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HVAC Architecture &
Infineon Products
April 2014
Table of content
 Application overview
 HVAC Loads - Flaps
 HVAC Loads – Blower Motor
 Other loads – Heater Elements
 Communication & Control Unit
2014-03-19
Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2014. All rights reserved.
Page 2
HVAC System - Overview
Heater & Cooler Unit
Blower Unit
Compressor
Condenser
Image Source: Calsonic-Kansei - www.calsonickansei.co.jp
5/13/2014
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 3
HVAC Generic Module
Sensors
AC Unit
Heating
Unit
Control
Panel
Flaps
HVAC Module
5/13/2014
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2009. All rights reserved.
Blower
Page 4
Basic HVAC System Actuators
Heater On/Off
Blower Speed
Recirculation
On/Off
Air Distribution
Temperature Mix
3+ Flaps
1 Blower Controller
5/13/2014
A/C On/Off
Relays
Page 5
Table of content
 Application overview
 HVAC Loads - Flaps
 HVAC Loads – Blower Motor
 Other loads – Heater Elements
 Communication & Control Unit
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 6
Example Block Diagram
5/13/2014
Page 7
HVAC Loads - Flaps
HVAC Flaps
 Task: Open and close a flap
 Implementation
 DC w/ Potentiometer
 DC w/ Ripple Count
 Stepper Motor
 Decentralized Architecture with
LIN slaves
Source: Woory Industries, Woory.com
5/13/2014
 APAC architecture
 Predominantly using DC motor
with potentiometer feedback
Page 8
Driving concepts – Stepper Motor
Stepper Motors
 Flaps are driven by stepper motors
Inputs
 Open loop control is possible, no
feedback needed
MCU
M
 Bipolar stepper motors require three
or four half-bridges to be driven
 Products
 TLE4726G
 TLE4728G
 TLE4729G
 TLE8444SL (new)
Inputs
MCU
M
5/13/2014
Page 9
Driving concepts – Servo loop
Servo Control
Set
M
Feedback
 A servo driver (e.g. TLE4209G) can
be used to drive flap motors
 Reference signal generated by set
potentiometer on HVAC controller
 Advantages
 No MCU needed
 Low cost
 Disadvantages
 A lot of fine tuning needed to
make it work reliably
 High efforts for redesigns if
changing mechanical design
 Products
 TLE4206G
 TLE4209G
5/13/2014
Page 10
TLE4206G
 Description
¬
¬
¬
¬
Servo Driver w/closed loop control
Max output current: 1.5A
Current Peak Blanking (CPB) feature
Saturation voltage Vsat-total typ=1.2V
@ IQ=0.4A
¬ Amplification and angle shift can be
adjusted with external resistors
¬ Range Input to protect reference
potentiometer against short circuit
 Protection: SC, OT, OV, UV
 Package : PG-DSO-14
 Typical Application
¬ Vertical light leveling using a Servo
Motor
 Benefits
¬ Electrolytic capacitor at VS is not
necessary due to CPB feature
2014-03-19
Copyright © Infineon Technologies AG 2014. All rights reserved.
Page 11
Driving concepts – Potentiometer Feedback
Potentiometer Feedback
Inputs
M
MCU
Feedback
 Flaps are driven by DC Motors
 Current consumption <1A
 Motors can be cascaded
N+1 half-bridges required for N
Motor
 For position detection a feedback
potentiometer is used
 Feedback requires 2 additional wires
do each motor
 Architecture used worldwide
 Products
 TLE4207G
 TLE4208G
 TLE6208-3G
 TLE6208-6G
 TLE84106EL (new!)
 TLE84110EL (new!)
