistics in
Other Areas
F1010400
F1010401
F1010402
F1010403
F1010404
F1010405
F1010406
F1010407
F1010408
F1010409
F1010410
F1010411
F1010412
F1010413
F1010414
F1010415
F1010416
F1010417
F1010418
F1010419
F1010420
F1010421
F1010422
F1010499
Actuarial Mathematics
Biological and Medical Sciences
Business, Financial and Managerial Sciences
Celestial Mechanics, Mathematical Astrophysics
and Cosmology
Deformed Solid Mechanics
Economics
Fluid Mechanics
Optics and Electromagnetism
Particle, Rigid Bodies and System Mechanics
Potential Theory
Quality Assurance and Standard
Quantum Theory
Relativity
Social Sciences and Humanities
Statistical Mechanics and Structure of Matter
Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
Unified Theory and Theory of Everything
Computational Complex Analysis
Financial Mathematics
Actuarial Modelling
Bio-mathematics
Bioinformatics
Other Application of Mathematics and Statistics
n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
012
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Mathematical Science Education
F1010500
F1010501
F1010502
F1010503
F1010504
F1010505
F1010506
F1010507
F1010508
F1010599
Curriculum Development and Teaching Methods
Education and Instruction
Education Policy and System
Educational Material and Media, and Educational
Technology
Mathematical Ethnosciences and Islamic
Education
Popularisation and Acculturation
Psychology
Critical and Mathematical Thinking
Other Mathematical Science Education
F1010600
Advancement of Mathematical Science
Knowledge
F1019900
Other Mathematical Sciences n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
013
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
PHYSICAL SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1020000
F1020100
AREA
Astronomy and Astrophysics
F1020101
F1020102
F1020103
F1020104
F1020199
F1020200
Aeronomy
Astrophysics
Solar System
Stellar System Galactic and Extragalactic
Other Astronomy and Astrophysics n.e.c
Theoretical and Computational Physics
F1020201
F1020202
F1020203
F1020204
F1020205
F1020206
F1020207
F1020299
F1020300
Chaos Theory and Simulation
Classical and Quantum Physics
Electromagnetism
Field Theory
Relativity and Gravitation
Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics
Wave Phenomena and Propagation
Other Theoretical and Computational Physics
n.e.c
Atomic and Molecular Physics
F1020301 Atomic and Molecular Structure
F1020302 Atomic and Molecular Collision Processes and
Interactions
F1020303 Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques
F1020399 Other Atomic and Molecular Physics n.e.c
Acoustics and Optical Physics
F1010400
F1020401
F1020402
F1020403
F1020404
Acoustical and Optical Signal Processing
Acoustics
Electro-Optics and Light Modulation
Fibre Optics and Waveguides SN: Including
Communication Equipment
F1020405 Instrumentation, Measurement Techniques and
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
014
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1020406
F1020407
F1020408
F1020499
F1020500
Metrology
Optics, Non-Linear Optics and Quantum Optics
Opto-Acoustic and Opto-Thermal Phenomena
Quantum Electronics and Lasers
Other Acoustics and Optical Physics n.e.c
Condensed Matter Physics
F1020501 Electronic, Electrical, Magnetic and Optical
Properties
F1020502 Low Dimensional Physics
F1020503 Low Temperature Physics
F1020504 Phonon Physics
F1020505 Structure, Mechanical and Thermal Properties
F1020506 Superconductivity
F1020507 Surface and Interface and Thin Films
F1020599 Other Condensed Matter Physics n.e.c
Nuclear and Particle Physics
F1020600
F1020601
F1020602
F1020603
F1020604
F1020605
F1020699
Elementary Particle Physics
Nuclear Reaction and Scattering
Nuclear Structure
Radiation Detection and Measurement
Radioactivity and Electromagnetic Emission
Other Nuclear and Particle Physics n.e.c.
Fluid, Discharges and Plasma Physics
F1020700
F1020701
F1020702
F1020703
F1020704
F1020705
F1020706
F1020707
F1020799
Electric Discharges
Fluid Dynamics
Gaseous Electronics
Physical Properties of Gases
Plasma Devices and Applications
Space Plasma
Theory and Modelling of Plasma
Other Fluid, Discharges and Plasma Physics
n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
015
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1020800
Cross Disciplinary Physics
F1020801
F1020802
F1020803
F1020804
F1020899
F1020900
Atmospheric Physics
Biophysics
Medical Physics
Geophysics
Other Cross Disciplinary Physics n.e.c.
Advancement of Physical Sciences
Knowledge
F1020901
F1020902
F1020903
F1020904
F1020905
F1020906
F1020907
F1020908
F1020909
F1020910
F1020911
F1020912
F1020913
F1020914
F1020915
F1020916
F1020917
F1020918
F1020919
F1020920
F1020999
Space Science
Space Exploration
Atmospheric Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics
High Energy Physics
Plasma Sources
Radiation Physics
Nuclear and Reactor Physics
Acoustics
Optics, Non-Linear Optics and Quantum Optics
Optoelectronics and Lasers
Low Temperature Physics
Nanostructure and Quantum Device
High Temperature Superconductivity
Material Physics
Biophysics
Medical Physics
Geophysics
Ionosphenic Physics
Other Physical Sciences
Other Advancement of Physical Sciences
Knowledge n.e.c
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
016
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CHEMICAL SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1030000
F1030100
AREA
Physical Chemistry SN: Including Theoretical
and Structural
F1030101
F1030102
F1030103
F1030104
F1030105
F1030106
F1030107
F1030108
F1030109
F1030110
F1030111
F1030199
Chemical Energetic
Chemical Spectroscopy
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemistry of Catalysis
Colloid Chemistry
Electrochemistry
Mechanisms of Reactions
Polymer Chemistry
Structural Chemistry
Surface Chemistry
Theoretical Chemistry
Other Physical Chemistry n.e.c.
Inorganic Chemistry
F1030200
F1030201
F1030202
F1030203
F1030204
F1030205
F1030299
F1030300
Bio-Inorganic Chemistry
Main Group Chemistry
Organometallic Chemistry
Solid State Chemistry
Transition Metal Chemistry
Other Inorganic Chemistry n.e.c. SN: Including
R&D in Agricultural Inorganic Chemical
Organic Chemistry
F1030301
F1030302
F1030303
F1030304
F1030305
F1030306
F1030307
F1030399
Bio-Organic Chemistry
Medicinal Chemistry
Natural Products Chemistry
Oleochemical Chemistry
Organic Chemical Synthesis
Petrochemical Chemistry
Physical Organic Chemistry
Other Organic Chemistry n.e.c. SN: Including
R&D in Agricultural Organic Chemical
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
017
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1030400
Analytical Chemistry
F1030401
F1030402
F1030403
F1030404
F1030405
F1030406
F1030407
F1030408
F1030409
F1030499
Analytical Nuclear Chemistry
Bioassay Methods
Chemical and Physical Methods
Chemometrics
Computational Chemistry
Extraction Technology
Immunoassay
Instrumentation Methods
Trace Chemical Analysis
Other Analytical Chemistry n.e.c.
Radiation Chemistry
F1030500
F1030501
F1030502
F1030503
F1030504
F1030599
Cross Linking Chemistry
Degradation Chemistry
Radiochemistry
Sterilization Chemistry
Other Radiation Chemistry n.e.c
Molecular Chemistry
F1030600
F1030601
F1030602
F1030603
F1030604
F1030699
Characterization of Molecules
Physical Chemistry of Molecules
Polymerisation Mechanisms
Synthesis of Molecules
Other Molecular Chemistry n.e.c
F1030700
Advancement of Chemical Sciences
Knowledge
F1039900
Other Chemical Sciences n.e.c.
SN: Including Synthesis and Design of Fine
and Speciality Chemicals as in Chiral
Compound, Cosmoceuticals, Drug
Intermediates from Indigenous Sources,
Expired Patent Chemicals, Heat Resistant/
Flame Retarding Chemicals, Large Martial
Molecules and Liquid Crys
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
018
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
EARTH SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1040000
F1040100
AREA
Geology
F1040101
F1040102
F1040103
F1040104
F1040105
F1040106
F1040107
F1040108
F1040109
F1040110
F1040111
F1040112
F1040113
F1040114
F1040199
F1040200
Geophysics
F1040201
F1040202
F1040203
F1040204
F1040205
F1040206
F1040207
F1040208
F1040209
F1040210
F1040299
F1040300
Biostratigraphy
Carbon Dating
Geochronology
Geomorphology
Geotectonics
Glaciology
Mineralogy
Ore Deposit Petrology
Palaeontology
Petroleum Geology
Pollen Dating
Sedimentology
Structural Geology
Volcanology
Other Geology Studies n.e.c.
Earthquake
Electromagnetism and Geomagnetism
Explosion
Geomechanics
Gravity
Petrophysics
Radiometric
Seismology
Tsunami
Geomagnetism
Other Geophysics n.e.c
Geochemistry
F1040301 Bio Geochemistry
F1040302 Exploration Geochemistry
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
019
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1040303
F1040304
F1040305
F1040306
F1040399
Inorganic Geochemistry
Isotope Geochemistry
Microbial Geochemistry
Organic Geochemistry
Other Geochemistry n.e.c
Hydrology
F1040400
F1040401
F1040402
F1040403
F1040404
F1040405
F1040406
F1040407
F1040499
F1040500
Eco-Hydrology
Ground Water Hydrology
Hydraulic System
Hydrometeorology
Surface Water Hydrology
Urban Hydrology
Rural Hydrology
Other Hydrology n.e.c
Atmospheric Sciences
F1040501
F1040502
F1040503
F1040504
F1040505
F1040506
F1040507
F1040508
F1040509
F1040599
Climatology
El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
Ionosphere Physics
Magnetosphere Physics
Meteorology
Monsoon System
Palaeoclimatology
Solar - Terrestrial Interaction SN: Including Sunspot
Space Weather
Other Atmospheric Sciences n.e.c.
Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere
F1040600
F1040601
F1040602
F1040603
F1040604
F1040605
F1040606
F1040607
Morphology
Dynamics
Profile
Irregularities
Effects on Electromagnetic Waves
Geomagnetic Field
Electron Content and Scintillation
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
020
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1040608 Ionospheric Sounding
F1040609 Seismo-Ionospheric Coupling
F1040699 Other Ionosphere and Upper Atmosphere n.e.c
F1040700
Advancement of Earth Sciences Knowledge
F1049900
Other Earth Sciences n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
021
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
INFORMATION, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1050000
F1050100
AREA
Information Systems
F1050101
F1050102
F1050103
F1050104
F1050105
F1050106
F1050107
F1050108
F1050109
F1050110
F1050111
F1050112
F1050113
F1050114
F1050115
F1050116
F1050117
F1050199
Computer Graphics and Animations
Data Exchange Format
Decision Support System
Digital Image Processing System
Executive Information System
Geographic Information System (GIS) SN:
Including of Digital Data, Digital Model,
Environmental Information, Land Value
Information, Map, Precise Measurement,
Resource-Based Information, Spatial Database,
Strategic Information and Geo-positioning System
(GPS)
Interface Design
Management Information System
Multimedia
Search Engine
Telemedicine
Tomography
Web Technology
Grid Application
Semantic Grid
Agricultural Information System (AIS) SN:
Including Information-based Agriculture Services
Information Services SN: Including Information
Services, Library Services, Bioinformation
Services, Business Intelligence Services,
Collaborative Computing Services, Education and
Training Services, Health Information Services,
Legal Information Services, Natural Resource
Services, Political Information Services, Social
and Community Information Services and Internet
Other Information Systems n.e.c
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
022
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1050200
ICT Infrastructure
F1050201
F1050202
F1050203
F1050204
F1050205
F1050206
F1050207
F1050208
F1050209
F1050210
F1050211
F1050212
F1050213
F1050214
F1050215
F1050216
F1050217
F1050299
F1050300
Antenna Design
Board Design
Computer System Organisation
Data Communication Devices
Display Devices
Distributed Computing
Input and Output Devices
Integrated Circuits
Logic and Arithmetics Structures
Logic Design
Mobile Communication Devices
Multimedia Systems
Optical Computing
Processor Design
Radio Frequency (RF) Design
Wireless Devices
Sensor Networks
Other ICT Infrastructure n.e.c
Software
F1050301 Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE)
Tools
F1050302 Compilers and Interpreters
F1050303 Computer Aided System
F1050304 Decision Support System
F1050305 Object Oriented Technology
F1050306 Operating Systems
F1050307 Programming Languages
F1050308 Simulation System
F1050309 Software Agents
F1050310 Software Engineering
F1050311 Open Systems Software
F1050312 Programming Techniques
F1050313 Embedded Systems
F1050314 Safety Critical Software
F1050399 Other Software n.e.c SN: Including Application
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
023
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Packages and Tools, Application System Utilities,
Communication on Services, Computer Aided
Design(CAD), Computer Aided
Engineering(CAE), Computer Aided
Manufacturing(CAM), Computer Animation and
Digital Arts, Computer Security, Edutainment,
Information Processing Services, Integrated and
Expert System for Designing, Multimedia
Content, Virtual Reality and Virtual
Manufacturing
F1050400
Emergent Information Technology
F1050401 Edutainment Merging Education and
Entertainment Technologies
F1050402 High Performance Computing
F1050403 High Speed Network
F1050404 Intelligent Database
F1050405 Knowledge Base
F1050406 Man-Machine Interfacing
F1050407 Middleware Technology
F1050408 Mobile Computing
F1050409 Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)
F1050410 Natural Language
F1050411 Parallel Architecture and Processing
F1050412 Pervasive Computing
F1050413 Virtual Reality
F1050414 4D, 5D, Nth Dimension Modelling
F1050415 Quantum Computing
F1050416 Autonomous Computing
F1050417 Ad-Hoc Computing
F1050499 Other Emergent Information Technology n.e.c
F1050500
Communication
F1050501
F1050502
F1050503
F1050504
Antenna Technology
Asynchronous Transmission Mode
Audio/Voice Communication
Coding and Information Theory
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
024
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1050505
F1050506
F1050507
F1050508
F1050509
F1050510
F1050511
F1050512
F1050513
F1050514
F1050515
F1050516
F1050517
F1050518
F1050519
F1050520
F1050521
F1050522
F1050523
F1050524
F1050525
F1050526
F1050527
F1050528
F1050599
Communication Protocols
Communication Software
Data Communication Devices
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
Ethernet Technologies
Integrated Communication Devices
Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)
Microwave Communications Technology
Mobile Network Technologies
Optical Systems
Open System Interconnecting (OSI) Model
Routers Technology
Satellite Communications and Services
Switched Networks
Wireless Communication and Technologies SN:
Including Communication Equipment
Mobile Computing and Services
High Performance Computing
Man-Machine Interfacing
High Speed Network
Middleware Technology
Financial Information Grid
Equipments SN: Including Broadcasting
Equipment, Data Image and Text Equipment,
Network Transmission Equipment, Photonic
Equipment, Radio and Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID), Nano Equipment
Communication Services SN: Including of
Broadcasting, Postal Communication,
Telecommunication, Tele-Education, TeleWorking, Multiservice Convergence Network, 3G
Cellular Networks, Internet Protocol, ShortRange Communication, VOIP, Teleport and TeleHealth
Barcode
Other Communications n.e.c. SN: Including
Technologies Use in Aerospace, Civil Defence,
Secured Communication System; Navigation
and Defence Communication System, Computer
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
025
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Simulation, Electronics and Electronics System
F1050600
Security System
F1050601
F1050602
F1050603
F1050604
F1050605
F1050606
F1050607
F1050608
F1050609
F1050610
F1050611
F1050612
F1050613
F1050614
Authentication System
Biometrics Security System
Cryptography
Digital Signatures
Encryption System
Firewalls
Intrusion Detection System
Smart System
Surveillance System
Malware, Worms and Viruses
Hacking
Security Protocols
Intrusion Prevention System
National Security SN: Including Health Aspects
such as Medicine and Medical Supply, Disaster
Preparedness and Imported Diseases
F1050615 Security Services SN: Digital Forensic,
Steganography, Network Security, Public Key
Infrastructure and Biometrics
F1050699 Other Security System n.e.c SN: Including The
Defence System n.e.c. and Manufacturing, Marine,
Materials including Armour and Kevlar, Positioning
and Mapping Systems, Remote Sensing System,
Software, Strategic Air Pollution Control, Strategic
Disinfections Systems, Strategic Water Purification
Systems, Surveillance including Radar and Defence
Satellite, Virtual-Reality War Games, Weapon
Systems,Other Information & Communications
Services and Technology n.e.c., Biotoxins,
Hydrography, Underwater Acoustics Biological
Weapon, DNA Identification, Nuclear Weapon,
Combat Ration Food Security (Staple Food
Production, Planning & Strategies for Production,
Management of Food Production, Recognising
Contribution of Female Gender in Food Production,
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
026
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Storage and Processing , Food Suffiency (during
Military Insurgency) Food Culture, Water Security,
Social Capital such as Housing Policy, International
Relation and Human Resources, Instrument and
Control Engineering, Biological & Chemical Defence
System, Oil Palm, Rubber, Mineral, Cocoa,
Biodiversity, Natural Resources including Flora and
Fauna Security Under Biosecurity and Forest Cover
as in Permanent Reserve , Other Commodities and
Other Equipments (such as Automotive) , Explosives
Guided System, Laser, Material, Night Vision,
Propulsion, Rocket System, Sensor,
Biological/Chemical Sensor, Telemetry, Satellite
Imaging, Energy Source, Remotely Operated Vehicles
(Rovs), Biosensor Biodiagnostic Kits, Biological
Weapon and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
F1050700
Artificial Intelligence
F1050701
F1050702
F1050703
F1050704
F1050705
F1050706
F1050707
F1050708
F1050799
Cognitive Science
Computational Linguistic
Expert Systems
Logic Programming
Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms and Fuzzy
Logic
Soft Computing
Parallel Architecture and Processing
Natural Language
Other Artificial Intelligence n.e.c
Signal Processing
F1050800
F1050801
F1050802
F1050803
F1050804
F1050805
F1050806
F1050807
Algorithms and Techniques
Audio and Video
Data Hiding and Steganography
Detection and Estimation
Digital Signal Processing
Filters
Image Processing and Computer Vision
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
027
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1050808
F1050809
F1050810
F1050811
F1050899
F1050900
Pattern Recognition and Image Recognition
Signal Analysis and Processing
Speech Recognition
Watermarking Techniques
Other Signal Processing n.e.c
Computation Theory and Mathematics
F1050901
F1050902
F1050903
F1050904
F1050905
F1050906
F1050907
F1050908
F1050999
F1051000
Analysis of Algorithms and Complexity
Computer Aided Geometrical Design
Discrete Mathematics
Logics and Meanings of Programs
Mathematical Logic and Formal Language
Mathematics Software
Numerical Analysis
Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation
Other Computation Theory and Mathematics
n.e.c
Data
F1051001
F1051002
F1051003
F1051004
F1051005
F1051006
F1051007
Compression Technology
Data Encryption
Data Recovery and Backup
Data Security
Data Storage and Representations
Data Structures
Files Management Representation and
Organization
F1051008 Knowledge Base
F1051099 Other Data n.e.c
Database Technology
F1051100
F1051101
F1051102
F1051103
F1051104
F1051105
Database
Data Mining
Data Warehousing
Intelligent Database
Mobile Database
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
028
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1051106 Multidimensional Database
F1051107 Multimedia Database
F1051199 Other Database Technology n.e.c
F1051200
ICT Policy and Social Impact
F1051201 Augmenting Individuals and Transforming
Societies
F1051202 E-Community
F1051203 ICT Policies
F1051204 Social Impact
F1051205 ICT Outsourcing
F1051206 Information System (IS) Planning
F1051207 Telecommuting and Teleworking
F1051208 E-Strategy
F1051209 ICT Law
F1051210 ICT Ethics
F1051211 Intellectual Property Rights
F1051212 Digital Divide and E-Inclusion
F1051213 Open System Standards
F1051299 Other ICT Policy and Social Impact n.e.c
F1051300
ICT Applications
F1051301
F1051302
F1051303
F1051304
F1051305
F1051306
F1051307
F1051308
F1051309
F1051310
F1051311
F1051312
F1051313
F1051314
F1051315
Bioinformatics
E-Commerce
Education
E-Government
Finance and Insurance
Healthcare
Manufacturing
Teleworking
Edutainment
Virtual Reality
M-Commerce
M-Government
Telehealth
E-Culture
E-Tourism
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
029
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1051316
F1051317
F1051318
F1051319
F1051320
F1051321
F1051399
F1051400
E-Museum
E-Library
E-Dictionary
E-Architecture
E-Law
Food Traceability
Other ICT Applications n.e.c
Software Engineering
F1051401
F1051402
F1051403
F1051404
F1051405
F1051406
F1051407
F1051499
Software Process Models
Software Tools
Software Metrics
Software Quality
Software Management
Component Based Software Development
Project Management
Other Software Engineering n.e.c
Web Technology
F1051500
F1051501
F1051502
F1051503
F1051504
F1051505
F1051599
Web Services
Semantic Web
Web Wrapping
Collaborative Computing
Grid Computing
Other Web Technology n.e.c
F1051600
Advancement of ICT Knowledge
F1059900
Other Information, Computer and
Communication Technology (ICT) n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
030
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1060000
F1060100
AREA
Aerospace
F1060101
F1060102
F1060103
F1060104
F1060105
F1060106
F1060107
F1060108
F1060109
F1060110
F1060111
F1060112
F1060113
F1060114
F1060115
F1060116
F1060117
F1060118
F1060119
F1060120
F1060121
F1060122
F1060123
F1060124
F1060125
F1060126
Advance Materials-Composite Special Alloys
Aerodynamics
Aero-Elasticity
Aeronautical Technology
Aerospace Electrical Systems
Aerospace Manufacturing SN: Including
Manufacturing of Transportation Component for
Defence and Security System e.g Rotary and
Fixed Wing and Instrumentation Manufacturing
Such As On-Board Computer for Satellites
Aerospace Materials
Aerospace Structures
Aircraft Performance
Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT) System
Avionics
Earth Observation System (EOS)
Experimental Aerodynamics
Flight Control Systems
Flight Dynamics
Ground and Space Stations
Intelligent Navigation System
Missile Systems
Propulsion
Remote Sensing
Rocketry
Satellite and Spacecraft Design
Sensor
Thermal System
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Advance and Emerging Methods SN: Including
Quantitative Analysis such as Forecasting,
Modelling, Inference, Data Mining; Survey
Techniques (Complex Survey, Rank Set
Sampling, Market Survey), and Performance
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
031
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Measurement (Hierarchical Modelling, Data
Envelopment Analysis, Stochastic Frontier
Analysis and Risk Analysis)
F1060127 Advancement of Aerospace Knowledge n.e.c.
