Standards, Codes, Specifications and Technical Regulations

Professional Guidelines of Engineering Design: Standards, Codes, Specifications and Technical Regulations
Ibrahim Tansel, Sabri Tosunoglu
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
Florida International University
Miami, Florida
Almost all the engineering products are prepared by following a series of guidelines including:
• Standards
• Codes
• Specifications
• Technical Regulations
Almost all the engineering products
• Implicitly use products prepared based on these guidelines
• Explicitly designed by considering one or more of the established guidelines
Implicit Use of Guidelines
When you buy lumber from Home Depot, you use:
American Softwood Lumber Standards PS20
Natl. Inst. Stand. Tech(National Institute of Standards & Technology Voluntary Product Standard PS 20‐10
nol. Prod. Stand. PS 20‐10, 50 pages (June 2010)
Nominal Size
(in x in)
1 x 1
Actual Size
(in x in)
(mm x mm)
3/4 x 3/4
19 x 19
1 x 2
3/4 x 1 1/2
19 x 38
1 x 3
3/4 x 2 1/2
19x 64
1 x 4
3/4 x 3 1/2
19 x 89
1 x 6
3/4 x 5 1/2
19 x 140
1 x 8
3/4 x 7 1/4
19 x 184
1 x 10
3/4 x 9 1/4
19 x 235
Implicit Use of Guidelines
American Softwood Lumber Standards PS20
(National Institute of Standards & Technology Voluntary Product Standard PS 20‐10
Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Prod. Stand. PS 20‐10, 50 pages (June 2010)
Implicit Use of Guidelines
When you buy screws from Home Depot, you use:
ISO68 of International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Image is taken from:
Explicitly Designing Using Guidelines
Conventional glass thicknesses of the windows are determined by using ASTM E1300 standards.
Miami‐Dade County approves the installation of windows after testing the performance of products with tests such as
1. Missile Tests (impact requirements)
Large Missile Test (structures up to 30 feet and above): 2×4 Lumber missile weighing 9 pounds shot Designing a window:
ASTM International – American from a canon at 50 ft/sec –
two impacts
Society for Testing and Small Missile Test (structures Materials (ASTM) until 2001
from 30 feet and above) and
Ten 2‐gram steel balls cannon Miami Dade Building Code test at 89 mph – three impacts
Testing 2. Cyclical Test (pressure requirements)
4,500 positive cycles in a pressure chamber
4,500 negative cycles in a pressure chamber
Consumer Product Example: Watches
Image is taken from:
Many consumer products such as watches may not be designed for specific standards but implicitly use the standards by using standard components such as gears, batteries, materials, chips and screws.
Consumer Product Example: Watches
COSC Standards (all units in seconds)
Some of the mechanical watch manufacturers manufacture the watches explicitly to satisfy the tests of the Contrôle Officiel
Suisse des Chronomètres
(COSC) and sell them with COSC certification after each piece is tested.
Average daily rate: −4/+6
Average daily rate at 23°C: ±0.07
Mean variation in rates: Rate at 8°C: ±0.2
Greatest variation in rates: 5
Rate at 38°C: ±0.2
Difference between rates in H & V posi ons: −6/+8
Rate stability: 0.05
Largest variation in rates: 10
Dynamic rate: ±0.05
Thermal variation: ±0.6
Temporary effect of mechanical shocks: ±0.05
Rate resumption: ±5
Rate resumption: ±0.05
Residual effect of mechanical shocks: ±0.05;200 shocks equivalent to 100 g (981 m/s², 3,217 ft/s²)
Consumer Product Example: Watches
Diving watch manufacturers design watches explicitly to satisfy ISO 6425 dive watch standard. Only after that they can call the watch diver’s or dive watch.
JLC caliber 758 (above)
Objectives of Establishing Guidelines
The purpose of establishing standards, codes, specifications and technical regulations:
To assure the safe operation of systems
To assure compatibility
To reduce the cost by allowing manufacturers to use standard parts which are produced in very large quantities such as screws, bearings, gears, belts, chains, engineering materials, etc.