5/13/2014
Page 12
Driving concepts – Ripple detection
Ripple Detection
Inputs
MCU
Current
Measurement
M
 Flaps are driven by DC Motors
 For position detection the ripple on
the motor supply is measured
 The ripple is due to commutation of
the DC motor
 Advantages
 The feedback line for the motor
position can be saved
 Disadvantages
 Noise on the line is critical
 No absolute position, needs
detection of every pulse and
homing at start-up
 No Infineon Products
5/13/2014
Page 13
Driving concepts – Decentralized Architecture
Decentralized Architecture
Vbat
LIN
Transceiver
LIN
Slave
M
LIN
Slave
M
LIN
Slave
M
LIN
Slave
M
LIN
Slave
M
LIN
Slave
M
LIN
Slave
5/13/2014
M
 There are 2 types of Motors
 Stepper Motors
 DC motor
 Benefits:
 Reduced wiring costs
 High volume non-programmed
standard flaps (“Gleichteile”)
usable
 LIN Auto-Addressing to detect
flap position
 HVAC control module is not
limited to x number of HVAC
flaps – highly flexible HVAC flap
system
 Disadvantages
 Higher cost for electronics
 Infineon Products
 Discrete: LIN transceivers,
Vregs, 8-bit MCU (4k / 8k flash)
Page 14
TLE 84106EL
HEX-HALF-BRIDGE DRIVER FAMILY for DC MOTORs

6x Half Bridge Power Outputs

Path [email protected]=150C : 4Ω max

0.5A max DC continuous current

6x ideal for HVAC Flap DC motor application
ES Available

QS Q1 2011
Low total supply and logic current consumption in standby
mode = 4µA max.

16-bit standard SPI with daisy chain capability

PG-SSOP-24 in Exposed Pad package
TLE 84106EL
Availability
 Protective Functions
 Over load and short circuit protection
 Thermal shutdown
 Electrostatic discharge protection (ESD)
 Diagnosis Functions – error latched via SPI
 Short Circuit Detection
 Temperature pre-warning
 Open Load Detection
 Overvoltage Protection
5/13/2014
Page 15
Application Block Diagrams
current vs NEW ASSP design for 3 motors
CURRENT DESIGN
NEW ASSP DESIGN
VS
VS
Reverse
polarity and
pulse filter
Vcc Vcc Vcc
Reverse
polarity and
pulse filter
Vcc
Vcc
TLE4208_1
INH1,2
TLE84106
INHIBIT 1,2
OUT 1
IN1
INH
EF1,2
Control logic
and fault
detection
1,2
IN2
INHIBIT
M
Charge
pump &
bias
OUT 2
OUT 1
INH3,4
INHIBIT 3,4
OUT 3
IN3
EF3,4
µC
Control logic
and fault
detection
3,4
IN4
M
µC
OUT 2
M
CSN
OUT 4
DI
DO
TLE4208_2
INH5,6
OUT 5
IN5
EF5,6
CLK
INHIBIT 5,6
Control logic
and fault
detection
5,6
IN6
M
OUT 3
SPI
16-bit Control
logic,
Latch circuit,
Error detection
block
M
OUT 4
OUT 6
OUT 5
INHIBIT 7,8
OUT 7
Control logic
and fault
detection
7,8
13.05.2014
M
OUT 6
OUT 8
Page 16
Table of content
 Application overview
 HVAC Loads - Flaps
 HVAC Loads – Blower Motor
 Other loads – Heater Elements
 Communication & Control Unit
2014-03-19
Page 17
Example Block Diagram
5/13/2014
Page 18
Possible DC blower motor drive topologies
LINEAR
Vbat
Blower Motor Driver
Vmotor
M
Vdrain
IM
 Brushed DC motors can be driven
with these main topologies
D
G
Input
VDS
S
Driver
Rsh
HVAC
controller
 Linear
 Voltage is divided between
Motor and transistor (operated
in linear region)
 A lot of power dissipated (lost)
in transistor
Vbat
Vbat
PWM2
PWM1
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
M
Driver
M
Driver
Vbat
Vbat
PWM4
PWM3
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
HS
HS
M
Driver
Driver
LS
5/13/2014
 PWM
 Switch in high-or low-side
 Diode or transistor switch in
recirculation path
LS
M
Page 19
HVAC Loads – Blower Motor
Blower Motor Driver
Blower Motor
 Three main implementations
 Brushed DC, resistor load
 Brushed DC, linear Control
 Brushed DC, PWM Control
(emerging)
 BLDC motor (high-end)
Source: Calsonic-Kansei - www.calsonickansei.co.jp
Blower Driver with cooling body
Driver with cooling body
Source: Woory Industries, Woory.com
5/13/2014
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2009. All rights reserved.
Source: BHTC, www.bhtc.de
Page 20
Blower motor module
Linear mode control
Thermal fuse
Trips at
132°C
MOSFET, TO247,
60V, 9mohm,
70A
Blower module
Linear motor
control
30A DC brush
motor
5/13/2014
Page 21
Linear mode control
LINEAR
Vbat
Linear Blower
Vmotor
M
Vdrain
IM
 Transistor in linear region can be
used
 Often, some protection is needed
against overtemperature
 Speed Tempfets can be used, e.g.