F1060199 Other Aerospace n.e.c.
F1060200
Process Technology and Engineering
F1060201
F1060202
F1060203
F1060204
F1060205
F1060206
F1060207
F1060208
F1060209
F1060210
F1060211
F1060212
F1060213
F1060214
F1060215
F1060216
F1060217
F1060218
F1060219
F1060220
F1060221
F1060299
Control Technology
Drying Technology
Extraction Technology
Fermentation Technology
Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment
Material Processing Technology
Membrane Technology
Printing Technology
Roasting Technology
Separation Technology
Supercritical Fluid Technology
Textile Technology
Welding Technology SN; Including Standard
Supporting Technologies for Heat Treatment and
Welding Technologies
Bioprocess Engineering
Microwave Technology
Supermagnet Processing
Process Control
Clean Technology
Green Technology
Gerontechnology SN: Including R&D for
advancement of knowledge in gerontechnology
Joining Technology
Other Process Technology and Engineering n.e.c
SN: Including Standard Supporting Technologies
for Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Fabrication and
Assembly
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
032
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1060300
Nuclear Technology
F1060301
F1060302
F1060303
F1060304
F1060305
F1060306
F1060307
F1060308
Accelerator Technology
Ionising Radiation Technology
Non Destructive Testing
Non-Ionising Radiation Technology
Radiation Technology
Reactor Technology
Neutron Science and Technology
Isotope/Isotopic Tracer Technology, Ion Beam
Technology, Electron Beam and Radiography
F1060399 Other Nuclear Technology n.e.c
Educational Technology
F1060400
F1060401
F1060402
F1060403
F1060404
F1060405
F1060499
F1060500
Resource-Based Technology
F1060501
F1060502
F1060503
F1060504
F1060505
F1060506
F1060507
F1060599
F1060600
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
Computer Based Training
E-Learning
Multimedia
Web Based Courses
Other Educational Technology n.e.c
Minerals
Oils and Fats
Petroleum and Gas
Rubber
Water SN: Include Bio-Defence Technology
Wood and Non Wood-Based Forest Products
Commodity Crops
Other Resource-Based Technology n.e.c SN:
Including Bio-Defence for Foods and Air
Energy Technology
F1060601 Bio-Gas and Bio-Fuel
F1060602 Biomass Energy Technology e.g Refuse-derived
Fuel (RDF)
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
033
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1060603
F1060604
F1060605
F1060606
F1060607
F1060608
F1060609
F1060610
F1060611
F1060612
F1060613
F1060614
F1060615
F1060616
F1060617
F1060618
F1060699
F1060700
Coal Energy Technology
Electrical Power Generation and Supply
Energy Management and Audit
Energy Storage
Fuel Cell Technology / Microbial Fuelcell
Geo-Thermal
Hydro Power Technology
Natural Gas Technology
Nuclear Technology / Nuclear Energy / Power
Technology
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
Recycliability
Solar Energy Technology
Energy Transportation
Waste-Heat Recovery
Wind
Ocean Wave
Other Energy Technology n.e.c
Water Technology
F1060701
F1060702
F1060703
F1060704
F1060705
F1060706
F1060707
F1060708
F1060709
F1060710
F1060799
F1060800
Control Devices
Disinfection
Filtration
Pipe Material
Reclamation, Reuse and Recycling
Wastewater Treatment
Water Meters
Water Treatment
Water Delivery System
Water Enrichment
Other Water Technology n.e.c
Nanotechnology
F1060801
F1060802
F1060803
F1060804
Medical Devices
Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS)
Microsphere Technology
Nano Particle
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
034
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1060805
F1060806
F1060807
F1060808
F1060899
F1060900
Nano Photonic
Nanotube
Quantum Device
Nano Materials
Other Nanotechnology n.e.c
Engineering Materials
F1060901
F1060902
F1060903
F1060904
F1060905
F1060906
F1060907
F1060908
F1060909
F1060910
F1060911
F1060912
F1060913
F1060914
F1060915
F1060916
F1060917
F1060918
F1060919
F1060920
F1060999
Alloy Materials
Bio-Waste
Ceramics
Composite Materials
Concrete
Plastics
Polymers
Steel
Timber
Wood
Non-Ferrous Metals
Glue & Adhesive
Mineral & Chemical Admixtures
Superconducting Material
Optical Material
Refractories
Ferrocement
Rubber
Bricks
Bitumen, Asphalt
Other Engineering Materials n.e.c. SN: Including
Materials Testing, Performance and Processes
Analysis such as Audiological Materials, Bio
Materials, Cement and Concrete Materials,
Dental Materials, Dynamic Testing, Ear Mould
Materials, Highway Basement Performance,
Material Reliability and Performance, Metals,
Micro-Mechanical Measurement and
Techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT),
Ophthalmic Materials Polymeric Materials
Performance Testing, Smart Materials
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
035
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Spectroscopic Techniques, Stone, Ceramics and
Clay Materials Structural Assessment, Thin Film
Technologies, Timber Materials and Semi Metals
F1061000
Architecture
F1061001
F1061002
F1061003
F1061004
F1061005
F1061006
F1061007
F1061008
F1061009
F1061010
F1061011
F1061012
F1061013
F1061099
Building Design
Design for Disables
Design Management and Professional Practice
Design Studio Practice
Heritage and Conservation
High Rise and Intelligent Building
Built Environment
Hospital Design
Interior and Environment Design
E-Architecture
Indigenous Architecture
Naval Architecture
Open Building
Other Architecture n.e.c
Urban Environmental Planning
F1061100
F1061101
F1061102
F1061103
F1061104
F1061105
F1061106
F1061107
F1061108
F1061109
F1061110
F1061111
F1061199
Geographical Information System (GIS)
Land Use
Parking System
Planning Administration and Practice
Remote Sensing
Resort Development
Tourism Planning and Development
Traffic Planning and Management
Urban and Regional Planning
Security System
Facilities for Disables
Other Urban Environmental Planning n.e.c
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
036
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1061200
Landscape Design and Planning
F1061201
F1061202
F1061203
F1061204
F1061205
F1061206
F1061207
F1061208
F1061209
F1061299
F1061300
Ecotourism
Geographical Information System (GIS)
Landscape Ecology
Landscape Management
Landscape Planning
Landscape Technology
Parks and Recreation
Remote Sensing
Therapeutic Garden
Other Landscape Design and Planning n.e.c
Construction Technology
F1061301
F1061302
F1061303
F1061304
F1061305
F1061306
F1061307
F1061308
F1061309
F1061310
F1061311
F1061399
Building and Construction
Building Economics
Building Services
Construction Techniques
Facilities Management
Procurement
Project Management and Costing
Quantity Surveying
Real Estate
Construction Materials
Industrialised Building System (IBS)
Other Construction Technology n.e.c SN:
Including Construction of Deployable Defence
System such as Make Shift Building, Road
System and Bridges
F1061400
Advancement of Knowledge in Applied
Sciences and Technologies n.e.c; SN
including Aerospace, Nanotechnology,
Microwave
F1069900
Other Applied Sciences and Technology
n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
037
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
ENGINEERING SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1070000
F1070100
AREA
Mechanical Engineering
F1070101
F1070102
F1070103
F1070104
F1070105
F1070106
F1070107
F1070108
F1070109
F1070199
F1070200
Acoustic Engineering
Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration
Combustion and Fuel Engineering
Corrosion Science and Engineering
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Engineering
Machine Design
Mechanical Control
Optical Engineering
Power Plant Engineering
Other Mechanical Engineering n.e.c
Chemical Engineering
F1070201
F1070202
F1070203
F1070204
F1070205
F1070206
F1070207
F1070208
F1070209
F1070210
F1070211
F1070212
F1070213
F1070299
F1070300
Catalyst and Reaction Engineering
Chemical Engineering Design
Chemical Process Simulation
Chemical/ Physical Modification
Fluid Mechanics
Heat/ Mass Transfer Operations
Indigenous Raw Materials Processing
Industrial Chemical Production
Plant Design and Testing
Polymerisation Process
Process Control
Separation Process
Biochemical Engineering
Other Chemical Engineering n.e.c
Mining and Mineral Processing Engineering
F1070301
F1070302
F1070303
F1070304
Extractive Metallurgy
Geomechanics
Mineral Evaluation/ Appraisal
Mining Engineering
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
038
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1070305
F1070306
F1070307
F1070308
F1070399
F1070400
Mineral Processing Engineering
Precious Metals Recovery
Biomining
Bioleaching
Other Mining and Mineral Processing
Engineering n.e.c
Civil Engineering
F1070401
F1070402
F1070403
F1070404
F1070405
F1070406
F1070407
F1070408
F1070409
F1070410
F1070411
F1070412
F1070413
F1070414
F1070415
Coastal and Offshore Engineering
Foundation Engineering
Geology and Rock Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering
Highway Engineering
Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering
Infrastructural Engineering n.e.c SN: Including
Equipment and Infrastructure for Defence
System such as Materials and Advanced
Materials, Bridge System, Industrialised
Construction System Connection System,
Bunkers and Underground Structures, Blast
Resistance Buildings, Under Water Structures
and Coastal Protection Structures
River Engineering / Integrated River Basin
Management
Storm Water Management
Structural Engineering
Surveying
Traffic and Transportation
Urban Drainage / Water Sensitive Urban Design
Water Resources Management / Integrated
Water Resources Management
Planning of Construction SN: Including
Commercial Building, Community Planning,
Construction Open Building, Development
Models, Environmental Sustainable Habitat,
Industrial Building, Seaport and Airport,
Residential, Residential and Public Building,
Road, Bridge and Highway, Spatial and Physical
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
039
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1070416
F1070417
F1070418
F1070499
F1070500
Planning, Urban Renewal, Integrated
Construction,Intelligent Building, Land
Reclamation and Land Readjustment, Dam and
Irrigation Systems
Design of Construction SN: Including of Bridges,
Commercial Building, Construction, High Rise
Building, Industrial Building, Industrialised
Building/Construction System (IBS/ ICS), Port
and Airport, Residential, Residential and Public
Building, Road and Highway, Seismic and
Dynamic Resistant, Structural Design and
Assessment, Smart Building, Intelligent Building,
Dam and Irrigation Systems
Construction Processes SN: Including of
Commercial Building Construction Processes,
Housing Construction Processes, Industrial
Building Construction Processes, Industrialised
Building/Construction System, K-Based
Construction, Seaport and Airport Construction
Processes, Road and Highway Construction
Processes, Standard Regulation and Legislation
and Construction Waste Materials
Building Management and Services of
Construction SN: Including of Commercial
Building Management Services, Housing
Management Services, Industrial Building
Management Services, Industrialised
Building/Construction System (IBS/ICS),
Structural Products (Wall/ Floor Tiles, Roofing
Tiles) n.e.c.
Other Civil Engineering n.e.c SN: Including
Manufacturing of Construction Machinery and
Equipment
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
F1070501 Control Engineering
F1070502 Device Fabrication and Process Simulation
F1070503 Device Physics and Simulation
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
040
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1070504
F1070505
F1070506
F1070507
F1070508
F1070509
F1070510
F1070511
F1070512
F1070513
F1070514
F1070515
F1070516
F1070599
F1070600
Digital and Analogue Electronics
Discrete Devices
IC Design
IC Testing and Failure Analysis
Instrumentation and Control
Machines and Drives
Mechatronics
Microwave SN: Including Manufacturing of
Machinery and Equipment
Power Engineering
Embedded System
Autonomous System
System-On-Chip (SOC)
Lab-On-Chip (LOC)
Other Electrical and Electronic Engineering n.e.c
SN: Including Manufacturing of Appliances
Agricultural Engineering
F1070601 Agriculture Robotics and Automation
F1070602 Agro Waste Management
F1070603 By-Product Utilisation SN: Including Activated
Carbon, Animal Feed, Bio-Fertilisers, Cement
Board,Control Release Materials, Emulsifier,
Fibre Board, Food Additives, Hemicelluloses,
High Fructose Syrup, Jelly, Lubricant / Grease,
Mattress and Cushions, Moulded Particles, NonFood Product, Paint, Paper and Pulp, Pentose,
Plasticizer, Printing Ink, Slow Release Material,
Stabiliser, Treated Sludge, Treated Wastewater,
Useful Chemicals, Bioenergy, Bioresin, Zeolite
Products, Carbohy Methayl Cellulose, Compost,
Bio-Control Agents, Probiotic, Plant Enzymes,
Phytochemicals, Mushroom Production and
Biofuel
F1070604 Farm Machinery Design
F1070605 Farm Structure and Growth Environment
F1070606 Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
F1070607 Mechanisation System
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
041
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1070608 Non-Food Processing n.e.c SN: Including
Manufacturing of Machinery and Equipment for
Bio-Fuel, Renewable Energy, Solar Energy and
Green House Structure
F1070609 Post Harvest Handling
F1070610 Precision Farming
F1070611 Primary Processing and Storage
F1070612 Soil Engineering
F1070613 Transportation System for Agriculture Products
F1070614 Harvesting Technology
F1070615 Rubber Tapping Technology
F1070616 Bio-Sensor SN: Including BT: Instrumentation in
Agricultural Engineering
F1070617 Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for Agriculture
F1070618 Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing
F1070699 Other Agriculture Engineering n.e.c.
F1070700
Food Engineering
F1070701 Engineering Properties of Food and Biological
Materials
F1070702 Extraction System
F1070703 Food Dehydration
F1070704 Food Engineering Unit Operations
F1070705 Food Extrusion
F1070706 Food Mechanisation
F1070707 Food Process Control and Automation
F1070708 Food Processing Plant and Machinery Design
SN: Including Manufacturing of Machinery and
Equipment for Food Processing
F1070709 Food Transfer Process
F1070710 Packaging and Handling Technology
F1070711 Post Harvest Engineering
F1070712 Radiation Processing
F1070713 Storage and Secondary Processing
F1070714 System Modelling
F1070715 Thermal Processing
F1070716 Waste Handling and Processing
F1070717 Genetically Modified Food
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
042
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1070718 Cook Chilled System
F1070719 Non Destructive Technique (NDT), Bio- Sensor
F1070799 Other Food Engineering n.e.c.
F1070800
Environmental Engineering
F1070801
F1070802
F1070803
F1070804
F1070805
F1070806
F1070807
F1070808
F1070809
F1070810
F1070811
F1070812
F1070813
F1070814
F1070899
F1070900
Air Pollution Engineering
Factory Environment
Hazardous Waste Management
Life Cycle Analysis
River Rehabilitation
Sewerage Management
Solid Waste Management
Sustainable Sanitation
Water and Wastewater Processes
Water Sanitary Engineering
Zero Emissions
Ex-Mining Land Management
Water and Wastewater Management
Water Body Management
Other Environmental Engineering n.e.c.
Nuclear Engineering
F1070901
F1070902
F1070903
F1070999
F1071000
Irradiation Effect
Safety Assurance
Radiation Sterilization, Quality Control
Other Nuclear Engineering n.e.c.
Marine Engineering
F1071001
F1071002
F1071003
F1071004
F1071005
F1071006
F1071007
F1071008
Coastal and Offshore Engineering
Hydroinformatics
Naval Engineering
Ocean Engineering
Ship and Platform Hydrodynamics
Ship and Platform Structure
Ship Design and Building
Special Vehicles SN: Including Manufacturing for
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
043
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Sea Transport for Defence and Security Purpose
e.g Patrol Vessel and Riverine-Craft
F1071009 Submersible Vehicle SN: Including
Manufacturing of Unmanned Vehicles for
Defence and Security System
F1071099 Other Marine Engineering n.e.c.
F1071100
Industrial Engineering
Ergonomic Aspects
Plant Design
Production Engineering
Quality Assurance
Work Measurement
Productivity Measurement
Manufacturing Instrument SN: Including
Industrial, Scientific, Test and Measurement,
Transducer and Sensor
F1071199 Other Industrial Engineering n.e.c.