To simplify and reduce the cost of maintenance and repairs
• Standard: Document approved by a recognized body, that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for products or related processes and production methods, with which compliance is not mandatory. It may also include or deal exclusively with terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labelling requirements as they apply to a product, process or production method.
• Code: Any set of standards set forth and enforced by a local government agency for the protection of public safety, health, etc., as in the structural safety of buildings (building code), health requirements for plumbing, ventilation, etc. (sanitary or health code) and the specifications for fire escapes or exits (fire code).
• Specification: An explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product or service.
• Technical Regulations: Document which lays down product characteristics or their related processes and production methods, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory. It may also include or deal exclusively with terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labeling requirements as they apply to a product, process or production method.‐on‐technical‐regulations‐vs‐standards.html,, )
Major Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) Effective in the US System*
Organization name
The American Association of Textile Chemists Textiles, textile coloration, design, dyeing, finishing, and Colorists
merchandising, test methods, training, quality control
The American Forest and Paper Association
Wood, structural design, construction, residential, commercial, engineered wood products, structural panels, framing, green building
Air‐Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute
Air‐conditioning, refrigeration, heating, ventilation, controls, boilers, furnaces
American Industrial Hygiene Association
Occupational health and safety, management systems, respiratory protection, ventilation systems, worker safety, industrial hygiene, nanotechnology, risk management, safety
The Association for Manufacturing Technology
Machine tool, machine, metal cutting, metal forming, machinery, risk assessment, lean and safety, manufacturing
American Nuclear Society
Nuclear, radioactive, isotopes, criticality, neutron, fissile, plutonium, uranium, radiation, reactors
Major Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) Effective in the US System (continued)
Organization name
American Oil Chemists’ Society
Fats and fatty acids, oils, oilseeds, lipids, phospholipids
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
Agriculture, aquaculture, biological, biomass, energy, environment, equipment, food irrigation, structures
Air conditioning, ventilation, sustainability, refrigeration, green building, building controls, air quality, heating, building energy, indoor environment
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Boilers, Pressure Vessels, Nuclear Power, Pipelines and Piping, Bioprocessing Equipment, Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing, Drawings and Terminology, Elevators and Escalators, Cranes and Hoists, Pumps, Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Gaskets
ASTM International – American Society for Testing and Materials
Petroleum, Steel, Construction, Mechanical, Cement, Environmental, Nuclear, Consumer, Paint, Plastic
The Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions
Perfomance, Reliability, and Security; Telecommunications Interoperability; OAM&P; User Interface; Circuit Switched and Plant Infrastructure; Wireless; Multimedia; Optical Communications; Ordering and Billing; Packet Based Networks
Major Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) Effective in the US System (continued)
Organization name
American Welding Society
Welding, brazing, soldering
Consumer Electronics Association
DTV, video, audio, mobile electronics, consumer electronics, home networks, antenna, cable
Compressed Gas Association
Compressed gas, cylinder, valve, medical, safety, pressure, air separation
Cool Roof Rating Council
Cool roof, radiative properties, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, product rating, LEED
CSA Group
Plumbing, hazloc, electrical appliances, lighting, energy efficiency, medical, power tools, gas appliances, lawn and garden, hardlines
FM Approvals
FM Approvals LLC
Building materials, fire protection and prevention products, water mist, hazardous location electrical equipment, automatic sprinklers, fire pumps, roofing products, insulation materials, fire extinguishing, detection, alarm and signaling systems
Major Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) Effective in the US System (continued)
Organization name
Green Seal
Green Seal
Sustainability, sustainable, hotels, personal care, green, environment, food service, building products, life cycle, cleaning
Georgia Tech Energy & Environmental Management Center
Energy management systems, energy efficiency
The International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials
backflow prevention, building inspection, drinking water, HVAC, hydronics, mechanical, plumbing, solar energy, swimming pools
International Code Council
Building code, building safety, construction, fire prevention, life safety, accessibility, ANSI A117, bleacher safety
Institute for Credentialing Excellence