BTS282Z
D
G
Input
VDS
S
Driver
Rsh
HVAC
controller
Vbat
Vbat
PWM2
PWM1
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
M
Driver
M
Driver
Vbat
Vbat
PWM4
PWM3
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
HS
Driver
Driver
LS
5/13/2014
MOSFET,
TO247, 60V,
9mohm, 70A
HS
M
LS
M
Page 22
Possible PWM blower drive topologies
VS
LINEAR
PWM Blower – Active
Recirculation
BTN89xx
BTN79xB
Vbat
Vmotor
M
INH
Vdrain
ON/OFF
IM
D
G
IN
Input
S
Driver
Vbat
Vbat
PWM1
IS
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
OUT
Rsh
HVAC
controller
SR
VDS
PWM2
Diagnostic
Current Sense
M
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
Driver
 A transistor is used in the recirculation
path
 Low Rds,on leads to small power losses
during recirculation
 Switching speed of 35kHz needed (above
audible spectrum)
 Lower power losses allow less cooling
 EMC filtering needed to reduce emissions
 NovalithIC can be used (e.g. BTN89xx)
GND
M
Driver
Vbat
Vbat
PWM4
PWM3
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
HS
Driver
Driver
LS
5/13/2014
HS
M
LS
M
Page 23
NovalithIC
H-Bridge Application Circuit
Microcontroller
Voltage Regulator
I/O
Reset
Vdd
µC
Power Window
WO TLE
I
RO 4278G
Q
D
GND
Vs
I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O Vss
BTN8982
INH
BTN8982
VS
IN
IS
OUT
VS
M
INH
IN
OUT
SR
Reversible
Seat Belt
Pretensioner
IS
SR
GND
GND
High Current H-Bridge
21.05.2010
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2006. All rights reserved.
Page 24
NovalithIC™ trends
BTN7970
Rdson=16 mΩ
(path)
Id=70 A
(current limitation)
Optimized for
higher current
Faster
applications, i.e. switching
Lower Rdson
(down to
600ns)
Extended
operation voltage
range down to
4.5V
BTN7960
Rdson=16 mΩ
(path)
Id=47 A
(current limitation)
BTN7930
Rdson=28 mΩ
(path)
Id=32 A
(current limitation)
04/23/2010
Further
optimized for
half bridge
applications
Lower feature
set, i.e. no
current sense.
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2008. All rights reserved.
Page 25
Product Overview NovalithIC™
1
Product Type
Packages
Operating
Range [V]
R on
path
(typ)
[mW]
BTN 7930B
PG-TO263-7
5.5 - 28.0
28.0
32
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7930P
PG-TO220-7
5.5 - 28.0
29.6
32
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7930S
PG-TO220-7
5.5 - 28.0
28.2
32
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7960B
PG-TO263-7
5.5 - 28.0
16.0
47
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7960P
PG-TO220-7
5.5 - 28.0
17.6
47
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV; OT, OC
BTN 7960S
PG-TO220-7
5.5 - 28.0
16.2
47
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7970B
PG-TO263-7
5.5 - 28.0
16.0
70
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7970P
PG-TO220-7
5.5 - 28.0
17.6
70
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7970S
PG-TO220-7
5.5 - 28.0
16.2
70
7.0
1
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7971B
PG-TO263-7
5.5 - 28.0
16.0
70
7.0
0.5
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV, UV, OT, OC
BTN 7933B
PG-TO263-7
5.5 - 28.0
28.0
32
7.0
0.5
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV(SCL), UV, OT, OC
BTN 7963B
PG-TO263-7
5.5 - 28.0
16.0
47
7.0
0.5
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV(SCL), UV, OT, OC
BTN 7973B
PG-TO263-7
5.5 - 28.0
16.0
70
7.0
0.5
OV, OT, OC , CS
OV(SCL), UV, OT, OC
BTN8946TA
PG-TO263-7
5.5 – 40.0
6.71
42
7.0
0.25
OT, OC, CS
UV, OT, OC
BTN8962TA
PG-TO263-7
5.5 – 40.0
14.2
42
7.0
0.25
OT, OC, CS
UV, OT, OC
BTN8982TA
PG-TO263-7
5.5 – 40.0
10.0
70
7.0
0.25
OT, OC, CS
UV, OT, OC
HS switch only
09.09.2013
ID
(lim)
[A]
Iq
(typ)
[µA]
Switch
time
(typ)
[µs]
Diagnosis
Protect
OV
Over Voltage
OC
Over current
UV
Under Voltage
SCL
Smart Clamping
OT
Over temperature
CS
Current Sense
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2008. All rights reserved.