F1071101
F1071102
F1071103
F1071104
F1071105
F1071106
F1071107
F1071200
Manufacturing and Production Engineering
F1071201
F1071202
F1071203
F1071204
F1071205
F1071206
F1071207
F1071208
F1071209
F1071210
F1071211
F1071212
F1071213
CAD/ CAM/ CAE Applications
Casting
Collaborative Engineering
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Cutting Tool Technology
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
Electrical Discharge Machining
Elite Machining
Fabrication Technology SN: Including
Manufacturing of High Speed/Precision
Equipment Fabrication Machinery and
Equipment and Standard Supporting
Technologies of Fabrication for Metal and Plastic
Flexible Manufacturing Systems
Forging
Foundry Technology
Grinding
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
044
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1071214 Laser Machining
F1071215 Machining
F1071216 Metrology SN: Including Instrumentation
Manufacturing such as Metrological Instrument
F1071217 Nano Technology SN: Including Standard
Supporting Technologies for Nano Machining
F1071218 Non-Conventional Machining
F1071219 Plastic Moulding Technology
F1071220 Polishing SN: Including Standard Supporting
Technologies
F1071221 Powder Metallurgy
F1071222 Precision Engineering SN: Including Standard
Supporting Technologies of Precision Machining
and Micro Machining
F1071223 Product Life Cycle
F1071224 Rapid Prototyping and Tooling SN: Including
Standard Supporting Technologies of Precision
Machining and Micro Machining
F1071225 Reverse Engineering SN: Including Standard
Supporting Technologies
F1071226 Robotics and Mechatronics
F1071227 Surface Engineering SN: Including Standard
Supporting Technologies in Surface Treatment
and Welding Technologies
F1071228 Textile Engineering
F1071229 Thixo-Moulding
F1071230 Tool and Die Design and Manufacturing SN:
Including Standard Supporting Technologies of
Mould and Die Technology
F1071231 Virtual Manufacturing
F1071232 Latex Products Processing Manufacturing SN:
Including Depolymerisation, Deproteinization,
Dipping, Epoxidation, Extrusion, Foaming,
Rubber Moulding, Vulcanisation, Hydrogenation
and Latex Modification
F1071233 Packaging Technology and Materials SN:
Including Standard Supporting Technologies
F1071234 Milling and Process Materials SN: Including
Conversion Into Value-Added Products, Cost-
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
045
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Effective Process for Existing Products, Fibre
Reinforced Concrete, High Strength Concrete, In
Field Treatment Process, Lightweight Concrete,
On-Line Quality Indicator and Minimal Waste,
Pilot Testing, Concrete Materials (Pre-Strength
Concrete, Pre-Stressed Concrete), Production
Modelling, Smart Window Technology
Packaging, Validating Technology and ZeroWaste Technology
F1071299 Other Manufacturing and Production Engineering
n.e.c. SN: Including Manufacturing of Machinery
and Equipment as in Industrial, Laser, Machine
Tools, Metal Casting, Mining and Mineral
Processing, Telecommunication, Transport,
Quarrying, Quarrying and Extraction, Robotics,
Palm Oil Milling, Palm Oil Refinery, Oleo
Chemical Production, Rubber Products
Manufacturing, Raw Rubber Processing,
Fishing Technology Equipment and Material
Handling Equipment
F1071300
Automotive Engineering
F1071301
F1071302
F1071303
F1071304
F1071305
F1071306
F1071307
F1071308
F1071309
F1071310
F1071311
F1071312
F1071313
Air Pollution Control
Automotive Control
Automotive Design
Automotive Design and Styling
Automotive Fuels
Automotive ICT
Automotive Manufacturing SN: Includes
Manufacturing of Vehicle Sub-System and Land
Transport; Track and Wheel Vehicle in Defence
and Security System
Automotive Prototyping
Drivetrain Engineering
Engine Management System
Intelligent Vehicle
Materials
Passenger Comfort and Human Factors
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
046
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1071314
F1071315
F1071316
F1071317
F1071318
F1071319
F1071320
F1071321
F1071322
F1071323
F1071324
F1071325
F1071326
F1071327
F1071328
F1071329
F1071330
F1071331
F1071332
F1071333
F1071334
F1071335
F1071336
F1071337
F1071338
F1071339
F1071340
F1071341
F1071342
F1071343
F1071344
F1071345
F1071346
F1071347
F1071348
F1071349
F1071350
F1071351
F1071352
Powertrain Engineering
Traffic Safety Technology
Valvetrain Engineering
Vehicle Electronics
Vehicle Engineering
Hybrid Vehicles
Chassis Engineering
Emission Control Devices
Road Handling
Fuelling/ Intake Systems
Collision Avoidance Technology
Internal Combustion Engines
Fuel Cell
Off-Highway Vehicles
Performance, Evaluation and Optimization
Telematics
Commercial Vehicles and Trucks
Lightings
Embedded System and Sensors
Stability Control
Motorsports Engineering
Instrument Cluster Technology
In-Vehicle Entertainment System
Electronics
Design, Packaging, and Styling
Electric Vehicles
Tyre Technology
Suspension System
Braking System
Ergonomics
Air-Conditioning Systems
Onboard Navigation
By-Wire Technology
Energy Storage and Battery
Turbo and Supercharging Technology
Auxiliary Components
In-Vehicle Safety Features
Tribology and Lubrication
Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH)
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
047
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1071399 Other Automotive Engineering n.e.c.
F1071400
Geomatic Engineering
F1071401
F1071402
F1071403
F1071404
F1071405
F1071406
F1071407
F1071408
F1071409
F1071410
F1071411
F1071412
F1071413
F1071414
F1071415
F1071416
F1071417
F1071418
F1071419
F1071420
F1071421
F1071422
F1071423
F1071424
F1071425
F1071426
F1071427
F1071428
F1071429
F1071430
F1071499
F1071500
Cartography
Deformation Monitoring
Digital Image Processing
Fast Mapping
Field Astronomy
Geodesy and Geodetic Controls
Geographic Information System (GIS)
Geometry, Radiometry Calibration Analysis
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Hydrography
Hyperspectra Sensing
Image Understanding and Analysis
Industrial and Automated Measurement System
Land Information System (LIS)
Laser Measurement
Microwave and Radar Sensing
Modern Surveying Techniques
Navigation and Positioning System
Oceanography
Photogrammetry
Real-Time Measurement System
Remote Sensing
Robotic Surveying Technology
Spatial Data Modelling and Databasing
Spatial Information Systems
Surveying and Mapping
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Vehicle Navigation and Location
Vision Metrology
Other Geomatic Engineering n.e.c.
Materials Engineering and Metallurgy
F1071501 Alloy Materials
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
048
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1071502
F1071503
F1071504
F1071505
F1071506
F1071507
F1071508
F1071509
F1071510
F1071511
F1071512
F1071513
F1071514
F1071515
F1071516
F1071517
F1071518
F1071519
F1071520
F1071521
F1071599
F1071600
Bio-Material
Building and Construction Materials
Ceramics
Composite Materials
Crystal
Electronic Materials
Material Recycliability
Metal
Nano Materials
Physical Metallurgy
Plastics
Polymers
Powder Metallurgy
Process Metallurgy
Pulp and Paper
Smart Materials
Super Alloy
Synthetic Materials
Timber
Smelting
Other Materials Engineering and Metallurgy
n.e.c.
Biomedical Engineering
F1071601
F1071602
F1071603
F1071604
F1071605
F1071606
F1071607
F1071608
F1071609
F1071610
F1071611
F1071612
F1071613
F1071614
Biomaterials Engineering
Biomechanical Engineering
Bio-Metrics
Clinical Engineering
Diagnostic Tools
Medical Electronics
Rehabilitation Engineering
Artificial Organs
Modelling & Prototyping
Implant Technology
Medical Imaging Technology
Artificial Intelligent Diagnostic Technique
Robotic Technology
Artificial Organ Engineering
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
049
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1071615
F1071616
F1071617
F1071618
F1071619
F1071620
F1071621
F1071622
F1071623
F1071624
F1071625
F1071699
F1071700
Screening Device & Equipment Technology
Rehabilitation Technology
Monitoring Technology
Surgical Technology
Virtual Reality Software
Radiological Technology
Support System Technology
Treatment Technology
Bio Photonic Technology
Telemedicine Technology
Mass Screening Systems & Tools
Other Biomedical Engineering n.e.c.
Computer Hardware
F1071701
F1071702
F1071703
F1071704
F1071705
F1071706
F1071707
F1071708
F1071709
F1071710
F1071711
F1071712
F1071713
F1071714
F1071715
F1071716
F1071717
F1071799
Arithmetic and Logic Structures
Display Technology
High Performance Computers
Input, Output and Data Devices
Logic Design
Memory Structures
Multi-Processor
Processor Architectures
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
Control Structures and Microprogramming
Register - Transfer - Level Implementation
Integrated Circuits and Devices SN: Including
Communication Equipment
Special Purpose and Application Based Systems
Quantum Computer
Neural Network Computer
Wearable Computer
Hardware Services SN: Including GRID
Computing, Web Hosting, Asset Management
Services and Resource Sharing
Other Computer Hardware n.e.c. SN: Including
Automated Production, Computer Equipment,
Sensors, Modules-Other Processes, Modules-
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
050
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Special and Attached Processors, Electronic
Office Equipment, Integrated Systems, Intelligent
Machine Control, Electronic Intelligent System
and Manufacturing System
Communication Engineering
F1071800
F1071801
F1071802
F1071803
F1071804
F1071805
F1071806
F1071807
F1071808
F1071809
F1071810
F1071811
F1071812
F1071813
Antenna Technology
Base Band Technology
Broadband Network Technology
Computer Communications Networks
Digital Systems
Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC)
Microwave and Millimetrewave Technology
Modem Technology
Optical and Photonic Systems
Radio Communications and Broadcasting
Satellite Communications
Wireless Technology
Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID)
including Malaysia Microchip (MM Chip)
F1071899 Other Communications Engineering n.e.c.
F1071900
Process Design Engineering
F1071901 Design Engineering
F1071902 Process Simulation
F1071999 Others Process Design Engineering
F1072000
Space Science and Engineering
F1072001
F1072002
F1072003
F1072004
F1072005
F1072006
F1072099
Celestial and Orbital Mechanics
Experimental and Scientific Satellites
Ionospheric and Magnetospheric Science
Solar-Terrestrial Interaction
Space Launchers
Space Probes Design and Engineering
Other Space Science and Engineering n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
051
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1072100
Interdiscplinary Engineering
F1072101
F1072102
F1072103
F1072104
F1072105
F1072106
F1072107
F1072108
F1072109
F1072199
F1072200
Fluid Mechanics
Fluidisation
Heat and Mass Transfer Operations
Nanotechnology
System Engineering
Thermodynamics
Turbulent Flows
Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)
Forensic Engineering
Other Interdiscplinary Engineering n.e.c.
Robotic Engineering
F1072201
F1072202
F1072203
F1072204
F1072205
F1072206
F1072207
F1072208
F1072209
F1072210
F1072299
Aerial
Biologically-Inspired Robot
Field Robots
Humanoids
Intelligent Robot
Medical
Space and Planetary
Telerobotics and Virtual Reality
Underwater
Web-Based Robots
Other Robotic Engineering n.e.c. SN: Including
Robotics System
F1072300
Sports Science
F1072400
Advancement of Knowledge Engineering
Sciences
F1079900
Other Engineering Sciences n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
052
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1080000
F1080100
AREA
Biochemistry
Bioenergetics
Carbohydrates
Enzymology
Immunology
Lipids
Membrane Biology
Metabolic Pathways
Neurochemistry
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Manufacturing Instruments SN: Including
Bioglass, Biochips, Biometrics and Bio-reactor
F1080199 Other Biochemistry n.e.c.
F1080101
F1080102
F1080103
F1080104
F1080105
F1080106
F1080107
F1080108
F1080109
F1080110
F1080111
F1080200
Genetics
F1080201
F1080202
F1080203
F1080204
F1080205
F1080206
F1080207
F1080208
F1080209
F1080210
F1080211
F1080212
F1080299
F1080300
Biochemical Genetics
Cell Biology
Comparative Genetics
Cytogenetics
Developmental Genetics
Heredity
Molecular Genetics
Mutagenesis
Population Genetics
Recombinant DNA Techniques
Phylogenetics
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPS)
Other Genetics n.e.c.
Microbiology
F1080301 Bacteriology
F1080302 Microbial Systematic
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
053
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1080303
F1080304
F1080305
F1080306
F1080399
Botany
F1080400
F1080401
F1080402
F1080403
F1080404
F1080405
F1080406
F1080407
F1080499
F1080500
Economic Botany
Phycology
Plant Pathology
Plant Systematic
Plant Taxonomy
Plant Health
Ethnobotany
Other Botany n.e.c.
Zoology
F1080501
F1080502
F1080503
F1080504
F1080505
F1080506
F1080507
F1080508
F1080509
F1080510
F1080511
F1080512
F1080513
F1080514
F1080599
F1080600
Mycology
Parasitology
Virology
Protozoalogy
Other Microbiology n.e.c.
Anatomy
Animal Systematics
Animal Taxonomy
Entomology
Ethnology
Ethology
Herpetology
Histology
Ichthyology
Immunology
Invertebrates
Mammology
Neurobiology
Ornithology
Other Zoology n.e.c.
Ecology
F1080601 Ecological Engineering
F1080602 Estuarine Ecology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
054
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1080603
F1080604
F1080605
F1080606
F1080607
F1080608
F1080609
F1080610
F1080611
F1080612
F1080613
F1080614
F1080615
F1080699
F1080700
Freshwater Ecology
Karst Ecology
Landscape Ecology
Limnology
Mangrove Ecology
Montane Ecology
Palaeoecology
Population Ecology
Social Biology and Behaviour Ecology
Terrestrial Ecology
Physiological Ecology
Marine Ecology
Molecular Ecology
Other Ecology n.e.c.
Physiology
F1080701
F1080702
F1080703
F1080704
F1080705
F1080706
F1080707
F1080799
F1080800
Animal Physiology-Biophysics
Animal Physiology-Cell
Animal Physiology-Systems
Comparative Physiology
Insect Physiology
Microbial Physiology
Plant Physiology
Other Physiology n.e.c.
Biodiversity and Conservation
F1080801
F1080802
F1080803
F1080804
F1080805
F1080806
F1080807
F1080808
F1080809
F1080810
F1080811
Bioethic and Environmental Ethic
Biogeography
Conservation Genetics
Ecosystem Diversity
Evolutionary Biology
Freshwater Ecology
Genetic Diversity
Landscape Ecology
Life History BT: Population Ecology
Mapping, Monitoring and Modelling
Palaeoecology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
055
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1080812
F1080813
F1080814
F1080815
F1080816
F1080817
F1080818
F1080819
F1080820
F1080821
F1080822
F1080823
F1080824
F1080825
F1080826
F1080899
F1080900
Parks and Protected Areas Conservation
Phylogeography
Socio-Biology and Behavioural Ecology
Species Diversity
Terrestrial Ecology
Wildlife Conservation
Brackish Water Biodiversity and Conservation
Indigenous Microbes Biodiversity and
Conservation
Plant Biodiversity and Conservation
Livestock Biodiversity and Conservation
Fungal Biodiversity and Conservation
Wildlife Biodiversity and Conservation
Marine Biodiversity and Conservation
Freshwater Biodiversity and Conservation
Terrestrial Biodiversity and Conservation
Other Biodiversity and Conservation n.e.c.
Advancement of Biological Science
Knowledge
F1080901 Evolutionary Biology
F1080999 Other Advancement of Biological Science
Knowledge n.e.c
F1089900
Other Biological Sciences n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
056
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1090000
F1090100
AREA
Soil and Water Sciences
F1090101
F1090102
F1090103
F1090104
F1090105
F1090106
F1090107
F1090199
Drainage
Irrigation
Soil Fertility
Soil, Land Management and Conservation
Soil Biology
Soil Chemistry
Soil Physics
Other Soil and Water Sciences n.e.c.
Crop Production
F1090200
Agronomy
Crop Ecophysiology
Crop Improvement
Crop Manipulation
Crop Nutrition
Crop Physiology
Farm Mechanisation
Other Crop and Pasture Production
Pasture Nutrition
Pasture Physiology
Pests and Diseases
Pre-Harvest and Post-Harvest
Production System
Root Studies
Seed Production
Weed Sciences
Acclimatize Plants SN: Including Grapes, Flowers,
Vegetables, Mushrooms, Herbs and Strawberry
F1090218 Pasture, Browse and Fodder Crops SN:
Including Native Vegetation, Sown Grasses and
Sown Legumes
F1090299 Other Crop Production n.e.c. SN: Field Crop and
Herbal Crop Including Field Treatment and
F1090201
F1090202
F1090203
F1090204
F1090205
F1090206
F1090207
F1090208
F1090209
F1090210
F1090211
F1090212
F1090213
F1090214
F1090215
F1090216
F1090217
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
057
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Chemical Protection for Cereal Crops, Corn,
Kenaf, Legumes, Oilseed, Rice, Spices, Sugar
Cane, Tapioca, Tea Tree, Tobacco, GMO Crops;
Herbal, Spices and Medicinal Plants (such as Aloe
Vera (Lidah Buaya), Andrographis paniculata
(Hempedu Bumi), Centella asiatica (Pegaga),
Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Kayu
Manis/Cinnamon), Curcuma domestica
(Kunyit/Tumeric), Cymbopogon citratus (Serai
Makan/Lemon Grass), Cymbopogon nardus
(Serai Wangi/Citronella), Eugenia caryophyllata
(Bunga Cengkeh/Clove), Eurycoma longifolia
(Tongkat Ali), Kaempferia galanga (Cekur), Labisia
pothoina (Kacip Fatimah), Melaleuca alternifolia
(Tea Tree), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu),
Myristica fragrans (Buah Pala/Nutmeg), Ocimum
basilicum (Selasih/Sweet Basil), Orthosiphon
stamineus (Misai Kucing), Piper Nigrum (Lada
Hitam/Pepper), Pogostemon cablin
(Nilam/Patchouli), Polygonum minus (Kesum),
Zingiber officinale (Halia/Ginger), Henna plant
(Inai), Limau Purut, Mas Cotek, Neem (Sentang),
Hylocereus undatus (Dragon Fruit)
F1090300
Horticulture
Floriculture
Fruit Crops
Oenology
Ornamentals
Plantation Crops SN: Banana, Cocoa, Coconut,
Coffee,Oil Palm, Pepper, Pineapple, Rubber,
Sago, Sugarcane, Tea, Papaya, Oil Palm Mixed
With Other Crops (e.g Dragon Fruit)
F1090306 Vegetable SN: Including Hydrophonic Vegetables
and Fruits
F1090399 Other Horticulture n.e.c. SN: Productions of
Flowers, Fruits, Mushroom, Nuts, Ornamental
Plants and Vegetables
F1090301
F1090302
F1090303
F1090304
F1090305
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
058
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1090400
Animal Production
F1090401
F1090402
F1090403
F1090404
F1090405
F1090406
F1090407
F1090499
Animal Growth and Development
Animal Health
Animal Husbandry
Animal Nutrition
Animal Pests and Pathogens
Animal Reproduction
Breeds and Breeding
Other Animal Production n.e.c.
Veterinary Sciences
F1090500
F1090501
F1090502
F1090503
F1090504
F1090505
F1090506
F1090507
F1090508
F1090509
F1090510
F1090511
F1090512
F1090513
F1090514
F1090515
F1090516
F1090517
F1090518
F1090519
F1090520
F1090521
F1090522
F1090523
F1090524
F1090525
F1090526
Anaesthesiology
Avian Diseases
Bacteriology
Biologics
Clinical Science
Epidemiology
Equine Diseases
Immunochemistry
Immunologic Diseases
Immunology
Medicine
Metabolic Disorders
Neoplasm
Non-Ruminant Diseases
Nutritional Diseases
Obstetrics and Theriogenology
Parasitology
Pathology
Pet and Domestic Animal Diseases
Pharmacology
Physiology
Public Health and Zoonosis
Radiology
Surgery
Therapeutics
Virology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
059
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1090527 Wildlife and Zoo Animal Diseases
F1090599 Other Veterinary Sciences n.e.c.
F1090600
Pest and Disease Management
F1090601
F1090602
F1090603
F1090604
F1090605
F1090606
F1090607
F1090608
F1090609
F1090610
F1090611
F1090612
F1090699
Fisheries Sciences
F1090700
F1090701
F1090702
F1090703
F1090704
F1090705
F1090706
F1090707
F1090708
F1090709
F1090710
F1090711
F1090799
F1090800
Biological Control
Early Warning System
Entomology
Good Agricultural Practices
Integrated Pest Management
Mammology
Nematology
Pathology
Pesticide Application Techniques
Quarantine Pest and Treatment
Virology
Geospatial Information Technology
Other Pest and Disease Management n.e.c.
Capture Fisheries
Fish Stock Assessment
Fisheries Ecology and Conservation
Fisheries Sciences
Inland Fisheries
Mapping, Monitoring and Modelling
Marine Fisheries
Ornamental/ Aquarium Fish and Plants
Recreational Fisheries
Commercial Feed Products
Commercial Fisheries
Other Fisheries Sciences n.e.c.
Food Sciences and Nutrition
F1090801 Additives and Contaminants
F1090802 Enzymes
F1090803 Food Analysis
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
060
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1090804
F1090805
F1090806
F1090807
F1090808
F1090809
F1090810
F1090811
F1090812
F1090813
F1090814
F1090815
F1090816
F1090817
F1090818
F1090819
F1090820
F1090821
F1090822
F1090823
F1090824
F1090899
Food Chemistry
Food Emulsion Products
Food Microbiology
Food Preservation
Food Processing SN: Including The
Manufacturing of Processed Food Products and
Beverages, Agrobase, Beverage, Carcass Meat,
Dairy Products, Fish Products, Food
Preservation and Additive, Fruit, Genetically
Modified Food, Grain Mill Products Processing,
Meat Products, Oils and Fats (Incl. Margarine),
Starch Products Processing, Tobacco Products,
Vegetable Products Processing, Bakery
Products, Probiotics, Enzyme Drink, Microbial
Polysaccharides, Microbial Protein, Health Drink,
Microbial Preservatives, Nutraceuticals, Herbal
Products, Health Food, Marine Products and
Baby Food Products
Food Quality
Food Safety
Food Security SN: Including Food Logistics,
Food Production and Culture
Food Sensory Evaluation
Improvement of Finish Products
Ingredients
Nutrient Bioability
Nutrient Composition of Food
Pilot Testing and Technology
Product Development
Production Modelling
Nutraceuticals BT: Agricultural Chemicals
Halal Food Production
Functional Food
Food Toxicology
Halal Products
Other Food Science and Nutrition n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
061
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1090900
Aquaculture
F1090901
F1090902
F1090903
F1090904
F1090905
F1090906
F1090907
F1090908
F1090909
F1090910
F1090911
F1090912
F1090913
F1090914
F1090915
F1090916
F1090917
F1090918
F1090999
F1091000
Aquaculture Engineering
Aquaculture Mechanisation
Aquatic Environment
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Drug and Chemical
Effluent Treatment and Waste Management
Farming System and Technology of Aquatic
Organisms
Fish Nutrition
Fish Reproduction
Genetic Selection
Husbandry of Aquatic Organisms
Indigenous Live Feed Production
Fry Production
Aquatic Plants
Culture System
Brood Stock Management
Aquaculture Products SN: Including Fish and
Prawns
Post Harvest Handling
Other Aquaculture n.e.c.