Accreditation, certification, competency, credential, licensure, NCCA
International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration
Ammonia, CO2, natural, refrigeration, technical, guidelines, regulations, compliance, conference, standards
Major Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) Effective in the US System (continued)
Organization name
Institute of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification
Mold remediation, carpet cleaning, floor covering, water damage restoration, inspection, trauma scene cleanup, hard surfaces, restoration
International Light Transportation Vehicle Association
Golf car, Personal Transport Vehicle (PTV)
InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards
Information technology, data interchange, computer, interoperability, communications, interface, data storage, peripherals, biometrics, computer security
The Association Connecting Electronics Industries
Electronics, printed boards, electronics manufacturing, flexible circuits, circuit boards, printed board design, electronics assembly, surface mount technology, lead free
International Society of Automation
Automation, Control, Enterprise, Industrial Process, Instrumentation, Manufacturing, Measurement, Safety, Security, Wireless
Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation
Fork lift trucks, rough terrain trucks, powered industrial trucks
Major Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) Effective in the US System (continued)
Organization name
National Electrical Manufacturers Association Batteries, Electrical, Industrial Control, Lighting, Low Voltage Equipment, Medium Voltage Equipment, Medical Imagining, Motors, Transformers, Wire and Cable
NSF International – National Sanitation Foundation International
Systems certification; standards; accreditation; testing; water; food; safety; organic
Project Management Institute
Project Management, Portfolio Management, Risk Management, Schedule
Society of Automotive Engineers
Automotive, Aerospace, Construction, Agricultural, Machinery, Vehicles, Aviation, Off Highway, Commercial Vehicle
Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers
Television, advertising, cable, network management, digital network, connector, media, voip, video, internet
Specialty Vehicle Institute of America
All‐terrain, off‐road, off‐highway, utility, vehicle
Major Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) Effective in the US System (continued)
Organization name
Tree Care Industry Association
Tree service, tree care, arboriculture, tree care industry, utility pruning, tree care safety, fertilization, tree pruning, vegetation management, tree management
Telecommunications Industry Association
Private radio, cellular towers, data centers, sustainability, public policy, smart device, VoIP, broadband, mobile, networking
Underwriters Laboratories
Alarm, appliance, electrical, fire, HVAC, information technology equipment, panelboard, plastics, sprinkler, wire
Other Major SDOs
International Organization for Standardization (ISO): ISO introduces itself as follows:
– “ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent, non‐governmental membership organization and the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards.
– We are made up of our 165 member countries who are the national standards bodies around the world, with a Central Secretariat that is based in Geneva, Switzerland. Learn more about our structure and how we are governed at”
Other Major SDOs
Gosudarstvennyy Standart ‐ Government’s Standard, later named Gosstandart (GOST):
– “GOST standards were originally developed by the government of the Soviet Union as part of its national standardization strategy.
– Later it emerged as a regional standards organization and named Euro‐
Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), a standards organization chartered by the Commonwealth of Independent States.”
Other Major SDOs
– CSN EN Standards, Engineering Standards
– DIN Standards
– ISO Standards
– ETSI Standards
– IEC Standards
– VDA Standards
• http://www.en‐
• Almost all the engineering products currently use parts and materials prepared according to a defined set of standards. Use of standard parts generally reduces the cost and simplifies the maintenance of the product.
• For each designed product, investigation of applicable standards, codes, specs and technical regulations are essential. The market size, price, and often the legal sale of a product may depend on the satisfaction of proper engineering standards.
• All FIU Mechanical Engineering Senior Design teams are required to dedicate a portion of their senior design project presentations and reports to discuss the engineering standards they adopt and use. • For this purpose, teams will initially conduct a survey of applicable standards as part of the literature survey, and document this in a section titled “Survey of Related Standards” in their senior design reports. • Additionally, a section titled “Standards Used in the Project” in the chapter “Design Experience” of the senior design report will list the specific standards, guidelines and codes used in the project. • The standards used will also be included in team presentations made to Industrial Advisory Board members and department faculty. FIU • Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering • Miami • Florida