Page 26
Possible PWM blower drive topologies
LINEAR
PWM Blower – Diode
Recirculation
Vbat
Vmotor
M
Vdrain
IM
 A diode is used in the recirculation path
 0.7V drop leads to medium power losses
during recirculation
 Switching speed of 25kHz needed (above
audible spectrum)
 Lower power losses allow less cooling
 EMC filtering needed to reduce emissions
 New Speed Profet can be used
(BTF50060-1TEA)
D
G
Input
VDS
S
Driver
Rsh
HVAC
controller
Vbat
Vbat
PWM2
PWM1
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
M
Driver
Vbat
M
Driver
PWM4
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
Rev. Pol.
EMC filter
HS
µC
SENSE
HS
M
BTF50060
-1TEA
Load
Driver
Driver
LS
5/13/2014
INPUT
Vbat
Vbat
PWM3
LS
M
M
application_simple.emf
Page 27
New family: Speed PROFETTM
Lead type: Single channel 6mW High Side Driver
BTF: Born To be Fast!
BTF 50060-1TEA
High speed: optimized for 25kHz PWM
No external bootstrap capacitor required
6mW  12mW max @150°C
Voltage controlled:
direct input from the microcontroller
 3.3V and 5V CMOS compatible inputs
 Infineon® INTELLIGENT LATCH
 PG-TO252-5 package




In development
Fuel pump
Wiper
HVAC
Vbat
 Controlling Pumps, Valves, Motors and much
more…
Availability:
INPUT
µC
SENSE
 In production
Simple
application
schematic
Q4 2009
BTF50060
-1TEA
Load
M
application_simple.emf
Page 28
Table of content
 Application overview
 HVAC Loads - Flaps
 HVAC Loads – Blower Motor
 Other loads – Heater Elements
 Communication & Control Unit
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 29
Example Block Diagram
5/13/2014
Page 30
Other loads – Heater Elements
Heater Elements
Heater Relay
Source: Beru, www.beru.com
 Rear defogger
 Up to 20A
 Used to defrost rear window
 PTC auxiliary heater
 Provides heating before the engine
reaches necessary temperature
 can require more than 100A
 This kind of high current is usually driven
through a relay
 High-end (Europe) sometimes uses solidstate switches (no switching noise, longer
service-life), can be integrated in the
heater itself
Source: Woory – www.woory.com
5/13/2014
 Products
 BTS32xxG (relay drive)
 BTS34xxG (relay drive)
 High Current Profets (solid state), e.g.
BTS6143D, BTS50060-1
Page 31
HITFETTM Family Chart
12V applications (40V)
Id-nom
range
7A
1-Ch Restart
1-Ch Latch
BTS3256D
BTS3160D
7A, 10mΩ, DPAK 5pin
24V - 42V applications (60V)
2-Ch Restart
1-Ch Restart
1-Ch Latch
7.8A, 10mΩ, DPAK 5pin
BTS949
6A
6.4A, 18mΩ, TO220
BTS149
6.4A, 18mΩ, TO220
5A
3A- 4A
BTS142D
BTS3142D
4.6A, 30mΩ, DPAK
4.6A, 30mΩ, DPAK
BTS134D
BTS3134D
3.5A, 50mΩ, DPAK
3.5A, 50mΩ, DPAK
BSP78
3A- 4A
2A
3A, 50mΩ, SOT223
BTS118
2.4A, 100mΩ, DPAK
BSP77
2.17A, 100mΩ, SOT223
1A
BSP76
1.4A, 200mΩ, SOT223
BTS141TC
5.1A, 28mΩ, TO263
BTS3028SDL
4.0A, 28mΩ, DPAK
4.0A, 28mΩ, DPAK
BTS3134N
BTS3046SDR
3A, 50mΩ, SOT223
2.8A, 46mΩ, DPAK
BTS133TC
3.8A, 50mΩ, TO263
BTS3046SDL
BTS3118D
BTS3104SDR
2.4A, 100mΩ, DPAK
2.0A, 104mΩ, DPAK
1.4A, 200mΩ, SOT223
BTS117TC
BTS3104SDL
2.17A, 100mΩ, SOT223
BTS3110N
2.8A, 46mΩ, DPAK
2.6A, 100mΩ, TO263
BTS3118N
2.0A, 104mΩ, DPAK
BTS3410G
1.3A, 200mΩ, DSO8
BTS3408G
< 1A
BTS3028SDR
BSP75N
0.55A, 550mΩ, DSO8
BSP75N
0.7A, 550mΩ, SOT223
0.7A, 550mΩ, SOT223
BTS3405G
BTS3207N
0.35A, 700mΩ, DSO8
0.64A, 500mΩ, SOT223
BTS3205G/N
5/13/2014
0.35A, 700mΩ,
DSO8 &SOT223
BTS3800SL
0.4A, 800mΩ, SCT595
Page 32
Table of content
 Application overview
 HVAC Loads - Flaps
 HVAC Loads – Blower Motor
 Other loads – Heater Elements
 Communication & Control Unit
Copyright © Infineon Technologies 2009. All rights reserved.