Plant Physiology
F1091001
F1091002
F1091003
F1091004
F1091005
F1091006
F1091007
F1091008
F1091009
F1091010
F1091099
Growth Regulators
Leaf Gas Exchange
Physicochemical Assimilation
Plant and Water Relation
Post Harvest Physiology
Radiation Interception
Reduction of Juvenile Period
Seasonality
Stress Physiology
Translocational Studies
Other Plant Physiology n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
062
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1091100
Animal Sciences
F1091101 By-Products (Edible and Non-Edible) SN:
Including Bee and Bee Products , Beef, Eggs,
Fishgelatine, Hides, Milk (Minimally Processed),
Mutton, Pork, Poultry, Raw Wool, Skins, Birds
Nest, Food Supplement, Food Ingredient,
Collagen, Hormone, Enzyme, Animal Manure,
Holuthoria Spp (Sea Cucumber/ Gamat), Ostrich
Meat, Rabbit Meat, Venison, Frog Legs and Lamb
F1091102 Dairy Science and Technology
F1091103 Livestock Product SN: Including Beef, Cattle,
Breeders, Broilers, Buffalo, Dairy Cattle, Deer,
Goats-Meat, Goats-Milk, Horses, Layers, Ostrich,
Pigs, Rabbit, Sheep-Meat, Sheep-Wool, Frog,
Animal Production in Oil Palm Plantation,
Seladang, Banteng, Barking-Deer, Larger
Mouse-Deer (Napuh), Lesser Mouse-Deer
(Kancil), Crocodile, Sea Turtle, River Terrapin,
Porcupine, Serow, Jungle Fowl, Pheasant,
Swiflet, Snail, Sago Worm, Chicken, Duck,
Earthworm and Cengkerik/Sicada
F1091104 Meat Science and Technology
F1091105 Pilot Plant Technology
F1091106 Poultry Egg Technology
F1091107 Product and Ingredient Technology
F1091108 Value-Added Product
F1091199 Other Animal Sciences n.e.c.
F1091200
Agriculture Information System and
Technology
F1091201
F1091202
F1091203
F1091204
F1091205
F1091206
F1091207
Crop Modelling
Geographic Information System
Geospatial Information Technology
K-Agriculture
Precision Farming
Remote Sensing
Food Tracebility
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
063
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1091299 Other Agricultural Information System and
Technology n.e.c.
F1091300
Agrobiodiversity and Conservation
F1091301
F1091302
F1091303
F1091304
F1091305
F1091306
Crop Modelling
Geographic Information System
Geospatial Information Technology
K-Agriculture
Precision Farming
Remote Sensing
*Additional Areas. Please refer to page 96 for more details.
Primary Products from Plants
F1091400
F1091401
F1091402
F1091403
F1091404
F1091405
F1091406
F1091407
F1091408
F1091409
F1091410
F1091411
F1091412
F1091499
Advancement of Knowledge on Agriculture
F1091500
F1091501
F1091502
F1091503
F1091599
F1099900
Cocoa Products
Food Supplements
Herbal Products
Natural Rubber Latex
Palm Oil
Plants Products
Post Harvest
Speciality Oil
Timber Products
Tobacco Leaf
Unprocessed Cereals
Palm Kernel Oil
Other Primary Products from Plants n.e.c.
Agricultural Extension
Genetic Proteomic
Biodiversity Conservation / Utilisation
Other Advancement of Knowledge on Agriculture
n.e.c
Other Agricultural Sciences n.e.c. SN:
Including Dry Rubber Products such as
Tyres, Dock Fender, Seismic Bearing
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
064
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1100000
F1100100
AREA
Immunology
F1100101
F1100102
F1100103
F1100104
F1100105
F1100106
F1100107
F1100108
F1100109
F1100199
F1100200
Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry
F1100201
F1100202
F1100203
F1100204
F1100205
F1100206
F1100207
F1100299
F1100300
Anti-Oxidants
Carbohydrates
Hormones
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Vitamins
Other Medical Biochemistry and Clinical
Chemistry n.e.c.
Medical Microbiology
F1100301
F1100302
F1100303
F1100304
F1100399
F1100400
Allergy
Cellular Immunology
Humeral Immunology
Immunochemistry
Immunogenetics
Nutritional Immunology
Transplantation Immunology
Tumour Immunology
Immunomodulation
Other Immunology n.e.c.
Bacteriology
Mycology
Parasitology
Virology
Other Medical Microbiology n.e.c.
Pharmacology
F1100401 Clinical Pharmacology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
065
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1100402
F1100403
F1100404
F1100405
F1100406
F1100407
Medical Pharmacology
Molecular Pharmacology
Radiopharmacology
Therapeutics
Toxicology
Traditional Medicine and Natural Product SN:
Including Development of Traditional and Herbal
Medicine
F1100499 Other Pharmacology n.e.c.
F1100500
Physiology
F1100501
F1100502
F1100503
F1100504
F1100505
F1100506
F1100507
F1100599
Cell Physiology
Comparative Physiology
Exercise/ Physical Fitness
Human Biophysics
Sports Physiology
Stress Physiology
Systems Physiology
Other Physiology n.e.c.
Neurosciences
F1100600
F1100601
F1100602
F1100603
F1100604
F1100605
F1100606
F1100607
F1100608
F1100609
F1100610
F1100611
F1100612
F1100613
F1100614
F1100615
F1100616
Autonomic Nervous System
Cell Receptors
Cellular Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Mechanism of Tissue Damage
Molecular Characterization
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory Systems
Auditory Neuroscience
Psychogeriatrics
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Vascular Disorder
Epilepsy
Migraine
Head Injury
Degenerative Diseases
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
066
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1100617 Sleep Disorders
F1100618 Neuropsychiatry
F1100699 Other Neurosciences n.e.c.
Clinical Medicine
F1100700
F1100701
F1100702
F1100703
F1100704
F1100705
F1100706
F1100707
F1100708
F1100709
F1100710
F1100711
F1100712
F1100713
F1100714
F1100715
F1100716
F1100717
F1100718
F1100719
F1100720
F1100721
F1100722
F1100723
F1100724
F1100725
F1100726
F1100727
F1100728
F1100729
F1100730
F1100731
F1100732
F1100733
Allergies
Anaesthesiology
Carcinogenesis
Cardiology
Clinical Psychology
Dermatology
Emergency Medicine
Endocrinology
Forensic
Gastroenterology
Geriatrics
Gynaecology
Haematology
Infectious/ Communicable Diseases
Intensive Care
Medical Genetics
Neonatology
Nephrology
Neurology
Neuromuscular Diseases
Nuclear Medicine
Obstetrics
Occupational Therapy
Oncology
Ophthalmology
Orthopaedics
Otolaryngology
Paediatrics
Pathology
Physical Therapy
Psychiatry
Radiology
Radiotherapy
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
067
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1100734
F1100735
F1100736
F1100737
F1100738
F1100739
F1100740
F1100741
F1100742
F1100799
Rehabilitation
Reproduction
Respiratory Diseases
Rheumatology
Surgery
Traumatology
Urology
Venereology
Organ Transplants
Other Clinical Medicine n.e.c.
Public Health, Environmental and
Occupational Health and Safety Research
F1100800
F1100801
F1100802
F1100803
F1100804
F1100805
F1100806
F1100807
F1100808
F1100809
F1100810
F1100811
F1100812
F1100813
F1100814
F1100815
F1100816
F1100817
F1100818
F1100819
F1100820
F1100899
Air Quality
Drinking Water Quality
Environmental Protection and Health Impact
Epidemiology
Health and Safety (Occupational)
Health Information Systems
Injuries
Mental Health
Noise Pollution
Preventive Medicine
Primary Health Care
Radiation Health and Safety
Urban and Rural Health
Vaccination
Vector Borne Diseases
Waste Water Management
Waterborne Diseases
Solid Waste Management
Ergonomics
Social Epidemiology
Other Public Health, Environmental and
Occupational Health and Safety Research n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
068
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1100900
Nutrition (Clinical and Public Health
Research)
F1100901
F1100902
F1100903
F1100904
F1100905
F1100906
F1100907
F1100908
F1100909
F1100910
F1100911
F1100912
F1100913
F1100999
F1101000
Clinical Nutrition
Food Services
Functional Foods
Nutrient and Micronutrient Deficiencies
Nutrient Requirement
Nutrition Promotion and Education
Nutrition Related Chronic Diseases
Nutrition Related to Performance and Mental
Health
Nutrition Transition
Nutritional Databases
Eating Disorders
Obesity
Body Image
Other Nutrition (Clinical and Public Health
Research ) n.e.c.
Health Services Research (Including
Bioethics)
F1101001
F1101002
F1101003
F1101004
F1101005
F1101006
F1101007
F1101008
F1101009
F1101010
F1101011
F1101012
F1101099
Bioethics
Health Care Administration
Health Economics
Health Education and Promotion
Health Systems Management
Mortality and Morbidity Studies
Screening
Telemedicine
Maternal Care
Social Care
Social Support System
Child Care
Other Health Services Research n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
069
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1101100
Health Care System, Industries and
Technologies
F1101101
F1101102
F1101103
F1101104
F1101105
F1101106
F1101107
F1101108
F1101109
F1101110
F1101111
F1101112
F1101113
F1101114
F1101115
F1101116
F1101117
F1101118
F1101119
F1101120
F1101121
F1101199
F1101200
Biomechanics
Burden of Disease
Continuous Quality Improvement
Delivery Systems
Equity
Health Care Financing
Health Information Management
Health Legislation
Health Outcomes
Health Policy Analysis
Health Rehabilitation Service
Health Technology Assessments
Home Care Services
Human Resource Development SN: Including
Technologies in Attitude Determination Control
Instruments
Innovative Technology
Medical Biotechnology
Programme Evaluation
Quality Assurance of Health Instruments
Quality of Life
Standards and Calibration
Assistive Technology
Other Health Care System, Industries and
Technologies n.e.c.
Pharmaceutical Industry
F1101201 Botanical Pesticides SN: BT: Agricultural
Chemical
F1101202 Natural Products
F1101203 Nutraceuticals SN: Including Manufacturing of
Nutraceuticals Products
F1101204 Personal Care Products and Cosmetics SN:
Including Cosmoceuticals, Nutritional
Supplements and; Manufacturing of Cosmetics,
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
070
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1101205
F1101206
F1101207
F1101208
F1101209
F1101210
F1101211
F1101212
F1101213
F1101214
F1101215
F1101216
F1101217
F1101299
F1101300
Cosmeceuticals, Toiletries, Soap , Household
Cleaners and Detergents Products
Photochemical
Phytochemicals
Purification Technology
Screening Technology
Synthesis Technology
Law and Ethics
Labelling and Safety
Halal Labelling
Drug Pricing
Licensing
Regulation
Human Pharmaceutical Products SN: Including
Blood Products, Diagnostic, Therapeutic Agents,
Vaccine and Halal Products Including
Manufacturing of Consumer Products
Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products SN:
Including Antibiotics, Chemical Treatments,
Diagnostics, Therapeutic Agents, Vaccine and
Halal Products
Other Pharmaceutical Industry n.e.c
Complimentary/Alternative Medicine
F1101301
F1101302
F1101303
F1101304
F1101305
F1101306
F1101307
F1101308
F1101309
F1101310
F1101311
F1101399
Clinical Research
Education
Information Management
Natural Therapy
Quality and Safety
Sociological Research
Traditional Medicine and Natural Products
Toxicology
Ethnomedicine
Ethnopsychiatry
Practitioners
Other Complimentary and Alternative Medicine
n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
071
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1101400
Pharmacy
F1101401
F1101402
F1101403
F1101404
F1101405
F1101406
F1101407
F1101408
F1101409
F1101410
F1101411
F1101412
F1101413
F1101499
F1101500
Bioassay Methods
Biopharmacy
Clinical Pharmacy
Drug Discovery
Medicinal Chemistry
Nuclear Pharmacy
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Pharmaceutical Technology
Pharmaco-Economics
Pharmaco-Genomic
Pharmacognosy
Pharmacokinetics
Social Pharmacy
Other Pharmacy n.e.c.
Speech and Language Pathology
F1101501 Epidemiology of Speech and Language
Pathology
F1101502 Linguistic Analysis of Language Pathology
F1101503 Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Aspects of
Language Pathology
F1101504 Normal Speech and Language Developments
F1101505 Speech and Language Assessments/ Tests/
Therapy Materials
F1101506 Swallowing Disorders
F1101507 Aural Rehabilitation
F1101508 Acquired Language Disorders
F1101509 Motor Speech Disorders
F1101510 Voice Disorders
F1101511 Cleft Lip & Palate
F1101512 Speech Dysfluency
F1101513 Dyslexia
F1101514 Articulation & Phonological Disorders
F1101515 Child Language Disorders
F1101516 Speech Acoustics
F1101517 Speech and Language Disorders
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
072
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1101599 Other Speech and Language Pathology n.e.c.
F1101600
Optometry
F1101601
F1101602
F1101603
F1101604
F1101605
F1101606
F1101607
F1101608
F1101609
F1101610
F1101699
Binocular Vision
Clinical Contact Lens Care
Clinical Optometry
Low Vision
Opto-Optical Sciences
Refractive Disorders
Vision Sciences
Vision Therapy
Visual Development
Ophthalmic Materials
Other Optometry n.e.c.
Audiology
F1101700
F1101701
F1101702
F1101703
F1101704
F1101705
F1101706
F1101707
F1101708
F1101709
F1101710
F1101711
F1101712
F1101713
F1101714
F1101715
F1101716
F1101717
F1101799
Auditory Processing
Cochlear Hair Cells Function
Development of Diagnostic Materials
Diagnostic Audiology
Epidemiological Studies
Hearing Conservation
Hearing Psychology
Industrial Audiology
Presbyacusis
Psychoacoustics
Rehabilitative Audiology
Auditory Processing Disorders
Cochlear Implant & Hearing Amplification
Early Hearing Detection & Intervention (EHDI)
Geriatric Audiology
Physiological Acoustics (Hearing Physiology)
Auditory Neuroscience
Other Audiology Disciplines n.e.c. SN: Including
Audiological Instrumentation
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
073
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Medical Diagnostic Imaging
F1101800
F1101801
F1101802
F1101803
F1101804
F1101805
F1101806
F1101807
F1101808
F1101809
F1101810
F1101899
F1101900
Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
Image Construction and Management
Mammography
Medical Instrumentation
Medical Physics
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Nuclear Medicine
Radiology
Ultrasound
Bone Densitometry
Other Medical Diagnostic Imaging n.e.c.
Radiotherapy
F1101901
F1101902
F1101903
F1101904
F1101905
F1101906
F1101907
F1101908
F1101909
F1101910
Medical Physics
Radiation Biology
Radiation Biophysics
Radiation Physics
Tissue/ Tumour Sensitisation
Tissue Biophysics
Tissue Protection
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)
Brachy Therapy
Radiochemistry, Radiatonchemistry and
Radioprotectant
F1101999 Other Radiotherapy n.e.c.
Anatomy
F1102000
F1102001
F1102002
F1102003
F1102004
F1102099
Comparative Anatomy
Cytology
Histology
Technique and Instrumentation
Other Anatomy n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
074
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1102100
Dentistry
F1102101
F1102102
F1102103
F1102104
F1102105
F1102106
F1102107
F1102108
F1102109
F1102110
F1102111
F1102112
F1102113
F1102114
F1102115
F1102116
F1102117
F1102118
F1102119
F1102199
F1102200
Children’s Dentistry
Community Dentistry
Conservative Dentistry
Dental Materials
Dental Technology
Dentistry Support
Forensic Dentistry
Geriatric Dentistry
Implantology
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Oral Biology
Oral Pathology
Orthodontics
Orthognathic Surgery
Periodontology
Prosthetics Dentistry
Oral Imaging
Preventive Dentistry
Dental Education
Other Dentistry n.e.c.
Nursing
F1102201 Cardiology
F1102202 Critical Care Unit and Intensive Care Unit
(CCU/ICU)
F1102203 Complimentary/Alternative Medicine in Nursing
F1102204 Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT)
F1102205 Environment Health
F1102206 Gerontology
F1102207 Heamatology
F1102208 HIV/ AIDS
F1102209 Hospice Care
F1102210 Immunology
F1102211 Industrial Nursing
F1102212 Medical
F1102213 Mental Health
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
075
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1102214
F1102215
F1102216
F1102217
F1102218
F1102219
F1102220
F1102221
F1102222
F1102223
F1102224
F1102225
F1102226
F1102227
F1102228
F1102229
F1102230
F1102231
F1102232
F1102233
F1102234
F1102235
F1102299
F1102300
Nursing Education
F1102301
F1102302
F1102303
F1102304
F1102305
F1102306
F1102307
F1102399
F1102400
Neonatal
Nephrology
Neurology/ Neurosurgery
Nutrition
O&G / Midwifery
Oftalmology
Oncology
Orthopedic
Palliative Care
Pediatric
Perioperative
Plastic Surgery
Public/Community Health
Rehabilitation
Surgical
Transreligious/Transcultural Nursing
Trauma
Urology
Nursing Care
Nursing Education
Nursing Management
Nonsurgical Cosmetic Surgery
Other Nursing n.e.c.
Continuous Nursing Education
Curriculum Development
Curriculum Evaluation
Health Education
Programme Assessment
Students Evaluation
Tests Psychometric
Other Nursing Education n.e.c.
Nursing Management
F1102401 Clinical Pathway
F1102402 Health Administration
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
076
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1102403
F1102404
F1102405
F1102406
F1102407
F1102408
F1102409
F1102410
F1102411
F1102412
F1102413
F1102414
F1102499
F1102500
Medical Device, Equipment & System
F1102501
F1102502
F1102503
F1102504
F1102505
F1102506
F1102507
F1102508
F1102509
F1102510
F1102511
F1102512
F1102513
F1102514
F1102599
F1102600
Health Care Financing/Economic
Health Outcome
Health Policy
Health System Management
Health Technology
Law and Ethics
Leadership
Nursing Audit
Nursing Advocacy
Personal Professional Development
Quality Assurance
Tele-Medicine
Other Nursing Management n.e.c.
Implant Device
Medical Imaging Instrument
Artificial Intelligent Diagnostic System
Robotic Systems
Artificial Organ
Screening Device and Equipment
Rehabilitation Equipment
Monitoring Equipment
Surgical Equipment
Virtual Reality Software
Biomechanical Device
Radiological System
Support System for Disable
Treatment Equipment
Other Medical Device, Equipment & System
n.e.c
Advancement of Medical and Health Services
Knowledge
F1102601 Immunology
F1102602 Medical Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry
F1102603 Medical Microbiology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
077
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1102604
F1102605
F1102606
F1102607
F1102608
F1102609
F1102610
F1102611
F1102612
F1102613
F1102614
F1102615
F1102616
F1102617
F1102618
F1102619
F1102620
F1102621
F1102622
F1102623
F1102624
F1102625
F1102626
F1102627
F1102628
F1102629
F1102630
F1102699
F1109900
Pharmacology
Physiology
Neurosciences
Clinical Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational
Health and Safety Research
Radiotherapy
Dentistry
Anatomy
Dietetics
Nursing
Nutrition
Health Services Research (Including Bioethics)
Health Care System, Industries and
Technologies
Pharmaceutical Industry
Pharmacy
Medical Diagnostic Imaging
Speech and Language Pathology
Optometry
Audiology
Nursing Education
Nursing Management
Auditory Neuroscience
Physiological and Psychological Acoustics
Vision Sciences
Medical Physics
Health Economics
Health Care Financing
Other Advancement of Medical and Health
Services Knowledge n.e.c
Other Medical and Health Sciences n.e.c. SN:
Including Manufacturing of Instrument such
as Medical Instruments and Devices
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
078
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1110000
F1110100
AREA
Environmental Issues and Assessment
F1110101
F1110102
F1110103
F1110104
F1110105
F1110106
F1110107
F1110108
F1110109
F1110110
F1110111
F1110112
F1110113
F1110114
F1110115
F1110116
F1110117
F1110118
F1110119
F1110120
F1110121
F1110122
F1110123
F1110124
F1110125
F1110126
F1110127
F1110199
F1110200
Agrowaste
Air Pollution
Aquatic Environment
Climate Change
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Protection
Groundwater Contamination
Heavy Metal Waste
Natural Ecosystem
Noise Pollution
Nutrient Removal Process
Ozone Depletion
Radioactive Waste
Remote Sensing
Sediment Transport and Silting
Toxic and Hazardous Waste
Waste Water
Water Pollution
Water Quality Simulation Modelling
Water Resources Study
Coastal Erosion
Land Reclamation
Global Warming / Climate Change
Acid Rain
Environmental Racism
Environmentalism
Renewable Energy
Other Environmental Issues and Assessment
n.e.c.
Environment Technology/Industry
F1110201 Biodegradable Packaging
F1110202 Cloud Seeding Technology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
079
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1110203 Environmental Friendly Products and
Technologies
F1110204 Gaseous Treatment
F1110205 Geographical Information System (GIS)
F1110206 Incineration
F1110207 Integrated System and Building
F1110208 Landscape Technology
F1110209 Organic Waste Treatment
F1110210 Pollution Control Products
F1110211 Pollution Sensing Devices
F1110212 Reduction of Bad-Odour
F1110213 Reduction of Noise and Vibration
F1110214 Steep Slopes and Hill Development Technology
F1110215 Tropicalisation of Products and Process
F1110216 Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology
F1110217 Zero-Discharge Technologies
F1110218 Erosion Control
F1110219 Pollution Prevention and Control SN: Including
Agricultural Chemicals, Basic Metal Products,
Ceramic, Glass and Industrial Mineral Products,
Communication Equipment, Computer Hardware
and Electronic Equipment, Fabricated Metal
Products, Fibre, Processing and Textiles;
Footwear and Leather Products, Human
Pharmaceutical Products, Incineration, Industrial
Chemicals and Related Products, Instrumentation,
Machinery and Equipment, Processed Food
Products and Beverages, Quarry and Mining,
Transport Equipment, Wood, Wood Products and
Paper, Bio Based Chemicals and Related
Products, Building Materials and Bio Base
Pollution Control
F1110299 Other Environment Technology/ Industry n.e.c
F1110300
Environment Management and
Bioremediation
F1110301 Catchment Management SN: Including Water
Catchments in The Forest
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
080
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1110302
F1110303
F1110304
F1110305
F1110306
F1110307
F1110308
F1110309
F1110310
F1110311
F1110312
F1110313
F1110314
F1110315
F1110399
Disaster Management
Drinking Water Quality Standards
Drought Management
Environmental Risk Assessment and Bionomics
Environmental Standards
Soil Bioremediation
Solid Waste Management
Storm Water Management
Waste Bioremediation
Waste Management
Integrated Water Resource Management
Flood Mitigation Management
River Basin Management
Water Resources Management
Other Environmental Management and
Bioremediation n.e.c.
F1110400
Advancement of Environmental Sciences
Knowledge
F1119900
Other Environmental Sciences n.e.c. SN:
Including Instrumentation Manufacturing in
Water and Air Quality Instrumentation
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
081
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
MATERIAL SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1120000
F1120100
AREA
Electronic Materials
F1120101
F1120102
F1120103
F1120104
F1120105
F1120106
F1120107
F1120108
F1120109
F1120199
F1120200
Electro-Active Polymers
Electrochemical Materials
Electronic Packaging Materials
Magnetic Materials
Molecular Electronics
Optoelectronic Materials
Semiconductor Materials
Superconductor Materials
Thin-Film Dielectrics
Other Electronic Materials n.e.c.
Functional Materials
F1120201
F1120202
F1120203
F1120204
F1120205
F1120206
F1120207
F1120208
F1120209
F1120210
F1120211
F1120299
Adhesives
Bio-Compatible Materials
Catalyst
Coating
Display Materials
Ear Mould Materials
Electrchromic Materials
Hard and Brittle Materials
Magnetic Materials
Optical Materials
Soft and Brittle Materials
Other Functional Materials n.e.c.
Polymeric Materials
F1120300
F1120301
F1120302
F1120303
F1120304
F1120305
F1120306
Adhesive, Coating and Ink
Bio-Polymers
Conducting Polymers
Elastomers
Inorganic Polymers
Membranes
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
082
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1120307
F1120308
F1120309
F1120399
Advanced Materials
F1120400
F1120401
F1120402
F1120403
F1120404
F1120405
F1120406
F1120407
F1120408
F1120409
F1120410
F1120499
F1129900
Polymer Composites
Polymer Electrolytes
Thermoplastic
Other Polymeric Materials n.e.c.
Bio-Compatible Materials/Biomaterials
Ceramics
Composite Materials
Electro-Active Ceramics
Epitaxy
Metals and Metal Alloy Materials
Nano-Materials
Photonics Materials
Polymer Compounds
Textile Compounds
Other Advanced Materials n.e.c.
Other Material Science n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
083
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
MARINE SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1130000
F1130100
AREA
Marine Biology
Breeding of Marine Organisms
Culture of Marine Organisms
Marine Ecophysiology
Marine Microbiology
Marine Benthic Biology
Marine Planktonology
Marine Phycology
Marine Ichthyology
Marine Mycology
Marine Mammalogy
Marine Productivity
Marine Parasitology
Marine Products SN: Including Sea Cucumber
and Algae/Seaweed
F1130199 Other Marine Biology n.e.c.
F1130101
F1130102
F1130103
F1130104
F1130105
F1130106
F1130107
F1130108
F1130109
F1130110
F1130111
F1130112
F1130113
F1130200
Marine Biotechnology
F1130201
F1130202
F1130203
F1130204
F1130205
F1130299
F1130300
Development of Marine Pharmaceutical Products
Marine Products Biotechnology
Marine Bioprospecting
Genetic Manipulation of Marine Organisms
Molecular Systematics
Other Marine Biotechnology n.e.c.
Marine Technology
F1130301
F1130302
F1130303
F1130304
F1130305
F1130306
F1130399
Biofouling/ Structural Deterioration
Fishing Gear Technology
Remote Sensing and GIS
Artificial Reefs and Fish Aggregating Devices
Acoustic and Instrumentation
Marine Biofilters
Other Marine Technology n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
084
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Marine Biochemistry
F1130400
F1130401 Marine Natural Products
F1130402 Marine Bioproducts Synthesis
F1130499 Other Marine Biochemistry n.e.c.
Marine Ecology
F1130500
F1130501
F1130502
F1130503
F1130504
F1130505
F1130506
F1130507
F1130508
F1130509
F1130510
F1130511
F1130599
F1130600
Ecotourism
Marine Conservation
Mangrove Ecology
Coral Reef Ecology
Benthic Ecology
Seagrass and Seaweed Ecology
Tidal Flats Ecology
Estuarine Ecology
Lagoon Ecology
Microbial Ecology
Population and Community Ecology
Other Marine Ecology n.e.c.
Marine Toxicology
F1130601
F1130602
F1130603
F1130604
F1130699
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Toxins
Marine Poisonous Organisms
Endocrine Disruptors
Indicators and Biomonitoring
Other Marine Toxicology n.e.c.
Oceanography
F1130700
F1130701
F1130702
F1130703
F1130704
F1130705
F1130706
F1130707
F1130708
Biological Oceanography
Chemical Oceanography
Fisheries Oceanography
Geological Oceanography
Marine Pollution
Oceanography Instrumentation
Physical Oceanography
Satellite Oceanography
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
085
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1130709
F1130710
F1130711
F1130712
F1130713
F1130799
F1130800
Meteorological Oceanography
Coastal Oceanography and Processes
Land-Sea Interactions and Processes
Hydrodynamic and Sedimentation Modelling
Optical Oceanography
Other Oceanography n.e.c.
Marine Chemistry
F1130801
F1130802
F1130803
F1130804
F1130805
F1130806
F1130807
F1130808
Eutrophication
Seawater and Sediment Chemistry
Heavy Metals
Petrochemical and Hydrocarbon
Radioactive Contaminants
Carbon Sequestration
Ecotoxicology
Establishment of Marine Standard Reference
Materials
F1130899 Other Marine Chemistry n.e.c.
Marine Geology
F1130900
F1130901
F1130902
F1130903
F1130904
F1130905
F1130906
F1130907
F1130908
F1130999
F1131000
Sediment Transport
Mineralogy
Palaeontology
Geochemistry
Seismology
Mapping and GIS
Tracer Application
Sediment Dating
Other Marine Geology n.e.c.
Marine Economics
F1131001 Ecological Valuation
F1131002 Cost-Benefits Evaluation
F1131099 Other Marine Economics n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
086
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Marine Archeology
F1131100
F1131101
F1131102
F1131103
F1131199
F1131200
Exploration Technology
Artefacts Preservation
Artefacts Dating
Other Marine Archeology n.e.c.
Coastal Zone Management
F1131201
F1131202
F1131203
F1131204
F1131205
F1131206
F1131299
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Pollution Management
Coastal Habitats Management
Socio-Economics of Coastal Communities
Sustainable Utilization of Marine Resources
Risk Analysis
Other Coastal Zone Management n.e.c.
Marine Laws and Policies
F1131300
F1131301 Law of the High Seas
F1131302 Policies on Transboundary Pollution and Shared
Stocks
F1131303 Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
F1131304 Marine Territory Disputes and Settlement
F1131305 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and
Aquaculture Practices
F1131306 National Biodiversity Policy
F1131307 Marine Water Quality Standards and Criteria
F1131399 Other Marine Laws and Policies n.e.c.
Advancement of Marine Sciences Knowledge
F1131400
F1131401
F1131402
F1131403
F1131404
F1131405
F1131406
Essential Fish Habitats
Marine Radioactivity
Physical Oceanography
Marine Biotechnology
Larval Biology
Marine Biodiversity, Conservation and
Management
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
087
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1131407
F1131408
F1131409
F1131410
F1131411
F1131499
F1131500
Estuaries & Coasts
F1131501
F1131502
F1131503
F1131504
F1131505
F1131506
F1131507
F1131599
F1139900
Seabed Properties and Stability
Marine Pollution
Marine Archaeology
Sea Level Changes
Tsunami
Other Advancement of Marine Sciences
Knowledge n.e.c
Sediment Transport
Pollution Transport and Modelling
Hydrodynamics and Mixing Processes
Morphology Charges
Coastal Erosion
Mangrove Habitats
Mud Flat and Cohesive Sediment
Other Estuaries & Coasts n.e.c
Other Marine Sciences n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
088
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
FORESTRY SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1140000
F1140100
AREA
Forest Engineering and Operation
F1140101
F1140102
F1140103
F1140104
F1140105
F1140199
F1140200
Forestry Information System and Technology
F1140201
F1140202
F1140203
F1140204
F1140205
F1140299
Geographical Information System (GIS)
Geospatial Information Technology
Precision Forestry
Remote Sensing (Satellite Based)
Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging
Other Forestry Information System and
Technology n.e.c.
Biodiversity and Conservation
F1140300
F1140301
F1140302
F1140303
F1140304
F1140305
F1140306
F1140307
F1140308
F1140309
F1140399
F1140400
Harvesting System Design
Minimal Impact Logging
Road Design
Surveying Techniques
Laser Technology
Other Forest Engineering and Operation n.e.c.
Coastal Zone Management
Genetic Diversity
Hill and Mountain Forests
Inventory and Documentation
Lowland Forests
Wetlands
Conservation Areas
Peat Swamp Forest
Mangrove Forest
Other Biodiversity and Conservation n.e.c.
Pest and Disease Management
F1140401 Biological Control
F1140402 Entomology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
089
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1140403
F1140404
F1140405
F1140406
F1140407
F1140499
Integrated Pest Management
Mammology
Nematology
Pathology
Virology
Other Pest and Disease Management n.e.c.
Agroforestry
F1140500
F1140501
F1140502
F1140503
F1140599
F1140600
Cropping System
Soil Compaction
Sustainable Production
Other Agroforestry n.e.c.
Forest Management
F1140601
F1140602
F1140603
F1140604
F1140605
F1140606
F1140607
F1140608
F1140609
F1140610
F1140611
F1140612
F1140699
Fire Planning and Control
Forest Ecology
Forest Inventory
Silviculture
Soil and Land Improvement
Wildlife Management
Forest Sampling
In-Situ Conservation
Ex-Situ Conservation
Reforestation
Sustainable Forest Management
Forest Modelling
Other Forest Management n.e.c.
Tree Improvement
F1140700
F1140701
F1140702
F1140703
F1140799
Breeding
Micropropagation Techniques
Seed Technology
Other Tree Improvement n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
090
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1140800
Wood and Non Wood Forest Products
F1140801
F1140802
F1140803
F1140804
F1140805
F1140806
F1140899
F1140900
Bamboo and Rattans
Medicinal Plants
Wood Processing
Wood Sciences
Wood Utilization
Oil and Resin
Other Wood and Non Wood Forest Products
n.e.c SN: Including Hardwood Plantations,
Native Forest, Softwood Plantations and Neem
Tree , Chipboard Manufacture, Furniture
Products, Glue Laminated Timber, Hardwood
Sawing and Veneer, Paper Products
Manufacture, Particle Board Manufacture,
Printing and Publishing Processes, Publishing
Services, Pulp and Paper Manufacture, Softwood
Sawing and Veneer, Woodchips and Smart
Paper
Forest Production and Forest Products
F1140901 Transportation SN: Including Land, Water and
Air, Road Design and Survey
F1140902 Harvesting SN: Including Machineries, Reduced
Impact Logging and Rehabilitation of Logged
Forest Ecosystems
F1140903 Natural Forests SN: Including By Product
Utilization, Improved Planting Stock, Medicinal
Plants, Phytochemicals, Timber, Ecotourism,
Wildlife, Conservation and Mushrooms
F1140904 Plantation Forests SN: Including Composites,
Furniture, Improved Planting Stock, Pulp and
Paper and Landscaping
F1140905 Information & Communication Services in
Forestry SN: Including Decision Support System
F1140999 Other Forest Production and Forest Products
n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
091
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Advancement of Forestry Sciences
Knowledge
F1141000
F1141001
F1141002
F1141003
F1141004
F1141005
F1141006
F1141099
F1149900
Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging
Biodiversity Conservation
Laser Technology
Forensic Forestry
Biodiversity Conservation/Utilisation
Carbon Sequestration, Legal Aspects of Forestry
Other Advancement of Forestry Sciences
Knowledge n.e.c.
Other Forestry Sciences n.e.c. SN: Including
of Manufacturing Forestry Machinery and
Equipment
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
092
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
BIOTECHNOLOGY
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1150000
F1150100
AREA
Molecular Biology
F1150101
F1150102
F1150103
F1150104
F1150105
F1150106
F1150107
F1150108
F1150109
F1150110
F1150199
Gene Isolation
Gene Probes
Gene Transformation
Genomic
Microarray
Molecular and Structural Biology
Polyploidization
Proteomics
Semantic Dicaryotization
Transgenic Studies
Other Molecular Biology n.e.c.
Plant Biotechnology
F1150200
Anther Culture
Artificial Seeds
Cryopreservation
Micropropagation
Molecular Marker
Post Harvest Technology
Protoplast Technology
Tissue Culture
Transgenic Plant SN: Including Transgenic
Corps such as Papaya, Pineapple, Rice, Cocoa,
Banana, Oil Palm, Chilli, Corn, Tomato, Passion
Fruits (Markisa) from The Aspects of Pest and
Disease Resistant, Increase Shelf Life, Colour
and Nutritional Enhancement, Drought, Salinity
and Flooding Resistant
F1150210 Nano Technology
F1150299 Other Plant Biotechnology n.e.c.
F1150201
F1150202
F1150203
F1150204
F1150205
F1150206
F1150207
F1150208
F1150209
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
093
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1150000
F1150300
AREA
Animal Biotechnology
F1150301
F1150302
F1150303
F1150304
F1150305
F1150306
F1150307
F1150308
F1150309
F1150399
Biofeed
Cell Line Culture
Cloning
Cryopreservation
Diagnostic
Feed and Nutrition
Reproduction
Transgenic Animal
Vaccine
Other Animal Biotechnology n.e.c.
Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology
F1150400
F1150401
F1150402
F1150403
F1150404
F1150405
F1150406
F1150407
F1150408
F1150409
F1150410
F1150411
F1150412
F1150413
F1150414
F1150415
F1150416
F1150417
F1150418
F1150419
F1150499
Biocontrol Agent
Bioconversion
Biofertilizer
Biofuel
Bioplastic
Bioprocess Design
Bioremediation
Bioseparation
Cell Culture Technology
Composting
Design Technology
Downstream Processing
Enzyme Technology
Fermentation Technology
Immobilized Technology
Product Recovery
Solid Substrate Technology
Biosensor
Submerged Fermentation
Other Industrial and Environmental
Biotechnology n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
094
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1150000
F1150500
AREA
Medical Biotechnology
F1150501
F1150502
F1150503
F1150504
F1150505
F1150506
F1150507
F1150508
F1150509
F1150599
F1150600
Diagnostics
Gene Therapy
Graft Engineering
Human/Population Genetics
Pharmacogenomics
Stem Cell Technology
Vaccines
Nano Technology
Biomaterial
Other Medical Biotechnology n.e.c.
Forensic Biotechnology
F1150601
F1150602
F1150603
F1150604
F1150605
F1150606
F1150607
F1150608
F1150609
F1150610
F1150699
F1150700
Databasing
DNA Archiving
DNA Damage
DNA Probe Technology
Forensic Genetics
Forensic Statistics
Human Identification Systems
Population Genetics
Wildlife Forensic
Trace DNA
Other Forensic Biotechnology n.e.c.
Food Biotechnology
F1150701
F1150702
F1150703
F1150704
F1150705
F1150706
F1150707
F1150708
F1150709
F1150710
Algal Products
Bioconversion
Bioprocessing
Bioreactor
Cell Culture Technology
Enzyme Technology
Immobilized Technology
Microbial Technology
Mushroom Products
Nutraceuticals
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
095
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
F1150000
AREA
F1150711
F1150712
F1150713
F1150714
F1150715
F1150716
F1150799
Post Harvest Technology
Product Recovery
Submerged Fermentation
Biosensor
Solid Substrate Fermentation
Functional Food
Other Food Biotechnology n.e.c.
Biopharmacy Biotechnology
F1150800
F1150801
F1150802
F1150803
F1150804
F1150805
F1150899
F1150900
Biopharmaceuticals
Biopharming
Drug Discovery
Pharmacogenomics
Transgenic
Other Biopharmacy Biotechnology n.e.c.
Marine Biotechnology
F1150901
F1150902
F1150903
F1150999
F1151000
Algae
Biopharmaceuticals
Cryopreservation
Other Marine Biotechnology n.e.c
Bioinformatics
F1151001
F1151002
F1151003
F1151004
F1151005
F1151099
F1151100
Data Mining
Gene Bank
Networking
Protein Bank
Software Development
Other Bioinformatics n.e.c.
Biosafety and Bioethics
F1151101
F1151102
F1151103
F1151104
Eugenics
Public Awareness
Risk Assessment
Risk Management
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
096
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F1151199 Other Biosafety and Bioethics n.e.c
F1159900
Other Biotechnology, including
Instrumentation and Instrumentation
Manufacturing n.e.c.
F1990000
NON-ORIENTED NATURAL SCIENCES,
TECHNOLOGIES AND ENGINEERING
RESEARCH
*Continue from page 63
Agrobiodiversity and Conservation
F1091300
F1091307
F1091308
F1091309
F1091310
F1091311
F1091399
In-Situ Conservation
Ex-Situ Conservation
Cryopreservation
Micropropagation
Cropping System / Mix Farming
Other Agrobiodiversity and Conservation n.e.c
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
Division 2
Social Sciences, Humanities
& Business/Economic & Administration
099
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
SOCIAL SCIENCES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F2010000
F2010100
AREA
Political Sciences and Public Policy
F2010101
F2010102
F2010103
F2010104
F2010105
F2010106
F2010107
F2010108
F2010109
F2010110
F2010111
F2010112
F2010113
F2010114
F2010115
F2010116
F2010199
F2010200
Habitat and Human Settlement
F2010201
F2010202
F2010203
F2010204
F2010205
F2010206
F2010207
F2010208
F2010299
F2010300
Comparative Politics
Conflict Resolution
Federalism
Foreign Policy
International Relations
Islamic Political System
Local Government Studies
Policy Studies
Political Theory and Political Philosophy
Public Policy and Administration
Strategic Studies
Development Policies
Governance
Law and Politics
Diplomacy
Empowerment
Other Political Sciences and Public Policy n.e.c.