Page 33
Example Block Diagram
5/13/2014
Page 34
System aspects:
Conventional LIN system solution
12V
Voltage
Regulator
Standard LIN
Transceiver
TLE7259-2GE/GU
OUT1
INH
RxD
1
8
EN
2
7
VS
WK
3
6
BUS
TxD
4
5
GND
5V
OUT2
Reset
8BIT
µC
IN1
 Typical Application: Small LIN Slaves with 8BIT µC
 Control Panel
 Mirror Electronic
 Sensor interface
Infineon transceivers:
We talk robust!
Page 35
System basic chips
• Sleep Mode, Stop
Mode for low current
consumption.
• Special modes for
Flash, Fail Safe.
• Configuration of
CAN, LIN, Vreg.,
Reset level, Wake
5V
Vreg.3
SPI
State
Machine
Wake
SPI
INT
Limp
Home
LH
WD
RO
Wake
Input
Vreg.1
200mA supply for µC
Vreg.2
200mA supply for
CAN and other Loads
CAN
HS CAN
5V
5V
Infineon LIN cell,
released at OEMs
5/13/2014
3 Limp Home Output
for switching on Loads
in case for failure.
TxD
LIN3
HS CAN
RxD
LIN3
HS CAN
TxD
RxD
HS CAN
RxD
LIN3
Serial interface for
Setup, Mode Change,
interrupt handling,
watchdog Trigger
RxD
TxD
Infineon HS-CAN cell,
released at OEMs
Vcc3 voltage regulator
for up to 400mA.
Overcurrent limitation
Configurable
Watchdog, window or
timeout
TxD
Page 36
Infineon provides complete solutions for
HVAC Control Module
Control Panel
22
1)
SPI / Mirror Control
26
°
Hall
C
Switch
18
3
4
+12V from Battery
CAN Bus
Flap #3
System Basis
Chip
TLE 7263E
LIN LDO
TLE 8458
Multi Half
Bridges
TLE 84106 EL
(3 Flaps) 1)
М
SPI
16/32-bit
Microcontroller
XC2200
Family
Flap #1
Hall
Switch
TLE4946
Flap #5
Multi Half
Bridges
TLE 84110 EL
(5 Flaps)1)
М
6x OptiMOS™
IPBxxN04S3-xx
IPDxxN04S4-xx
HS Driver
Alternatively:
LIN Bus
5V
Supply
Hall
Switch
TLE4966
Communication
0
2
I/O
TLE4966
1
In development
Flap #2
24
Sensorless 3ph Motor Driver
20
HVAC Control Module
Flap #4
Hall
Switch
TLE4946
VBAT
М
3 Phase
Driver IC
TLE 7185E
Brushless DC
Blower Motor
Option: Remote Blower Motor Module
VBAT
Shunt Resistor
PWM
Interface
HiC PROFET ™
BTS500x0-1EGA
BTS 6143
VBAT
3 Phase Driver IC
TLE 7184
М
XC800
Heating
Element
Shunt Resistor
5/13/2014
Page 37
Question?
Thanks!!!
5/13/2014
Page 38
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