Community Development
Islamic Architecture and Urbanism
Regional Planning
Rural Studies
Social Housing
Urban / Land Use Planning and Management
Urban Studies
Disaster Planning
Other Habitat and Human Settlement n.e.c.
Sociology
F2010301 Class Studies
F2010302 Collective Action and Social Change
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
100
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2010303
F2010304
F2010305
F2010306
F2010307
F2010308
F2010309
F2010310
F2010311
F2010312
F2010313
F2010314
F2010315
F2010316
F2010317
F2010318
F2010319
F2010320
F2010321
F2010322
F2010323
F2010324
F2010325
F2010326
F2010327
F2010328
F2010329
F2010330
F2010331
F2010332
F2010333
F2010334
F2010335
F2010336
F2010337
F2010338
F2010339
F2010340
F2010341
Community Organization
Community Research
Comparative Government
Criminology
Developmental Sociology
Deviance and Social Control
Future Studies
Gender Studies
Gerontology
Industrial Sociology
Islamisation of Sociology
Marginal and Minority Relations
Migration
Modernity Studies
Multiethnic and Pluralism
Nation Building
Political Theory and Political Philosophy
Poverty, Social Welfare, and Social Policy
Research Methodology
Social Classes and Stratification
Social Impact Assessment
Social Movement
Social Theory
Social Trend and Indicator
Social Work and Administration
Sociology of Child and Youth
Sociology of Development
Sociology of Disaster
Sociology of Education
Sociology of Religion
Sociology of Work
Sociology on Local-Global Relations
Urban Sociology and Community Studies
Sociology of Law
Sociology of Family
Social Capital
Social Justice
Sociology of Health
Abuse, Neglect and Maltreatment
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
101
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2010342
F2010343
F2010344
F2010345
F2010346
F2010347
F2010348
F2010349
F2010350
F2010351
F2010352
F2010353
F2010354
F2010355
F2010356
F2010399
F2010400
Consumerism
Fatwa
Late-Life Family
Medical Sociology
Environmental Sociology
Family Studies
Death and Dying
Suicide
Community Leadership
Sociology of Consumption
Social Informatics
Sociology of Technology
Retirement Planning
Financial Planning
Estate Planning and Management
Other Sociology n.e.c.
Archaeology and History
F2010401
F2010402
F2010403
F2010404
F2010405
F2010406
F2010407
F2010499
Archaeology and Classical Study
Marine Archaeology
Material Culture
Museum and Archives Management
Palaeography
Prehistory
Preservation and Conservation
Other Archaeology and History n.e.c.
Geography
F2010500
F2010500
F2010501
F2010502
F2010503
F2010504
Geography
Economic Geography
Environmental Geography
Geographical Information System (GIS)
Natural Resource SN: Including Soil Resources
(e.g. Soil-Land Degradation, Tin Tailing Area
Rehabilitation, Peat Soils Management, BRIS Soils
Management, Hill Land Crops Management,
Rehabilitation of BRIS Soils, Water Resources (e.g.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
102
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2010505
F2010506
F2010507
F2010508
F2010509
F2010510
F2010511
F2010512
F2010513
F2010514
Hydrology , Water Catchment, Water Management,
Water Recycling and Reuse, Water Standards,
Ground Water Management), Biodiversity (e.g.
Animal Diversity, Fresh Water Biodiversity, Marine
Biodiversity, Microbial Diversity, Plant Diversity,
Tropical Rain Forest, Wild Life Conservation,
Mangrove Swamp, Wildlife Inventory, Fungal
Diversity, Bacterial Diversity, Algal Diversity,
Seaweed Diversity, Plankton Diversity, DNA
Archiving, Flora Conservation, Conservation of
Rare and Endangered Species), Bioactive Products
(e.g. Animal Products, Marine Products, Microbial
Products, Phytochemicals, Mycomedicinal),
Industrial Raw Materials (e.g. Agro Waste, Clay,
Granite, Hydrocarbons, Limestone, Marble, Silica,
Wood, Agro Products), Mineral Resource (inclusive
of Metallics and Non-Metallics), Marine Living
Resources (e.g. Mangroves, Coral Reefs,
Seaweeds & Seagrasses, Finfish, Shellfish and
Crustaceans, Marine Mammals, Marine Turtles &
Reptiles, Endangered Species, Sea Birds, Marine
Invertebrates, Planktons, Marine Microbes), Marine
Non- Living Resources (e.g. Oil & Gas, Marine
Sediment, Sea Water, Marine Minerals), Resources
Utilization (e.g. Maintenance of Environmental
Conditions, Rehabilitation of Natural Resources)
and Natural Resource Accounting (e.g. Carbon,
Recreation, Ecotourism, Aesthetic and Soil
Nutrient)
Regional Geography
Remote Sensing
Social and Cultural Geography
Transportation Economics
Urban Morphology
Human Geography
Environmental Management
Behavioural Geography
Transport Geography
Population Geography
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
103
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2010515 Climatology
F2010516 Tourism Studies
F2010599 Other Geography, Geographical and Geologic
Disciplines n.e.c SN: Including Instrumentation
Manufacturing of Seismic, Vibration and
Dynamic Load Detector and Meteorological
Instruments
Population and Demographic Studies
F2010600
F2010601
F2010602
F2010603
F2010604
F2010605
F2010606
F2010607
F2010699
Ageing
Family and Household Studies
Fertility Trends
Migration
Morbidity Trends
Mortality Trends
Population Policy
Other Population and Demographic Studies n.e.c
Law
F2010700
F2010701
F2010702
F2010703
F2010704
F2010705
F2010706
F2010707
F2010708
F2010709
F2010710
F2010711
F2010712
F2010713
F2010714
F2010715
F2010716
F2010717
F2010718
Adat Law
Adjudication
Administrative Law
Civil Law
Commercial Law
Comparative Law
Constitutional Law
Contract Law
Copyrights
Corporations and Associations Law
Counselling and Mediation
Criminal Law
Customary Law
Cyber Law
Diet and Torts Law
Environmental Law
Equity Law
Family Law
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
104
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2010719
F2010720
F2010721
F2010722
F2010723
F2010724
F2010725
F2010726
F2010727
F2010728
F2010729
F2010730
F2010731
F2010732
F2010733
F2010734
F2010735
F2010736
F2010737
F2010738
F2010739
F2010740
F2010741
F2010799
F2010800
Governance
Human Rights
Indigenous Law
Intellectual Property
International Law
Islamic Family Law
Jurisprudence
Justice System
Labour Law
Land Law
Law and Literature
Legal History
Legal Practice and Ethics
Maritime Law
Natural Resources Law
Patents
Planning Law
Property Law and Conveyancing
Space and Outerspace Law
Syariah Law
Taxation Law
Transport Law
Trust Law
Other Law n.e.c.
Psychology
F2010801
F2010802
F2010803
F2010804
F2010805
F2010806
F2010807
F2010808
F2010809
F2010810
F2010811
F2010812
Abnormal Psychology
Biological Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Comparative Psychology
Counselling and Psychotherapy
Developmental Psychology
Forensic Psychology
Islamic Psychology
Neuropsychology Forensic Psychology
Organisational and Industrial Psychology
Performance and Perception
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
105
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2010814
F2010815
F2010816
F2010817
F2010818
F2010819
F2010820
F2010821
F2010822
F2010823
F2010824
F2010825
F2010826
F2010899
F2010900
Personality, Abilities and Assessment
Psychological Assessment
Psychological Methodology, Design and Analysis
Psychometrics
Psychopharmacology
Sensory and Perception
Social and Community Psychology
Health Psychology
Forensic Psychology
Social Psychology
Psychogeriatric
Psychology of Religion
Educational Psychology
Other Psychology n.e.c
Education
F2010901
F2010902
F2010903
F2010904
F2010905
F2010906
F2010907
F2010908
F2010909
F2010910
F2010911
F2010912
F2010913
F2010914
F2010915
F2010916
F2010917
F2010918
F2010919
F2010920
F2010921
Continuing Professional Education
Corporatisation
Curriculum Development
Distance Learning
Education Counselling
Education Policy, Management and
Administration
Education Structure
Educational Psychology
Educational Technology and Media
E-Learning
Ethics and Moral Education
History and Philosophy of Education
Life-Long Education
Mainstreaming of Special Groups
Non-Formal Education
Philosophy of Education
Pre-School Education
Private and Public Education
Professional Teacher Development
Sociology of Education
Special Education
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
106
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2010922
F2010923
F2010924
F2010999
F2011000
Teacher Education
Tertiary Education
Extension Education
Other Education n.e.c.
Media and Communications
F2011001
F2011002
F2011003
F2011004
F2011005
F2011006
F2011007
F2011008
F2011009
F2011010
F2011011
F2011012
F2011013
F2011014
F2011015
F2011016
F2011017
F2011018
F2011019
F2011020
F2011021
F2011099
F2011100
Advertising
Broadcasting
Censorship
Cinema
Film and Video
Film Directing
Information Management
Information Studies
International Communications
Interpersonal Communications
Investor Relation
Journalism
Librarianship
Multimedia
Persuasion
Political Communications
Public Relation
Telecommunication
Animation
Science Communication
Cartoon and Comic Strips
Other Media and Communication Studies n.e.c.
Anthropology
F2011101
F2011102
F2011103
F2011104
F2011105
F2011106
F2011107
Ethnography
Indigenous People
Linguistics Anthropology
Medical Anthropology
Minority Groups
Nutritional Anthropology
Orang Asli
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
107
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2011108
F2011109
F2011110
F2011111
F2011112
F2011113
F2011114
F2011115
F2011116
F2011117
F2011118
F2011119
F2011120
F2011121
F2011122
F2011123
F2011124
F2011125
F2011126
F2011199
Physical and Biological Anthropology
Social and Cultural Anthropology
Social Anthropology
Ecological Anthropology
Economic Anthropology
Demographic Anthropology
Political Anthropology
Psychological Anthropology
Anthropology of Law
Anthropology of Religion
Urban Anthropology
Applied Anthropology
Ethnomusicology
Anthropology of Arts
Anthropology of Gender
Forensic Anthropology
Cultural Theory
Family Studies
Death and Dying
Other Anthropology and Anthropological Studies
n.e.c.
Professional Development of Law
Practitioners
F2011200
F2011201
F2011202
F2011203
F2011204
F2011299
F2011300
Adjudication
Legal Education
Legal Practice
Professional Ethics
Other Professional Development of Law
Practitioners n.e.c.
Law Enforcement
F2011301
F2011302
F2011303
F2011304
F2011305
Correctional Theory and Services; Penology
Criminology
Detection and Prevention of Crime; Security
Services
Evidence and Procedure
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
108
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2011306 Forensic Science
F2011399 Police Administration, Procedures and Practice
Other Law Enforcement n.e.c.
Social Work
F2011400
F2011401
F2011402
F2011403
F2011404
F2011405
F2011406
F2011407
F2011408
F2011409
F2011410
F2011411
F2011499
Clinical Social Work Practice
Counselling, Welfare and Community Services
Social Policy
Social Program Evaluation
Family Therapy
Marriage and Marital Counseling
Social Support
Program Development
Juvenile and Youth
Single Parent
Handicaps
Other Social Work n.e.c.
Cognitive Science
F2011500
F2011501 Computer Perception, Memory and Attention
F2011502 Knowledge Representation and Machine
Learning
F2011503 Linguistics Process
F2011504 Neurocognitive Patterns and Neural Networks
F2011505 Nutrition and Cognitive Function
F2011506 Philosophy of Cognition
F2011507 Planning and Problem Solving
F2011599 Other Cognitive Science n.e.c
F2011600
Farmer's Education and Agricultural
Extension
F2011601
F2011602
F2011603
F2011604
F2011605
Agricultural Education
Agricultural Extension Research
Agricultural Education Engineering
Horticulture Extension Education
Environmental Conservation Extension
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
109
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
Education
F2011606 Biotechnology Extension Education
F2011607 Forestry Extension Education
F2011608 Youth and Entrepreneurship Extension
Education
F2011609 Rural Developmental Extension Education
F2011610 Rural Women Extension Education
F2011611 Waste Management Extension Education
F2011699 Other Farmer's Education and Agricultural
Extension n.e.c.
F2011700
Advancement of Social Sciences Knowledge
F2011701 Sexuality
F2011702 Productivity
F2011703 Family Functionings SN: Includes Dysfunction
Issues and Problems
F2011704 Social Engineering
F2011705 Social Measurements and Modelling
F2011706 Social Stress and Monitoring System
F2011799 Other Advancement of Social Sciences
Knowledge n.e.c.
F2019900
Other Social Sciences n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
110
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
HUMANITIES
CATEGORY
GROUP
F2020000
F2020100
AREA
Linguistics and Literature
F2020101
F2020102
F2020103
F2020104
F2020105
F2020106
F2020107
F2020108
F2020109
F2020110
F2020111
F2020112
F2020113
F2020114
F2020115
F2020116
F2020117
F2020118
F2020119
F2020120
F2020121
F2020122
F2020123
F2020124
F2020125
F2020126
F2020127
F2020128
F2020129
F2020130
F2020131
Applied Linguistics
Asian and Other Muslim Languages
Asian Literature
Clinical Linguistics
Comparative Literature
Computational Linguistics
Dialectology
Discourse and Pragmatics
Educational Linguistics
Endangered Language
Genre Studies (Literature)
Laboratory Phonetics and Speech Science
Language in Culture and Society
(Sociolinguistics)
Language in Time and Space SN: Including
Historical Linguistics, Dialectology)
Lexicography
Linguistic Structures SN: Including Grammar,
Phonology, Lexicon, Semantics)
Linguistics Structure
Literary Theory
Malay Language
Malay Literature
Malaysian Languages
Malaysian Literature
Semantics
Translation
World Language Studies
World Literature Studies
Ethnopragmatics
Ethnolinguistics
Language and Gender
Language and Media
Morphology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
111
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2020132
F2020133
F2020134
F2020135
F2020136
F2020137
F2020138
F2020139
F2020140
F2020141
F2020199
F2020200
Genre Studies (Written Discourse)
Intercultural Communication
Ethnosemantics
Phonetics and Phonology
Forensic Linguistics
Language Acquisition
CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning)
Feminism
Science Communication
Corpus Linguistics
Other Linguistics and Literature n.e.c.
Historical and Civilisation Studies
F2020201 Archaeological Science
F2020202 Archaeology of Agricultural and Pastoral
Societies
F2020203 Archaeology of Complex Societies: Asia, Africa
Oceania and The Americas
F2020204 Archaeology of Complex Societies: Europe, the
Mediterranean and The Levant
F2020205 Archaeology of Hunter-Gathered Societies (SN:
Including Pleistocene Archaeology)
F2020206 Biography
F2020207 Constitutional History of Malaysia
F2020208 Cultural History
F2020209 Development of Administration
F2020210 Economic and Commercial History of Malaysia
F2020211 Emergence of The Third World
F2020212 Foreign Policy
F2020213 Historical Archaeology (Incl. Industrial
Archaeology)
F2020214 History of Civilisations
F2020215 History of Local Government of Malaysia
F2020216 History of Political Development in Malaysia
F2020217 Malay Historiography
F2020218 Malay Society
F2020219 Malay World
F2020220 Maritime Archaeology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
112
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2020221
F2020222
F2020223
F2020224
F2020225
F2020226
F2020227
F2020299
F2020300
Methods and Ideas of History
Muslim History
Muslim Society
Nationalism in Southeast Asia and Malaysia
Prehistory of Southeast Asia
World Historical Studies
Modern History
Other Historical and Civilisation Studies n.e.c.
Philosophy
F2020301 Aesthetics
F2020302 Applied Ethics (Incl. Bioethics and
Environmental Ethics)
F2020303 Applied Philosophy
F2020304 Comparative Philosophy
F2020305 Epistemology
F2020306 Ethical Theory
F2020307 Ethics
F2020308 Hermeneutic Theory
F2020309 History and Philosophy of Ideas
F2020310 Islamisation of Knowledge
F2020311 Logic
F2020312 Metaphysics
F2020313 Phenomenology
F2020314 Philosophy of Action
F2020315 Philosophy of Language
F2020316 Philosophy of Minds
F2020317 Philosophy of Specific Culture
F2020318 Social Philosophy
F2020399 Other Philosophy and Philosophical Studies n.e.c.
Arts and Culture
F2020400
F2020401
F2020402
F2020403
F2020404
F2020405
Aboriginal Culture Studies
Ceramic Arts
Consumption and Everyday Life
Costumes
Cultural Policy Studies
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
113
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2020406
F2020407
F2020408
F2020409
F2020410
F2020411
F2020412
F2020413
F2020414
F2020415
F2020416
F2020417
F2020418
F2020419
F2020420
F2020421
F2020422
F2020423
F2020499
Cultural Theory
Culture, Gender and Sexuality
Design Studies
Drama
Filming Tradition
Islamic Calligraphy
Metal Handicraft Arts and Tradition
Multicultural, Intercultural and Cross-Cultural
Studies
Popular Culture
Post and Colonial and Global Culture Studies
Screen and Media Culture
Theatre
Traditional Arts and Culture
Traditional Performing Arts
Weaving, Batik and Dress Traditional
Wood Carving Tradition
Ethnomusicology
Material Culture
Other Arts and Culture n.e.c
Religious Studies
F2020500
F2020501
F2020502
F2020503
F2020504
F2020505
F2020506
F2020507
F2020508
F2020509
F2020510
F2020511
F2020512
F2020513
F2020514
F2020515
Buddhist Studies
Christian Theology (Incl. Biblical Studies and
Church History)
Comparative Religion
Deviance
Hindu Studies
Ijtihad and Tajdid (Religious Revivalism)
Islamic Studies
Jewish Studies
Missionary and Propagation Studies
Moral (Akhlaq)
Philosophy of Religion
Psychology of Religion
Quranic and Hadis Studies
Religion and Civilisation
Religion and Modernisation
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
114
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2020516
F2020517
F2020518
F2020519
F2020520
F2020521
F2020522
F2020523
F2020599
Performing Arts and Music
F2020600
F2020601
F2020602
F2020603
F2020604
F2020605
F2020606
F2020607
F2020608
F2020609
F2020699
Indigenous Performing Arts and Music
Modern Dances
Modern Music
Traditional/ Classical Dances
Traditional/ Classical Music
E-Performance
Traditional Musical Instruments
Indigenous Musical Instruments
Telematic Choreography
Other Performing Arts and Music n.e.c.
Visual Arts and Crafts
F2020700
F2020701
F2020702
F2020703
F2020704
F2020799
F2020800
Religion and Society
Religious Education
Religious Issues
Studies in Other Religious Traditions
Ummatic Studies
Fundamentalism
Mysticism
Indigenous Beliefs
Other Religious Studies n.e.c.
Crafts
Fine Arts Sculpture and Painting
Graphics Arts
Photography
Other Visual Arts and Crafts n.e.c SN: Including
Manufacturing Instruments for Photographic
Equipment
History and Philosophy of Sciences and
Medicine
F2020801 History and Philosophy of Medicine
F2020802 History and Philosophy of Science and
Technology
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
115
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2020803 Sociology and Social Studies of Science and
Technology
F2020899 Other History and Philosophy of Science and
Medicine n.e.c.
Clinical Linguistics
F2020900
F2020901
F2020902
F2020903
F2020904
F2020905
F2020999
F2021000
Clinical Morphology and Syntax
Clinical Phonetics and Phonology
Clinical Semantics and Pragmatics
Perceptual Analysis
Profiles of Clinical Data
Other Clinical Linguistics n.e.c.
Advancement of Humanities Knowledge
F2021001 E-Culture
F2021099 Other Advancement of Humanities Knowledge
n.e.c.
F2029900
Other Humanities n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
116
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
ECONOMICS, BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT
CATEGORY
GROUP
F2030000
F2030100
AREA
Accounting
F2030101
F2030102
F2030103
F2030104
F2030105
F2030106
F2030107
F2030108
F2030109
F2030110
F2030111
F2030112
F2030113
F2030114
F2030115
F2030116
F2030117
F2030118
F2030119
F2030120
F2030121
F2030122
F2030123
F2030124
F2030125
F2030126
F2030127
F2030199
F2030200
Accountability
Accounting Education
Accounting History
Accounting Information Systems
Accounting Regulation
Accounting Standards
Auditing
Behavioural Accounting
Bicameral Accounting
Corporate Governance
Financial Accounting
Financial Reporting
Forensic Accounting
Human Resource Accounting
International Accounting
Islamic Accounting
IT and Accounting
Management Accounting
Natural Resource Accounting
Not-for-Profit Accounting
Private Sector Accounting
Public Sector Accounting
Social Responsibility Accounting
Taxation
Zakat Accounting
Economics of Cooperative
Social Audit
Other Accounting n.e.c.
Economics/Applied Economics
F2030201 Agricultural Economics
F2030202 Economic Development and Growth
F2030203 Economic Geography
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
117
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2030204
F2030205
F2030206
F2030207
F2030208
F2030209
F2030210
F2030211
F2030212
F2030213
F2030214
F2030215
F2030216
F2030217
F2030218
F2030219
F2030220
F2030221
F2030222
F2030223
F2030224
F2030225
F2030226
F2030227
F2030228
F2030229
F2030230
F2030231
F2030232
Economic History
Economic Modelling and Forecasting
Environmental Economics
Finance Economics
Globalisation
Health Economics
Industrial Economics
Industrial Organization
International Economics
International Finance
Islamisation of Economic Institutions
Labour Economics
Macroeconomics SN: Including Monetary and
Fiscal Theory; and Macroeconomics Issues such
as Balance of Payments Issues, Exchange
Rates Issues, Fiscal Policy Issues, Income
Policy Issues, Industrial Concentration, Monetary
Policy Issues, National Accounts, Poverty and
Equity, Price Stability, Productivity and Growth,
Taxation Issues, Social Security, Cooperative,
Agriculture Productivity and Growth and Land
Use
Natural Resource Economics
Public Finance
Public Sector Economics
Regional Economics
Resource Economics
Transport Economics
Urban and Regional Economics
Welfare Economics
Agricultural Developments
Agricultural and Food Policies
Farmer's Organization
Construction Economics
Regional Agriculture
Local Produce Local Consume
Financial Literacy
Microeconomics SN: Including Microeconomics
Issues such as Consumption Issues, Industrial
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
118
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2030233
F2030234
F2030235
F2030236
F2030237
F2030299
Organisations Issues, Industry Costs and
Structure Issues, Industry Policy Issues,
Taxation, Job Security, Social Insurance, Land
Use, Health Insurance, Financial Literacy,
Retirement Planning, Family Economics, Estate
Planning and Consumerism
International Trade Issues SN: Including
Competitiveness, Globalisation, Trade Issues
and Policies
Management and Productivity Issues SN:
Including Accountability, Ethics, Industrial
Relations Issues, Labour Issues, Quality
Management, Shareholder Rights, Transparency
and Wage Policies
Standardisation and Calibration Services SN:
Including Communication Service Standard,
Defence Standards and Calibration,
Environment Standard, Manufacturing
Standards and Calibration, Measurement
Standard and Calibration, Optical Standards and
Calibration, Quality Assurance, Radiation
Standards and Calibration, Service Industries
Standards and Calibration, Radiation Dosimetry
Services, Ophthalmic and Contact Lenses
Standards
Commercialisation SN: Including Agribusiness
Management, Contract Manufacturing, Market
Development Studies, Marketing, Packaging of
Technologies, Patent and Licensing, Pilot Scale,
Production Economics, Techno-Economic
Feasibility Studies, Transfer of Technologies and
Globalisation
Socio Economic Development SN: Including
Affirmative Action, Distribution, Equity Issues,
Minority Groups, Poverty, Social Mobility, Burden
of Disease, Governance, Child Welfare, Social
Equality, Social Capital and Human Capital
Other Economics/Applied Economics n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
119
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2030300
Economic Theory
F2030301
F2030302
F2030303
F2030304
F2030305
F2030399
F2030400
Macroeconomic Theory
Mathematical Economics
Microeconomic Theory
Political Economics
Agricultural Economics Theory
Other Economic Theory n.e.c
Economy History and History of Economic
Thought
F2030401
F2030402
F2030403
F2030499
F2030500
Comparative Economic System
Economic History
History of Economic Thought
Other Economy History and History of Economic
Thoughts n.e.c
Econometrics
F2030501
F2030502
F2030503
F2030504
F2030505
F2030506
F2030507
F2030599
F2030600
Applied Econometrics
Basic Econometrics
Cross Section Studies
Econometrics Modelling
Panel Data Analysis
Regresive Analysis
Time Series Econometrics
Other Econometrics n.e.c. Including System
Dynamics
Management
F2030601
F2030602
F2030603
F2030604
F2030605
F2030606
F2030607
Agribusiness
Agricultural Management
Business Ethics
Crisis and Risk Management
Electronic Commerce
Entrepreneurial Studies
Entrepreneurship
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
120
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2030608
F2030609
F2030610
F2030611
F2030612
F2030613
F2030614
F2030615
F2030616
F2030617
F2030618
F2030619
F2030620
F2030621
F2030622
F2030623
F2030624
Environmental Management
Health Management
Industrial Relations
International Business Management
Islamic Management
Management Information System
Marketing
Multimedia Management
Operational Management
Organisational Studies
Public Sector Management
Purchasing
Quality Management
Science and Technology Management
Strategic Management
Techno-Economics
Plantation Management SN: Crop Management
including Plantation Crop for Banana, Cocoa,
Coconut, Coffee, Oil Palm, Pepper, Pineapple,
Rubber, Sago, Sugarcane, Tea, Papaya and Oil
Palm Mixed With Other Crops e.g. Dragon Fruit
F2030625 Behavioural Studies, Resource Management,
Knowledge Management
F2030626 Total Quality Management (TQM)
F2030699 Other Management Studies n.e.c.
F2030700
Human Resource Management (HRM)
F2030701
F2030702
F2030703
F2030704
F2030705
F2030706
F2030707
F2030708
F2030709
F2030799
Compensation and Benefits
Employee Development
Employee Relation
Human Resource Planning
Industrial Relation
Managing Multiculturalism
Occupational Safety and Health
Performance Appraisal
Recruitment and Selection
Other Human Resource Management n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
121
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2030800
Marketing
F2030801
F2030802
F2030803
F2030804
F2030805
F2030806
F2030807
F2030808
F2030809
F2030810
F2030811
F2030812
F2030813
F2030814
F2030815
F2030816
F2030817
F2030818
F2030819
F2030820
F2030821
F2030899
F2030900
Advertising
Brands Management
Communications
Consumer Behaviour
Industrial Marketing
Market Research
Marketing Audit
Marketing Information System
Marketing of Professional Services
Marketing Plan
Promotion
Public Relations
Purchasing
Retailing
Sales and Distribution
Service Marketing
Strategic Marketing
Wholesaling
Halal Food Marketing
Halal Product Marketing
Agricultural Marketing
Other Marketing Studies n.e.c.
Human Resource Development (HRD)
F2030901
F2030902
F2030903
F2030904
F2030905
F2030906
F2030907
F2030908
Action Learning
Adult Learning and Development
Building Capacity
Career Development
Continuing Professional Development
Employee Counselling
Empowerment of Employees
In-Service Training SN: Including Personnel
Training for K-Soldier Development
F2030909 Knowledge Management
F2030910 Learning Organization
F2030911 Learning Transfer
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
122
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2030912
F2030913
F2030914
F2030915
F2030916
F2030917
F2030918
F2030919
F2030920
F2030999
Management Development
Organization Commitment
Organizational Development
Performance Management
Team Building
Trainability
Training Design
Training Management
Workplace Learning
Other Human Resource Development n.e.c.
Entrepreneurship
F2031000
F2031001
F2031002
F2031003
F2031004
F2031005
F2031006
F2031007
F2031008
F2031009
F2031010
F2031011
F2031012
F2031013
F2031014
Corporate Entrepreneurship
Development
Entrepreneurial Studies
Entrepreneurship Education
Family Business
Financing Small Business
Franchising
Intrapreneurship
Small Business Enterprise
Small / Bunisess Management
Small-Medium Industry (SMI)
Technopreneurs
Training
Agricultural Entrepreneurship SN: Including Plant
Industry in Post Harvest Packaging, Post Harvest
Logistic, Precision Agriculture and Branding
F2031099 Other Entrepreneurship Fields n.e.c.
F2031100
Finance
F2031101
F2031102
F2031103
F2031104
F2031105
F2031106
Banking
Capital Market
Corporate Finance
Finance Companies
Financial Engineering
Insurances
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
123
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2031107
F2031108
F2031109
F2031110
F2031111
F2031112
F2031113
F2031114
F2031115
F2031199
F2031200
Investment
F2031201
F2031202
F2031203
F2031204
F2031205
F2031206
F2031207
F2031208
F2031209
F2031299
F2031300
International Finance
Islamic Banking
Islamic Finance
Market Efficiency
Off-Shore Finance
Other Finance
Risk Management
Stock Broking
Venture Capital
Other Finance n.e.c.
Hedge Fund
Initial Public Offers (IPO)
Institutional Investment
Islamic Investment Instrument
Market Efficiency
Mergers and Acquisitions
Mutual Fund
Real Estate
Stock Market Studies
Other Investment n.e.c
Logistics and Transportation
F2031301 Air Transport Management
F2031302 Logistics
F2031303 Maritime SN: Including Coastal Water Transport,
Inland Water Transport, International Sea
Transport, Transport Security
F2031304 Rail Transport SN: Including Rail Ride
F2031305 Road Transport SN: Including of Bicycle and
Pedestrianization, Road Safety, Integrated
Transport System, Road Ride
F2031306 Space Transport SN: Including Air Transport
F2031307 Supply Chain Management
F2031308 Transport Economics
F2031309 Transport Engineering
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
124
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2031310
F2031311
F2031312
F2031313
Transport Marketing
Transport Policy and Planning
Urban Transport
Transport Equipment SN: Including Aerospace
Equipment, Automotive Equipment, Aviation
Equipment, Environmental Friendly Transport
Systems, Navigation Equipment, Rail (Transport)
Equipment, Ships and Boats
F2031314 Transport Modelling and Planning SN: Including
Routing, Congestion Analysis and Road
Planning, Public Transport, Analysis and
Scheduling, Accidents Black Spots Analysis,
Location and Distribution Analysis and Travel
Behaviour Analysis
F2031399 Other Logistic and Transportation n.e.c SN:
Including Defence Logistics Encompassing Food
Supply, Medical Supply, Water Supply and
Ordinance
Technology Management
F2031400
F2031401
F2031402
F2031403
F2031404
F2031405
F2031406
F2031407
F2031408
F2031409
F2031410
F2031411
F2031412
F2031413
F2031414
Appropriate Technology
Intellectual Property Rights
Research and Development Management
Science and Technology Management
Technology and Assessment
Technology and Civilisation
Technology and Development
Technology and Law
Technology Commercialisation
Technology Diffusion
Technology Foresight
Technology Indicators
Technology Innovation
Technology Policy Studies
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
125
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2031415
F2031416
F2031417
F2031418
F2031419
F2031420
F2031421
F2031422
F2031423
F2031424
F2031425
F2031426
F2031427
F2031428
F2031429
F2031430
F2031431
F2031432
F2031433
F2031434
F2031435
F2031436
F2031437
F2031438
F2031439
F2031440
F2031441
F2031442
F2031443
F2031444
Technology Prospecting
Technology Road Map
Technology Transfer
Innovation Management
New Product & Service Management
R&D Management
Technology Life Cycle
Technology Acquisition
Technology Adoption & Acceptance
Technology Impact
Technology Policy
Technology Incubation
Technology Infrastructure
Technology Strategy
Strategic Management of Technology
Best Practice Management
Technology Monitoring & Control
Quality Performance & Reliability
Technology Assessment/Analysis
Technology Benchmarking
Technology Capability SN: Including
Enhancement of Science and Technology
Capabilities in Defence Technology e.g.
Aerospace and Communication System,
Software, Automotive, Space Technology and
Propulsion
Technology Risk
Technology Audit
Road Mapping
Technology Intelligence
Supply Chain Management
Technology Venture
Technology Alliances & Merge
Technology Financing, Investment
Technopreneur
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
126
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2031445
F2031446
F2031447
F2031448
F2031449
F2031450
F2031451
F2031452
F2031453
F2031454
F2031455
F2031456
F2031457
F2031458
F2031499
Project Planning
Project Evaluation & Control
Project Procurement
Value Management
Emerging Technology
E-Business
Human Technology Interaction
Forensic
Green Technology/Low Carbon Technology
ICT Management
Change Management
Human Resource Management
Mot Education & Training
Ethics, Security and Safety
Other Technology Management n.e.c.
Tourism
F2031500
F2031501
F2031502
F2031503
F2031504
F2031505
F2031506
F2031507
F2031508
F2031509
F2031510
F2031511
F2031512
F2031513
F2031514
F2031515
F2031516
F2031517
F2031518
F2031519
F2031520
Ecotourism Studies
Education and Training
Food and Hospitality Services
Heritage Management
Hospitality Management
Impact Studies
Leisure Studies
Management
Product Development
Public Policy
Social Cultural
Support Services
Tourism and Economy
Tourism and Technologies
Tourism and Transport
Tourism Economics
Tourism Facilities
Tourism Forecasting
Tourism Management
Tourism Marketing
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
127
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2031521
F2031522
F2031523
F2031524
F2031525
F2031599
F2031600
Tourism Policy
Tourism Resource Appraisal
Tourist Behaviour
Urban Tourism
Agrotourism
Other Tourism n.e.c.
Operations Management
F2031601
F2031602
F2031603
F2031604
F2031605
F2031606
F2031607
F2031608
F2031609
F2031610
F2031611
F2031612
F2031613
F2031614
F2031615
F2031616
F2031617
F2031618
F2031619
F2031620
F2031621
F2031622
F2031623
F2031624
F2031625
F2031626
F2031627
F2031628
Product & Service Design
Layout Planning
Design of Work System
Capacity Requirements Planning
Location Planning
Process Selection
Total Quality Management
Quality System
Quality Improvement
Service Quality Management
Benchmarking and Best Practice Management
Process Management
Statistical Process Control
Process Measurements and Control
Lean Operations
Process Improvement
Business Process Reengineering
Design of Experiment
Simulation Modelling
Decision Support System
Operation Research/Management Science
Total Productive Maintenance
Balanced Scorecard
New Product Development
Product Life Cycle
Project Management
Operations Policy
Operations Strategy SN: Including Tactical
Planning for Logistics in Defence and Security
Systems such as Manpower Planning, Inventory
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
128
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2031629
F2031630
F2031631
F2031632
F2031633
F2031634
F2031635
F2031636
F2031637
F2031638
F2031699
Planning, Distribution and Routing, Intelligent
Systems, Computational Mathematics, Data
Analysis, Quality and Productivity and Bio
Defence as in Psychological War
Supply Chain Management
Inventory Management and Control
Enterprise Resource Planning
JIT Operations
Aggregation Planning
Logistics and Transportation
Ethics in Operation Management
Service Operation
Commercial Services SN: Including of Electricity,
Gas and Water Services and Utilities (e.g.
Electricity Services and Utilities, Gas Services
and Utilities, Public Services and Utilities, Water
Services and Utilities) , Waste Management and
Recycling (e.g. Recycling Waste Management),
Wholesale and Retail Trade (e.g. E-Commerce,
Farmer's Market, Fruit Carnival, Hypermarket,
Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade, M-Commerce,
Virtual Services, E-Contents Sales), Finance,
Property and Business Services (e.g.
Accounting, Auditing, Banking, Commercial
Investigation, Commercial Securities Services,
Insurance Services, Investment Services,
Islamic Financial Services, Land Administration
and Development, Professional Services,
Property Management), and Tourism (e.g.
Agrotourism, Economics Tourism, Ecotourism,
Health Tourism, Recreational Services, SocioCultural Issues, Tourism Infrastructural
Development, Urban Tourism, E-Tourism, GeoTourism, Home Stay, Gerontourism, Food
Tourism, Sports Tourist)
Advancement of Economics, Business and
Management Knowledge
Other Operations Management n.e.c
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
129
D I V I S I O N
2
Social Sciences, Humanities and
Business / Economic and Administration
CATEGORY
GROUP
AREA
F2031700
International Business
F2031701
F2031702
F2031704
F2031705
F2031706
F2031707
F2031708
F2031709
F2031710
F2031711
F2031712
F2031713
F2031714
F2031799
F2031900
F2190000
International Advertising
International Human Resource Management
International Franchising
International Operations Management
International Logistics Management
Cross Cultural Management
International Entrepreneurship
Expatriate Adjustment
International Organizational Behaviour
International Negotiation Strategies
Multinational Management
Multinational Strategic Management
Strategic Alliance
Other International Business n.e.c
Other Economics, Business and Management
Fields n.e.c.
NON-ORIENTED SOCIAL SCIENCES,
HUMANITIES AND BUSINESS / ECONOMIC
AND ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
131
D I V I S I O N
1
Natural Sciences, Technologies
and Engineering
CHAPTER 3
SOCIO ECONOMIC OBJECTIVE
The Socio Economic Objective or SEO classification allows R&D data to be classified
according to the researcher's perceived purpose (i.e. who benefits from the research). The
purpose categories take account of processes, products, health, education and other social
and environmental aspects of particular interest.
Classifying to an SEO category is subjective, i.e. the category is chosen by the data provider
to indicate the main purpose of R&D. Classifying a business to an industry is generally
derived objectively through its main income generation activity.
SEO organises those same R&D activities by their purpose or presumed sectoral
beneficiaries. The systems, which show greater national variation according to a nation's
profile and priorities currently, have 5 Division, 26 Category and 193 discrete group.
Choose the SEO classification, which most appropriately describes the sector of the national
economy, which will be the main beneficiary of the R&D you are practising.
What's New
In the 5th Edition, all areas covered in the SEO had been transferred to the FOR. The main
purpose of doing this is because in the SEO, mostly only the objective to the country
development benefit has been concentrated but not to focus on the R&D work.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
All Division
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
135
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
SOCIO ECONOMIC OBJECTIVE (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
1
GROUP
DEFENCE AND SECURITY
S1010000
Defence
S1010100 Defence
S1010200 Defence Equipment
S1019900 Other Defence n.e.c.
S1020000
Logistics
S1020100 Make Shift Engineering
S1020200 Civil Engineering
S1029900 Other Logistics n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
136
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
2
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
S2010000
Plant Production and Plant Primary Products
S2010100
S2010200
S2010300
S2010400
S2010500
S2010600
S2010700
S2019900
S2020000
Animal Production and Animal Primary
Products
S2020100
S2020200
S2020300
S2020400
S2029900
S2030000
Livestock
Pasture, Browse and Fodder Crops
Fisheries
Primary and By-Products from Animals
Other Animal Production and Animal Primary
Products n.e.c.
Mineral Resources (Excluding Energy)
S2030100
S2030200
S2030300
S2030400
S2039900
S2040000
Field Crops
Plantation Crops
Horticultural Crops
Forestry
Primary Products from Plants
By-Product Utilisation
Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants
Other Plant Production and Plant Primary
Products n.e.c.
Exploration
Primary Mining and Extraction Processes
Treatment of Ores and Minerals
Prevention and Treatment of Pollution
Other Mineral Resources (Excluding Energy)
n.e.c.
Energy Resources
S2040100 Exploration
S2040200 Mining and Extraction
S2040300 Preparation and Supply of Energy Source
Materials
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
137
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
S2040400 Non-Conventional Energy Resources
S2040500 Nuclear Energy
S2049900 Other Energy Resources n.e.c.
S2050000
Energy Supply
S2050100
S2050200
S2050300
S2050400
S2050500
S2059900
S2060000
Energy Transformation
Renewable Energy
Energy Distribution
Energy Conservation and Efficiency
Energy Issues
Other Energy Supply n.e.c.
Manufacturing
S2060100 Processed Food Products and Beverages
S2060200 Fibre Processing and Textiles, Footwear and
Leather Products
S2060300 Wood, Wood Products and Paper
S2060400 Human Pharmaceutical Products
S2060500 Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products
S2060600 Agricultural Chemicals
S2060700 Industrial Chemicals and Related Products
S2060800 Basic Metal Products (Including Smelting)
S2060900 Industrial Mineral Products
S2061000 Fabricated Metal Products
S2061100 Transport Equipment
S2061200 Computer Hardware and Electronic Equipment
S2061300 Communication Equipment
S2061400 Instrumentation
S2061500 Machinery and Equipment
S2061600 Latex Product Processing
S2061700 Standard Supporting Technologies
S2061800 Materials Performance and Processes/Analysis
S2061900 Milling and Process Materials
S2062000 Synthesis and Design of Fine and Speciality
Chemicals
S2062100 Pollution Prevention and Control
S2062200 Consumer Products
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
138
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
S2069900 Other Manufacturing n.e.c.
Construction
S2070000
S2070100
S2070200
S2070300
S2070400
S2079900
Planning
Design
Construction Processes
Building Management and Services
Other Construction n.e.c.
Transport
S2080000
S2080100
S2080200
S2080300
S2089900
Ground Transport
Water Transport
Air and Space Transport
Other Transport n.e.c.
Information and Communication Services
S2090000
S2090100
S2090200
S2090300
S2090400
S2099900
Computer Software and Services
Information Services (Including Library)
Communication Services
Geoinformation Services
Other Information and Communication Services
n.e.c.
Commercial Services
S2100000
S2100100
S2100200
S2100300
S2100400
S2100500
S2109900
Electricity, Gas and Water Services and Utilities
Waste Management and Recycling
Wholesale and Retail Trade
Finance, Property and Business Services
Tourism
Other Commercial Services n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
139
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
Economic Framework
S2110000
S2110100
S2110200
S2110300
S2110400
S2110500
S2110600
S2110700
S2119900
Macroeconomic Issues
Microeconomic Issues
International Trade Issues
Management and Productivity Issues
Standardisation and Calibration Services
Commercialisation
Socio-Economic Development
Other Economic Framework n.e.c.
Natural Resources
S2120000
S2120100
S2120200
S2120300
S2120400
S2120500
S2120600
S2129900
Soil Resources
Water Resources
Biodiversity
Bioactives Product
Industrial Raw Materials
Mineral Resource
Other Natural Resources n.e.c.
Forest Production and Forest Products
S2130000
S2130100
S2130200
S2130300
S2130400
S2130500
S2139900
Transportation
Harvesting
Natural Forests
Plantation Forests
Information System
Other Forest Production and Forest Products
n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
140
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
3
SOCIETY
Health
S3010000
S3010100
S3010200
S3010300
S3010400
S3019900
Clinical (Organs, Diseases and Conditions)
Public Health
Health and Support Services
Law
Other Health n.e.c.
Education and Training
S3020000
S3020100
S3020200
S3020300
S3020400
S3020500
S3020600
S3020700
S3020800
S3020900
S3029900
S3030000
Early Childhood and Primary Education
Secondary Education
Tertiary Education
Technical and Further Education
Special Education
Computer Based Teaching and Learning
Education Policy
Teaching
Educational Administration
Other Education and Training n.e.c.
Social Development and Community Services
S3030100
S3030200
S3030300
S3030400
S3030500
S3030600
S3030700
S3030800
S3039900
Community Services
Public Services
Art, Sport and Recreation
International Relations
Ethical Issues
Nation Building
Urban and Rural Issues
Demography and Population Studies
Other Social Development and Community
Services n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
141
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
S3040000
Arts, Culture and Heritage
S3040100
S3040200
S3040300
S3040400
S3040500
S3040600
S3040700
S3040800
S3049900
S3050000
Arts
Culture
Heritage
Malaysian Culture
Malay Culture
Chinese Culture
Indian Culture
Indigenous Culture
Other Arts, Culture and Heritage n.e.c
Religion and Ethics
S3050100 Religion
S3050200 Moral and Ethics
S3059900 Other Religion and Ethics n.e.c.
S3060000
Social Problems
S3060100
S3060200
S3060300
S3060400
S3060500
S3060600
S3060700
S3069900
Youth Problems
Middle Age Problems
Old Age Problems
Immigrants
Social Inequalites
Class
Ethnic
Other Social Problem n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
1
142
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
4
ENVIRONMENT
Environmental Knowledge
S4010000
S4010100
S4010200
S4010300
S4010400
S4010500
S4010600
S4010700
S4019900
S4020000
Climate and Atmosphere
Ocean
Water
Land
Nature Conservation
Social Environment
Water Bodies
Other Environmental Knowledge n.e.c.
Environmental Aspects of Development
S4020100 Plant Production and Plant Primary Products
(Including Forestry)
S4020200 Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
(Including Fishing)
S4020300 Mineral Resources (Excluding Energy)
S4020400 Energy Resources
S4020500 Energy Supply
S4020600 Manufacturing
S4020700 Construction
S4020800 Transport
S4020900 Information and Communication Services
S4021000 Commercial Services
S4021100 Environmental Economic Framework
S4029900 Other Environment Aspect of Development n.e.c.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
143
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
S4030000
Environmental Management and Other
Aspects
Environmental Management
Waste Management and Recycling
Climate and Weather
Atmosphere (Excl. Climate and Weather)
Marine and Coastal Environment
Fresh Water and Estuarine Environment
Urban and Industrial Environment
Forest and Wooded Lands
Farmland
Sparse Land (Incl. Permanent Grassland and
The Arid Zone)
S4031100 Mining Environment
S4039900 Other Environmental Management and Others
Aspects n.e.c.
S4030100
S4030200
S4030300
S4030400
S4030500
S4030600
S4030700
S4030800
S4030900
S4031000
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
144
A L L
D I V I S I O N
Socio Economic Objective (SEO)
DIV
CATEGORY
GROUP
5
ADVANCEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE
S5010000
Natural Sciences, Technologies and
Engineering
S5010100
S5010200
S5010300
S5010400
S5010500
S5010600
S5010700
S5010800
S5010900
S5011000
S5011100
S5011200
S5011300
S5011400
S5011500
S5019900
S5020000
Mathematical Sciences
Physical Sciences
Chemical Sciences
Earth Sciences
Information, Computer and Communication
Technologies
Applied Sciences and Technologies
Engineering Sciences
Biological Sciences
Agricultural Sciences
Medical Sciences
Health Sciences
Multimedia
Aerospace Science
Biotechnology
Gerontechnology
Other Natural Sciences, Technologies and
Engineering n.e.c.
Social Sciences and Humanities
S5020100
S5020200
S5020300
S5020400
S5020500
S5029900
1
1
Social Sciences
Humanities
Cyber Law
Social Gerontology
Medical Gerontology
Other Social Sciences and Humanities n.e.c.
Only research projects that are predominantly “pure basic research” can be classified to Division 5 : Advancement of Knowledge.
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
Annex
Acknowledgement
147
A N N E X
Acknowledgement
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
National experts that contributed in the revision of the Malaysian Standard Research
and Development Classification System during a workshop held at Swiss Garden Spa
& Resort, Kuantan Pahang from 14th to 15 August 2006
GROUP 1A PHYSICS
Prof. Dr. Tou Teck Yong, Multimedia University
Dr. Wan Saffiey Haji Wan Abdullah, Malaysia Inst. For Nuclear Technology Research
Tn. Haji Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali, Malaysia Inst. For Nuclear Technology Research
Prof. Dr. Mohd Maarof bin Haji Abd. Moksin, University of Putra Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Abd. Rani bin Abd Hamid, University of Technology Malaysia
GROUP 1B MATHEMATICS
Prof. Madya Dr. Nor Aishah Hamzah, University of Malaya
Prof. Madya Dr. Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Zaidi Isa, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Maslina Darus, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Wong Peng Choon, University of Malaya
Prof. Madya Dr. Shaharuddin Salleh, University of Technology Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok, National University of Malaysia
GROUP 2 INFORMATION, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
Prof. Dr. Md Yazid bin Mohd Saman, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
Dr. Raslan Ahmad, MIMOS Berhad
Dr. Suhairi Saharudin, MIMOS Berhad
Pn. Zatul Asilah, MIMOS Berhad
Pn. Zaleha Rahim, MIMOS Berhad
Prof. Dr. Ku Ruhana binti Ku Mahamud, Northern University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Norshuhada Shiratuddin, Northern University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Sellappan a/l Palaniappan, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
Prof. Dr. Roslan Ismail, University of Kuala Lumpur
Mr. Lee Nung Kion, University of Malaysia Sarawak
Prof. Madya Sulaiman Mohd Nor, University of Technology Malaysia
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
148
A N N E X
Acknowledgement
GROUP 3 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
Mr. Chin Kee Chin, Department Mineral and Geosciences Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Mohamad Ismail Abdul Karim, International Islamic University of Malaysia
Dr. Mokhtar Yusof, Malaysia Palm Oil Board
Mr. Hii Ching Lik, Malaysian Cocoa Board
Dr. Zaid Isa, Malaysian Rubber Board
Ir. Hj. Abdul Wahab Abdullah, MIMOS Berhad
Prof. Datin Dr. Masitah Hasan, University of Malaya
GROUP 4 MARINE SCIENCE
Ms. Yong Ai Hua, Fisheries Research Institute, Sarawak Branch
Mr. Albert Chuan Gambong, Fisheries Research Institute, Sarawak Branch
Dr. Abdul Kadir bin Ishak, Malaysia Inst. For Nuclear Technology Research
Mr. Ku Kassim Ku Yaacob, Marine Fisheries Resource Development & Management
Department
Mr. Hj. Shahruddin Hj. Yusof, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
Ms. Raja Saadiah bt Raja Shariff, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
Prof. Madya Dr. Kaswandi Md. Ambia, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Noor Azhar Mohamed Shazili, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
Prof. Dr Chong Ving Ching, University of Malaya
Dr. Mohd. Rizman Idid, University of Malaya
Dr. Siti Akmar Khadijah bt Ab Rahim, University of Malaysia Sarawak
Mr. Wan Hazli Wan Kadir, University of Technology Malaysia
GROUP 5 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Dr. Seah Lay Hong, Department of Chemistry
Mr. Jeefrine Rovie Ryan, Department of Wildlife and National Park
Dr. Abidin Hamid, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
Dr. Abas Mazni Othman, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
Mr. Ahmad Kamil Hj. Mohd Jaafar, Malaysian Cocoa Board
Prof. Dr. Vikineswary Sabaratnam, University of Malaya
Prof. Madya Dr. Mustafa Abdul Rahman, University of Malaysia Sarawak
GROUP 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & MANAGEMENT
Mr. Asnor Muizan Dato' Ishak, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia
Mr. Kwan Kok Foo, Department of Meteorology Malaysia
Dr. Chan Hung Tuck, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Che Musa Che Omar, International Islamic University of Malaysia
Ir. Mohd Sharifuddin Ibrahim, International Islamic University of Malaysia
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
149
A N N E X
Acknowledgement
GROUP 7 HEALTH & SUPPORT SERVICES
Dr. Mohd Ilham Adenan, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
Dr. Hj. Nordin Saleh, Institute for Health Systems Research
Prof. Dr. Azrin Esmady Ariffin, International University College Of Twin Tech
Mr. Abd. Aziz Mohd Ramli, Malaysia Inst. For Nuclear Technology Research
Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Jantan, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Rogayah A. Razak, National University of Malaysia
Prof Dr. Mohd Ismail Mohd Noor, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Dato' Dr. Ishak Abdul Razak, University of Malaya
Prof Madya Dr. Nik Noriah Nik Hussein, University of Malaya
Prof. Dr. Viji Thambyrajah, University of Malaysia Sarawak
GROUP 8 ECONOMIC, SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES
Prof. Dr Abdul Aziz Bari, International Islamic University of Malaysia
Cik Normah Che Din, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr [email protected] binti Haji Mohamed, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Raja Mohd Fauzi, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR)
Prof. Madya Dr Faridah Noor binti Mohd Noor, University of Malaya
Dr. Norsida Man, University of Putra Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Tengku Aizan bt. Tengku Abdul Hamid, University of Putra Malaysia
Prof. Dr Amir Hussin Baharuddin, University of Science Malaysia
GROUP 9 BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Prof. Ir. Dr. Che Sobry Abdullah, Northern University of Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Abu Talib Othman, University of Kuala Lumpur
GROUP 10 AEROSPACE, AUTOMOTIVE
Prof. Ir. Dr. Ahmad Faizal Mohd Zain, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)
Prof. Madya Dr. Amir Abas, University of Kuala Lumpur
Prof. Ir. Dr. Shahnor Basri, University of Putra Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Radzuan Razali, University of Science Malaysia
Prof. Ir. Dr. Azhar Abdul Aziz, University of Technology Malaysia
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
150
A N N E X
Acknowledgement
GROUP 11 AQRICULTURAL, FORESTRY
Mr. Mohd Ariff bin Omar, Department Mineral and Geosciences Malaysia
Dato' Dr. Wan Razali Wan Mohd, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Malaysia Inst. For Nuclear Technology Research
Ms. Amanah Mustakimah Siraj, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
Dr. Norowi Hamid, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
Prof. Madya Dr. Gabriel Tonga Noweg, University of Malaysia Sarawak
Prof. Dr. Hj. Kamaruzaman bin Jusoff, University of Putra Malaysia
GROUP 12 ENGINEERING, ELECTRICAL
Dr. Wan Abdul Rahman Jauhari bin Wan Harun, SIRIM Bhd
Mr. Sarif Hashim bin Sarif Hassan, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development
Institute
Mr. Mohd. Zainal bin Ismail, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
Prof. Ir. Dr. Abdul Halim Shamsuddin, National University of Malaysia
Dr. Hasnah binti Abdul Wahab, SIRIM Bhd
Prof. Madya Dr. Mohd Yusoff Mashor, University of Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
Prof. Dr. Salihuddin Radin bin Sumadi, University of Technology Malaysia
National experts that representative participated and contributed in finalizing the
Malaysian Standard Research and Development Classification System Fifth Edition at
the meeting held at Putrajaya International Convention Centre, Putrajaya at 11
October 2006
GROUP 1A PHYSICS
Prof. Dr. Tou Teck Yong, Multimedia University
Dr. Wan Saffiey Haji Wan Abdullah, Malaysia Inst. For Nuclear Technology Research
GROUP 1B MATHEMATICS
Prof. Madya Dr. Nor Aishah Hamzah, University of Malaya
Prof. Madya Dr. Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, National University of Malaysia
GROUP 2 INFORMATION, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
Prof. Dr. Md Yazid bin Mohd Saman, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
Ms. Zatul Asilah, MIMOS Berhad
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
151
A N N E X
Acknowledgement
GROUP 3 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
Mr. Chin Kee Chin, Department Mineral and Geosciences Malaysia
GROUP 4 MARINE SCIENCE
Prof. Dr. Noor Azhar Mohamed Shazili, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
Dr. Mohd. Rizman Idid, University of Malaya
GROUP 5 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Dr. Abas Mazni Othman, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
GROUP 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & MANAGEMENT
Dr. Chan Hung Tuck, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
GROUP 7 HEALTH & SUPPORT SERVICES
Dr. Hj. Nordin Saleh, Institute for Health Systems Research
GROUP 8 ECONOMIC, SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES
Prof. Dr. Amir Hussin Baharuddin, University of Science Malaysia
Dr. Norsida Man, University of Putra Malaysia
GROUP 9 BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Prof. Madya Dr. Razali Che razak, Northern University of Malaysia
Prof Dr. Zainal Abidin Mohamed, University of Putra Malaysia
Group 10 AEROSPACE, AUTOMOTIVE
Prof. Ir. Dr. Ahmad Faizal Mohd Zain, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)
Prof. Ir. Dr. Shahnor Basri, University of Putra Malaysia
GROUP 11 AQRICULTURAL, FORESTRY
Dato' Dr. Wan Razali Wan Mohd, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
Ms. Amanah Mustakimah Siraj Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development
Institute
GROUP 12 ENGINEERING, ELECTRICAL
Dr. Wan Abdul Rahman Jauhari bin Wan Harun, SIRIM Bhd
Prof. Dr. Salihuddin Radin bin Sumadi, University of Technology Malaysia
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
152
A N N E X
Acknowledgement
National experts that participated and contributed in finalizing the Malaysian
Standard Research and Development Classification System Fifth Edition at the
meeting held at Renaissance Hotel, Malacca from 12th to 13th December 2006
GROUP 1A PHYSICS
Prof. Dr. Mohd Maarof bin Haji Abd. Moksin, University of Putra Malaysia
GROUP 1B MATHEMATICS
Prof. Madya Dr. Kamarulzaman Ibrahim, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Shaharuddin Salleh, University of Technology Malaysia
GROUP 2 INFORMATION, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
Ms. Zaleha Rahim, MIMOS Berhad
GROUP 3 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
Dr. Mokhtar Yusof, Malaysia Palm Oil Board
Dr. Zaid Isa, Malaysian Rubber Board
Dr. Adeline Chua Seak May, University of Malaya
GROUP 4: MARINE SCIENCE
Mr. Albert Chuan Gambong, Fisheries Research Institute, Sarawak Branch
Ms. Raja Saadiah bt Raja Shariff, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
Prof Madya Dr. Kaswandi Md. Ambia, National University of Malaysia
Prof Dr. Noor Azhar Mohamed Shazili, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
Prof Dr Chong Ving Ching, University of Malaya
GROUP 5 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Dr. Abidin Hamid, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
Dr. Abas Mazni Othman, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
Mr. Ahmad Kamil Hj. Mohd Jaafar, Malaysian Cocoa Board
GROUP 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & MANAGEMENT
Mr. Asnor Muizan Dato' Ishak, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia
Mr. Kwan Kok Foo, Department of Meteorology Malaysia
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
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A N N E X
Acknowledgement
GROUP 7 HEALTH & SUPPORT SERVICES
Prof. Dr. Azrin Esmady Ariffin, International University College Of Twin Tech
Mr. Abd. Aziz Mohd Ramli,Malaysia Inst. For Nuclear Technology Research
Prof. Madya Dr. Rogayah A. Razak, National University of Malaysia
Prof. Dato' Dr. Ishak Abdul Razak, University of Malaya
GROUP 8 ECONOMIC, SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES
Ms. Normah Che Din, National University of Malaysia
Prof Madya Dr Aishah @ Eshah binti Haji Mohamed, National University of Malaysia
Prof Dr Amir Hussin Baharuddin, University of Science Malaysia
Group 9 BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Dr. Mohamed Hisham, University of Kuala Lumpur
Prof. Syed Azizi Wafa, University of Malaysia Sabah
Group 10 AEROSPACE, AUTOMOTIVE
Prof. Ir. Dr. Ahmad Faizal Mohd Zain, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)
Prof. Madya Dr. Amir Abas, University of Kuala Lumpur
Prof. Ir. Dr. Shahnor Basri, University of Putra Malaysia
Prof. Ir. Dr. Azhar Abdul Aziz, University of Technology Malaysia
GROUP 11 AQRICULTURAL, FORESTRY
Mr. Mohd Ariff bin Omar, Department Mineral and Geosciences Malaysia
Dato' Dr. Wan Razali Wan Mohd, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rahim, Malaysia Inst. For Nuclear Technology Research
Mr. Mohammad Fuad Rahman, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
Ms. Nurulhuda Yusoff, University of Putra Malaysia
GROUP 12 ENGINEERING, ELECTRICAL
Mr. Sarif Hashim bin Sarif Hassan, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development
Institute
Mr. Mohd. Zainal bin Ismail, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute
Dr. Wan Abdul Rahman Jauhari bin Wan Harun, SIRIM Bhd
Dr. Hasnah binti Abdul Wahab, SIRIM Bhd
Prof. Dr. Salihuddin Radin bin Sumadi, University of Technology Malaysia
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
154
A N N E X
Acknowledgement
MASTIC'S TEAM
Ms. Fadzilah Ahmad Din
Mr. Kamaruhzaman Mat Zin
Ms. Anita Bahari
Ms. Nani Rahayu Sudin
Ms. Azlina Mahmud
Ms. Nor Rokiah Alias
Mr. Hasrul Rizal Hassim
Mr. Ruslee Husain
Ms. Tuty Sarini Zainul Abidin
CONSULTANT TEAM
Dr. Nordin Othman
Dr. Md Yusoff Taib
Mr. George Au
Mr. Azizul Jabbar
Ms. Ong Zi Syan
Ms. Latifa Bibi Mustafar Hameed
Mr. Mohamed Nazri Syuib
MALAYSIAN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5th EDITION
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